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Complete Manual of Manufacturing Hats of All Kinds

Translated from the French

Such as various markers, schakos hats, silk, cotton and other fabrics filamentous hats, feathers, leather, straw, wood, wicker, etc., placed at the progress of the chemical arts, and enriched all the patents that have been made on making hats.

BY MM. Cluz. and F. FABRICANS,

AND

Mr. JULIA DE FONTENELLE

PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY,
MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF ENCOURAGEMENT
FOR DOMESTIC INDUSTRY, ETC

PARIS,
the encyclopedic LIBRARY Roret
HAUTEFEUILLE STREET, CORNER OF RUE DU beater.
1830.

A
MB ANGLES,
MILITARY DEPUTY STEWARD, Knight of the Royal Order of St. Louis, and a corresponding member of the Linnean Society of Paris. REMEMBRANCE OF LIVING RECOGNITION AND TESTIMONY OF UTMOST CONSIDERED AND SINCERE FRIENDSHIP .







JULIA DE FONTENELLE.




INTRODUCTION.


Hat-making is one of the branches of industry that requires more application of advances in chemistry. This production embraces a host of various operations which some claim many improvements, both in relation to art than under workers' health. We will only talk about the known operation of sécrétage , done using the nitrate of mercury. This salt, as we know, is a poison; as vapors and particles that emerge hairs are they very harmful to workers. Dyeing processes are also far from responding to what was expected from the big step was done by the chemical arts. It is indeed demonstrated that often gets blacks who, over time, turn bronze, brown, and even reddish. Is generally attributed this serious drawback iron sulphate, which was proposed to substitute tartrate, and better yet acetate of lead. The Company encouragement to the domestic industry, whose watchful eye covers all branches of chemical, economic, mechanical and industrial arts, claiming the benefits of science, did not fail to focus attention on various operations of the headgear, several of which have already been subject to price it offered. If they have not all been fully resolved, they gave rise to research and marked improvements in the corner of the utility, and probably will open the way for new discoveries.

We must add that several fabricans and various French and foreign technologists have delivered on their side with perseverance in numerous activities to improve their art; we will only mention MM. Guichardière, Morel Beaujolin, Robiquet, Lenormand, Williams, Malartre, Malard and Desfossés, Collin, Borradaille, Chaming Moore, Ritchard and Franc Trousier, Miraglio, Masniac, Vilcok, Mierque and Drulhon, Achard and Audet, Gury, Loustau, Perrin Bercy young Buffum, Pichard, Milcent, Kidney, Blouet of Bernardière, Weber, Wels, Cobbett, Michon; ladies Manceau, Reyne, Bernard, Cavillon. We like to agree with recognition that we have not only benefited from their work, but we have even copied verbatim their most useful documens to maintain their color and practice this technique you need to know the workers present.

For clarity, we have divided our work into four parts; the first contains a description of all materials used in the manufacture of hats.

The second part includes various felted hats, and all necessary for their construction.

The third goal for the hat silk, cotton, filamentous fabrics, etc.

The fourth embraces all the hats of various straw those wicker, wood, etc.

We exposed faithfully the best manufacturing methods followed in France and abroad in these different kinds of hats; and we reported all patents that have been made on the various branches of the headgear; we thought it was the best way to promote many of the improvements that this art has proven; Finally, we have combined the knowledge we have gained through our practice the best documens offered by French and foreign technologists.

PAGE 1



COMPLETE MANUAL OF MANUFACTURING
HATS OF ALL KINDS.



PART ONE:



DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF HATS.

WOOL.

Wools were, from the beginning, the only raw materials that were used for making hats. Now they are only meant for those of lower quality. All yarns do not give such a beautiful felting or equal quality of hats; it is essential we get into some details about their knowledge and choice.

Knowledge and choice for wool hat.

There are two kinds of yarns: dead wool , or from dead animals, and cut or uprooted Page 2 of the skin, and the wool fleece or mowed on the living animal. In recent deserve preference as for hat for the drapery. It also divides the wool surge or greasy and washed . Those greasy persist any longer. As for color, they are usually white and sometimes black, russet, etc .; these are only the first is subjected to dyeing. As for length, the shorter an inch in length, and the longest (in England) have up to twenty and even twenty to two inches 1 .

Note 1: (return) This length seems to have been exaggerated, unless one leaves the sheep more than a year without mowing. Indeed, Mr. Tessier reported in experience he made ​​and repeated Rambouillet wool Spanish beasts, held three years without being mowed, was eighteen inches long.

Wool differ from each other in color, strength, finesse, length, and called their nerve or their bodies ; there come in their division:

Wool superfine,
fine wool,
medium wool,
wool fat,
wool or coarse supergrosses.

For a wool is considered very good, it must be fine, soft, soft, elastic and strong at the same time.

To recognize their degree of force, which, with that of their finesse, first merit, it draws filaments at both ends, and it is determined by their resistance to breakage, their strength or weakness. To judge compared it uses a more streamlined process. We actually son of equal size and length that attaches Page 3 to a fixed point, and is placed at the other end of small weights are multiplied until the wire breaks. It is estimated by the amount of weight that each thread requires to break the degree of strength. Furthermore, wool, animal door on some parts a sort of hair mixed with wool called jar , dead hair or dog hair , which serves only making very coarse fabrics. Wool legs and the underside of the belly, as it were burned by manure, are also of lesser value.

Wools of northern France are longer and larger than those of the south; and those of the department of Herault, Aude and especially all the Roussillon region, far outweigh those of Flanders, Picardy, Ile-de-France and Champagne. The wool of the South, including those of Narbonne and the Salt marsh, are short, curly and very fine. These are similar to those of Spain.

However, we must agree that the wool of Spanish merino prevail in all respects the best of France. Also in the southern departments and in some North owners did not hesitate to cross their herds through high Spanish royal sheep rams. Most wool from Italy are also very fine. Those in England and North-Holland are longer and thinner than the common wool, but without having the finesse of those from merino. Among those of Spain, those of Leon and Segovia hold the first place: yet even the Spaniards are four qualities.

1 ° The first quality is that which is from the neck up to five or six inches of the tail, including one third of the body; the shoulders and below the belly, preserved from the action of the manure, is also included in that class. This quality is called floreta or flower wool. Page 4

2 ° The second quality is that which covers the sides and extends from the shoulders to the thighs.

3rd The third is the neck and rump.

The fourth is the 4th is that since the front part of the neck to the bottom of the legs, including a portion of the shoulders and the buttocks, to the end of the feet. This is the wool which the Spaniards call cayda .

People used to trade or use wool to recognize glance their fineness. It is sure that in extending the filaments on a black cloth and looking through a magnifying glass. Daubenton but which, as we know, was involved in a special way of education beasts wool, advised manufacturers to submit these filaments wool micrometer placed in a microscope. This micrometer says Tessier, was a small network or a compound of stitches. There was a 10th line between the two parallel sides of the squares of the micrometer which was using M. Daubenton, and fourteen times magnified lens. Having recognized by observations carefully made, that large filaments 2 twenty-nine samples of superfine wool, made ​​from various manufactures, seldom occupied more than two square micrometer, it set the last term of superfine wool in those with larger filaments fulfill their width square micrometer, and the diameter of which is a part of the 70th line. The width of the largest filaments of the coarser wool was until six square micrometer, equivalent to the 23rd part of a line. The Page 5 biggest filaments filled the jar up to eleven square micrometer, which are 1712 line. Such a review is almost impassable by shepherds, whose eye and usually sufficient for this operation. We would add that without using micrometer Daubenton, we can very easily ascertain the degree of fineness of wool through the microscope Amici or Euler, perfected by MM. Vincent Chevalier and son.

Note 2: (return) All yarns are composed of very fine son, and larger or smaller. The latter, according to the observation of Daubenton, are at the end of the rovings.

The health status of the animal and the shearing time singularly influential on the goodness and beauty of wool. And sick animals not only lose some of their wool, but the other missing food is dry and easily detached from the skin. It is the same that of the extract of these animals died. As for that from the skins of sheep killed for meat, these wools away even more from their point of maturity that these animals were slaughtered at a more or less close to that of their mowing. It lacks the soft wool that communicates them grease and feeds; If we add to this the lime or ashes employed to detach from the skin, it will be recognized for their rudeness. As for the skins long wool, butchers make them mow fleece.

It is therefore obvious that the best time to cut the wool is when they are mature. Should not exceed this point because in France the animals, especially those who are weak, lose some 3 . If the shearer, however, before that maturity Page 6 the filaments appear to join them at their base, and the wool is, as they say, tender , that is to say that lack of nerve or strength .

Note 3: (return) It is not the same Merino; thereof, except in cases of illness, can keep their wool to three years, almost without missing. Tessier, New comprehensive agriculture courses.

In the south of France wools mid-May is clipped to 15 June; in other departments, throughout the past month. There is a reason that must engage the owners not to exceed the time, is that while the heat occurring, fleeces, besides their weight intercept sweating, heat up the animal and allow the vermin to be set, etc.

The volume and weight of the fleeces is relative to the size of the animal, its species and climate in which they live, regardless of the care and food more or less abundant given to him. We will make known by insight, the weight of most wools known as Mr. Tessier gave it.

1 ° The sheep fleece alençons, ardennois and Sologne, weighs two to four pounds. The latter is in-wool mixed with red hair and is unfit for headgear. It is made into blankets.

2 ° The sheep briards, Bourbonnais, and Champagne Langres, also weighs two to four pounds; it is used for hosiery, and very few own hat.

The 3rd Sheep Bar weighs three pounds. The first quality is used for hosiery and make ratines.

The 4th sheep False Valières or hedgerow, weighs three to four pounds. Much of the wool is mixed with white, black and red, and in terms of hosiery called beige . It makes for great fabrics without needing to be dyed.

5º The sheep Cotentin weighs three pounds.

6º The sheep Cauchois, five pounds. It is united with some red hair. It is made into blankets and sheets called Chateauroux. Page 7

7 ° The sheep Cholets is four pounds. It is made into blankets.

8 ° The sheep Vexin or Santerre weighs six to eight pounds. The wool is beautiful and used for the chain of blanks.

9 That of sheep Artois and Gravelines is nine to ten pounds. It is used for strings of cloth.

10 That of Dutch or Liege sheep is nine to ten pounds. This wool is only used for clothing troops.

11 That of sheep Flemish weighs ten to twelve pounds. She is strong and is used for strings of cloth.

12 That of the German sheep is six to seven pounds. It is often beige .

13 That of sheep Alsace, Lorraine and Switzerland is strong and able to be combed.

14 That of merino varies according to locality, and that the animal grazes on the plains or in the mountains. In the first case, it is eight to ten pounds; in another, seven to nine.

15 ° wools Borough Narbonne are after those of Roussillon, the most esteemed in the south of France, especially those beasts wool grazing in the mountains of Corbières and Clape in public Fitou Lapalme, Sigean Leucate, Portel, Armissan, St. Lawrence Thézan, Bize, Treilles, etc.

According to a statement that I made the approximate product of shearing wool from the district of Narbonne, it was in 1822:

      Merino wool 3,000 kil.
Wool Métis 40,000

Native to 365.500 wool

-------------

408.500 kil.

Fleeces from all the beasts that were calculated term Page 8 average, two kilos. each. According to a letter addressed to the Minister of the Interior, December 23, 1813, there are in the district of Narbonne, in animals with wool, merino, mestizo or indigenous, 2,042,500; besides the 65.187 who died in 18l3, due to drought and poor quality grass. In this district of Narbonne, fleeces weighing from four to ten pounds, according as the cattle graze in wool in the mountains or plains like those of some Coursan. There is some herds that are all mestizos, and are remarkable for their beauty and their fine wool. We merely mention that my honorable friend Mr Angles knight Sigean; MM. Caunes Ginestas; Tapie Mengaud at Celeyran; Caumettes at Vires; Fournier, to Moujean etc.

16 ° wools Borough Carcassonne resemble those of that of Narbonne; but in general they are inferior in their quality. They are used for casimirs, sheets superfine, joint sheets, fleeces and cordelats 4 .

17 ° wools Borough Castelnaudary are less fine than those of Carcassonne; they are used to make common sheets, blankets and cordelats 5 .

18 ° wools the district of Limoux are very similar to those of Carcassonne; made into fine and common bed sheets and blankets 6 .

Note 4: (return) There are twenty to three factories in this district.
Note 5: (return) This district has thirteen factories.
Note 6: (return) This district includes Chalabre, Limoux and Quillan, a sixty-nine factories.

Page 9 We will add to this that most of the qualities of wool in the district of Narbonne are highly sought after by all the factories of the departments of Aude and Herault, primarily those of Bédarieux, Saint-Chinian, Saint Pons, etc., and even by many other localities.

In this department, as in those of Herault, Pyrenees-Orientales, etc., is not in the habit of washing wool on beast; Nearby, the shepherds have a bad habit of sleeping on them constantly manure without litter to pile up in sheep barely ventilated, so that the wool and soak up the sweat of the animal and the urine manure, increases in weight. One senses that a similar practice was vicious. As part of the wool legs and under the belly is usually almost burned with manure; moreover it has a yellowish color it does not lose by washing.

18º wools Roussillon are even greater than those of Narbonne. There are those of Fitou, Leucate, Lapalme and some Sigean that approach. The Roussillon owners also improved their breeds by crossing them with the Spanish Merino. The weight of these wools and quality vary herds graze in the mountains and plains, and in different localities. Thus the side of the fleece Vingrau weigh about eight pounds, while the weight is Sallanque ten to twelve pounds. Wools of Roussillon are highly regarded and sought after for factories of the departments of Aude, Herault, etc .; made into fine linens, shawls, etc.

Wool lambs called agnelins, and southern dialect , anissés.

The wool of the lambs is much estimated for Page 10 hat-making, than adults; it is also particularly sought to belong to herds of very fine race. Throughout the south of France, lambs are shorn along with sheep and goats, and agnelins are most often sold separately and still below the price of wool. In other places they are mowed later to give their wool time to lengthen. The first practice we seem preferable, because the new wool has more time to grow, and that time is longer in the fall to protect the lambs from the inclemency of the air during the yardage. What we have said of the wool from the skin of dead or sick animals slaughtered in the slaughter, also applies to agnelins.

We must also add that gives the name of a agnelins Hamburg wool from shearing sheep alive or stillborn, which picks up in the northern countries of Europe.

Wools Antenois.

Antenois are the lambs of the second year; it is the owners who shear the lambs in the second year or in the state antenois. This practice is vicious, because the wool is then less fine. Experience has indeed shown that the wool which has been clipped antenois being lambs is constantly thinner than lambs same.

Vicuna wool.

This wool belongs to a breed of sheep that name that appear native Peru. That, at least of those countries that these beautiful wool we were passed by Page 11 Spain. This wool is brown that pulls on the red, especially the back; it takes a blonde advancing towards the flanks and belly color.

Cashmere wool sheep.

The sheep of Kashmir, as the goat of Tibet, etc., has two hairs; one is long, thick and stiff, and the other is a kind of very fine wool, short and curly. Its rarity and high price oppose what one makes use for hat.



HAIR.

Rabbit hair.

The rabbit fur is a general use in millinery; not only substantially contribute to felt this kind of stuff, but to give him strength. He goes into the making of hats, medium term for a quarter of their weight. It is obvious that these proportions increased following beauty or finesse hats that we propose to make. It is estimated that the hat of France buys only fifteen million annually for rabbit skins. Since the loss of Canada, the price of beaver fur has tripled in price, making it employs a lot less, and consequently much of the rabbit; as our manufacturers are they obliged to bring from abroad.

In the sale and purchase of rabbit skins, there is an important point to make is that in the winter they sell 50 to 60 francs per cent, while in summer they apply only to 25-30 fr. This difference is due to the animal moved to the latter period, and that, therefore, the skin is much less rich hair.

Page 12

The rabbit hair beauty varies according to the species to which it belongs. Thus the so-called variety rich rabbit , cuniculus argenteus , Linnaeus, who in part his hair color more or less dark slate and silver party, the far outweighs that of the regular gray rabbit; it is indeed softer, longer and silky, so it is used in fur. In Sweden and in various parts of Germany, the skins are worth double the regular price; in England, they are worth 25 francs per dozen. This species has acclimatized very well in France; could multiply easily.

Angora rabbit hair.

Angora rabbit, cuniculus angorensis Lin., is already quite common in France where he is very successful. His hair is long, thick and silky. During molting he gives a lot, and you can pull him two or three times during the summer, especially along the back, neck, ribs and thighs, leaving the mothers belly, which is lower, and serves to nest. quality This hair is great for hat; it also makes gloves, hats, etc., called Angora.

Hair wild rabbit or warren.

The coat thereof is shorter than those of hutch; but instead it is finer and gives a smoother felt.

The parts of France that produce the best skins or rabbit fur are: Narbonne and its surroundings, the Boulonnais, Meaux, Compiegne, Chantilly, Dammartin, Pontoise, Rambouillet, Saint-Germain, Senlis, etc.

Page 13

Observations on the hair of rabbit skins.

The hair of the rabbit differs depending on the season where one is; We shall discuss in the four seasons of the year.

1 ° in winter. This is the most favorable for the beauty of hair rabbit season. This is when the skin texture, or, if you will, the superimposed on the body side is a uniform color, without spot or scratch 7 ; Add to this, 1º leather is thicker, the hair is long, thin, thick, and that blowing strongly over the part that adheres to the skin is a deep blue velvety gray in the rabbit warren than in hutch, while the upper end or the tip, which is dark gray, topped by another gray hair, spiked black and shiny, which is very large, and we appoints jar rabbit.

Note 7: (return) In the rabbit hutch, this side is whiter than in the warren.

. During the spring of this year is the mating season of the rabbit; his hair is longer and his skin less dull filled; in males, because of the fighting they engage; in females, by cause of gestation. These skins are sold 20 to 30 percent below the price of those winter.

3rd Summer. We have already said that this was the time of moulting rabbit. The skins are then stripped of much of the hair, and the black tip jar that exceeds the fine hair; it is dull, and the skin is thicker and dotted the side of the flesh, spots and black stripes; these skins are known in the trade as the skins barred . Finally the skin Page 14 Summer worth 50-75 percent less than those of winter.

4th . Autumn In The Fall skins are better than the last; the hair is renewed, but it has not yet acquired neither the nerve nor the proper length and the jar does not extend beyond; which renders it very difficult not only separation, but still incomplete. They are called foineuses skins . The jar which remains united makes this very common hair; as these skins are bought from 20 to 25 percent below the price of those winter.

Hare.

Despite all the reports of conformation between the rabbit and the hare, though the latter has the hair very fine and extremely light, however, it is much less likely to be felt as the rabbit. It is only with a few preparations that he subjected it becomes proper to do felting; but thanks to these preparations he becomes the most beautiful felting material and the most prized of our soil.

Although rabbits have multiplied in all parts of France, though their skins differ in quality according to the localities. Those of Roussillon, Saint-Chinian, Saint-Pons, Anjou, Brittany, Poitou, etc., are preferred for the beauty and quality of the hair, and those from Alsace are sought for the size of the species.

Observations.

What we have said about the influence of the four seasons of the year on the skins of rabbits, also applies to those of the hare. Here are ways to recognize them.

1 ° The skins are thin winter leather, and the side Page 15 is applied to the skin has a clear and solid color, dotted with small blood vessels that go to meet other bigger. The hair is thin, white, with the color and luster of silk; its tip is a velvety black; the jar transcends; reddish yellow is in its entire length, except for its upper end is black and glossy.

2 ° skins spring are a little thicker and red leather on the side of the body; the hair is dull and less dense.

The 3rd Summer skins . Thick and strong leather; color, flesh side, red but uneven; large blood vessels are only visible. As rabbit skin, the hair of it is short, rare, an off-white, united in jar of long and short.

The 4th skins fall . Leather a little thick and stained. Hair renewed, but short and united in jar, which is the same length and a still incomplete separation.

It is good to point out that it is important to do on the jar rabbit and hare difference; jar of the first is less than the leather coat, while in the second it is just the opposite. Also during moulting hare he loses most of his hair, and he keeps most of his jar, while the rabbit retains much of fine hair that jar. This is important both for the respective value of these skins for their preparation, in relation to the seasons of the year which we stripped the animal.

Beaver fur.

Beaver castor fiber Linnaeus order dormice, differs from all the rodents in a tail horizontally flattened, oval, and covered with scales. It is this character that ranks among the amphibians. Page 16 It is quite common in Canada, New England, Russia, Siberia, Poland, Germany, etc .; we even found in France in the Rhone. The beaver has four legs; both are back especially for swimming; they offer five fingers bound by a membrane; it in the groin four membranous pockets that contain a liquor a very strong odor that easily thickens with the calorie, and is a concrete substance, brown, smooth, with a very strong odor, which called castoreum . We do not here describe the habits of beavers or industry, we refer in this respect to Buffon. We will limit ourselves to discuss matters related to the headgear.

The hair beaver is the most valuable for making hats material; it brings finesse to the lightness and strength, and it is also the quintessential Feutrier . Unfortunately the high price it is, because of its rarity makes their very limited use. Time of the establishment of the company of French India, beaver pelts were less rare in France; Now we do get very little, yet even the English trade or the United States. In trading beaver pelts were divided into fat beaver and beaver dry .

1 ° called skins dry beaver were dried in the sun without any other preparation.

2 ° called skins fat beaver were those who had served the natives, or clothing, or layer. Obviously they were choice for this most beautiful, or, if you will, of the largest and most filled, they carefully removed the muscle and membreuses parts, and that they were dry the air and not in the sun, taking care of the often rub the hands and coat them with grease Page 17 these animals to give them a proper flexibility. Besides these skins were therefore more beautiful, for their use, they were marked fluid secreted by sweat, so that their hair was a much better felting; also the price was higher than it dry beaver.

Observations.

Beaver pelts, because of their high cost and rarity, are now little used in France for making hats. Their fur, like the hare and the rabbit, is composed of two types of hair: fine hair and jar; as in the latter, the beaver jar has less to skin than fine hair; also in shedding it detaches faster. The countries from which they come in highest quantities of Hudson Bay, Canada and Louisiana.

A. The skin beaver Hudson Bay fur that offers the same beauty throughout the course of the year; it has the advantage that it feels cold to almost all seasons.

B. Canada to provide large quantities; but they feel, such as rabbit and hare, the influence of the seasons.

C. Louisiana produces enough but less than those estimated from Hudson Bay and Canada. As this country has four seasons also well marked, beaver pelts also differ in quality according to the time at which the animal was skinned.

Otter fur.

Buffon described the otter, Lutra Mustela Linnaeus, a voracious animal, hungrier fish than meat, which Page 18 leaves little riverbanks or lakes, and ponds sometimes depopulated; it easier to swim as the beaver. This does membranes than hind feet, and he separated the forefeet fingers, while the otter membranes per foot; she swims as fast as walking. She does not go to the sea, like the beaver; but she travels freshwater, and rises and falls of the rivers at considerable distances. Often swims in midwater and remain long enough, and then just breathe on the surface of the water. She is not amphibious. She has teeth like the weasel, but bigger and stronger relative to the volume of his body; it fears no more cold moisture; his head is badly made: ears placed low, eyes too small and covered the dark air, the movements awkward, the whole figure despicable, informs; a cry that seems mechanical Such is the portrait that traces the French Pliny. We add that the beaver hunt otter and does not allow him to live on the edges he frequents.

The hair on the little otter molting; Winter skin is however more brown and a higher price than that of summer; his hair is soft and silky, with a whitish gray, and brown and shiny jar. This species is generally widespread in Europe, from Sweden to Naples, and is found in North America. Still known Canadian otter , Lutra Canadensis Geoffroy. This is greater than our species and darker; the small otter Guiana , Didelphis palmata Geoffroy. According to M. de Laborde, there Cayenne three species of otters: 1st, the black , which can weigh between forty and fifty pounds; yellowish , weighing from twenty to twenty-five pounds; The 3rd gray , weighing three to four pounds. These animals are very common in Guiana, along all rivers and wetlands. According to MM. Aublet and Olivier found in Cayenne and the countries of Oyapok Page 19 otters so big that they weigh up to a hundred pounds. Their hair is very soft, but shorter than that of the beaver, and regular color is a little brown.

It's still several other animals of related species whose hair could be applied to the headgear; we shall simply quote the Saricovienne, Lutra brasiliensis , the little weasel of Guiana, mustela Guianensis Lacepede, etc.

Camel hair.

The hair of the camel comes to us from the East by Marseille; it varies in color, with its finesse and quality, according to climate, age, education and food of the animal. One who is white has its local consumption; there is little use in our factories than that of a blackish gray to the lower ends of the camel. We will add as it is now little used in the headgear.

Red and black balls.

This woolly coat comes from the East, and takes its name from the shape into a ball given to it in the bullets used to transport; it is due to the goats of a particular species of Asiatic Turkey. There is a significant difference between the red and black balls. The latter pilling easier, but instead the red hair is much thinner. Goats of Tibet also have a very fine down, besides the jar. It was found that our goats have also below their long hair, a kind of excellent wool hat.

Page 20



NOTES ON THE USE OF FUR FOR
CHAPELLERIE.

We have ignored a lot of fur, such as the cat, etc., which are endowed with a greater or lesser beauty, and are very suitable for making hats; rarity, special application to other kinds of manufacture or at various jobs we provide to make the list, even to describe. We will therefore limit ourselves to present some general remarks that relate to the respective merits of furs.

First we say that when the animal has not reached its full growth, or rather its complete development, the hair of his fur is difficult to prepare and implement; then these skins are defective. For the opposite reason, the skins of old animals give a rough coat and work harder than those of animals with a mean age.

It gives the name of skins beaten to those animals that have been killed by a gun that almost always damage the part on which the blow dealt. So those animals caught in traps are preferable in that they are much more whole, not damaged by blood.

The name of pelts applies to skins which has just skinning the animal. In this state their preparation is not only very difficult but still incomplete; there easily remedied by leaving dry the skin out in the open, dry, extending them on the ropes.

The skins recipe or first grade are those that offer no imperfections, and we have taken from the animal in the most appropriate season.

Throughout France, we buy hare skins and Page 21 of fresh or dry as the rabbit room. When desiccation was complete, the packaging by fifty-two, or one hundred and four, which then sells hundreds by giving four more percent. In some departments of the West, the skins that are very small in weight are sold.

As for agnelins, one must choose preferably not those of Merino lambs that do not pilling well, nor those of mixed race, but among the natives of those herds supplying the finest wool, the softest and finest.



THE HEADWEAR IN FRANCE.

Count Chaptal, in his fine book on the French industry, presented some insights into the hat that will guide us.

Before the revolution, the hat was for France subject to very considerable trade with foreign countries. The factories of the south, those of Lyons and Marseilles especially, worked hard for Spain, Italy and our colonies. Export is now almost zero. But instead he settled factories hats on almost all parts of France. The prosperity of the inhabitants of the country, the progress of luxury, have greatly increased the consumption although the price caps have nearly doubled. It is good to note that manufactures hats for more than they did before.

The fine headwear uses hair hare, rabbit, beaver, bear and raccoon marine Egypt, it mixes with art, the common headgear made ​​use of agnelins or lamb wool, hair calf , camel, goat, tontures of cloth, etc.

Page 22

It was recognized by the most accurate calculations, a hat end that comes from the manufacturer at a price of 15 .. fr.

Costs of raw materials. . . 8 |
labor ..... 5 | ci ..... 15

Profit ......................... 2 |

Profit for the merchant Hatter

cap, dressing, etc. .............. 5 fr.


Cost hat for sale.
20 fr.

In the coarse headgear, the benefit of the manufacturer is from 5 to 12 in a hat. Formerly hats were manufactured at low price of 12 francs. dozen in several localities, particularly in Saint-Pierre-le-Moutier.

There are in France about 1180 factories felt hats covering nearly eighteen thousand workers, the proceeds of which amounted to about 20 million; adding the extra quarter for merchants hats in detail, trade amounts to 25 million annually.

Règlemens on hat-making in France.

Headgear, said the Count Chaptal, had escaped the regulatory system, but a judgment of 23 October 1699 came the reach himself, and did not authorize the manufacture of two kinds of hats: beaver and wool .

Claims rose everywhere against this judgment; they probably would have been unsuccessful if they had been supported by the award of the area of ​​the West and by members of Canada intervened judgment of 10 August 1700, which allowed the production of four kinds of hats suivans:

Page 23

A C. Castor end , marked with the letter C.

B C. Half beaver with vicuña wool and beaver, marked with the letter D.

C C. haired rabbit , camel, vicuna and with beaver, marked with the letter M. (The hare is strictly prohibited.)

D C. fine wool , marked L.

The same judgment door confiscation of any other kind of hats, prescribed visits and say 1,000 fr. fine.

The complete freedom of manufacturing was returned to headgear; since not only was made in the composition of hats, many are not mentioned in the list of substances whose use was authorized products, but these mixtures are varied to infinity. The manufacture of silk hats opened the door to a new branch of industry and decreased consumption of those felt. These silk hats are remarkable for their light weight, rich color, shiny, elegance of form, and especially by their low prices. Mr. Fontés, hatter of Paris, not only is one of those who have contributed most to their development, but it is one of the first that comes to France for their construction.



MATERIALS USED AND POTENTIALLY BE IN
FINISHES, STAIN, ETC, HATS, ETC

Acids.

Acetic acid (vinegar).

This is the name by which modern chemists refer to the pure and concentrated vinegar. The authors of the new chemical nomenclature had given the name Page 24 of acetous acid in vinegar, and the acetic acid that was more focused, and that Mr. Berthollet believed more oxygenated than the first. Peres was the first to tackle this theory; he announced that the acetous acid contained more carbon than acetic acid, or, if you will, that concentrated acetic acid was only acetous acid stripped of most of its carbon. Since then, the work of Mr. Adet, confirmed by those of Mr. Darracq and countless chemists have demonstrated that acid acetous and acetic are identical and they differ only in the degree of concentration or if you will, by the amount of water they contain. We will now examine this acid in these two states.

Vinegar. Apparently nature made ​​the first cost of the manufacture of vinegar, and that his discovery had to accompany the wine. Modern chemical demonstrated as vinegar or acetic acid was due to the conversion of the alcohol into a vinous acid liquors, by the loss of some of its atoms. This transformation is the product of a new fermentation experienced alcoholic liquors joined to a close, and called acid fermentation. Vinegar, obtained by the fermentation of wine contains: 1st acetic even stronger or more concentrated than the wine was more generous or richer in spirit or alcohol acid; 2º a colorant; 3rd mucilage; 4 of the on-tartrate and sulphate of potash; Plus or minus 5 ° of acetic ether; 6º more or less water.

In counting the vinegar of these foreign bodies, it is converted into acetic acid strong. Good manufacturing vinegar is therefore based on four key facts:

1 ° A very alcoholic liquor;
2º Sufficient quantity of ferment,
3rd A temperature of 20-30 °; Page 25
The 4th liquor having a large surface to the air.

You can see in my manual Vinegar , the various processes that were followed in the manufacture of vinegar; this acid can be produced by fermentation of sugar or alcoholic all body. So in my aforementioned work, I know those obtained with water spirits, sugar, honey, beer, cider, starch and saccharine matter converted into cloth, etc. . I refer my readers. But there is yet another way to produce vinegar without using the fermentation; I will indicate.

Wood vinegar. Former chemists had published only distilling wood in closed vessels, a similar acid in vinegar was obtained. Guided by these data, JB Mollerat presented, January 11, 1808, at the Institute, a memoir in which he announced that in an institution he had formed with his brothers Pellerey for charcoal burning in closed vessels, they obtained for products:

Tar,
Vinegar,
carbonate of soda crystallized;
Alumina acetates,
acetates of copper
acetates of soda; etc.

Since then, this new branch of industry has taken a lot of growth. Wood is distilled in cylindrical boilers sheet very thick and can hold a cord of wood; vapors are conducted through a copper pipe that fits a copper sphere placed in a barrel filled with cold water; of this sphere by a similar pipe that joins to another sphere copper also ready; Finally, this last sphere share a last pipe that goes diving in the foyer of the furnace. When the fire is lit at the same time Page 26 that charcoal burning takes place, the vapors go into the sphere of the first barrel to be condensed; those which are developed are liquefied in the second, whereas the flammable gas being carried into the tube furnace by the latter, and serves to sustain burning this distillation. The products of this operation are:

In the boiler 1 ° or retort, a very fine coal is 28 to 30/100 of the wood, while the carbonization outdoors there is obtained in 17 to 18;

2º Tar in both spheres;

3rd In the same sphere of pyroligneous acid, which is nothing but vinegar or acetic acid united tar.

It rid or purified by distilling; The product of this distillation carbonate powdered limestone (marble) is saturated; boiled; is then decomposed by sulphate of soda; he runs a sulphate of lime, and the liquid is evaporated; by crystallization, was a sodium acetate contaminated with tar; we do feel that the igneous melting salt, to burn tar. It was dissolved in water, filtered and evaporated to give a virtually pure sodium acetate was dissolved in a little water, and decomposed by the sulfuric acid, which, united to the soda , a form that alkali sulphate, while acetic acid is exposed and in a particularly strong concentration state, that is sodium acetate dissolved in a small amount of water. The specific gravity of the factories Choisy is 1.057; it saturates about 0.3 sub-carbonate of soda; it is received in silver vases.

Vinegars Mr. Mollerat presented at the Institute were the next level.

Single or regular vinegar , 2 degrees hydrometer for salts at 12 ° C. Page 27

Strong vinegar , 10 1/2 degrees.

Wine vinegars found in trade mark ° from February to April. It is good to note that those obtained by the carbonization of wood are very pure and they are acetic acid. See in my manual Vinaigrier description of these various operations, the quantity of products produced, operating costs and the benefits you get out. We will now speak of pure vinegar or acetic acid.

. Acetic acid This acid was known before the new chemical nomenclature, as the radical vinegar ; it is liquid, colorless, very clear, a particular smell that is very strong, very acid and caustic taste; reddens vegetable blues; it is flammable, boils above 100 °, attracts moisture from the air, dissolved in water and alcohol, has a great effect on the animal disruptive substances dissolved camphor, resins , gums and resins, volatile oils. Acetic purest that could be taken to obtain a crystalline mass representing elongated rhomboidal tables, to the temperature of 13 ° C. A high pressure can make the same effect acid. The specific gravity of this most concentrated acid is 1.063; in this state, it contains 14.78 hundredths of water which are necessary for its existence. The acetic acid which is obtained by distillation contains only 0.15 vinegar acid. Acetic acid, lying more or less water, vinegar gives a more or less strong.

Can be concentrated vinegars removing them of the water they contain; So this is achieved by exposing them to the action of cold, and removing the ice that forms in succession; this ice is almost as pure water. It also achieved by boiling the water being more volatile vaporizing the first; it is the same for distillation. Page 28

Analysis of acetic acid ; compound is as it exists in dry acetates, according to:

MM. Gay-Lussac and Thenard According Berzelius
Oxygen, Oxygen 44.147, 46.82

Carbon Carbon 50.224, 46.83

Hydrogen Hydrogen 5.629, 6.35

______ _____

100 100

Purity and adulteration of vinegar.

There are merchants to give more strength to the weak activity or vinegar are added mineral acids. Here's how to recognize the nature of the acid added. Was poured into distilled water to which was added a few drops of nitrate or muriate of barytes some vinegar water; it immediately forms an abundant white precipitate, it is a proof that contains sulfuric acid; This precipitate, which is a sulfate barite, indicates. Rarely is added nitric acid or hydrochloric, because they are much more expensive; but as this could happen, I will give the means to recognize that fraud. Vinegar is saturated with the carbonate of soda; filtered, evaporated and crystallize. If there is addition of hydrochloric acid, it is, with sodium acetate, salt of a very salty taste and a cubic crystal which is common salt, also called sea salt, or chloride salt sodium. If this sophistication is made with nitric acid, is obtained in a sodium nitrate rhomboidal prisms which has a fresh taste, pungent and bitter, and coal as fuse saltpeter. The rest will be found in my book above the various means employed to find forgeries vinegar, and recognize the amount of added acid. Page 29

Citric acid.

Scheele discovered in the lemon juice. It is obtained by saturating this juice by carbonate of lime, the precipitate washed, and decomposed by sulfuric acid in excess, which grabs the lime to form a limestone sulfate rushing; filtered and evaporated in a basin of silver citric acid, which is rhomboidal prisms; it is transparent, an acid taste, almost caustic; he blushed infusion sunflower is unaltered by air, soluble in half its weight of boiling water; cold water takes two thirds. According to Gay-Lussac and Thenard, it is composed of:

Oxygen .......... 59.8559
Carbon .......... 33.81

Hydrogen ......... 6,330

Hydrochloric acid.

This acid is also known as the spirit of salt , of marine acid and muriatic acid . It is his gas, colorless nature of a sharp, pungent odor, a very sour taste, spreading white vapors in air, blushing sunflower, turning off the body burning with a specific weight equal to 1,247 . By high pressure and low temperature it liquefies; that of 50 "M. Davy liquefied anhydrous hydrochloric acid gas (stripped of water). This acid gas is soluble in water so that the liquid at a temperature of 20 ° C. and a pressure of 76, dissolves more than 469 times its volume, in which case the water rises a third Liquid hydrochloric acid is colorless and gives off white fumes: if trade is amber in color, it is. it is not very pure. It is distinguished from sulfuric acid Page 30 in that it does not precipitate or water barite salts, and nitric acid, in that the precipitated silver nitrate.

This acid is prepared by adding sea salt dry in a retort, and pouring sulfuric acid. It unites with the soda sea salt, while the spirit of salt or hydrochloric acid is released in the form of gas and condensed in the two full bottles of water and surrounded thirds of cold water, this acid is composed by weight of:

Chlorine .......... 36
Hydrogen ........ 1

Nitric acid (etching, spirit of nitre, niter oxide, nitric acid, etc.)

Nitrogen, by combining with oxygen produces two acids are: nitrous acid and nitric acid . We will take care only of the latter.

Pure nitric acid is colorless, transparent liquid, highly acidic, spreading white vapors, a very strong odor, which the analogy with the rust; it burns and disrupts animal products by printing a yellow color, which made the skin, goes with the renewal of the epidermis; he strongly reddens litmus; its specific gravity, according to M. Thenard, is 1,513. We could not even get private water: at 1,620, it retains that which is necessary for his condition. Nitric acid is frozen at -50 °; it boils from the 35th to the 86th C °, depending on its degree of concentration. The passing through the distillation of the acid gas is soluble in water in all proportions, it is only slightly contaminated with a little nitrous gas formed. This acid poured all at once on oil of turpentine Page 31 and clove, suddenly inflames; you have to experience this very carefully to avoid burning.

Was prepared by distilling etching in large retorts nitre (saltpetre) with sulfuric acid. In this operation the acid combines with potassium nitrate and sulfate form, while nitric acid become self emerges in the form of gas and condensed in récipiens. It is redistilled to purify it.

For this is pure acid, it must be colorless and does not precipitate salts barite nor those of money. It is distinguished by its smell of rust and property he has, when it poured a drop on a piece of copper, bubbling, and to immediately form a green scum that is due to the oxidation of copper. Composition:

Oxygen volume ... 100 .... 2.5
Nitrogen 35.40 1 ....

This acid is widely used in the arts, such as dyeing, millinery, to dissolve metals, etc .; in medicine, in the form of concentration for biting warts and calluses; diluted with water, it is antiseptic, refreshing. We must add that the etching and concentrated mineral acids are violent poisons.

The mixture of nitric acid and hydrodorique, in varying proportions, is this acid that was known by the name of aqua regia , because he was used to dissolve gold; it is now called hydrochloronitrique acid .

Sulfuric acid (oil of vitriol, spirit of sulfur.)

We said sulfur, by uniting with oxygen, Page 32 could form four acids: we deal here than that found in commerce.

Pure sulfuric acid is colorless, odorless, highly acidic and highly caustic, an oleaginous substance; it mixes with water in all proportions, but with a remarkable phenomenon: it is to spread a lot of calories; and the mixture of equal parts of water and this concentrated acid increases the temperature to 105 ° C; if we take the ice instead of water, it is doing at 50 °; and if we take some acid on ice four, it descends at -20 °. Sulfuric acid disrupts most animal and vegetable substances; very weak, it freezes hard; concentrate, it takes a crystalline form at 10 ° or 12 °. When highly concentrated, it boils at 320 °; weakened, it boils well below this term; submitted to the stack, it decomposes, its oxygen pass to the positive pole and the negative pole sulfur. Its specific gravity is 1.85, which is equivalent to 66 ° of Baume hydrometer.

It is prepared in full burning in large rooms lead a mixture of ten parts sulfur on potassium nitrate. It employs a half kilograms of sulfur per one hundred cubic feet of air that fills the chamber. For details of this production, see my medical chemistry .

To be clear, this acid should be colorless and stripped of sulfur and hydrochloric acids. Private water is composed of:

Sulfur .................. 100
Oxygen ................ 146.43

Widely used in the arts, in the manufacture of artificial sodas, dyeing, preparation of several acids, tanning, etc. In medicine, and extensive water as an antiseptic, astringent, refreshing, etc. Page 33

Its specific nature of precipitating salts plenty barite.

Tartaric acid (tartareous acid artarique acid).

Discovered by Scheele. It is obtained by boiling ten parts of cream of tartar in percent water, and saturating his surplus by carbonate limestone powder acid; is then added muriate limestone that precipitates cream of tartar or potassium tartrate, in the form of tartrate of lime; the precipitate was washed and heated with sixty hundredths of dilute sulfuric acid; filtered and the acid is crystallized. The crystals obtained are or prisms or as blades lanceolate. This acid strongly reddens litmus; when pure it is colorless; it is unalterable in the air; it melts and boils at 120 °; by cooling it as a whitish mass that attracts moisture from the air; it is very soluble in water; nitric acid converts oxalic acid. It consists of:

Oxygen 69.321 ..............
Carbon ............ 24,500

Hydrogen ............ 6,629

It is used in the arts for dyeing; made into a dry lemonade by incorporating with the sugar.



TIMBER.

Logwood and India.

It comes from the hoematoxylum campechianum . Lin. Decand. monogyn. fam. legumes. This tree, which is very high and difficult, is very common in the Bay of Honduras Yucatan, Guatemala, Jamaica, Martinique, Page 34 on the island of St. Croix, etc. This wood is compact, heavier than water, very hard, though less than that of Brazil; it is red, smelling iris, and an astringent, sweetish taste, capable of taking a high polish bright red. It is found in commerce logs that are blackish red outside.

Decoction is a red snapper that acids make it quick; alkali-metal oxides and sub-salt change the color to blue-violet. The coloring material of the timber is also soluble in alcohol. It is used in dyeing for blacks, blues and purples; cabinetmakers also take some of this wood because of its hardness and fine polish that is likely to take. Chevreul in a separate coloring matter and gave him the name of heme. From what chemist it dissolves in hot water and crystallized by cooling. The boiling solution is a red-orange; by cooling it turns yellow; alkalis make him acquire a purple or violet color; acids give it a yellow color that turns red.

Wood smoke tree.

Rhu cotinus. LIN. Pentand. Trigyn. térébenthinacées family. It is a large shrub that rises up to ten or twelve feet high in our gardens. Its branches are slender; leaves long-stalked, entire, rounded, smooth and bright green; long panicles formed by numerous filamentous divisions, like a kind of hair, and succeeding the flowers, instead of aborting fruits, complete branches. Wood smoke tree is a yellow rather dark, so it is used in dyeing. It is propagated by layering. Page 35

Yellow wood dyers.

This tree, which grows in America and especially in Brazil, is the Morus tinctoria of Linnaeus. Monoecy tétrandrie, fam. of urticées. It is in large pieces, light yellow in color with orange veins. This wood is very full of dyestuffs. Its decoction is dark alkalis that make it almost red reddish yellow; acids disturb a little weaker this decoction and color; muriate of tin precipitated yellow.

Strong glue, glue Flanders.

Thus we call gelatin being removed ears and feet of cattle, horses, sheep, calves, and the white parts of these various animals. This glue is dry casting tablets, brittle, brown, yellowish, reddish, transparent or semi-transparent, according to their degree of purity and the care that was taken of the preparation. As more adhesive is transparent, colorless and soluble in boiling water, it is more pure, more must be sought. The one dark is very impure; it is hardly the only own carpentry.

Also gelatin bone extract, treating the weakened by hydrochloric acid, which dissolves the calcium phosphate and leaves exposed gelatin. This process is due to Mr. Darcet. It can also extract the gelatin bone, by subjecting them to the action of water vapor, in a

pressure; in this way we completely strip the limestone phosphate. We have seen the exhibition so prepared, which was beautiful; but in general the various glues that we have noticed contained Page 36 of roughly ammoniacal soap; making them partially soluble in cold water. This soap was due to a beginning decomposition of gelatin.

Isinglass (isinglass).

These are the air bladders sturgeon ( Acipenser huso. LIN.), which is usually 24 feet long and 12 wide. These vesicles are cleaned, they are rolling on themselves, and they are dried, giving them the shape of a heart or a lyre; or, instead of rolling it folds like a briefcase. Isinglass trade is roughly estimated, depending on whether it has one of the above forms; thus:

1 ° The isinglass lyre , also known as the small bead , is the most expensive;
isinglass in the heart , called big cord , comes after;
3 ° isinglass in books is the least sought.

It would be difficult to determine which property is based on this preference, since there is a difference in form, and all fairly, in almost exactly the same amount of gelatin excellent.

Gum arabic.

This gum is the same as the one that oozes from the bark of apricot, almond, cherry, plum, etc. Gum arabic is solid, often in cells, odorless, a bland flavor, clear, colorless, when it is pure, golden yellow, or more or less reddish when it is united with foreign bodies. It is soluble in hot water and cold water; insoluble in alcohol, ether and oils; it is unalterable in the air, and uncrystallizable whitening by contact Page 37 of the extended light. Light roasted, becomes, as Vauquelin, more water soluble. The alcohol precipitates of aqueous solutions that contain even a thousandth.

Commercial gum arabic is distinguished according to its degree of whiteness, in the first and second blank ; in that way is a mixture of colorless gum and colored . There are several varieties of gum arabic:

1 ° The gum Basra . In irregular pieces, usually a small volume, and sometimes the size of the thumb. It is white or yellow, odorless, less transparent than Senegal gum, yet less opaque than the tragacanth gum;
Gum France. This is one that oozes from apricot, cherry, almond, etc. It is colorless or yellowish or reddish; imperfectly soluble in water, and forming with the liquid mucilage which approximates that of tragacanth gum;
3rd Gum Senegal. matter is in France in four varieties: A. any soluble clear gum ; it is almost in full gum Senegal and Saudi; it is colorless or variously colored; it is wrinkled on the outside, and its solution reddens litmus; B. the cracked white gum , also known as gum turique , it is a choice of the previous; C. the laminated rubber , white and mostly brownish film that covers some parts; less soluble and reddens litmus; D. Green Rubber ; its color varies from yellow to emerald green.

Indigo.

It was not until the mid-16th century indigo was brought from India to Europe. The colorant is provided by several sheets plants almost Page 38 all rows in the genre, because of this property, I was given the name of indigotifera . The plants from which we reread particular are:

1 ° The indigotifera argentea , wild indigo. This species provides less than others; but, however, it is the most beautiful;
2º The indigotifera tinctoria , indigo French; it is the one who gives the most, but it is also the least beautiful of all;
3rd The indigotifera disperma or Guatimala. This plant is the highest and most timber; its indigo is better than the last,
4th The indigotifera anil , or anil. His indigo is a minimum of oxidation.

These plants are native to India and Mexico, where they were transported to the Americas, China, Japan, Madagascar, Egypt, etc .; they belong to the Diadelphie Décandrie Lin., fam. legumes. Here's how indigo is extracted from the leaves:

When they are in point of maturity, they are picked, washed and cut them; then they are put in a vessel, and they are covered with a little water; care is taken to prevent them from floating fixing them by means of plates loaded with stones. Fermentation begins soon, the liquor contracts a green color and becomes acid; it offers on its surface a large number of bubbles and iridescent films; in this state, the liquor is passed in a tank placed below, it is stirred and separated into indigo by adding a sufficient amount of lime water. The precipitate is washed several water and allowed to dry in the shade.

Pure indigo is solid, odorless and tasteless, violet blue, unalterable in the air, capable of crystallizing in needles, insoluble in water and ether, sparingly soluble Page 39 in boiling alcohol and precipitating on cooling; it is easily discolored by chlorine. When heated in a retort, a part is volatilized and condensed in the upper needle copper, while the other is broken. Weak acids do dissolve point except that the nitric acid exchange in a very yellow and bitter principle. Concentrated sulfuric acid dissolves very easily; hydrochloric acid does not act upon the indigo atmospheric temperature; assisted by the action of caloric, it acquires a yellow color which appears to be the result of the decomposition of a little indigo.

Removed blue to indigo, and he is given a yellow in the désoxigénant by prolonged contact with désoxigénantes material contact; it gives back the blue promoting its oxygenation by exposure to air. Indigo désoxigéné is soluble in water, especially with alkali. It désoxigène indigo, released into the water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonium hydrosulfide, protosulphate the iron (copperas), and an alkali, potassium and tin protoxide, etc. In the dyes, use is most generally the following process:

Ferrous sulphate (copperas) ....... 2 parts
Lime ......... 2

Indigo fine powder ...... 1

Water ............ 150

All these substances are introduced into a flask which exhibits at a temperature of 40 to 50 ° for a few hours. The result of this reaction as lime combines with sulfuric acid to form an insoluble sulfate, and the precipitated iron protoxide désoxigène indigo, etc. The solution of indigo in sulfuric acid is désoxigénée by iron filings or zinc; it acquires Page 40 color pale gray and blue returns to the contact with air.

The indigo of commerce is never pure; to get in this state, it is heated in a crucible of platinum closed, which is subjected to the action of caloric; indigo sublimates into crystals.

Indigo has a fine and smooth fracture; scraped with a fingernail, it takes a coppery color; Preference is given even to that which that color is more vivid, and that is lighter and a blue-violet color darker.

The merchants distinguish indigo by the names of the countries from which they came; thus:

1 ° The indigo from India is called the Bengal , of Madras , of Coromandel , etc .;
2º The indigo of Guatemala is named indigo Guatimolo , indigoflore : this is the most esteemed of all,
3rd The indigo of the Louisiana , etc.

It can also extract indigo nerium tinctorium tree that is native to India.

According to Chevreul, indigo trade is composed of:

Particular immediate principle (indigo)
A red resin, soluble in alcohol
A red-green substance, soluble in water,
carbonate of lime
from the alumina, silica,
iron oxide From the .

Based on the analysis of MM. Dumas and Le Royer, pure indigo is composed of:

Carbon ..... 73.26
Nitrogen ...... 13.75

Hydrogen ....... 2.83

Oxygen ..... 10.16


100.00

Page 41

Nutgalls.

This name is given to a round excrescence produced from the buds of Quercus infectoria of Linnaeus, by the bite of an insect named by the same naturalist, gall wasp Quercus folii , and Geoffroy, diplolepsis gallæ tinctoriae . This oak is very common throughout Asia Minor; it is found from the coast of the archipelago to the borders of Persia, and the shores of the Bosporus, to Syria, etc. This tree has no more than six feet in height; its trunk is twisted, its deciduous and bright green, with short petioles, etc. The gall wasp is a small insect wasp whose body is tan, brown antennae; it strikes the young shoots with its sting, which spirals and deposits her eggs. The bite causes irritation in the sap vessels, which is soon followed by swelling, which in two or three days, produces what is called gall nuts. The eggs are deposited increases with gall and there maintain this state of irritation. Be harvested galls before the larvae produced by the eggs are passed in the form of flies, and are made ​​daily through the gall to get out. The size qu'acquièrent galls is five lines to an inch in diameter. Natural give the name of yerti the first galls that picks; Commercially they are called galls green, blue or black galls . The white are those that pick later; they are lighter and pitted. Here are the various species of gall:

Green Wales or Aleppo. brown or greenish color inside; compact, hard, heavy, studded with tubercles; bitter taste very astringent. Most estimates come from Aleppo, Smyrna, interior of Anatolia, etc.

White galls. brownish-yellow color; in general, Page 42 larger, very light, less harsh, sharp, a little bitter taste and less astringent .-- Shortly estimated.

Oak galls. These grow in France, on the oaks. They are round, plain and brownish. They are well below the green galls, but slightly higher than the white.

Nuts contain mostly gall lot of tannin and gallic acid.



METAL OXIDES.

Deutoxide of arsenic (arsenic, white arsenic, rat poison, etc.).

Many chemists are watching this deutoxide like acid they call arsenic acid . Here are its characteristic properties. It is white, when powdered or exposed to contact with air; when in mass, it is covered with a white crust, and the inside is a transparency equal to that of the finest crystals. It is often colorless, other times it has a golden hue, with nets or yellowish or reddish layers. It is very easy to spray; thrown on burning coals, it evaporates into a white smoke and spreads a strong garlic odor that is characteristic of this metal; if the plate is exposed to the arsenical copper vapor, it whitens on.

The cold deutoxide arsenic is odorless, it has a very bitter taste that leaves a sweet aftertaste; is reducible by the battery; unalterable in the air, soluble in five parts of boiling water, four hundred and cold; the first solution gives, on cooling, well marked tetrahedral crystals .-- It is a violent poison. Page 43

Tritoxide iron (colcothar red of England, Prussia red).

This oxide is a beautiful red, pulling a little on the brown, more fusible than iron, indecomposable by caloric, non-magnetic, being reduced by the electric fluid, insoluble in water. It is the coloring principle of blood, red brown, etc.

It is prepared by highly calcining iron sulfate. If this calcination is not pushed before, there is a portion of the salt that escapes decomposition; to despoil calcined again, or washed, after grinding. This oxide is composed of:

iron ....... 100
oxygen .... 43.31

Red Prussian was also prepared by calcining clays ocracées; but it is obvious that in this case it is less pure, since it contains alumina, silica, etc.



SALTS.

Acetate of deutoxide copper (verdigris verdigris).

In France, this salt is manufactured in the departments of Aude and Herault. Thin copper plates are taken, they are beaten, and are heated to about fifty degrees. They were then soaked in warm wine or vinegar. Is placed on the ground a good layer of grape pomace, and above, a layer of copper plates, and subsequently a layer of coffee grounds and copper. After a month or a month and a half, depending on the degree of spirituosity marc, the plates are covered with a Page 44 greenish layer. They were removed, and placed next to one another transversely. They were then watered several times with water acidulated with vinegar, and sometimes with lukewarm water. This layer of salt swells, and we see forming a whitish bloom on the banks offering long needles, which separates easily from these plates: while the gray-green is done. On the doctor blade and the plate was allowed to stand for some time, and then resume the operation. It is good to note that, while it lasts, heated workshop to maintain the temperature at 20 ° C.

This salt, as found in commerce, is bread from twelve to twenty pounds, packed in a bag of white skin; it should be green, with white blooms, very dry and hard; is indecomposable by carbonic acid. Treated with water, the liquid dissolves the neutral acetate, and the hydrated oxide of copper residue remains. By the action of heat, the metal is reduced. According to M. Proust, green verdigris is composed of:

Neutral copper acetate. 43 ...
....... 37.5 copper hydrate

water .............. 15.5

This salt is a poison; despite that it is a component of some external medicines; it is used in paint, etc.

Copper acetate (verdigris crystallized crystals Venus).

This salt was prepared by dissolving the green verdigris in vinegar, filtering the solution, and letting it crystallize. Copper acetate has a styptic taste sweet; it is soluble in water and alcohol; it crystallizes in very regular lozenges. A beautiful very dark green color that draws on black. Caloric decomposed; in this Page 45 liberates acetic acid by a color that causes little oxide; and it is sublime at the same time, according to the remark of Vogel, a little of the anhydrous acid, which is a white crystal satin. This salt is composed of:

Acetic acid 51 29
deutoxide copper 39, 05

water 9, 06

This salt is used in the paint to the green water for the wash plans to prepare the radical vinegar, etc. We recommend medicine as a stimulant; but it is so poisonous that we hesitate point proscribe employment.

The layer of the green substance that forms on copper vessels, and to which we give the name of green verdigris, is a carbonate of copper which is even more harmful than the verdigris of trade.

Iron acetate.

We can get three acetates iron

1º proto-acetate, by boiling the iron turnings without contact with air, acetic acid concentrate; in this case, water is decomposed, is focused on its oxygen and iron oxide, while the hydrogen is evolved.

2º deuto and tri-iron acetate, dissolving the deuto tritoxide or iron in the same acid.

3rd The process followed in factories for the tri-acetate of iron, is to wash the iron filings, to leave it exposed to the air for a few days, and boil it in good vinegar or acid pyro-acetic contact with air. In this case the oxygen of the air and that of water contribute to the oxidation of iron. The tri-acetate liquid iron is very soluble and uncrystallizable. His solution evaporated becomes insoluble in acetate, Page 46 that converts water into peroxide of iron soon. This tri-acetate is now widely used in the manufactures of painted canvas for the colors rust and black as a base color that does not have, such as those where between iron sulfate, the downside of turning brown.

Iron citrate.

As with the previous salt, washed well with iron filings, it is exposed to air, the wet from time to time, and when it is converted into carbonate of iron (rust), boiled iron in a boiler with lemon juice clarified until the acid is saturated; is then filtered and it is properly evaporate. The iron citrate is soluble in water and capable of crystallization. That may be the best ferruginous salt can be employed for dyeing black, especially for hat. Unfortunately the price of citric acid is too high to be economically use acid.

Hydro-ferro-cyanate of iron (Prussian blue).

Discovered in 1710 by Diesbach Berlin. This salt is a beautiful blue; It is tasteless, odorless, water-insoluble alcohol and, weathering by exposure to air, and with taking the time a green color. By distillation, it gives hydrocyanic acid and carbon, ammonium carbonate, a flammable gas, etc. The calcined residue is attracted by the magnet. The decomposed sulfuric acid in the bleaching. This character distinguishes Prussian blue indigo, that dissolves the acid without altering its color. Alkali, lime, etc., the fade Page 47 and unite with its acid precipitating most of the iron oxide.

Prussian blue in full is prepared by calcining at a red heat a mixture of equal parts of potash and dried blood, or debris horns and several other animal substances.

This salt is formed by the hydro-ferro-cyanic acid and iron oxide. It is used in the arts and to dye blue Raymond.

Hydro-ferro-cyanate of potash.

This salt is canary yellow, transparent, prismatic crystals crystallizing roughly quadrangular, odorless air effleurissant is soluble in water and in maintaining its 0.13 crystals. It is obtained by digesting Prussian blue powder in sulfuric acid to remove the alumina and foreign substances that often contain; washed several water residue, and poured into a boiling solution of potash until it stops discolor; This salt is filtered and the crystals obtained by evaporation of a portion of the liquor.

This salt is used in the so-called blue dye Raymond, named after the chemist who made the first application to this art.

Deutoxide nitrate of mercury.

This salt was prepared by boiling an excess of nitric acid on mercury; if then concentrated liquor, this nitrate crystallizes in fine white needles, soluble in water. This solution is very corrosive; it stains the skin red and breaks even; These crystals, and treated with ground water, are decomposed. This results in a sub-insoluble salt which is white when operating with Page 48 cold water, and yellow if it is with boiling water; it is called nitrous turbith . The liquor holds in solution on a salt-which is very acidic.

Mercuric nitrate is used for felting hair hare and rabbit.

Deutoxide sulphate of copper (bluestone, vitriolated copper, blue vitriol, vitriol copper vitriol of Cyprus, etc.)

This salt is odorless, bitter taste and a very styptic into irregular tranfparent blue crystals, and sometimes octahedra or décaèdres, enjoying the double refraction, efflorescens slightly, and then with a powdery material greenish white; soluble in four portions of cold water, and the aqueous undergoing fusion. The volatile alkali precipitates the oxide which remains suspended in the liquor and gives it a nice blue color. We denote this preparation by the name of heavenly water .

Iron sulfate (rosacea, rosacea green, green vitriol, martial vitriol, March vitriolated, etc.)

Recently crystallized salt is in rhombic prisms, a beautiful emerald green, transparent, and effleurissant air by absorbing its oxygen; it then converts tritoxide iron sulfate, which is yellow spots on the above crystals. Iron sulfate is odorless, stytique, and if water soluble, nine parts of the boiling liquid to dissolve said salt twelve. This exposed to the action of a high-temperature salt, first loses its water of crystallization, then a greater part of its acid, while the oxide through maximum Page 49 of oxidation; for the product was then sub-iron sulfate tritoxide named colcothar , which is red.

Iron tartrate.

This salt is prepared as iron citrate, with the only difference that employs tartaric acid instead of citric acid. Used for dyeing black, and larger than the iron sulphate, but a much higher price.

Sunflower bread.

It makes this dye Auvergne, Dauphiné, etc., with several lichens, mainly with varidaria Orcina Achard. The method involves spraying the leaves of these lichens, to make a paste with urine and half their weight of ash gravel, taking care of the urine added as it evaporates. After forty days of putrefaction, the mixture acquires a purple color; it is then put into another trough, and further added thereto urine: it was then that the blue color develops. Then we divide the paste is added thereto and the urine and lime. For last preparation, consideration is the composition of the paste thus obtained calcium carbonate to give it consistency, and is reduced to small bread is dried. Page 50




PART.



HATS FELT.

Is the name given to a felt cloth resulting from crossing and interleaving the bristles of certain animals which is produced by the pressing. Experience has shown that the hairs of certain animals possess only that property and that, whatever the fine plant fibers, they never pilling, unless having already suffered some sort of breakdown and subjected to the action continued pestle or cylinder, they are not reduced to a paste which is paper. Even in this case, that sort of felt essentially different from the ones we have to deal.

The theory of felting has been researching one of our most distinguished physicists. Mr. Monge attributed this property to the roughness that can be seen on the surface of the hair of animals, which are found to have bumps all their direction in the same direction. In support of his opinion he quoted 1º the ease with which one can achieve unravel, using light percussion, a hair tied and placed in the middle of the closed hand, and assuming that this hair has its roots pointing soil; there is still more curious is that if he was given a contrary direction, it tightens the knot growing; 2º progressive movement that can print a hair when rubbed longitudinally between two fingers. We note in fact says Robiquet 8 , is always working at that side where his roots. We note in this regard Page 51 just two examples can in no way be favorable to the theory of Mr. Monge. The hair has a cylindrical shape with a small longitudinal bead as the rod. This type of cylinder, since the bulb to the tip, becomes finer; describes, so to speak, an elongated cone whose base is the bulb; so it is very easy to recognize the best butt or the one by which the hair sticks to the skin. Just run through your fingers to see if the big end up at the upper part, or if it is down the bottom. I have reviewed several microscopic Amici, perfected by Vincent Chevalier and son, and I am convinced that the hair is not covered with a sort of small scales as is commonly believed, but they offer a bulb more or less large, egg-shaped, white, whose hair extension product. In the middle is a medullary canal which is about one fifth of the diameter of hair, and which transmits the liquid to its own nutrition him. The jar is approaching this structure.

Note 8: (return) Technological dictionary.

From these data the hair constantly walking on the side where his roots, Mr. Monge had concluded that human hair could not felting without preliminary preparation, because according to their structure, and regardless of the direction we can give them through the tree, they always making their way directly into the direction of their bulge and eventually become completely escape 9 . This is using the sécrétage the author thinks that solves this problem; he believes that by this operation, the tip of the hair curls, and that facilitates their interlacing or felting. This interleaving is still favored by the temperature at which the worker operates, and the movement he communicates Page 52 through both of the hand by one of the brush.

Note 9: (return) Robiquet, loco cit .

Mr Mallard, in a brief submitted to the Society for the encouragement of domestic industry, presented a series of observations that do not agree in any way with the theory of Mr. Monge. We will indicate:

1 ° hairs of some animals, such as those of rabbits, though as straight as hare, beaver and other animals that are pilling after the operation sécrétage are likely felting without the prior be subject to no preparation;

2 ° straight wools (those of the Beauce, in the south of France) also pilling without preparation, while on the contrary the Spanish wool and even those of mixed race, who are turned spiral, are not specific to felting.

Based on these observations, it seems clear that if the rough edges of their hair or scales promote their felting, however they are much the sole cause as we have just seen. We return to this subject when we talk about the felting; we will only say at this point that Mr. Guichardière advance the hairs that have asperities refuse felting. This view does not seem consistent with the observation, and what also of the merit of the author and the services he has rendered to the headgear, that opinion to be admitted, would need to be supported on numerous facts and carefully observed.

There are few manufacturing operations that require so varied as hats. We will describe them in turn. Page 53



PREPARATION OF HAIR ON SKIN.

Before felting, is subjected to some preliminary preparations skins bearing different names, and we will make it known.

Dégalage.

The hair on the skin is often filled with dust and foreign matter that is important to rid them: this is what is known in terms of art, dégaler . This operation is doing through a sort of little cards, known as the plaice . A worker walks slowly this tool on the hair, and then beats the skin with a stick on the opposite side; both operations continues until in strongly stirring the skin, it does so more dust. In this state, they are subjected to the following operation:

Trimming or plucking.

We have already said that the hair beaver, rabbits, hares, etc., were made of down and jar, and that it does not only muffled point took ill dyeing, but it decreased the beauty and quality hats. However, fabricans have used various means to separate the fluff jar.

Trimming and plucking the words seem almost synonymous; However, there is a little difference between them. We have already said that in the beaver and rabbit, jar adheres less to the skin than down; it is because of this property and given the greater length of the jar that attaches to the pull; this is called plucking , while the trimming there also applies, but more commonly in rabbit skin, the jar is more adherent to the leather than down. I will describe these two operations. Page 54

Plucking rabbit skins.

This operation is also known as tear; it operates as follows: we extend for two or three days dégalées well in a basement or other low, wet place skin, taking care to return three or four times a day, so they soften also. They were then brought to the workshop by fifties; we cut the Pattons , and skins in their length is opened with a very sharp blade and wide thin so-called species knife anvil . It then concentrates on the well détirer , that is to say, to remove, using the wrist, folds these skins have contracted 10 . Gradually, as the skins are détirées, the cup is on each other, and the overload of a board on which a body is placed very heavy. By this means not only prompt you prevent drying of skin, but we finally erase folds and wrinkles. After these preliminaries, the working practice grubbing in the following way: it places the skin on his right knee so that the hair is outside the abutment , or side of the tail upwards, and that of the head placed in the same knee and a workbench. Here is how Mr. Morel 11 .'s working, armed with a paring knife, enough linen trimmed to prevent it hurts her, and she first grasps with both hands at both ends, makes it move so that the blade , almost vertically supported by its edge on the hair, is, by a sudden movement and Page 55 equal on both wrists, the horizontal position, the edge turned towards the worker. These two movements, executed and renewed with as expeditiously whose muscles are capable, and advancing gradually from the head to the abutment, do all the mechanism of the operation, which, at one time, captures and removes jar without tearing the fine hair. Nevertheless, it is rare that the first way is sufficient to remove all jars; so the harvester, having executed, must return his skin end for end; and while she holds her left hand, the right one holds the anvil, between which the blade, and thumb coated with the pusher 12 , she seized the jars that remained, and pulls against the grain. It is easy to see that workers must join a great deal of skill used to this work.

Note 10: (return) The fort of stretching is an essential preliminary operation, in that it makes the uprooting and easier cutting.
Note 11: (return) Theoretical and Practical Treatise manufacture felts.
Note 12: (return) This is called a finger of skin that serves to secure the edge of the tool when the jar press against the same edge with that finger.

Also practice this operation by placing a skin on a bridge by the action of the planar jar; this process is much less usual than the last. We must add that plucking applies only hair on the back of the animal, and we must be careful not to reach the end of the down, which is the softest and the most fine . As for the hair on the throat and belly, it is in the use of the shortened by almost a third. Without this precaution, it is difficult to make the uni felt. When the tear is complete, we beat the skins to stick to strip off the remaining in the jar down, and called fat. They are then placed in pairs against leather Leather, and one hundred and four packets that are visited by a new worker, which makes them undergo similar in operation to the strip completely. Page 56

Whatever the address of the worker, it sometimes happens that pulls parts of the skin. Must plucking the same parties, say évidures, and join the skins which they were part.

Plucking beaver.

the operation is the same, with the difference that as the skin of the beaver is larger and its jar is much stronger, it is necessary to use a much larger tool, then move a grown man; this places the skin on a bridge , the fixed there by means of a pull-up , sits on one end of the bridge, and taking the plane 13 by two runs, makes him run on the beaver pelt the same motions that prints the anvil on the skins of rabbits. After this operation, a worker removes the anvil parts of the jar which have escaped the action of the plane. This is what is called ironing. Then beat the beaver to the stick to separate the fat.

Note 13: (return) This plane is usually two-edged.

Deburring rabbit skin.

The jar hare sticks, as we have already said, much more skin than down. It is therefore necessary to cut with scissors; this is called deburring . To do this, workers, after slowly the hair combed through the dip , so that any hair or jars are all arranged in their natural situation, workers are, I say, cut with long well-edged scissors the jar over the entire surface of the skin and down to the flower, without any touch thereto. It takes a lot of attention and skill. When this operation was done well, and on a beautiful skin, called recipe , the surface on the back offers a color Page 57 black velvety, without any appearance of a jar; this color dims down to the sides.

This and grubbing, are lengthy and expensive. We tried today to replace it with suitable machines. We're going to know that we could discover.

Description of a clean to clean and open wool and rid the hair of their jar machines ; Mr. WILLIAMS.

Known in England a kind of wool from South America, which is very fine and excellent quality, but so agglomerated and dirty from dirt of any kind, it has almost no value in trade. Mr. Williams sought to remedy this problem by serving the wool of its heterogeneous materials, and it is to this end that he imagined the machine that we are about. Although several parties are already known and have much in common with drummer-peeler cotton, built by Mr. Pitret, however all have a combination that is not without merit. Besides, the machine is likely to be applied to get rid of their hair jar used in millinery, especially cashmere wool, which arrives in Europe responsible for caps and other materials that you can not separate that 'with great difficulty.

The fig. 1st, pl. 377 is a side elevation of the machine, right side view.

The Fig. II, plan or vision as the crow flies.

The Fig. 3, longitudinal section, taken through the center of the machine. The same letters denote the same objects in all figures. Page 58

The machine is mounted on a wooden frames, AA; at its rear end is disposed a horizontal endless canvas is stretched over two rollers which rotate: it was in this context that the worker spread carefully and well also wool or materials to be submitted to the Action of the machine; BC, are two food cylinders, between which the sheet of wool lying on the canvas has ; These cylinders, which are pressed against one another by the effect of a shaped lever Roman u , drawn by weight z , receive their motion by a gear v, a compound of two gear wheels and gear: the gear is the same rotatable endless fabric, of a drum is lined at its circumference moat e, e, e, on which are fixed, in an oblique position, teeth iron f , whose shape is shown in a larger scale Fig. 5, g is a archure which covers the upper portion, to prevent the wool is thrown outwardly by the centrifugal force.

The movement is transmitted to the drum by a pulley PM mounted on its axis and wrapped by a belt contacting a steam engine or other engine. The same shaft carries another pulley i, which, via a tape cross j , is a rotatable pulley k mounted on the axis of the feed cylinder C. In this first operation, wool, leaving the endless cloth passes between the BC rolls; there she is seized by the teeth of the drum, which detach the jar and impurities, which fall on the inclined board m after crossing the gate the . The layer of wool is then driven on the endless n , which passed between the rolls o p ; above this is a wire grid x , which gives passage to the dust created by the rotation of the drum. This rotates the cylinder o p , by means of a cross belt q from the pulley r on the s , attached to the cylinder axis p. movement Page 59 is transmitted to the endless n by a gear t , composed, like the previous one and two pinion gears. A lever-shaped Roman y , which is suspended a weight is , the press rolls on one another.

Wool, having spent between these cylinders, is acted rotary combs b mounted in a forward position on the moat subject to cross c, a smaller than the previous drum. These combs, drawn on a larger scale, fig. four revolve by the effect of f a large pulley, a belt wrapped e, which embraces a pulley fixed on the axis of the combs. As they have a very high speed, impurities which might have escaped the teeth of the drum are definitely parts and launched both against the archure g covering the combs, as against a curved iron plate h '; they then escape through the opening i ' .

After this operation, the strands of wool, perfectly clean and open down, in sheet form, on the inclined board k .

Mr. Malartre has also dealt with the success of this important point; we will transcribe the report that was done about Mr. Cadet Gassicourt, the Society for the encouragement of domestic industry.

Report by Mr. Cadet Gassicourt by the committee of chemical arts, a method for plucking skins hares, invented by Mr. MALARTRE, hatter, rue du Temple, No. 60, in Paris.

Gentlemen, to make you reach to appreciate the advantages of the new process invented by Mr. headgear Malartre, it is necessary that we go into some details about the manufacture of hats. Page 60

Animal hair used by hatters is composed of two distinct species, a silky, flexible, sometimes woolly, the parts naturally have a lot of grip them, and whose main function seems to be to keep the heat animal; it is called down; another, stiffer, more elastic, and having no adhesion between its parts, seems to guarantee the down friction of external bodies; it is called jar.

Experience has shown that among the substances capable of being muted, those who have this quality at the highest level are more slender and more homogeneous, and that the presence of the jar into the felt takes away flexibility and strength in the making it hard and brittle. Bias could believe, for some time, to inexperienced hatters the jar gave solidity to hats; the wise men have not shared this error, and sought by every means, separating the jar of down; but they have done so imperfectly.

We will not describe the way in which famous hatters are wont to snatch the jar operation called trimming. This is so inaccurate that they need, when the hat is finished with pliers to extract the salient guard hairs on its surface, and thus conceal its presence, the risk of skin and thin out the hat .

We had not seen that there was on the skins of two species of hares jars; one that brings the animal at birth and becomes very long: it is usually of two colors; another, almost as short as down, is intended, no doubt, to replace long as the animal is in its transformation. However, by the method used so far, is removed along most of the jar, but remains in the down short.

Mr. Malartre has proposed the following problem: find Page 61 a method for removing the jar in all hair used in the manufacture of hats, any process that is simple, easy, quick and economical, which extracts the jar to the root, until the last strand, and leaves down in the state of pure nature, without any distortion.

We believe, gentlemen, that Mr. Malartre completely solved the problem by not finding that the products it gets; since substances and manipulations employed and to remain secret, we can not comment on the economics of the process.

Mr. Malartre kindly upon our request, provide us with hare skins from Russia and France and éjarrées secreted by the old and the new method: he put our eyes down the purified and unpurified him down . We scrutinized these different products; we compared felt he composed of pure down with the finest trade felt, and we agreed with dominance in felts Mr. Malartre. Skilled hatters, which we introduced these products were in the opinion of the committee.

What now, gentlemen, the benefits of the new process? Here we let Mr. Malartre talk himself because he did not stray from the truth, and that we could not explain more clearly than he.

"If we compare, he says, hats or jar with hats made with the average of the single duvet, experience and reasoning also prove that they are of a more equal and stick felt, since they are composed of a homogeneous material and untied; they are stronger, more flexible and better use, they are more flatter the eye with their silky, wavy, shiny, and soft hands by their substance; Page 62 Finally, they are likely to take better colors, since the dye binds better on a fine particulate material.

"Common materials known far and few bad fit for headwear, fairly, by removing the jar, hats of beauty and equal to those of the finest that currently manufactures hats strength; and, when using the material of choice, hats pure fluff can compete with the beaver hats. These are just golden on the outside surface, the body of the hat is made up of foreign matter beaver. Beaver itself is private point jar, and if we add that beaver hats lose their color and turn red in a very short time, while the color is fixed at top down, perhaps do we find that the latter, without being inferior to beaver hats in any of their parts, on the contrary some parts in which they are superior to them. "

We will make this statement only one observation; it is claimed that beaver hats and others who blushed when we dyed black by the vitriol does blush when we developed the complexion by pyrolignite or, as in England, the iron nitrate.

It is also apparent other advantages of the method of M. Malartre. By using pure down, two workers are in the operation of the crowd, the work of three. In appropriage consisting of three operations, dressage and two passages, the first of the passages is useless; because it usually aims for the down and sleep to recover the jar, so you can grab it with pliers. Now here point jar. In arçonnage there is less dust with pure fluff, less hair fluttering, and that inhaled by the worker, affect his health. Thus, the discovery of Mr. Malartre improves and simplifies other processes of the headgear. Page 63

We have entered these details, gentlemen, because we look at development as very important. He is making a very big step in the art of millinery, and if the process could become Mr. Malartre secret factories France, this branch of trade would soon tributaries foreigners; because we would only the most beautiful hats, stronger and lighter, with hairs taken from the animals of our lands, even by those whose skins were scorned as containing more than jar down, or jar too short to be separated.

Chemical arts committee charged me, gentlemen, to ask you, Mr. Malartre, a medal which it seems that matter can not be determined in six months, because if the hopes that Mr. Malartre design is done realize the company deems likely that the gold should be the just reward of this invention.

In the meantime, we hereby request the announcement of this process in the form of the Company, with the praise has earned Mr. Malartre 14 .-- Adopted in session, March 11, 1818.

Note 14: (return) Hats without a jar, Mr. Malartre, sell at the same price as regular hats, a hare and rabbit.

Means to extract the jar down the skins for the manufacture of hats , Mr MALARTRE, hatter. (Patent of invention 15 years.)

It was given to this process, which dated March 30, 1818, a patent of fifteen, deposed by order of May 4, 1823 Here is what it consists of: Page 64

It begins with a soak skins water lime light, which can not penetrate the skin, that is to say, the effect could be felt beyond the root down. This is done by passing a brush soaked in lime water on both sides of the skin until it is completely softened. In this state, the jar has little traction with the skins, and is in tears easily by pinching it between the thumb and a kind of blunt knife. The jar is left after this operation is cut with scissors. It then pulls down the skins, which comes very easily without causing the jar could stay and who resisted the tear, because its roots are deeper than those of down, were not affected by liquor whose action is confined to the surface of the skin.

It is good to point out that it be allowed to dry skin that has been impregnated with lime water, and we have to beat them then with a small wand before snatching the jar.

The process of Mr. Malartre not being particularly described in the Bulletin of the Society of encouragement, we learned that the author had taken it for a patent. Accordingly we procured a copy of his patent, and we have just published as the author was in the Department of the Interior.

Classification of skin.

As soon as the skins have been trimmed or éjarrées, the manufacturer actually several yards to the match following their beauty and quality.

1 ° In every kind of skin and in every way, we begin by setting aside the skin that must be cut away, and called into spineless , by Page 65 thus separating from others who should be subject to sécrétage;

2 ° the skins of rabbits hutch are separate from those of rabbits;

3rd It is separate from the raw skins from their color packets;

4th skins fatty Beavers are also separated from the dry beaver;

5º Finally, if that were not well éjarrées or trimmed, they are sent to workers. After these preliminaries we proceed to the next step.

Sécrétage.

The sécrétage is an operation that subjected the hair to increase their felting property. Once the principle is employed in France for this purpose, but with limited success, a decoction of marshmallow root and comfrey or symphitum. It was around 1730 that a journeyman hatter, named Matthew, brought from England the process of sécrétage skins using the nitrate of mercury. So important preparation of this salt seems not to be the same in all the factories; it varies with the proportions of constituents; and Mr. Morel says:

nitric acid (high water) ........ 1 pound.
............. mercury March-April ounces.


Was dissolved in a gentle heat, and adds:


rainwater or river .... five to six times

its volume, that is to say five to six pounds.
Mr. Robiquet

said the mercurial liquor is generally adopted

Consists of:


nitric acid ....... 500 grams (1 pound).

mercury.
32 ...... (1 oz.)

water ... half to two thirds of the following concentration

acid.

Page 66

Mr. Guichardière ensures that he got better results from the combination of the old with the new process. Therefore he advises proportions and mode:

nitric acid at 34 ....... 1 pound.
pure mercury .......... 6 oz.


After the dissolution adds:


decoction of marshmallow and comfrey .... 16 parts.

Now how to do this:

We extend carefully on a table or easel skins already trimmed or éjarrées; we then dips a brush boar in the mercurial dissolution and is walking with strength across the surface of the hair, both in its natural direction as the grain; again immersing the brush in the liquor, it is passed on the hair, and is continued until it is wetted in about two thirds of its length; if the hair is a little rough, the hair is soaked deeper. It is good to note that every time we dipped the hair of the brush in the liquor, it must, after removing it, print it a shake so that it is not overloaded with fluid. The worker should be placed in a ventilated place, in order to preserve mercurial exhalations 15 . Finally, to make the wetting or sécrétage more equal, hides two are combined in two and hair against hair; they were then heated in an oven that has to be heated quite strongly that desiccation is prompt. The temperature of the oven will be even higher than the dissolution of mercury nitrate has been more extensive water. It is all the more necessary that the drying is done quickly that it is the concentration Page 67 of the salt which should produce the desired effect; because if this is slow and successive drying, experience has shown that while the contraction of the hair does not succeed to the degree necessary.

Note 15: (return) The workers fabricans hats often have very serious accidents, due to the mercurial salt.

Solution of nitrate of mercury has a very high chemical action on the bristles who acquire golden yellow color more or less intense, depending on the parts of the skin. In vain do we have sought to understand the mode of action as nitric acid and mercury salt have on the hair; we still have, in this respect, as assumptions; the problem remains to be solved. This solution would however be even more important in this art, it would lead the experimenters to substitute some other salt or some other substance harmless or less dangerous than the nitrate of mercury. The art of hat is largely based on the operation of felting; also several fabricans Have tried several tests to exclude the mercurial salt. In 1817, he appeared at the Guichardière Incentive Company, hats bear sailor native otter and raccoon Mexico secreted mercury and a hat without sécrétage, trampled by sulfuric acid. We have no evidence that he acted on these tests.

Mr. Morel has tried several unsuccessful attempts with weak acids and alkalis. All processes to whom he gave one of those agents based were invalid or annoying; one by destroying the very substance of the hair, others by attacking so as to substantially impair their strength. The author, however, believes he has discovered a way of sécrétage very advantageous for rabbit skins; it merely expose the joists suspended from the stall and leave them there for several weeks. The hair then became fatter, and muffled as easily as if he had been secreted by the nitrate of mercury. Page 68 It was not the same with the hare. Mr. Morel think he should have to stay any longer than exposed rabbit. But his experiences on this last point, offer nothing positive.

The Society for the encouragement of domestic industry, believes the harmful effects of nitrate of mercury on the health of workers, proposed in 1815 a relative price sécrétage without mercurial preparation. This award not having been awarded in 1816, he was re-advertised in 1817 MM. Malard and Desfossés entered the lists, and the Company stopped the contest is closed, and that the taking would be awarded to these two authors, where new experiences, make more big and continued for a sufficient time, not only confirm results but also give an absolute guarantee of the goodness of the process. It seems that this process, although very good, did not reply to the expectations because he did conceive, since the Corporation, by removing this award was confined to grant an incentive medal of 200 francs to MM . Malard and Desfossés. We do know that the report was done about this Company by Mr. Bréant.

Since we have not found anywhere the process sécrétage MM. Malard and Desfossés, we have reason to believe that this is the one for which they had already taken a patent. We'll transcribe it here.

New method for sécrétage felting hair for hat-making , by MM. MALARD and DESFOSSES. (Invention Patent of 1817)

The composition of the liquor.

Add two hundred and fifty grams of crude soda Page 69 called Alicante, called barilla mixed, used in the soap and dyers cotton hundred twenty-five grams of quicklime, you turn off by immersing it in water before operate the mix, and you filter after putting enough water so that the filtered liquor brand ten degrees hydrometer Assier-Périca: liquor is obtained gives nineteen to twenty degrees alcalimètre Mr. Descroizilles.

Soak this liqueur hair skin to secrete, using a brush bristle, as is done usually for the solutions of mercury salts.

This mode is also suitable for sécrétage jockey hats and hats for large size.

Hats and are secreted in the incubator.

The jockey hat is composed of four ounces of bristles, which bristles secreted three portions and a portion of bristles flabby. The hair, or secreted, or spineless, consists of six parts: hare for a portion of rabbit hair.

The hat size is made with nine ounces of the same mixture; spineless hair is there in the same proportions.

Now comes the report that was made to the Company's incentive method.

Report by Mr Bréant on sécrétage work on the hair without the use of mercury salts by MM. MALARD and DESFOSSES.

Gentlemen, last year, according to the report of the committee of the chemical arts, the price on the sécrétage without mercurial preparation, you arrêtâtes that the contest would be closed, and that the price would be awarded to Page 70 MM. Malard and Desfossés, where new experiences, make more big and continued for a sufficient time, confirm the results and give an absolute guarantee of the goodness of the process.

As a result of this determination, the committee had prepared last spring by MM. Desfossés and Malard, the liquor they have substituted for the nitrate of mercury, and made secrete a sufficient amount of skins for the experiments.

The cut hairs were then distributed to various hatters, leaving everyone the ability to make mixes as he thought fit.

The first experiments gave us the opposite results; hats made by one of fabricans whom we had come, were found by him of poor quality, while those prepared by another were estimated in a sufficiently good quality. Surprised by this difference, as surprised as the best of these hats were lower than those prepared in front of your commissioners, in the studio of Mr. Malard, your committee must have thought the success was a few special circumstances, either secrétage operation of, or in the manufacture of hats. He resolved, therefore, to repeat, by entrusting preferably hatter who had the most successful; and as there was reason to believe that the sécrétage had not been done, especially as the skin, placed in a very small oven had to experience excessive heat, the committee made the experiment again with a care particular, and he had to applaud this precaution, that impartiality prescribed him, since the result was felt as good as those secreted mercury, and these markers, trodden in the wine-like ordinary hats, did not require more time. Page 71

Placed between two conflicting reports, can not raise doubts against the accuracy of any of the two, the committee had to investigate the cause of these differences, and he found it, not in the good will more or less of those who competed in experiments, but the difference in the materials they used, and their particular methods.

The objections against the new sécrétage, cover the succeeding points:

1 ° The hair is wet, yet the arçonnage they produce dust.
2º basting is more nimbly.
3º A crowd they go slower, and the point that it took six hours for a large hat.
4th hairs are not enough adherents, since they are removed with a brush.
5º Finally, they do not take a beautiful black.

To this, the committee said that the dust had caused the lack of precaution given in the first operation of sécrétage. This disadvantage was not observed last year, and with a very slight change in the process there would remedy easily.

It can not award the slow basting, observed by one of fabricans who worked on experiments that the same cause which produces dust; because last year this operation did very well, and has also done well in recent trials that have taken place.

The first operation of sécrétage was not well conducted, it is not surprising that the results obtained in the crowd were not too satisfaisans than the previous year. They were the same as soon as we used the process more carefully.

As for the effect of these hats to the dye, it is not surprising that they have not taken such a beautiful black. Page 72 The sécrétage necessarily affect the bite, and the bath should be changed because the substances used in the sécrétage; but nothing is easier than to prepare a dye bath, in which they take a black as perfect as that obtained with the bristles secreted mercury.

Having carefully weighed the conflicting results of experiments he did repeat several times, the committee remained convinced

What 1º by the method of MM. Desfossés and Malard, it is possible to secrete the hair to the point of making them fit to be of excellent markers; but this method does not communicate to all hair felting energy gives them the nitrate of mercury.

2 ° That the success of this process is at such delicate circumstances, it is difficult to be able to consistently meet.

Thus, there is no denying that the use of nitrate of mercury has a distinct advantage, since it never fails to fulfill its purpose.

According to this presentation, gentlemen, your committee must declare that the conditions of the program does not appear to meet him, and the price is not earned; but it would be unfair if he did not recognize that those who have approached the goal much deserve encouragement of the most honorable.

By offering them, you will determine to make new efforts to add to their process what it lacks to succeed consistently in the hands of all fabricans. Only they can do that, because they are the inventors, they have an incentive to improve their discovery, and the meeting of their knowledge and their talents they offer all means of success.

Your committee proposes, therefore, to issue, by way of encouragement, a gold medal Page 73 process sécrétage presented by MM. Desfossés and Malard.

Information taken from several fabricans have indicated that the mercurial tremor is now rare among hatters workers, probably because today a lesser amount of mercury is employed; but if hatters workers are much more vulnerable to this disease, it attacks those who secrete skins, and although the number of these preparers hair is very inconsiderable, do not neglect the means to preserve a cruel disease.

Your committee does not believe, however, that we should submit to contest the issue of sécrétage; He takes responsibility for seeking the solution in case, against his hope, MM. Desfossés Malard and give up making new attempts. The report's conclusions were adopted: consequently the President gave to MM. Malard and Desfossés an incentive value of 200 francs coin.

Mowing or cutting hair.

The worker begins by cutting all inequalities horns and skins, and the tail and legs, it's called border skin ; the severed parts are named Chiquettes : they are set apart. We then take the skins, they moisten the flesh side with a water-soaked sponge or, much better, soaked in lime water weakened, and the skins of the two is tacked on two in the wet side 16 , by fifties; they were loaded with plates overloaded with a large stone, and left in that state from twelve to twenty-four hours so that the leather is more resilient, and the hair can be Page 74 extracted more easily. For that one uses two means; it is pulled or it is cut. Mr. Guichardière gives preference to the first means for producing furry hats. It ensures that if felting hairs plucked harder, however felt therefrom is more solid, and withers not under the hand of the worker. Besides, he adds, by this method we have the advantage of harnessing the common hair belly of the hare, which has in common but little value circumstances. Most fabricans do not share the opinion of Mr. Guichardière; they give preference to cutting hair, according to the belief that they have acquired through experience that the bulb of the hair was very detrimental to felting.

Note 16: (return) One must be very careful that the hair is by no means wet.

In all factories, we proceed cutting, to the hair rabbit, beaver, and the uprooting or draw for those hare. Here is how to make these two operations.

Cutting hair 17 rabbits.

We begin by slightly unravel the hair using a card, this is what we call décatir ; after that, the cutters extend and fix the skin through a table or spread well united, the hair outside and lying right to left. So they take the left hand a tin plate for seven to eight inches long and four or five wide, including one of the long sides is folded and rounded to preserve the hand cuts; armed with this hand and they find in the whole width of the skin, the foot of a row of bristles equal. So they take the right hand a kind of acute and very sharp knife, which is fitted Page 75 vertically and surrounded by skin or fabric in a portion of its length. With this knife, the cutter cuts the hair in the whole length of two motions: one that pushes the knife to the edge of the opposite the working skin; the second, which takes him back to the edge where he left. This movement was immediately followed by that of the left hand, which reduces plaque on cut hair to move them behind and discover a new row of hairs, which are decided as the first and picked up by the plate, and continuous since behind the ears to the tip of the abutment. We must add that each of these two major movements that grow and bring the knife, joins a small oscillating movement of the wrist, preventing the knife to stay in the same track, in order to march to the abutment, a very acute angle following 18 . We will continue to let them talk Morel. The perfection of the cut is to kick cutting edge dru-and-menu , to make the very clear leather, not chop the hair and get it in its entire length. The blade of the cutter having reached the posterior end of the skin, the cutter sets aside the leather after cleaning by wiping with moistened hands; it then proceeds to the hair, first collected by the plate, is then rolled on itself to form a small fleece, which received the name of adornment . The fleece is then laid on a table, and working 1º separates the different qualities of hair, so she puts aside the hair of belly appointed common hair ; 2º the flanks, and throat or medium hair ; 3rd one in the middle of the back, in the width of three to four fingers: one, which is the end, is called the edge .

Note 17: (return) We borrow some of this description to Mr. Morel.
Note 18: (return) The cutter must take care to sharpen the knife as soon as she realizes that the cutting edge begins to dull.

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Cutting hair beaver.

The process is, in almost exactly the same as the previous one, with the difference that the skin of the beaver is too wide for the cutter can cut the hair in the entire width of that skin. It is because of this that cut into several bands, which are about the width of the plate. Three qualities of hair from the fleece of the beaver are separated: 1 ° the edge or black ; 2º the interwar or hair flanks and throat; 3rd the white or the hair of the head and abdomen.

As for Hare, says the author above, it is removed in this way that the edge skins nonsecreted designed to make what is called the pen or gilding .

Lifting or pulling of hair hare.

In this operation, clamp the cutters down between the thumb and the blade of a knife said anvil, and pulling them down is washed away, and most of the jar remains on the skin. This complete tear plucking. The fleece hare offers four grades of hair are separated and set aside; these bristles are:

1º the edge, the 3rd red,
2º perks, 4th common.

When cutting the hairs is completed, one proceeds to one of Chiquettes that divides the working class and by the following qualities of the skin to which they belong.

Skins robbed of their hair is sold for manufacturing a quality glue widely used in the arts 19 .

Note 19: (return) As the wool, it is suitable for fabricans to buy them washed; or otherwise, to separate by hand and all defective parts all garbage, prior to washing.

Cutting hair in his hand was a very operation Page 77 long and very expensive; also she attracted the attention of the society to encourage the domestic industry that has made ​​one of his subjects price, which was won in 1829 by Mr. Coffin.

We will publicize the machine he invented about it, and the report that was done to this company by Mr. Molard.

Description of a clean cut hair hides used in millinery machine invented by Mr. COFFIN, a mechanical engineer in Boston, United States of America.

This machine, which was awarded the prize of 1,000 francs. Proposed by the incentives for domestic industry companies, consists of a built in wood or iron, AA 'A', fig. 6, on its A top rail of a horizontal shaft 1 iron, surrounded by helical cutting blades steel J, which rapidly turn against a fixed vertical knife K, and also very sharp steel. the helical blades are arranged so as to have a knife face oblique effect that promotes their edge.

The skin, engaged between two cylindrical iron rods q, knife forward restored k is successively brought against the edge of axial blades by the rotation of these rods, operated by means of a gear n op, Fig. 9 which communicates with a drive pulley L, rotating on the shaft I ', outside the frames. The cylindrical rods are independent one of the other movement, so Page 78 can use various thicknesses of skins without occasioning the ginning sprockets.

The movement of the shaft to axial blades is produced on each side of the machine by a pulley G, H wrapped in a belt, passing over the periphery of a large cast wheel E, which receives the impulse of an axis Angled D , the worker is acting through a pedal B . It simultaneously supports a rocking frame S, which clamps against the other one of the cylindrical rods Q, R, between which the skin is engaged, the hair below. The worker guide the skin with your hand to keep it straight and appears to squarely axial blades. These blades, shaving against and behind the knife k, divide the skin into thin shavings, while the hair is cut by the sharp, sharp knife edge. By this operation, the hair falls successively in sheet form in a trough tin U , positioned below the feed cylinders, as parings skins fall into a wooden box V, below the shaft to axial blades.

A cover Z, being felled during labor prevents clippings skin parts are started outside by the centrifugal force of the blades.

This machine, driven by a single worker, cut the same amount of hair that three workers by the ordinary method.

Explanation of figures.

Fig. 6. Side elevation of the machine to cut the hair, climb all its parts. Fig. 7. Map of the same, showing the arrangement of axial blades. Fig. 8. Section of the machine on the line AB of the plan. Fig. 9. Gears of food cylinders viewed from the front.


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Fig. 10. Cup drive sheave shaft and axial blades of the supply rollers. Fig. 11. Section and plan of the fixed knife. Fig. 12. Trees cranks, seen separately and in section.

The same letters denote the same objects in all figures.

AA wooden frame with the mechanism of the machine; it can be built as iron.
A 'A "top and bottom of the frame sleepers.
B. Pedal the worker in front of the machine to act with the foot.
Classified CC rods attached to the pedal and hang by their upper end , elbows a horizontal shaft D. That turn on bearings fixed on the cross A 'frame.
EA Large cast iron wheels mounted on the shaft D .
F. Small pulleys on the same shaft.
Compound GG domed wood, strung on the square part of the shaft, and from which it receives the movement they receive large wheels EE through HH belts which they are wrapped.
J. bearing shaft axial cutting blades J.
K . fixed knife, the blade is straight, which is placed in front and at the helical blades.
L. L '. pulleys throat, turning freely on the shaft I .
Mr. Cordes cross passing over pulleys and F L, and transmitting it to the movement they receive from the crankshaft D.
N. N '. Pinions integral with the pulley L , one of which controls the gear W, fixed to the lower feed cylinder, and the other carries the P wheel, mounted on the upper cylinder.
Q. Lower feed cylinder rotating collars which are based on the cross A 'of the frame.
A. Top feed roller gear fixed with its P Page 80 in the rocking frame S. This cylinder is reinforced with asperities, for gripping the skin and lead to its passage over the fixed blade to the axial blades. There is a reverse rotation of the cylinder Q .
S. Frame rocking with the top feed roll and the worker falls in the area indicated by the dotted lines, position Fig. 8, when he wants to enter the skin, and that decline continued in guiding the skin with your hand and doing at the same time act pedal.
T. T '. Center of rocking motion of the chassis S.
U. Tin trough placed below the food mill, and in which the hair falls off in blanket form.
V. Wooden box that receives clippings skin parts by helical blades.
X. X '. Full cast pulleys, serving volans.
Y. Spring that presses the knife against the K axial blades.
Z. Tin lid that covers the axial blades and prevents skin clippings thrown by centrifugal force to mingle with the slick hair.

Report on the proposed construction of a clean shave hair hides used in millinery Machine price ; Mr. MOLARD.

Among the prizes to be offered awarded this year, there is a great interest, one that aims to build a clean shave hair hides used in millinery machine.

Your program published about it, after enumerating the various inconveniences resulting from the manual process used to this day, to shave the hair of the skin, and promotes the length of the work and the expense Page 81 it causes, announces that, considering that the mechanical means used in recent times are not in general use, and it is not known to the company that they are the same reach the largest number of fabricans you found it necessary to promise a price on the value of one thousand francs to the author of a simple machine in its construction, a quick and easy, inexpensive service and the using which one can shave or mow all kinds of specific headgear skins, after the hairs were secreted. You required along with the machine procure for twelve pounds of hair a day, and it kept the skin taut, to facilitate removal of the hair, because the dissolution of the mercury often tense.

It is known that workers used to shave hides under the regular process, receives 70 cents, on an average, for every pound of hair, and she cut a pound and a half a day; whereby the twelve books that should produce the machine according to the program, would cost 8 francs 40 centimes per the usual process.

One machine, the size of life, was sent to the contest.

We shall not enter here into all the details of its composition: we will only say that it is established on a principle that is both simple and ingenious. Skin is made to the action of the machine, a pair of supply rollers, the pile below, where it is cut by the sharp cutting edge and a blade fixed field on its back, and serving as against -couteau two helical blades, mounted on the same shaft, which, in turn, cut the skin very thin strips; and as the action of the blades has a certain pressure successively to the skin, by cutting, it follows that the pile, immediately supported by the edge of the knife against, is cut at the same time the skin is divided Page 82 in very narrow ribbons. Fur falls successively shaped web in a container below the feed rolls while the trimmings of the skin to fall below the axial blade shaft, as they are detached.

The experiments of the mechanical arts committee has made with this machine, have shown that, through him, can be separated into a minute and a half the hair of a rabbit skin secreted, in which the product was a hair ounce and a half; This proves that in ten hours you will get 40 pounds 10 ounces of hair.

This amount of hair obtained in ten hours is about four hundred strong skidded hutches skins, that is to say, prepared for submission to the action of the machine.

The machine in question can be served by four women; Both should be sufficient to prepare the skins, the third to pass to the machine, and the fourth to separate the different grades of hair obtained from the skin, hair and put into packets.

Day of each can be assessed 1 fr. 25 cents ................. 5 fr.

Interest daily, acquisition costs
400 francs, the price of the

Machine ............................ "5

Maintenance costs as a day.
"2 7c.

____________

40 pounds 10 ounces would therefore "

cost of handling ............ 5 7c.

What was the book of hair about two cents and a half, while forty pounds ten ounces of hair, taken by the current process would have cost 28 francs 60 centimes handling and the use of twenty-five workers per day .

Finally, the skin can be passed or not mercurial dissolution, to be razed to the machine. Page 83

Based on these favorable results, indisputable, the committee assured that it meets all the requirements made necessary by the program, has the honor to propose to award the prize of 1,000 francs to M. Coffin, a mechanic in Boston, United States of America, inventor of the machine presented in the contest.

Before concluding this report, we believe we must, gentlemen, offer to send thanksgivings Mr Mallard for useful renseignemens this clever hat manufacturer was quick to provide the current state of his art, and as informed appraiser new ways that the company has acquired to perfect.

Approved in general meeting on 16 December 1829 Signed Molard rapporteur.

Mixing of materials.

The beauty and quality of hats depends on the nature of beauty and proportions of the hair secreted employees, and one that is not, and called spineless. Thus, in the blend composition of raw materials, the manufacturer's rule, 1 ° depending on the degree of finesse that he intends to give hats; in this case it looks good cash and good qualities of hair; 2º next time that must be used in their work; this time is relative proportions of secreted hair and flabby 20 ; 3 ° according to the degree required by the connecting felts. This case is set on their intended use and their size when they are made. It is communicated to them by the addition of Contents wool called load and whose proportions vary between ninth and at least a quarter more weight Page 84 of the mixture. It is essential to use a quality wool whose beauty is relative to other materials used, or, if you will, their finesse. Thus, 1º when it enters the mix many common hair, we employ the coarse wool or skeins; 2º we will take the camel to load for most mixtures; 3rd for those that contain the finest hair of each species is the finest wool red vicuna peeled well which will form the chain; 4th last, for the finest, if you do not use beaver, it's always the hair Edge we take hare; we add about a quarter of an ounce of fine red vicuna, to form the chain. Mixtures of substances therefore differ according to the quality hats. We can add that each manufacturer has his own, he still believes the best. Generally, we must, at this point, take note of all the tests that are done in a special register, and using the following formulas given by Mr. Morel.

Note 20: (return) In general, common mixtures should be less elaborate than the fine mixtures.

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Carding.

The operation of carding is almost entirely eliminated; it takes place only when there is a packet mix for common funds or hats and hair cubs. The particular hat-making hair, Flemish way, are only passed to the violin to the mix so that quality is indeed equal. Page 86 However, to make our work complete, we will describe the work of the carder.

One starts with the load properly stretch and then give him one or two rounds of cards , so that being well divided or opened, it can be distributed more easily in the mixture; is then beats the stick separately and each kind of hair. After that we met all subjects. There mingles well carded load and it beats all the wand. This is the commencement of mixing, which is made ​​more perfect by the violin . This has been well described by Mr. Morel; we will borrow largely.

By the name of violin , an assembly of sixteen to eighteen strings whip, about eight feet in length, which are retained by their ends into two brackets drilled enough holes distant from two to three means inch apart. Ropes and whip easily arranged when one of cleats being fixed to the floor, knocking on the carder double past him with the other cleat hits that has a handle with a foot and a half long. The worker must be careful to stir from time to time the job with two sticks so that work or mixing also takes place; he continues to whip until the various materials are blended, only in terms of art called erased . For the finest blends, working carder often end there; but when they then have to be carded, it brings the mixture, which was then called fabric in a heap; the breaks in the nonwoven fabric and then returns the card gently to comb the hair and expand without breaking. He continues this process if it finds that there are still small communities or balls of hair known as buds. The fabric is then brought into a room named weighing , for there to be submitted immediately to the operation of the tree . In the Page 87 if you want to keep it for some time, we must, for the guarantee of moisture, dust, fermentation and moths, locking the hair or separated or mixed in well sealed barrels without squeeze or press. Those secreted wear their condom against moths; but they are willing to bud or grope , as the warren and spineless beaver.

In the interest of the manufacturer, so it should be allowed to elapse minimal time between the mixing of raw materials and felting.

Of the tree.

Against the master distributes fouleur said mate, you need to kind of felt weight he asks, and he tells her the same time dimensions. This divides the fabric into two or four parts, depending on whether he should make the felt should consist of two to four feet, and must be regular or irregular. Once we had four rooms for jockeys hats. It is more convenient not to do two; this is a Flemish imitation. But when manufacturing cocked hats, it's better; we would even say that it is necessary to make four pieces, because of the large amount of material and the smallness of the table of the tree. It is also important to train four-piece felt that must have some thickness, and finally we must not be limited to two for those who are endowed with much lightness. Now how Mr. Robiquet describes the operation of the arçonnage. Far from trying to appropriate the work of others, torturing their sentences to make our own thoughts, we prefer to transcribe indicating the sources where we drew.

The tree is a species of a large bow, which suspends the floor towards the center, to Page 88 place in all possible directions. This bow is located on top of a table covered with a wicker rack end and tight enough to allow only the garbage. The hair is placed on the rack; we brought the rope of the tree in the heap, and without it so, they put it in play with a check mark , a sort of time hardwood, terminated at each end by a button mushroom. It's hanging rope with this button, and pulling hard, she ends up slipping on the button, and it comes into vibrations even more accelerated the movement of arçonneur was sharper . The worker is careful to raise or lower the tree, to move forward and backward, following as it deems necessary; and it continues until the mixture is intimate and one can not distinguish any nuance. We end this manipulation by what is called the sail cloth , that is to say by the arçonner so that its smallest parts, plucked successively by the rope, be removed and transported from left to right, making in the air a distance of more than two feet. The down falls slightly and eventually forms a bunch of depletion such that the slightest breeze could dispel all in an instant. The worker, using a clayon, pushes the pile to his left and gives a second vogue, but with such dexterity, it does fall into a space of a given figure, and so that the layers vary in thickness or such like parts as needed. At this point, the rack is removed, the table is cleaned, and then the wet, to facilitate the adhesion of the bristles; it is then that comes to the degree of felting bastissage said.

The arçonnage is far from having reached the point of perfection to which it is likely to achieve: it would be necessary that one could pull the pieces at once without that when voguage is started, the action rope Page 89 éprouvât any interruption. We could then expect a smooth connection of all parts of a room and a complete intersection of all subjects. We can not hide it takes a lot of skill on the part of the worker and the most practiced to form on the rack look, all at once and only through the game well directed from pommel, a projected figure or better data. The worker, regardless of address, there reaches approximately; he has another obstacle which opposes is the interruption of voguage for both fight and reopen occasionally the nonwoven voguée, sagging under the weight of the pole of the tree, that to remove garbage that pass 21 .

Note 21: (return) Morel, loco cit .

The perfection of arçonnage says Morel, depends on the observation of the following five basic rules:

Do 1º sail cloth after it has been thoroughly beaten and open in all its part:
Do 2º pinch little cloth both in sailing and do not grope or iron rope of vaulting on what's already sailed;
3rd Composer parts following the figure and the size they should have, and combine various degrees of thickness;
4th clean cloth or in the arçonnant, or by walking, and purge galls Chiquettes, tips and other refuse
5º Finally, oppose as much as we can to the waste, taking care of his stuff, preventing it from falling to the ground, etc.

The parts after voguage, have, far from it, nor the consistency nor the necessary firmness; they acquire one part and the other by the step of:

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Basin and basting .

This is one of the main headgear; it must be done in a special room so that the worker no further exposure to the fumes produced during arçonnage. Before we describe say we give the name of the basin to a set of hard wood and knit; and that of feutrière , strong canvas of Alencon, which has about a yard wide and a yard and a half in length, and half of which is extended over the basin, and the other is still pending. We then wets the feutrière either with a brush or with a handful of willow sprig of heather or with a small broom rice; when it is wet enough, we place a few squares of thick, soft paper, overlaid with the hanging part, and we drive all that wetness also distributes. In this state, the worker held the feutrière and, after having drawn the papers, he fixes it, as we have already said, that is to say half of the basin, and the other pending on the front. Everything being thus prepared, the worker extends the feutrière parts on each other, taking care of the well spread, and especially that there are not any wrinkles or ridures on each piece, and after have slightly watered, it places a sheet of paper above; Finally, the last piece is covered by half the feutrière remained pending.

The hairs are necessary for the stuff, as we see, divided into several said lots capades . Mr. Guichardière recommends not to do two. Thus, feutrière contains only two capades between which is interposed a sheet of thick paper; at the time of the operation, the worker bends and folds, or in terms of art, walking and working again in all directions, continuing to baste occasionally, and very slightly, so that does capades contract with the adhesion point feutrière. Continues Page 91 work until we recognize 1º they became consistent enough and firm enough not to open or expand; 2 ° they are at the same time soft enough that, when brought together, they unite and bind so as to form a single and even felt. This is called building a felt . Here Mr. Morel describes this operation: the worker extends the feutrière, as accurately as possible, room or capade; on the middle of the room, he places the flap 22 , and it folds over the wings of the part on which it puts in a second, which adheres the folded edges of the first. It is good to note that the worker must provide the opening of one of the long sides to remove the flap, which is placed between the two pieces. That done, he returned to the felt so that the second part is below; he takes the wings thereof, and folds over the top being very careful to properly expand and unite capades good one over the other, so that there is no creases or wrinkles nor air interposed. After that, it covers the portion of the pending feutrière, form the folds needed to maintain and stop the parts in position. Then, made ​​by other plies in the same direction, while it reduces a long and narrow package, and running over the entire length, bearing in his hands and alternately in the medium at each end; it changes again for all the folds form successively every way, and walk well. Called a cross (or basin), the set of all the folds and all the motions that the worker is Page 92 have to do every time he walks bastissant. After the initial cross, the worker unfolds, removes flap which lies between the two parts, and uncrossed , that is to say that it gives to the other folds of the first two connection pieces, which is always double the effect of the interposition flap. It is replaced, after they took away the traces of old folds, and it is then that applies across, if the work has to, and that the first dual assembly with the other two parts, if the composition of the felt requires four. How to proceed with respect to the last two is the same as for the other, with the difference that, as they apply to the first, and be one with them, we must not interfere with paper or shred them. We must add to the above author, to the greatest perfection markers in four parts, the surfaces on which the arçonnage were immediately on the table of the tree or on a hurdle we will contact. As soon as all the parts have been assembled or assembled, they are placed in the wet feutrière and the worker gives another cross which is followed by two or three others.

Note 22: (return) The flap is a paper model, representing the figure should have the basting; the flap is smaller than the room or capade; and parts of the room that are beyond are named wings of the piece; they must be thinner than the other parts of the capade.

If the felt has some smaller or thinner than they should be places, there applies pieces of another capade, set apart for this purpose and is called A sealing room , and 'incorporated therein and is binding on tracks by the last three windows, and walking heavily on these parties. Finally, when the stuff is étoupée or the hairs are tissues and adherents them, it only remains to make enough to be able to brew felted basting as soon as possible to the crowd. When reached this point, the worker simousse the basting, return to bring the outside inside, and folds down for the crowd 23 .

Note 23: (return) In a plain felt, it is this area that is outside, when worn with the crowd, who should form the top when it is completed. Morel, loco cit .

Page 93

For the current way, usually composes the large cap, and high close together; the plate and the side must be thin shape, and fairly strong edge, and the link, but was careful to keep the edge a little untied.

Mr. Morel gives very good advice to make a great basting; we will report it. There are two major flaws to avoid in building: one to burse the fabric, the other to break it or do away . The first of these defects occurs when the second pieces we did on the first take, or, in felts two piece when folded wings do not stick to their fullest extent, and that there are places where they form pockets or purses . This comes, in most cases, or having too much market parts before assembly, or have them too wet and the feutrière. Those who build in two parts only, thick and augmented markers, are subject to this accident, because the wings pieces with too thick, can easily take as long as they were too marchées or that is introduced to the air between the two surfaces to be united.

2 ° The second flaw is when the fabric is cut and vein in several places, including the folds of the cross; what happens when the feutrière is too dry, or the worker walking too long on the same fold.

We must add, from the same author, 1º as felts containing more load that should be more likely to burse than others; 2º that when there are too many rabbit secreted, especially the warren, it is prone to cross-cut folds; 3rd last, Page 94 if too spineless, she has the willingness to deviate.

C. Mackenzie 24 saw two bâtissages made ​​mechanics that were brought from the United States; but, not knowing that the machine uses, he could not give any idea about this work.

Note 24: (return) One thousand experiments in chemistry.

From the crowd.

Felt, basting after process is far from having the consistency, strength and adequate to assure him some time strength; he is given these qualities through the crowd , which go in all directions hair on themselves and thus tightens the tissue and make it more consistent, much stronger, or in terms of art, more substantial. Hair, taking this new arrangement, occupy less space than before; also the stuff is it shrinks in all directions; also felt, coming out of basting, must have a third or twice the size it will look upon the crowd. This new felting always goes hot with a few agents that increase the quality of felting materials there is not yet chemically identified this new mode of action. Why a liquor containing each hogshead of about seventy-two pounds of pressed wine dregs of water is prepared. The water is first brought to the boil; arrival at this point there is lees stirred by means of a brush, and that the foam formed is removed. The liquor is maintained at a temperature close to boiling. So says Robiquet, workers bring their basting, and are placed around the boiler with an inclined bench in front of them, said bench mob 25 ; each dip his Page 95 basting all bent in the bath, then taking to ensure it is thoroughly soaked; otherwise, there compensates the chandelier or brush; Then he lies on the bench mob, expressed through the roulet 26 , throws a little cold water, and drove to the hand 27 by successively taking on all the senses; he frequently visits, to make sure it goes well also, and it works more parts that require it. This first cross should be light. When the felt is formed, it uses the pressure of the brush, making sure to clean the hat before rubbing it with bare hands. At that time the felt is still soft enough to easily transfer the jars contained therein. It is good to note that when you start to use the brush, it is necessary that the pressure Page 96 carries through him is not strong. It first starts with the head, then moves to the edge, and this operation is continued for five to six windows; roulemens the felts are made ​​in opposite directions. Thus, if the No. 1 bearing is made ​​on one side, the No. 2 will be another, and therefore, all odd numbers will be in the same direction of the No. 1 and all even in that of No. 2 We must add that before making a new bearing must return the felt upside down. Mr. Morel, for clarity, together with its explanatory figures that make it more clear. In Figure 13, the bearing No. 1 is directly opposite the bearing No. 2, but it does not reverse it; Figure 14 is that we represent both No. 1 and No. 2 roulemens both opposite and reverse them. Here we see, for the last example, that before rolling No. 2, you must first, bearing the No. 1 is in fact return the butt and felt upside down.

Note 25: (return) This beginning fulling requires great care, if one wants to run the risk of opening felt, we must first tread with great care, and gradually bring the fabric properly disposed Heat, humidity and calculus, to better link, go out and get a good consistency. Robiquet, loco cit.
Note 26: (return) This is a good solid roller ash wood eighteen inches long, with an inch in diameter in the middle and decreasing gradually advancing towards the ends that are rounded.
Note 27: (return) Treading a felt is, having rolled on itself, undo and redo alternately roll in doing turn down or up repeatedly in his hands, according to the inclination Bench mob; a cross to the crowd is the set of all the movements that we are obliged to turn to roll the felt on all sides that has his face and trample on each roulemens . Thus, assuming the figure of basting a long square, cross roulemens will consist of four, including two lengthwise and two crosswise. Before moving from one window to another, are uncrossed, as the pool, but little at a time to get the job even. Morel, lc

In terms of art called forward by hand , or walk to the crowd , the first two or three windows. The first name is that much of this work is done with bare hands. The fouleur must be careful not to wet the felt in the bath at each bearing it will operate. In the first cross bearing this should not be tight, even should it be a little loose and that crowd slightly to produce no tear in the felt which has not yet acquired any desired consistency. That's when the crowd that the felt surface takes a rugged look that workers call the Grigne and announcing that felting is tightening. Over this seedy appearance and apparent equals says Morel, the better we should augur the return of felt, and be prepared to slow down, if necessary, leading to water early and often. Page 97

When felting is advanced, crush under potholders 28 , kind of instrument made ​​of leather soles, through which it plunges, without burning, felts place in the boiler to each bearing, and even felt that the ride is over; the felt is so hot. It is then that the worker clip, as is commonly said, increasingly the first round it gives roulemens and this in as he sees that the tissue is more felting becomes more consistent , firmer and tighter. This part of the work of basting, the crowd called roll closed and hot soak . The pressure that the worker must exert on these towers roulemens ought not to be, however strong, because we must not thus express the bath liquor interposed between the interstices of felt, which contributes mightily to activate and as is said to feed felting. There is another transaction that executes at the same time is that of the unhairing . It operates by rubbing gently Page 98 the outer surface of the felt using the flat part of the instrument named handpiece in order to loosen and remove the jar, which is mixed with the hair left, appear outside; they work usually lasts two hours if they were executed with care and intelligence, and if nothing has disturbed the operation, the felt is in a state of body and what it should have. To wear it all-of-fact, he is given some new cross-called squeeze , because then we crowd groaned and emissions as much as possible roulemens. We use it for the roulet around which rolls with force to tighten the fabric, crush somehow and make it thinner. By this new work fabric still narrows and continues until it is reduced to the desired point. It is the time of the work of the hardest crowd to the workers, because of the greater force that they are compelled to use. This work is easier and produces results more certain if the fabric is constantly held in the highest temperature; it is needless to say that the bath should be as hot as possible.

Note 28: (return) M. Guichardière, which hat should work if importans, follows another more painful method, it is true, but gives far superior products; here it is. After five or six first cross, we extend the cap to the board: on the back and is still rubbed by hand to remove the jars that could be stayed. Next, we use only the brush on the side of Edge to return, felting and develop down, for five to six cross: it extends back to the board, it is turned, and more pressure is employed , as the felt takes consistency: Turn, and brush until the cap is small enough to fit on the form. If it happened that the felt was not equal, says Robiquet would require brushing more thin places for leveling. Finally, to the brilliant must, dip often hot and tread for three or four hours. We will devote a special section to the methods of Mr. Guichardière.

It is recognized that the pressing is perfect when the asperities of which we have spoken, as the Grigne, disappeared; then drips felt walking the roulet over the WAN with felt pressure to squeeze out the water shedding it. It is yet another way to convince them of the goodness of this operation is when the drained felt has the desired size and is no longer subject to any further withdrawal by another crushing; in terms of art, it is said that then the felt has the prescribed size and it reaches crowd .

Sometimes due to unsound mixtures of raw materials, or negligently or inexperienced workers, markers obtained offer some imperfections; the main ones are the Grigne and tortoiseshell. Page 99

Felt grigneux.

We already know what is meant by Grigne; we will add here called felts grigneux who, having been passed and pressed between the fingers, by dragging them horizontally on each other, still offer these rough and grain are the Grigne. This defect recognized because: 1st basting too short given the felt by the worker, to make it happen more quickly to the desired size; 2º vice mixture that produced too soft stuff to be built larger.

Felt scales.

These markers after their making, and pressed between fingers as above, offer points where the fabric has so little consistency that is about to dethatch or, if we want to see end grip and the intersection of the down which is the result of basting and pressing. According to Mr. Morel, this defect arises because the felt was built too big, and being achieved crowd before being reduced to the size requested, the worker continued to trample them in the hope of be reduced; or when, having been built in the right proportions, the stuff too feeble departed the area and chipped the late work the crowd. When this defect, the author adds, is carried to excess, it causes cracks and holes. We say that the stuff broke.

It has not yet studied or recognized chemical action exerted on the burgundy hair to activate their adhesion; we only know that this is the cream of tartar (on-potassium tartrate) that produces this effect. We tried various means to replace it. We even made use of instead of sulfuric acid this salt; but this method was abandoned, and they returned to the dregs of wine because he Page 100 was found that this acid gave greater activity mercury nitrate of this metal used for sécrétage, and that workers were most seriously affected. Mr. Guichardière, which focused its investigations into all areas that relate to the manufacture of hats, advised to add to bath with wine-a certain amount of tan. This facilitates addition, according to him, felting, and has, by his principles, the hair to acquire a beautiful black.

The precepts and walking that we have just described are primarily on the manufacture of fine hats. For the hats second quality one experiences much greater difficulties because the hairs that are still intended pilling harder. These hairs are usually those for the sides and the most beautiful gorges which was added about a big red vicuna. Also one golden hat pelvis, with an ounce fourth pile back secreted 29 . This addition brings in more forcefully background, and gives him the strength and beauty at the same time.

Note 29: (return)

In terms of headgear, brown felt cover is a hair that has length, shiny, and that incorporates only to its base, and a third at most of its length.

Basking in the basin is to make this operation on the basting that sometimes runs on a slightly heated plate, called basin . Gilding with the hair and ripped secreted makes very difficult crowd, because this kind of .that hair remains long tense. To smooth the felt quality, fully immerse and often hot, brush with high pressure, and build smaller than that of the highest quality.

Robiquet, loco cit .

As for the third quality hats, we use the worst hair throat, the common hair belly Page 101 and a quarter ounce of red vicuna. On one ounce gold with a quarter of the hair on the back secreted. Same on the pelvis and the crowd; but arçonnage and basting shorter than for the second grade, because that hair is more coarse, less they pilling, and that to achieve this they must tread very strongly and start crushing it ended with a turnover preserves , and end up at four or five cross roulet.

Hats called hairy (Flemish way) does trample almost closed the ride. We only use the brush pressure, especially when the hair is pulled out. The hat looks better, stronger and silkier. Formerly, when doing hair and cubs, were trampled hot in a common hat; now it uses tarpaulin , kind of packaging in which the cotton comes from the Levant.

Dressage hats.

Develop a hat, it's the fit, in order to give him the agreed figure. For this, when the pressing is complete, and the fabric that comes out from the oven and was formatting shell , quenched into hot water, either in hand and the thumb or the pusher , by pressing the center to the circumference; it crushes the tip and folds suivans enough to place a wooden form, that there is to enter and to which it is applied exactly. The worker then takes a double string with which it binds the middle of the form, and is then down this turn of string to the bottom of the form, using the shock or the breeching . Then he dips repeatedly hat in hot water, it pulls well to remove wrinkles. The point where the tower separates the string head edges. It notes these, only in terms of art called kill; quenched again, these edges are delirium extensively, holding in one hand and pulling Page 102 the other with all his strength, the length and the width a bit, so as to arrange and hold everything in place 30 .

Note 30: (return) Robiquet, loco cit . In some factories are dipped in dressage in the bath between them. It is much better to use only pure water bath, then go to the scouring easiest, clearest hair, brighter and easier to dye.

When the worker has compiled his hat and it is dry, it takes a pumice stone that passes on its surface, until all the furry be muted and the felt is well connected; He then replaces it with the dress (piece of skin dogfish), it passes the head cap. This is used to produce a fine hairy, flush fitting hat. It has now been replaced pumice and the dress with the dip that will develop the fluff suitable for furry hats that are now out of fashion. It has already developed hairy treading, by pressure of the brush. The worker shall use as a gentle dip, and use a light touch; because a strong dip and also felt pressure decompose instead of updating all hairy. It is worthy of note that the felts made ​​with torn hairs are stronger and less easy to break down, as those made ​​with cut pile. Dressage is a tedious and difficult task, especially when the shapes are broken into five or seven games, to introduce them to pieces in the crown of the hat, especially when the diameter of the top is wider than that of entry head. But when the shape is cylindrical or conical, dressage is much easier. The cap once prepared, is the relines, that is to say on the top réapprête.

The transition from training only serves to collapse the down, Page 103 and to meet the jars so that the éjarreuse can more easily grasp with pliers 31 and extracted without breaking as much as possible. For this operation was accomplished with ease, it would not réapprêter head after plucking. The réapprêtage head consolidates jars and snack wanting extract 32 . When hats have spent some time in the store, the jars are pushing to the surface and destroy the sweetness of the hat. We must then plucking and brush.

Note 31: (return) Before making furry hats, one rarely used pliers but of pumice and razor.
Note 32: (return) Mackenzie, loco cit .

The marks that distinguish a felt is well crafted, and all proportions were well observed, are: 1 ° when it is free from grignes and is smooth everywhere; 2 ° it is moderately strong in mind; 3rd very strong in the link; 4th that its thickness decreases to the edge, which must be fine and well rounded.

Various markers.

The felts are not all alike said the United felt that we just described manipulation. However their manufacture differs from that of these, only a few differences in the methods; we will give an idea, following the division established:

1º Felt united
2º Hair Flemish
3rd Felt golden
4th Felt pen.

1º Felt united.

We just let them know.

2º Felts said bristles flamingos.

This name comes from the fact that originally it Page 104 preparation method was imported from factories in Flanders. This felt is most often made ​​with pure rabbit hair and brushed with the striking surface , while the crowd , which gives off a very long and smooth hair, which is its quality and makes it the main beauty. However, it should start brushing and when the consistency has acquired the felt is large enough, or if you will, when the felting is strong enough to not have to fear any alteration of the tissue by the Action of the rubber. On this point, as noted wisely Mr. Morel, the French fabricans outweigh the Flemish fabricans. They crossed from the very first, and rub planchéient so strongly felt, they alter them even before they have made ​​up. At operation of the crowd, the Flemish govern hair almost as united felt; there is no other difference than to maintain them constantly watered and not stop as long on each bearing. After these pens are dry, they brush gently, we shot at the plaice and the wand, but never sanded.

Here is how Mr. Morel describes this operation: the worker bears the net, scratching the entire outer surface of muffled, making it out of a hairy or long and very thick. This operation is similar to that of wool that runs through the thistle Fuller, manufactures cloth. We must get the first dip slightly, pressing a little more, and by degrees on each side of the felt.

3rd Felt golden.

It gives the name of golden pens to those of ordinary or inferior quality, which covers the outer surface is a thin layer of material or finer hair. Page 105 We must take care here as mixed felts whose gilding is always done with the hare or with the beaver. This foil is prepared to tree, like pieces, and we never walk at the fourth. Gilding is distinguished gilding basin and gilding the crowd , according to the different periods of the operation which it is performed. We have already said a word on the previous pages; we will add new developements. Gilding pelvis occurs after the basting is guaranteed. The worker's caught giving two or more cross in feutrière.

2 ° The gilding the crowd is that they practice only when the market is felt in the crowd . It has less range and thicker than the last, which makes its incorporation felt much more difficult. Here is the procedure we follow for this operation 33 . takes is one of those gruff paintings for wrapping the Levant, and called covered ; dipped into the boiler and is then spread on the bench mob; there laying on the felt we got good care before dehairing. Both surfaces of the felt is then successively with covers parts of gilding, having the attention of leave are no wrinkles form; then a little hot water we project using a brush with long bristles called gilding is fixed by striking , because it serves after that projection to hit perfectly level with repeated blows on gilding to raise the felt. After that, make this a more complete incorporation, the worker makes some cross rolling and the felt covered in one another, so that each of the surfaces of the felt which is to receive the foil, is in contact with the glaze. Each new ball he does, he uncrossed Page 106 and hits the felt with the brush to remove small bubbles that form, especially in the folds of the cross. To ease the process, it takes away from time to time the top felt covered, and plunges it into the pot, and as soon as he removed there immediately replace the felt which is thus heated. As soon as he realizes that the Grigne is equal and tight, it is a proof that the gilding is well adherent to the felt; therefore he returns it to turn inward; it crowd and a couple of pot holders to cross; but returned soon after and eventually felt the strain taking the gilt off, so that it is éjarre and intertwines the point with the hair which forms the bottom of the felt; on the end of the operation, even bang the striking surface to loosen the hair in good gilding.

Note 33: (return) Morel, loco cit .

Hats, or better, felt gilded with the crowd, as they were dried in an oven, should be brushed gently from the net, and subjected to the action of the stick.

4th Felt pen.

Felts said to feather are richer gilding for which use is made ​​of the finest hare 34 and the castor. In general, this applies only when the foil has been trodden felt with the difference of the method of gold markers, for those birds of several layers or gilding is applied to hair. The number of layers establishes two divisions in this kind of felt, which are:

1 ° hats mid-hairs .
2 ° hats called cubs .

Note 34: (return) M. Morel think despite that employs feather all kinds of hares France, and even the cactus, we do not have it so that things very well: it is the hare Britain. He adds that in general the foreign hare is not suitable for this purpose.

Page 107

Hats mid-hairs.

The term half-naked ad that gilding is higher than that of ordinary and less than cubs golden pens. So this quality keeps a balance between the above two. Both gilding is applied to what are called felt, in terms of art: first and second pose . The first is given when there is the felt two or three fingers to go through. Once it fits tightly the second pose is applied, and after taking each of these poses are hot crowd for about three quarters of an hour for each pose, that is to say that the worker follows During this time his cross rolling the felt in the indoor and trampling with water and very slightly to maintain it in a large heat 35 . After completely crushing the last pose, you get out of the felt covered to trample bare giving it very carefully, so as not to take away from him the pen, two or three windows that eventually complete to return the felt which is then drain and dry. After that, we bring out the pen felt releasing it through the dip. As for nodes 36 which may be found, extracted using a soft comb.

Note 35: (return) M. Morel, loco cit . This operation is intended to incorporate the pen with the background, without it deteriorates or he returns sensibly, ibid .
Note 36: (return) is the name given to small knots of hair provenans platoons of gilding, which are matted together at the surface of the foil without adhering to the felt.

Cubs hats or hair.

What is the difference between training Page 108 of the mid-hairs and bears , this is the first 1º receive only two poses, and never more than three, and that applies to the last five, and these poses are data when the background is completely crushed; 2 ° when the last stride pose was hot, we sansouille hat for about half an hour, that is to say that the entire plunges into the boiler and we happily walks in water in the opposite direction. This rapid stirring in water operates such a good effect on the pen she draws all the hair, which therefore do not adhere to that felt by their base located there such as hair wigs on the tissue they used the background is, if you will, and on the skin of the animal.

After this operation, and after the bear is drained, prepared and dried, the comb to separate nodes or platoons of hair that may be present 37 .

Note 37: (return) I would add here an interesting remark of Mr. Morel. Hats with feathers, he said, of whatever kind, are singed before receiving the first pose. For this, while the worker reduced the background to the size where it needs to be asked , he drained as much as possible with the roulet, and passed over a fire of straw or shavings, the surfaces on which the poses are to be applied in order to get rid of hair that cover and that would affect the introduction of those who make up the pen. We give a slight buckling after this shot anywhere matches, to thoroughly clean these surfaces.

Hats called plumes , and lined , etc., differ cubs that what we do dore like these that one side or only on the edges, etc .; as the process is no different from the one we just described, we will refrain from repetition.

We will also mention the manufacture of Page 109 hats that vary in strength, light weight, size and shape: the first is related to the quantity and quality of the materials we use felting, others are related to modes that follow one another so quickly. Thus, besides the low caps and high square shape, it actually cylindrical, conical, etc .; also manufactures hunting caps , the caps , toques , schakos , etc. The manufacturing process is constantly the same, as well as the square of felt fabrics which were nowadays many applications, both for the toilet and for ameublemens. The shape varies according to their job we want to do; it is mainly basting given them that you desire. We shall not enter into further details about this: it would distract us from our goal we will only say that the biggest piece felt that we have been able to make no more than five square feet.

Dyeing hats.

Each manufacturer has its hat dyeing processes of which it is a secret. Despite this we are not afraid to say that this part of the art is still far from reaching the level of sophistication necessary and which the eye investigator chemist can wear. Those who have dealt successfully with the special dye hats, have not taken sufficient account of the particular processes which were submitted hair and materials used, mainly from the operation of felting exercising such action or even altered hair color besides changing their felting property increases significantly. The various operations must therefore make these felting less likely to receive the dye stuffs, that despite the seemingly well disgorged. Add to this that for the dye baths, regardless Page 110 of the insoluble substances and therefore is added to zero Ingrediens other, and only complicate the operation, iron sulfate react to long on the fabric by the acid, while a portion of the oxide is péroxidant, by absorbing oxygen from the air, a reddish color, and increased the black hat to brownish black. It's bringing the good fabricans to replace the iron sulphate (copperas) with another iron salt which does acid should exercise no action on the fabric. Thus we now employs some success with iron acetate, and better, like the English, citrate of this metal; unfortunately it is too expensive. The Society for the encouragement of domestic industry, convinced of the defective dyeing hats, made ​​one of his subjects price. We think we should bring back the entire program because it contains interesting views.

Award for development of the dye hats.

Dyestuffs are either simple or compound, that is to say that sometimes they are substances sui generis we only extract the bodies that contain them, and other times they result from a combination of several elements, which together establish a true insoluble defined proportions combination and that affects a color quite strong so we can take advantage in dyeing. Single color is fixed with a bite; the other occurs in the dye bath, and rushes onto the fabric, or it determines the formation of the fabric itself successively impregnating the various materials used in the composition. We will quote the point here many known examples of these two kinds of dye; we will deal Page 111 of only the black producing the composition. Generally this color is nothing, as we know, that the meeting of gallic acid with iron oxide, and the multitude of Ingrediens is added to these two principles are used, apparently, that 'to feed or polish hue. So looking at things in their highest state of simplicity, we see that to dye it black, it is only to produce iron gallate, and combine with organic matter that we want to take this color . Or, any combination, to be intimate, requires immediate contact; it is necessary that the surfaces that must be met are crisp, and it is indeed a principle received a dye color will be even more beautiful and pure as the fiber surface has been better cleared any foreign substance, better pickled, if we can use that expression. Another consequence of this principle is that we must avoid anything between surfaces dyeing Dyeing and molecules, and this is most likely a serious inconveniences in which constantly fall dyers in hats. They compose their bath a host of Ingrediens that contain a large amount of insoluble substances: it is in the middle of the kind of magma or mud resulting dye that must take place. Therefore it is understandable that the color will necessarily find dirty and qualified by these foreign bodies that come to interpose; and hence the need to overload in dye to mask these defects; and fiber, and wrapped loses its luster and flexibility.

Based on this theoretical background, walking would seem more rational, therefore:

1º A use only the strictly necessary for the production of black substances; Page 112 / p>

2º A act, for soluble body, as dissolutions drawn or filtered light;

Wear 3º iron its oxidating medium or calcining ordinary rosacea or its dissolution by boiling with a little nitric acid, or finally by treating the iron rust by acetic acid or another acid capable dissolve this oxide.

Tincture was generally observed, in relation to the latter, as sulfuric acid iron sulphate exerted on the fibers a detrimental influence, and many practitioners have rightly proposed to substitute acetic acid. Is obtained, in fact, by this means much more favorable results; and if success was not always complete, it is up, no doubt, that making the wrong product, engages rarely made properly. Most commonly it is used for this purpose, crude pyroligneous acid, or which has not been at most a mere rectification; in this state, it still contains a large amount of tar, which is deposited here and there on the fabric and prevents galling and therefore the dye also take. Thus the acid from decomposing the sodium acetate by sulfuric acid that must be used, and not of the crude acid which has undergone one or distillation; the use of well prepared pyrolignite offers the double advantage of not determine any alteration of the organic fiber, and further facilitate its combination with iron oxide. This volatile acid gives up so easily bases that are combined, in the sense that it deserves preference over all others.

This is the set of observations that the current state of the science used to indicate; but it may be that here, as in many other circumstances, the theory does not agree with the march practice. We blamed, for example, and everything seems to authorize the use Page 113 of these baths muddy Dyeing in which molecules are so scattered that their reconciliation can take place only with the greatest difficulty; but would it not possible that these barriers were more favorable than harmful, by allowing, as in tanning, a slow and successive combination, and it even complete? It is only with great reservation that we present the previous views, and they should be considered rather as a subject of experiences and observations as an end result and absolute.

The Incentive Company, as far as wanting to promote improvements in it she claims in the common interest, offers a prize of three thousand francs for those who show a dyeing process for black hats, as color is capable of withstanding prolonged sunlight without the luster or the flexibility of the bristles be substantially altered in action.

The basic conditions by concurrens conditions are as follows:

1º Submissions will be delivered before 1 July 1830;

2 ° The methods will be described in a clear and precise manner, and doses of each ingredient will be indicated by weight known;

3rd Every memory will come with samples dyed with the proposed methods.

The prize will be awarded, if any, in the general meeting of the second semester 1830.

Now we will know the procedures generally followed for dyeing hats; Then we'll add that have been proposed improvements. Page 114

Preparation hats for dyeing.

After the caps were thoroughly checked by the manufacturer, and marked in the shape of the interior with a hot iron to indicate quality, they are made to undergo the following four operations:

1 ° The robage . We must first comb the Flemish those hats and pens; about the hats ordinary hair, they dress , that is to say, they gently brush the surface with a piece of skin of dogfish, to produce a thick short hair, and end.

2 ° The assortment . Matching hat, this is the place, after the previous operation, in a manner similar to the one he should have, taking care to take a little higher than the dressage crowd form, that form the string does not occupy the same place than where it was in the crowd, and thus avoid the cuts felt producing species étranglemens. It is only in terms of art called down the link .

3rd The enficelage . After entering some of the hats on the proper forms and have stopped with a string, they are immersed in a bath of boiling water for pure extract disgorge and cream of tartar that can contain hair; after keeping in a few moments the boiler covered, they are removed and placed on similar to those of the host trays, and at their lower end having a flange which carries the water flowing out of the felts boiler. That's when we put the felt on form, until there is properly applied and that offers no cover. We then made ​​two rounds of string around the middle of the form using a noose that greenhouse poorly. The felt is then heated to the boiler, and the string is pressed to the bottom of the form. Hat is immersed in the Page 115 boiler, and we finished well extend the felt on the form in the billottant , that is to say, by hitting the flat shape on a block, and followed the movement in the string is stopped a little above the first link of dressage, seeing as we have already said, that the form for dyeing is stronger than that of the crowd; thereby avoids the cap from turning off this place. When this new training is complete, we plunge back hat in boiling water, the hands flat on the tray or the bench, drained with the room and removed the net to bring back the hair ; there then follows the follows the dyeing.

Dyebath.

We have already said that the composition of the dye was highly variable; it would be impossible to bring all those known. We will limit ourselves to present a more generally followed, which was described by Mr. Robiquet; here it is:

Stain three hundred hats, Mr. Robiquet.

Chopped wood Logwood.
Wales crushed nuts.
Gum country, ditto.
Ferrous Sulfate
gray-green (acetate of copper).
pure water.
100
16
6
12
7
4-1 / 2
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Boiled for about half past two, logwood, nut galls and gum in water, stirring the mixture frequently; we drop broth and green and gray-iron sulfate is added. After a few moments, it is possible to dye. Page 116 Here is how to carry it out according to Mr. Robiquet 38 . bathing caps were placed on head covers; on this first layer is in place a second form of shape; the third is available as the first, and the second as the fourth, and so on until half caps (one hundred and fifty) to be placed. We cover boards it reads, and loaded weight so that all the hats can also dive, and the bathroom has a more even heat. This would leave about an hour and a half, then falls, allowed to drain for a few moments on the banks of the boiler, and the hats are placed on shelves. After that, three or four pouring buckets of cold water into the boiler is boiled, and then was dipped hundred fifty other caps in the same manner as above. Meanwhile, the first bath hats remain exposed to air; With this exhibition, vent in times of art, black takes more intensity as the oxide gallate iron, absorbing oxygen, passes pinnacle of oxidation. It gives an alternately hot , or immersion, and vent ; but like every hot felt absorbs some of the coloring matter, it is good to add new proportions of the main materials used. So Mr. Robiquet additions required to:

Note 38: (return) Loco cit.

1 ° For the first hot the second half hats:

Gray-green powder. 3 pounds.
Iron sulphate.
4
id.

This addition is repeated until the fifth and sixth hot, and hot and Evens is repeated three or four times for each half of hats, and sometimes beyond. We recommend adding Page 117 before two pounds of nuts crushed galls. It is dyers who use larger proportions of these Ingrediens, but we believe unnecessary.

It shortens much this operation, said the chemist supra, using iron sulfate dissolved in water, which has been long exposed to the air for suroxider iron, or by boiling it with a little nitric acid. May also desiccate and even somewhat calcining iron sulfate; thereby obtained more quickly a beautiful black, and some even believe fabricans stronger. In this method we just substitute a more advantageous and expeditious; that is, instead of iron sulfate, the use of the pyro-acetate or iron acetate. The latter salt is preferable, unless the former is well stripped tar that pyro-acetic (pyroligneous acid) contains, and, making the sticky hairs, making it difficult to desiccation. The English use to great advantage ferric citrate.

The dye bath should be kept at a high temperature; because, according to an old adage dyers, which boils well complexion well . After each operation, the dyers usually plunge hats in a boiling water bath, and the drip room 39 , to drive out all the impurities, and make the felt more able to take the new dye.

Note 39: (return) The piece is a tool of copper, which is used to make the liquid and impurities that may contain the felt out.

If the caps are to be dyed the same quality, you should not overlook, every hot 40 , to place Page 118 turn at the bottom of the boiler. When on the contrary, the hats are of various qualities, we must make the finest in the bottom of the boiler, and the other above, since the finest materials are those who unite over dyestuff. The fine hats, Flemish way, pure hair back winter hare, can safely receive eight or nine hot ; it is the same knee-haired, teddy bears and golden; but it must operate at a lower temperature, and by using less of iron sulfate. In all cases, the felts must store in the boiler so that they can not undergo any alteration.

Note 40: (return) The hot is also known as diving or fire; its duration is 1:30 to 2:00.

For an intense and solid black, prepare a bath of rich color dye, and not to use the old exhausted to galling felts bath. This process, says Mr. Mackenzie 41 is very vicious, and opposes sure the new color may attach to the hair that is already steeped in the mud swimming in color and prevents water from reaching the old bath. New and clear gloss makes bath down, while the old bath is always muddy and makes it dull. Mr. Mackenzie is right. However, we believe that we ought not to let loose the old bath. Perhaps it would be better to settle the top sludge, filter and replace much of the water bath by this new dye exhausted but still quite responsible colorans principles. As the economy is the core factories, it seems to us to deserve some consideration.

Note 41: (return) Loco cit.

Page 119

Dye bath for 200 hats, Mr. Morel.

Bois d'Inde, Logwood wood, finely chopped.
nuts black Aleppo galls, crushed.
cherry gum.
gray-green Montpellier42 .
Iron sulphate.
100
6
5
4
5
 liv.

Note 42: (return) M. Mackenzie gives, with good reason, preference green verdigris Mr. Mollerat, which is much purer than that of Montpellier.

This bath is prepared as we said above. As for additions to be done before the third, seventh, ninth and twelfth hot, he advises for each, the same amount of sulphate of iron, gray-green, and nut galls, for the primitive bath; hats, according to his method, must pass all eight times in the boiler, that is to say, get eight hot and eight Evens.

Once the stain or browning is complete, there is a rush to strip the felt of all impurities and uncombined dye it. This is achieved through many washings in the boiler scouring containing pure heated to about fifty degrees water; they brush several waters, and were then immersed in boiling water for well disgorge 43 ; they are then brought to the river, and were sansouille until the water comes out clear of the felt. This has three advantages washing hairy, to disgorge felt, and set the color at the same time. The hats are well drained, they are immersed in boiling water, put them back on form, and we take care to wash by rubbing them in the brush half-luster until the hairy or clear and bright. They are then carefully drained, and allowed to dry in an oven heated to about thirty-five degrees, not the sun alters the dark, and sometimes does go to bronze.

Note 43: (return) There are fabricans which plunge them into boiling water points; they just immersion in the boiler to fifty degrees.

The same manufacturer reports the following recipe for Page 120 his father Mr. Morel-Beaujolin for 200 caps. Assuming that the amount of water we had to pay the way usitée be twenty-five tracks, and that which is lost every hot or three buckets, making twenty to three lanes lost or evaporated for all, we must make the process after its forty-eight waterways, where it is boiled for eight to nine hours, the same proportions of Ingrediens; that is to say, first:

Wood from India. 100 pounds.
Aleppo gall nuts.
24
id .
Cherry gum.
5
id .

After the boil, the amount of decoction equal to that excess water was added, about twenty-three lanes was removed and poured into four equal parts in four vats or barrels placed near the boiler at bottom of each of which was set:

Iron sulphate. 5 pounds.
Acetate of copper (verdigris).
3

It then flows into the boiler:

Iron sulphate. 5 pounds.
Green verdigris.
4

These proportions are the same as those usually takes; but their use is different. Stirring good bath, and half an hour after the last drug you put the first half of hats. The subsequent procedure as for the other methods, with the difference that the evaporation of water is replaced every hot by the liquor placed in each bucket and barrel, and stirred well before pouring into the boiler .

Whatever the merit of Mr. Morel-Beaujolin, we do not believe that this mode is ever adopted by the fabricans, since it offers only changes which seemed to us lengthen the operation, and complicate, rather simplification.

Page 121

These are the modes that were most taken for dyeing. We will now see the new processes that have been proposed; we'll start with that of Mr. Guichardière, which was copied in large part by Mr. Mackenzie, and we can be convinced by comparison.

Description of the processes to be followed for dyeing hats, and comments on perfectionnemens achieved in the art of millinery; Mr. GUICHARDIÈRE. (Ann. Of industr. Nat. Etrang and., May 1824, p.131.)

For an intense and solid black, it is necessary, according to the author, compose a rich color bath, and never use it, as do almost all dyers, exhausted old bath galling felts. New and clear gloss makes bath down, while the old bath is always muddy and makes it dull. We must use the powdered verdigris Mr. Mollerat, which is much purer than that which comes in rolls of Montpellier, and rosacea calcined (colcothar elders, tritoxide red iron modern); by this method is much faster brown, and black is much nicer, provided the temperature is set correctly, and suitable for the felt is not altered height. The author meant to say that the highest temperature is the one that best color sets. After each operation, it is essential to disgorge many hats in a bath of water to the boil, and then drain well in the room 44 , to drive out all foreign matter.

Note 44: (return) The play is a tool whose hatter copper used to make the liquid and dirt that contains the felt out.

When the bath is prepared, if the objects to be dyed Page 122 is one quality, care must be taken in the various lights or dives they suffer, make them get to the bottom of the boiler alternately; without this precaution we would miss the end proposed.

When you have several qualities of hats dyed in the same bath, one must place the finest in the bottom of the boiler, and less for above, since the atoms colorans always rush, and that the most material fine absorb a greater amount. The fine hats, Flemish way, pure hair back winter hare, can safely receive eight or nine dives 45 ; those called mid-haired, teddy bears and gold may receive as much, but at a much lower temperature, and we must use less iron sulfate (green blotches.)

Note 45: (return) is called diving or hot, in hat, what ordinary dyers call fire. The duration of each dive or fire is 1:30 to 2:00.

As soon as the bruiture is complete, remove the felt should any grime that may contain, and which is produced by the residues of the ingredients employed in the composition of the bath. For this, as soon as the felts exit from the boiler, one in the door where the river and washed twists until clear water so. This has three advantages washing hairy, to disgorge felt, and set the color at the same time. You must then dive hats in boiling water, put them back on form, and take care to wash by rubbing with a brush half-luster until the hairy is clear and bright. They are drained as far as possible, then they are dried in an oven moderately Page 123 heated by a stove to prevent the bronze produced by the oxygen which combines with the surface at a high temperature. When the caps are dry, they should be beading with the greatest care to ensure that it does more dust; then the luster with river water, they are dried and are strongly stick again.

For two or three years dyeing has made some progress, and several factories provide beautiful black enough; as their products are highly sought after, as it is true that it is the intensity of the color, rather than the goodness of felt that sells hats. It is important to note that the English would make beautiful black since they substituted citrate iron sulfate of the same metal; the author believes that tartrate, gallate and iron acetate could produce the same effects; he proposes to do a series of experiments on all these salts, and to publish the results as soon as they are completed. He then states, such that they were communicated to him, the processes employed in Naples and Trieste to dye hats. We will provide us with the name, having found described in the work of Mackenzie where we have already extracted.

A process for dyeing hats; Mr. BUFFUM.

The caps to be dyed are placed on the dowels of a wheel rotating about a vertical axis in the tank. As the wheel rotates, the cap is immersed in the dyeing and exits. We can rotate the wheel of a very slow movement, for a gear that connects its axis at any engine, or you can make it do just a half-revolution, at intervals of about ten minutes. By this method, the caps will be placed on the pegs alternately Page 124 for ten minutes immersed in the dye, and then they will be exposed for the same time in the atmospheric air. The author believes that this method of dyeing caps is very advantageous, because by successively passing the dye bath in the air, and the air in the dye bath, the atmospheric air by oxygenation fix more securely and more readily in the coloring material of the fabric hat, with prolonged for a much longer immersion time. (Lond. Journ. Of Arts, September 1828)

Improvement in the dyeing of hats; Mr. PICHARD.

The author identifies various perfectionnemens including dyeing hats is likely. It offers: 1st set of dyeing with wicker forms in order to avoid breaking bones and tearing the edges; 2º to substitute round boilers boilers long; 3rd set of caps in an openwork wheel, half bathe in the tank, while the other half is exposed to an air stream, so that half of the caps could become stale during a time given, while the other half teindrait, and vice versa. By this method, would no longer caps in contact with the bottom of the tank, they could be agitated in the bath and air at the same time, by imparting a movement to the wheel; there would be a great saving of time, and we will get a more beautiful black as hats, suspended and stirred in the air, take a lot more oxygen than on the streets, where they are usually throws.

To dye hundred hats purposes, the author employs the following preparation: boiled, for two hours in a copper boiler filled with a sufficient amount of water, six pounds of crushed nuts Wales Page 125 and fifty pounds of logwood. When this bath, which will be designated by the No. 1 will be prepared, we put half in a boiler; after adding twenty pounds of copper sulphate, we will spend the hats for a quarter of an hour, it will be noted for half an hour.

Poured into the boiler third of what remains of No. 1, thirty pounds of iron pyrolignite; we keep the fire is being called into boiler, we go for a quarter of an hour are slaughtered for half past one, there are a half-hour on fans.

We cool again with the rest of the bath No. 1 second third; was heated at 75 ° was added fifteen liters pyrolignite iron caps is brought for one-half hour, half an hour is fanned.

Was re-boiler for an hour, half an hour on fans; cooled again with the remaining bath No. 1; are heated to 75 °, fifteen liters pyrolignite iron is added; hats are put for one hour, fans.

Was re-boiler for an hour and a half, it falls to wash under running water; dried in an oven, is put on the form and luster. (Industrial, December 1828)

Processes that employ Triestains to dye hats five or six dives, each lasting two hours and as a vent.

To dye twenty hats bell with formillons the Triestains use:

Page 126

8 pounds of good wood from India,
seven ounces of nuts black gall,
eight ounces of yellow wood,
2 pounds of green blotches,
7 ounces of green verdigris;
8 ounces of calcined vitriol of Cyprus,
20 small stones sunflower
2 ounces of fine powdered gum arabic,
16 oz 3/4 flaxseed.

Note . I give here the old name, to be better understood workers.

To prepare the bath, it takes 1 ° soak the wood from India within four days, and then prepared for six hours;

2 Soak separately rosacea, the verdigris and sunflowers in human urine for four days and then boil them for a few minutes;

3 Bath composition. It puts into the decoction of wood from India half of verdigris, gum arabic, three quarters of an ounce of flax seed and eighteen ounces of rosacea. It leaves dissolve these substances.

First dive. It immerses twenty hats; the temperature is raised to 75 °; they are left for two hours; they are lifted and you give two hours of vent.

Second dive. Bath half of verdigris non employee and two ounces of rosacea is added; two hours bathing and as a vent.

Third dive. Bath half of verdigris non employee and two ounces of rosacea is added; two hours bathing and as a vent.

Fourth dive. Half bath decoction of galls half sunflower whole concoction of yellow woods and two ounces of rosacea are added,.

Fifth dive. Six ounces of ash gravel is added; this alkali is, in terms of the art, to wash the copper, that is to say to prevent the effect of bronze which is formed usually on the surface; eight ounces of rosacea and remaining of the remaining nuts decoction Page 127 gall. Care must be taken to prevent the bronze, well run with a stick hats in the bath.

Sixth operation. So that the black hats or shiny, they are immersed in a boiling water bath in which we threw a pound of flour flax seed sieved, taking care to drain the caps in order to purge the principle oilseeds.

Observation. The effects of high temperature ovens produced on color hats deserve to be studied carefully. I think it would be extremely important for the progress of our industry to determine as far as possible the action exerted by the heat of the ovens on the black hats; for it is certain that we felt it dried are a deeper black and brighter than those left to dry in open air. The oxygen does not he play the main role here, and the temperature of the oven does it not promote its combination with substances that form the dye? I leave to others more learned than me, care to address this important issue and to find the cause of the fact that I point out.

Neapolitans process to dye hats in two dives.

Neapolitans dye in just two dives each three hours and a half hour vent 46 . This Page 128 which greatly facilitates this process and makes it shorter, is that they never dye their hats in shapes; they do not use that formillons 47 . Indeed, the form of which we fill our hats prevented from entering the bath with ease from outside to inside; color can not be communicated by the outside, it must therefore much more time and a larger number of dives that communicates bath from outside to inside across the entire thickness of the felt. Using the formillon while the cap is inside the vacuum bath and freely between the two surfaces, and more easily penetrates the felt. I look at this idea as extremely happy.

Note 46: (return) Previously it was thought that it was possible to get a nice coloring by the assistance of the air. For this reason they gave vent to a long duration diving. The Neapolitans, between the two fires, give a half-hour vent, time to prepare for the second dive or hot. This practice would seem to prove that the vent is useless: I'll make sure by experience.
Note 47: (return) is called formillon a slice of wood an inch thick that engages in the bottom of the head of the hat to keep it extended and prevent resume conical shape.

The first bath consists of a strong decoction of wood from India, in which we add a suitable dose of verdigris to do turn black, and a certain amount of indigo liquor (I think that's the indigo dissolved in sulfuric acid, or indigo sulfate, this known composition). As soon as the bath is prepared, it plunges hats, left there a quarter past three in the boiling heat. Meanwhile, hats are imbued with a beautiful black, but that has no strength. They leave fan for half an hour, enough time to prepare the second bath.

The second bath is prepared as the first; but include calcined rosacea, that is to say, the iron oxidized at maximum, colcothar I mentioned (as far we have not found a way to produce black without iron oxide) ; was dipped in a row for the hats Page 129 like period that the first hot, but at a lower temperature, 75-78 ° Réaumur. The second fire is intended only to provide color.

Three hours after that quarter plunged hats for the second time, removed, washed carefully in cold water wells, the hairy one brush, it twists them until the pores felt to be fully cleared of dirty parts. They were then immersed in a full cauldron of boiling water to complete their disgorge dirty parts they may still contain, and put them on the form. They dried their hats in an oven whose temperature is very sweet: after drying, they baguettent and shined like us.

Neapolitans know their dye is good, when they realize that their bathroom is to actually exhausted.

I think this way of dying is better than ours, since our hats are at the temperature of 72 degrees, under the influence of oxide of iron, for sixteen, eighteen and twenty hours often, which affects and corrodes felts; while their stay there only for three hours and a quarter; so that there remain ours at least six times as long. That's why their hats are softer and more intense than ours black.

Primer hats.

Give the name of primer caps to the introduction of a glue, leaving the fabric flexibility in matted clumps parts, making it more consistent, firmer, and more likely to retain the shape it is given; finally makes them impervious to water. The liquor for the primer is usually a solution of gum and strong adhesive. Some fabricans use the ox gall, vinegar and a few others Page 130 substances; gum and glue are preferable. Among the large number of known recipes, we will only mention that Mr. Morel published; here it is:

Bain primer.

Gum country, depending on its purity
Colle-strong sq
Water.
12 to 30 pounds. routes from May to June.




Without follow step Morel, we will say that we must clean the gum as much as possible, reduce to a coarse powder, then the project slowly in boiling water, stirring with a large wooden spoon; when the gum is dissolved, it must pass the liquor through a cloth to remove impurities. This prevents boil for twelve or fifteen hours, as recommended by Mr. Morel; this boiling is unnecessary; it is only long, expensive and without any results. Just boil a quarter of an hour and skim; This solution is then poured into a barrel of gum.

The worker then takes the necessary glue, and put half soaked in water for twenty-four hours, and the other half in the gum solution. Was dissolved separately in each of these adhesives such liquids; glue solution in water gum takes the name of primer head . One that has been melted in water is usually united with water in equal parts of gum, and sometimes in different proportions, depending on the felt should be more or less firm and consistent. It is this liquor called, in terms of art, finishing the edge . Here is how to give the primer cap:

Priming.

It begins with heat and maintain approximately Page 131 50 or 60 ° C, the primer head ; Then, using a large brush, is thoroughly coated inside and knit hats having previously arranged on a large table, called block, in which are formed holes for receiving large hat shape. The hats in this state are named dressed head ; they are dried in an oven, and places them in the same way on the block. Then we heated the finishing edge 65 and up to 60 ° C. and the dresser coated bottom edge of the cap, which then has the upper surface, using a large brush, a layer finishing the edge, and gently striking the flat of the hand on the parts of the cap and coated, rotating slowly hat in the block. After that, it gives a second coat of primer, it does go with the hand, as we have to make it known, and has been dropped a little primer on the inside of the head, there pass the brush lightly to make it smooth.

Mr. Robiquet described the operation in a way that seemed more rational; we will let him speak. Is placed next to a pool bath primer polished iron, fitted with its furnace, and covered on the bottom with a wet cloth; the dresser backwards hat on the block, dip the brush into the primer, and marks the inner edge of the cap, taking care not to reach to turn; he strongly asparagus canvas basin to develop a lot of steam; there applies the cap side of the primer, which is introduced as steam enters. Is removed after two or three minutes, then replace the cap in the block, and it is recognized, to the flat of the hand, if the surface is no longer sticky; which would imply that the primer did not penetrate enough before; then it should expose it to steam. The opposite extreme is to be carefully avoided; for if the primer reaches the other surface, the cap becomes scabby and Page 132 they are obliged to disgorge warm soap and start again. When the primer is over the edge, it prepares the cap at the top, using a brush, around the middle of the back, a rosette glue strong, which covers on-the-field with two coats of primer, thicker and cooler than the one used for the edge, and that extends throughout the inside of the hat to make it fit without waited inside the head is covered by the cap. This process is more expeditious than the previous one, which also requires the following to its complement.

Basin primer and rewash.

This method involves placing a circular, convex plate on melting furnace, which it covers exactly the hearth. When the plate is hot, we place a layer of wet straw and well wrinkled, they are secured with a triple burlap too clear; is then sprayed the canvas with a very fine brush or watering can, hat is placed on the canvas, and it is covered with a kind of brass bell, which is removed and lowered by a pulley. During this operation, the heat of the furnace to heat the sheet continues, and transmits it to its caloric water vapors in the reduced fill the bell and the primer are returned; one passes successively all caps to finish by sprinkling the canvas every time we are introducing a new hat. As and when the hats come out of the basin, it is quick to gently wipe it with a piece of cloth rough dry well; it then releases the hair through the dip; they were then in the oven door for submission to the operation of rewash. This operation aims to rid the surface markers of the excess primer for therein and keeps hair glued together, this Page 133 notes that those who have not been subjected to the pelvis. For this, the edges of these hats are dipped in a weak solution of soap in boiling water; it is dripping then it is wiped, there emerges the hair, and it is dried in an oven for submission to the appropriage.

The operation of the primer requires great care; because a poorly dressed hat not only loses its value, but it is still discarded. Glue called gelatin deserves preference over ordinary glue, because it was recognized that it is more resilient, stronger, less soluble and less humidity. Today, the basin rewash is almost entirely unusual; However, it is not no use to the broad-brimmed hats, called cocked hats : this operation rewash dates only from the removal of hats including ras primer merely the gummed water. But for how Flemish hats, such as felt less tight, it was essential to have a primer bodied ; was therefore combined with the gummed the gelatin water solution. In England, when the cap is primed to remove excess primer remaining on its surface, boiled water containing a solution of soap, and is plunged into the middle of the hats head, until the excess primer is dissolved. The subsequent procedure as we have already announced.

Appropriage hats.

hats arrived at the point of manufacture we did know, have neither the bright nor the sweetness that is the beauty. It is these qualities that give them by appropriage . As for the felts for the salon, we merely pass to iron or put them in the press to catir as wool fabrics.

Page 134

We will transcribe various times this:

This training is a painful and difficult at the same time operation, since the forms are broken into six or seven pieces, and should be introduced piecemeal in the head. Before that we put the hats in the cellar for a day or two to fully soften the felt; this softening is completed by smoking , as they say, the shoe . This is done by placing the hot iron on the approprieur, a wet cloth, called fumerette and covering everything with the hat that does the work of a bell. The water vapor given off makes the elastic felt. In this state it is placed immediately in shape, and is doing well and thoroughly on all sides, so that it fits well on any form, and retains all the contours; it is good to note that we must secure the hat on his form, with a string placed at its base, as in the crushing. When this work is completed, and that the edges are well laid out, the cap is tightened, that is to say, the dry approprieur hat with a hot iron. Usually, it uses two hot iron to the head, and at least to the edge, taking care to wet occasionally the hat with the chandelier brush ; because without it felt hollow and would be dull, and uneven finish, while it should be tight, with a finish equal and shiny. One acknowledges it reappears again a few jars, they are torn off. When the hat is so dry outside, you take it out of shape, and heated in a dry place so that the inside is also dry. In this state, is subjected to a new hat or second clamping , called second pass . This tends to give the hair all gloss, sheen and velvety as possible. Thus passes alternately iron chandelier and brush, and on the end, to give more brilliant Page 135 -haired, one walks over a piece of padded down, which is called ball . There are fabricans which, for a more beautiful luster, luster dip their brush in a suitable liquid instead of water. I analyzed some similar compositions, and many I found the indigo solution, and a bit of gum arabic in indeterminate proportions, but we believe we can establish in the following proportions:

Water polishing.

Pure water. 25 kilos.
Acacia dissolved in water.
4 oz.

Neutral solution of indigo in acid

sulfuric.
1 oz.

Hats who have undergone this second clamping are carried in stores; but if they stay long unsold, to restore their luster, they clamp a third time. In these various operations, the worker must be careful that the iron is not too hot, not to burn the hair felt, or, as they say, shave the felt ; they must also avoid making gutters , which occurs when the felt was too wet, and it was then passed to the stuffy and slowly iron with a hot iron or too fast. In this case, all the water is not sprayed, the remaining primer and tempera fact gutters . To remove them, you must completely remove the primer which forms the gutters, through boiling soapy water, and then apply a new finish. It could also impose parties to water vapor, which would go this primer.

The cardboard hats.

This operation consists of sticking to the bottom of the hat bond paper, and another lighter around the shape. Page 136 It is necessary, especially when the shapes are a large diameter; the carton is used to keep the hat shape, and make it stronger; we usually practice before straightening. We have to note that it is also a lot of these hats that are not cardboard. Merchants merely put a bottom and a round end paper.

Trimming hats.

This work is in no way the responsibility of the manufacturer of hats, it is the sharing of merchant hatter , which gives them the appearance, and the proper cut, the borders and applies the cap, turn, etc. We will limit ourselves to say about it, formerly felt they crossed the needle to sew it around in leather. It followed that if the cap was reached in dyeing the hair was thickly or not, there perished in this fashion, since the felt point cut by two-thirds of its circumference. Now, we made ​​a small frame on which the leather is sewn. In England, they invented a kind of knife, which not only cuts the leather, but still track all points of the needle, making it shorter and less painful labor. Some hatters, in France, have already adopted.

These are the various operations that practice for confections felt hats. Now we will know most of the improvements that have been proposed. We begin by giving an extract from the memory of Mr. Guichardière, which is recorded in the Annals of the domestic industry and foreign, 1824. Page 137

Memory on new methods for making felt hats ; Mr. GUICHARDIÈRE, hat manufacturer in Paris .

In this brief, Mr. Guichardière establishes that to make hats like the Italians, one can use the hair hare in every country, but that of France's best and those of Savoy, the Switzerland, Tyrol, Carinthia, Carniola, Styria, etc., since the down of these skins felt more strongly than those in the north. This work is divided into paragraphs, and we find the method followed in this new kind of manufacturing.

The first paragraph contains the preparation and cleaning it did to the skin before trimming. This preparation involves scraping the hair several times and the beading alternately until the jar down and be free, and that so much dust. This operation is used to rid hair of blood soiled skin.

Deburring .-- This is the operation by which we cut with scissors jar height down. This precaution requires a light hand to cut only the jar without reaching down. Without this preparation it would be difficult to have a smooth or plain felt.

Sécrétage .-- The sécrétage is touching the hair with a solution of six ounces of pure mercury in a book of nitric acid, extended sixteen parts of decoction of marshmallow and comfrey decoction of plants giving the felt softness and helping felting. Dissolution prepared, we must immerse the brush into the liquid, and rub the hair with light pressure until they have fallen by two-thirds of their length, and more if possible. They must then make Page 138 dry in an oven at a very high temperature; being weak acid, the hair can not be burned.

How to moisten the skin to arrange to drop them down .-- This is done by means of an alkaline water preparation, containing one-twentieth of lime water, with which the leather is soaked. One must have the care to join in pairs to prevent the hair does get wet; we put them in a pile of fifty, they are then covered with a board on which is placed a heavy burden for the move and soften the leather, which can be done in twenty-four hours.

Uprooting .-- For the new manufacturing system, we must pluck hairs, what we do by pinching between the blade of a knife and thumb, and a high pressure is in fact extraction. The hair is pulled until it is none left on the leather, taking care to separate the various qualities, hair back, sides, throat and stomach.

Comment on the difference between the hairs plucked and cut pile .-- hairs plucked, being obtuse side of the root, and deprived of their jars, more difficult to produce the felt; their action must be slower than that of the cut pile, but they produce brilliant solid and hats. Many primitive operations for the system preparation hats by this new method are more difficult, but we have the advantage of using the common belly hair hare, which is very little value. Moreover, by this method, never a hat withers under the hand of the worker; the more he works, the more he brilliant, and it is similar in all its parts.

Arçonnage and basting the quality .-- Under this name we understand the operations necessary to weigh the hair according to the force that we want to give it, then mix it with a big pile of beautiful red vicuna. It puts the Page 139 all over the hurdle, and is mixed with the tree until the mixture is of the same hue, and all foreign bodies and garbage are separated.

Arranged that way, we remove the hurdle, we clean the table, and the juices to help grip hair. We divide the material into two equal parts to form two parts; they arçonne, and we care to extend as much as possible, and to be very high. Before the start you have to open the stuff, well split hairs, extract all the little trash that might have escaped the initial operations, make them more manageable, to be better able to expand in the feutrière canvas; and when those parts are branded by high pressure tank, you have to close very large hat, and high at the same time; the base and side of a thin, the fairly strong edge, as well as the link and edge untied. When the hat is also packing, care must be taken to make the hairs well adherents, that is to say the need for the basting is hushed enough to brush as soon as possible to the crowd.

Fulling Fulling .-- hat is done in a very acidulated with cream of tartar bath, and a decoction of oak bark. It tempering cap, when the boiling; care is taken that it is well soaked everywhere; if any part was not, there would supply the brush; To crush two or three windows without canned in camera rolling without soaking much, and when the felt is formed, the pressure of the brush is used; but first we must clean his hat by rubbing with bare hands; the felt is still tender, jars escape more easily than when it is more formed. Fulling so we continue to make small enough to be able to cap it on the form.

The second quality is manufactured with more pain than Page 140 the first; it is with the hair side, and the most beautiful of those grooves, with less than felting hair back action. It adds a big beautiful vicuna, and golden hat pelvis, an ounce and a quarter of hair on the back secreted. This addition gives solidity and beauty at the same time. The crowd is painful, since the gilding of secreted hair and ripped, ride very long.

The third quality, similar to the previous one, is with the common belly hair and two large vicuna, and gold with an ounce and a quarter of hair on the back secreted. These caps need to be vigorously crushed because it is difficult to get the ride.

Dressage .-- For this operation, the work is the same as that of other hats. One must always form the hat with warm, clear water. This precaution strength to pull the hat color, and facilitates its brilliance.

The draw must be done carefully. One has to use a very soft net, and use a light touch, not to break down the felt and make a scrap.

Stain .-- hats so prepared are easier to dye than those made ​​in the usual way, since the dregs of pressed wine contains two principles, one acid and one alkaline. The first is used to felting, and the second makes the hairs to give it shine; so that the hat has more ability to take its color. The finer is always the darkest and most rude is not. It should, according to Guichardière, take care that the salts used for dyeing are not with iron overload, excess iron damaging the beauty of the color, which does not occur by an excess of acid. It is necessary to turn the bath, mild temperatures, and give eight to ten fires. Without this precaution it would alter the second grade, and it would burn the third. We must have Page 141 of boiling water to disgorge hats; without this precaution hats are dull and full of dust. It should be dried by a gentle heat, in an oven, where it does not place caps after combustion.

The appropriage hat is less easy to train, since the felt is more nervous; but in recompense there was less difficulty in plucking, since there are far fewer jar to extract than in hats made ​​by the ordinary method. Mr. Guichardière also made ​​known in the same journal (1825), the approach taken by the English in France, here it is:

Eleventh note on a new kind of felt hats made ​​in France by English fabricans ; Mr. GUICHARDIÈRE. (Indust Annal. Of. Nation and Etrang., August 1825, page 207)

Since about three or four years, the British established in Caen (Calvados) factory Economic hats, such as are manufactured in England and the United States. All workers employed in this factory are English, no French there is allowed. Here is what's about the way they operate.

First operation .-- They use the wool of lambs from all countries, but preferably those of Sologne. They give the wool a preliminary preparation by macerating is rotten in the urine or in a tannin-rich decoction; that is to say, in all the concoctions that have the ability to give a wool felting and tuck action. The background, which is to form the base of the hat, wool is very coarse material to the truth, but has the advantage of producing a solid hat because of its strength. When the background is Page 142 frame, they trample in a solution of gravel (or crude tartar), which has the double advantage of back and felt at the same time because of its astringent principle. Before wearing the hats to the crowd, they are careful to boil in decoctions or dissolutions mentioned above, and after having trodden they boil back into astringens bathrooms, for that pores are also felt tight as possible. After this operation they blaze and cleaned with a brush, so that it remains at the bottom or garbage or burning hair.

Second operation .-- To produce furry suits the size of the funds, they use the hair of rabbit, preferably that of Britain. Before using it, they do trim and cut as hare, and they make it stick in the same way that we use for the hare and beaver, with funds made ​​with the finest materials, with this difference, however, that when the foil is a member, they are careful to cover it with a layer or foil cotton forcing the first foil adhere to the bottom, but that does not adhere to itself, since it is true that the milling operation, it is partly detached, and that of sansouillage it separates all-of-fact as true gilding develops. After this operation, which opens the pores of the felt, and gives ease to put the hat on the form, the biggest challenge in this new kind of production, is to find a way to properly tighten the cap. The bottom may, indeed, withstand the high temperature of the bath, but can not resist gilding. There is a total difference between these hats and caps mid-hairs whose bottom is made ​​with common materials in hares and rabbits. The bottom of these is guaranteed by the gilding, while in others, the gilding is guaranteed by the bottom. Page 143 To overcome the disadvantage of the dye, the author believes that it would be more appropriate to use the iron dissolved in vinegar (or iron acetate), less corrosive than the same metal, dissolved oil of vitriol (iron sulfate); should be used preferably copper to iron, that is to say, to avoid, or use sparingly, anything that can harm the material. The author points out that this kind of production is perfect for the junk, and it would also be very useful for the consumption of our rabbit hair.

New ways to make the round hats ; by PERRIN. (Invention Patent of five years.)

So far hatters were in the habit of making hats on round shapes, though the head has a more or less regular oval. This figure has the inconvenience of injury, as the head did not form at the entrance of the hat.

The edges of the ordinary hats still have the disadvantage of being on the same plane, which hampers their wearers; we are only happy to bend them a little by a stroke of iron; but soon after they take their flat shape.

To overcome these disadvantages, I draw the hats on an oval, and I give a curved shape to the party making the edge. By this means the head is not affected in the hat, and the ears are free and clear.

Explanation of figures .

Fig. 14 . Hat dyed Primed and softened by the hot water vapor, which must be manufactured with Page 144 A thick lips two, opposed, intended to form a continuation of the front and back shape. Fig. 15 Shape Balloon broken front view.; it is from the top round, oval, and ends by its base. It is on this form that primed hat is placed fig. 14 . Fig. 16 . Same shape in profile. Fig. 17 Saddle profile view.; it is disposed to receive the form Fig. 15 .



Fig. 18 . Shape balloon mounted on his saddle and profile view.

Fig. 19 . Same as front view. Fig. 20 . hat shape mounted on the balloon after it is shocked, the bumps are formed, and the link destroyed; it is added to a second saddle curve B, front view, on which shade and lays flat the brim. The form is fixed to the saddle by means of two pins. Fig. 21 . The previous figure front view. Fig. 22 and 23 . Elevation and horizontal section of the press. C. Piece of wood that forms the press, and lobbied by the screw D, E on the cap placed in the frame. F. open to introduce the hat. chassis Fig. 24 . Iron the brim on the frame of the press. Fig. 25 copper mold in profile.; it serves to raise the brim. Fig. 26 . The previous figure front view.







Page 145

Manufacturing hats, perfected by BORRADAILLE. ( London journal of arts, July 1826, page 353 .)

The body of men's hats whose outside is covered with hair beaver or other, is usually made of carded wool, and embraced by hand in the form of a conical cap, may take various other forms in the fashion and using molds prepared therefor.

The author has aimed to prepare the body mechanics hats: for this he has devised two truncated cones, applied base to base and rotating assembly. Two more truncated cones of the same height, but the base is smaller, each rotated about its axis and cause their movement, the double cone on which they support slightly. A lock of wool out of a carding machine is spread, and passes between the double cone and small; it is wound around the first, and a small reciprocating back and forth to print one crossed filaments and is a kind of felting. When the thickness is sufficient, a sharp instrument cut the fabric at the junction of the bases of the double cone, thus obtaining two conical hats ready to form hats.

Development in the manufacture of hats . Patent to Th. Chaming Moore. ( London Journ. of Arts, April 1829, p. 26 .)

This improvement consists in the construction and the use of machines with which a series of filaments of wool or other suitable material is taken from a card and wrapped in a round mold to make the hull or as two or hats Page 146 caps in a single operation. The shape of the mold is cylindrical, approximately fifteen inches long, and twelve inches in diameter; its conical ends are rounded at the top, and a projection are about ten inches at each end of the cylinder. This mold, disposed to rotate on its axis, is carried on a carriage which moves back and forth at the top of the drawing roller carding machine. When it was covered with a sufficient amount of filaments of wool or other material, this fabric is cut circularly to the center of the roll, and it is slid towards each of its ends; is obtained by this means two hats or caps, which worked according to known methods is likely to take the form that it gives ordinary hats. The mold should be as light as possible so that it can rotate easily; the author advises, for this purpose, to make hollow and light wood.

Method to varnish hats to make them waterproof.

MM. Ritchard and Franks have recently taken a license for the following method to make waterproof hats. Ingrediens the employees are so numerous that they have no savings. We denote by italics those that composition contains useful, noting that the amount of alcohol should be in proportion.

Outside the cap is prepared with ordinary materials, it is dyed, and the shape. When completely dry, treated to the inner surface with the following composition:

A pound of gum kino , eight ounces of gum elemi, three pounds of frankincense gum , gum copal three pounds, two pounds of gum juniper , a pound of Page 147 ladanum gum , a pound of gum mastic, ten pounds and eight ounces of lacquer incense. All these materials are ground, and they are mixed together; then they were stirred into an earthen vessel where it took about four liters of alcohol, and stirred frequently.

When all these Ingrediens have dissolved, the mixture was added a pint of liquid ammonia and an ounce of lavender oil with a pound of myrrh gum , and gum opopanax, which was dissolved in three quarts spirit of wine . '

All these materials and incorporated perfectly well dissolved, form the mixture to test , with which it treats the inside of the hat.

Where the outer skin is formed and completely dry, the varnishing by means of a brush the inner surface thereof, and the underside of the board, with this composition. The cap is then placed in a dryer, is repeated several times this operation, taking care that the varnish does not penetrate the workpiece, so as to appear on the other side. We give solution to sweating of the head through small holes in the crown of the hat hair beaver, etc., is arranged in the usual way, and copal varnish is applied on the opposite side.



HATS MADE WITH DOWN THE GOATS IN KASHMIR.

Report by M. LASTEYRIE, on behalf of the Committee on Economic arts, the goats down the Hautes-Alpes.

Mr. Serres, sub-prefect in Embrun, Hautes-Alpes, sent the company an incentive hat, two samples of felt, and a small sample Page 148 knitting, all manufactured with the down of indigenous goats.

The hat is perfectly crafted, felting is equal, solid, firm and elastic: the dye is a beautiful black and appears to be solid, but it does not gloss found in hair hats rabbit. Hatter Lyon who made it believed that the dye destroys the soft and shiny hair. We see, in fact, for both samples felt caught in the same song, as one who spent dyeing is hard and stiff, while the one who has not undergone this operation is much smoother and softer. This kind of hat is also a lack of beautiful shiny hair that gives the beaver or the rabbit, but it would be easy to get this quality by mixing one of these hairs with the goat down. It is even noted that with equal dimensions, the weight of a hat down goats is less than an eighth, compared with a hat made with hare. Moreover, it seems that the use of goat down in the hat has been known for long as the Chevron Abyssinia; it was recognized that strengthens many felt.

It follows from these facts that can be made of excellent hats with the down of our native goats, and all indications are that they will have as much strength and durability than ordinary hats. The manufacturing cost is roughly the same.

The material used in the one that was sent to you
is estimated by the Hatter Lyon 6 fr.
90 c.

The felting March 30

Dyeing, finishing and trim, 5 "


Total 15 fr.
20 c.

In assessing the benefits of making about a quarter, we will return to hats that 20 or 21 fr. Page 149

Serres also sent a small sample of knitting, the finesse, the silky softness and especially, are very commendable. It's still a kind of industry that deserves attention fabricans and can be applied to other parts of hosiery; Finally, experience has taught that one can, by advising indigenous breeds with goats Asia, get thin, and as abundant as those which removes the last products.

We believe the company incentive must thank the sub-prefect of Embrun, for both the zeal he has shown in seeking to give new impetus to our industry, and beg to inform you, as well as it suggests, the method he uses to extract the down goats.

Signed DE LASTEYRIE rapporteur.
Adopted in session, May 9, 1822.

How to make hats hair otter, by Mr. TROUSIER.

To prepare the skin, it begins by tearing the jar above the skin; this is a common hair that is no good, then the skin is rubbed with etching primed with mercury; it is prepared by mixing, for a dozen skins, three ounces of mercury by etching book: it is digested in a water bath for six hours. Then we put three pounds of river water by each etching book primed and rubbed said skin.

It is left for forty-eight hours before putting it to dry ovens, care is taken to cover it with a canvas on which you put something heavy, for it is thoroughly wet, and that secrecy evaporates item.

We put the skin in a basement so she softens and we can cut off the hair. Page 150

The hair is cut, we put three ounces of this hair otter secreted, and two ounces of natural hair flabby, half an ounce of castor secreted, and half an ounce of fine red vicuna; one card all together, which is six ounces of fabric to make a hat.

The six oz fabric is partitioned into four equal parts which can arçonne one after another; four capades being made, it's about a half ounce of cloth used to what we call through, which starts in two parts to form the link of the hat; requires that the arçonnage gives a close-knit fabric to form the four capades, and there are no four hairs together, since it would make a default in the hat.

You start with two capades, between which puts the paper that there is the head and sides that hold together.

This assembly is called a canvas feutrière wherein one starts to felting; feutrière then develops, which is the beginning of the hat.

It adds around to give strength; after it is sprayed with a brush on the cross; we put the last two capades, and everything is wrapped in feutrière so that everything is felted together.

Taking hat said, it is dipped in a bucket of cold water, since hot water would felt too strongly, and we put it to the crowd, poured into a boiler three buckets of water into which we put half a bucket of wine dregs of pressed; boiled the water, in which the cap is crowd about four hours.

Intervals must be the task of returning the hat for épuiseter and scrub with a brush, and when the hat was enough work, it is built on a usual form, on which it is dried. Page 151

Composition of a second quality hats.

Two and a half ounces of castor secreted, half an ounce of otter secreted two and a half ounces of spineless otter, half an ounce of fine vicuna.

Beaver hats three quarters consist of three ounces of secreted hare, half an ounce beaver secreted, half an ounce of fine vicuna.

For gilding, one shot beaver spineless.

Mix half beavers.

Two and a half ounces of hare secreted, one shot rabbit spineless, an ounce rabbit secreted, two large fine vicuna.

For gilding, one ounce of castor spineless.

To secrete beaver, hare and rabbit, I put two pounds of water of river water and a strong book primed with the same amount of mercury as I marked above.

My new way of making my hats beaver, beaver three quarters, half beaver and others, gives much more strength and finesse to hats, because I put my foil between my capades lowering my hat, and thereby beaver is well built and well penetrated, and pumice or clothing can not be damaged; it appears that the beaver also above and below; The caps are also fine after having ironed and returned, being new, and are not prone to taking on water, which is an essential thing for the public. The difference is that all fabricans hats inserting their gilding that when the cap is advanced work the crowd; thereby gilding are only on one side, and can not penetrate into the hat, so that the gilding Page 152 is cut by half pumice and carried away by the dress, and when the cap is turned, it is much more common and much less use.

Method to manufacture silk hats mingled ; Mr. Miraglio of Paris.

Manipulation.

We take the cocoon seed which has not been suppressed in the furnace, and the card, which produces a hair which is cut out of the card without any other primer, the length of eighteen lines ; two ounces of mixed four big hair and cut it with one ounce six large rabbit secreted six big feather hare no secret, and six large brown hare; one card all together; we arçonne; it meets the hair in the shape of the hat size that is desired; is tightened hat in the tree, and the crowd in the usual way.

The hat made changes to the dye, it takes a nice black; Finally, it undergoes regular primer, which is done with much success.

By this method, a much lighter hat, more beautiful, very soft, more durable and less prone we get to take on water. In truth, it is necessary to mix either with hair beaver, rabbit or any other animal, but only half.

The hair cocoon is handled very well with pet hair, it even has the advantage of giving more strength and more luster. Since it is much longer, they are exempt from the pass sécrétage mercury and etching; pernicious operation for the workers.

Mr. Robiquet in his excellent article Technological dictionary on the art of hat, announced that Mr. Guichardière had succeeded in making a felt unusually light and thin, with the hair of the sea otter. This Page 153 manufacturer wrote him for saying that he had made ​​a mistake and had only covered hats with this hair, which is different. Mr. Robiquet believes to be sure he was not mistaken. As evidence, he cites the passage of the Memory of Mr. Guichardière inserted in the Annals of the industry for 1824 in which he announced this fact as follows: That he was able to felting bear hair sailor , etc. If he wanted to divorce his discovery, Mr. Trousier did well to seize and carry it away.

Finally, Mr. Lousteau received a patent for an improvement of five years, for hats made of any filamentous material coated with a primer and adhesive gum-high, and covered with a tissue mimicking beaver on wherein a coating is applied consisting of linseed oil, white lead and litharge.



MAKING OF MEN AND WOMEN HATS IN
POULTRY FEATHERS; BY M. ​​MASNIAC.
(By patent of 14 August 1824)

Description of the method.

It takes a small ring, wherein feathers, is clamped between the two in one pass son with a node that can not loosen. It starts with eight or ten son attached to a small round piece of leather; we double the proportion that the work grows: the leather runs vertically to the worker and to the bottom edge, and moves horizontally to form the body of the hat; feathers are placed at each node, to clamp the pipes.

Are obtained in this manner, warmer than those which are used usually, which weigh only four ounces and which, besides the advantage of being impermeable, yet it has not deform, do hats Page 154 to lose their luster, and last far longer time than others.

First patent for an improvement and addition to the following mechanism specific to making hats in poultry feathers.

This mechanism is formed of an iron frame, representing the shape of the cap, and which can make more smaller, depending on the size of the caps. The side on which the work is done, the two cylinders are used and amount of which are brought together so that there can pass between them only one pen. The worker sets the pen in one hand and with the other he sews with a needle and thread, feathers against each other, taking care with the tip of the needle to move down in the outside. The book turns to the worker between the two cylinders, giving the united and form requested. One can make use of all the items requested in the seam for making a hat with feathers; are also used brass wire, but it has the disadvantage of making the heavier work.

Caps poultry feathers may be suitable in the same way as those of felt with water and gummed, which is applied to bond the top down, which then passes the iron; they are given the smooth and glistening glass.

Second patent development and addition of 7 April 1826.

Pen for making hats must be dyed, unless one uses it in its natural color. Feathers are taken one after the other, is bonded to the tip down; this peak is placed on another edge glued, which are inserted in a small groove in the inside of a circle, either Page 155 wood, tin or lead, etc. Thus, the preparation of the pen contains the primer in the body of the structure, and turns down the same side. For making the brim, the feathers are glued upon each other, without grooves, and the rest down on both sides, which hair is above and below the edge. The pen thus prepared and bonded, form ribbons of the desired length, which can also be obtained with the wire end. The worker sews these ribbons in braids on top of each other, putting down the outside body of the hat, and he leaves the edge on both sides. We can still prepare the feathers in many ways, sticking on straw we wrapped down or on the wicker, whale, drawstring; or any other kind of strong and lightweight body. It can even, with the strips of feathers, made ​​with glue or the wire, to obtain fabrics with a frame of any filamentary material; the stuff that we will obtain in this way can be used advantageously for salon or any other objects, according to the tastes and fashions. We can also build the pen which tore down which takes a pluïole, and, carefully put in a frame, still produces a beautiful fabric. The author adds that the mechanism he described in his first patent for an improvement has not given any results he expected.

Third improvement patent, etc., of October 27, 1826.

The great strength that have hats poultry feathers, that the processes by which they are obtained can be applied with advantage to the shoe and other useful objects. The pen down and can be torn with a woven weft to obtain a fabric which, when applied on waterproof paper, cardboard or braids, product Page 156 lightweight hats, raincoats, hoses and cleared the coast of the pen. The cut down against the coast, mixed with the hair of every kind and secreted themselves felt and gives pretty hats. Any kind of wire of any material that is soaked with glue, gum, etc., is immersed in the down, and which is attached by twists around a rotational movement, which then passes into a tube of a suitable size, narrower side where the wire, which is entirely wrapped is pulled down, and then weaves with one weft of any filamentary material, provides a fabric which can be used to an infinite number of useful things. Hats then confectionnent such as silk and plush. This fabric is glued on paper, canvas, and the edges and the bottom is sewn.

We can, with a trade done on purpose, weaving round fluff prepared as we just said; in this case the cap is seamless. Page 157




PART III.



HATS SILK OR BEST PLUSH SILK.

Silk hats are remarkable for their beautiful colors, their shiny, elegance and beauty. Blacks especially offer brilliant that seems far superior to that of felt hats. As to the latter, it is easy to give them all the forms we desire; but they felt over the precious advantage of being lighter, such a long time, a more pleasing appearance 48 , and a much lower price. Silk hats were USIT since a long time in Spain before being known in France. It's hardly that since the beginning of the nineteenth century that we began to gradually adopt the use: strictly speaking, one can even say that this use has become general since the exhibition 1823 . hats Spanish silk seem still certify the infancy of this art; but thanks to the happy few attempts French industrialists, such production has acquired such a degree of perfection, and so important was that the annuitant and the fashionable have generally adopted the most beautiful qualities, and side are now sold to all classes of society.

Note 48: (return) The silk hats for men outweigh their beauty all felt hats, with the exception of the first qualities you pay for working 30 to 35 francs, while the finest hats Silk arent beyond 12 to 18 francs, as black as gray or various other fancy colors.

Page 158

Among the French fabricans who greatly contributed to the development of such an industry, we like to quote one of the ablest of Paris Hatters, Mr. Fontés, rue de la Harpe, whose hats waterproof silk vie for their beauty, elegance and took all those other fabricans of the capital, as was judged by those he exhibited in 1827; one of his hats among others was plunged past spectators in a tub full of water without being penetrated. Mr. Fontés never took a patent for an invention; modesty on his part is because many people have taken over some of his methods, because we must add that Mr. Fontés is very communicative.

Hats silk plush require two operations. First, the carcass is made of cardboard or cap, or by very strong hemp cloth or cotton, and then the various layers of varnish. However it is almost always that the cardboard is first and which is adhered (with an adhesive made impermeable) a canvas which covers also several layers of impermeable varnish. When the hat carcase is thus prepared, it is then stuffed adhesive coverage, after suitably disposed and sewn. The hat and being prepared is bordered wings, it adjusts the cap and passed to iron like felt hats.

It is needless to say that each has its own particular hatter waterproof varnish, and the method of preparation of the carcass, he believes much higher than that of his colleagues; but we who are not motivated by reasons of interest, we need to ensure, in the interests of art, all of these are varnished or coated waterproof this property with wax, resin solutions to alcohol or turpentine oil, incorporated into the starch glue, gum arabic, gelatin, etc. Without going into greater detail, we believe he could do better Page 159 about the procedures followed by the best fabricans here that in describing invention patents attained about it.

New processes for the manufacture of silk hats ; by JOHN WILCOX. (By patent.)

The body or felt my hats is composed of two fabrics of sufficient strength, a cotton canvas and other wholesale velvet, known as fault or plush.

I cut strips of cotton fabric with a width of about six inches, depending on whether I want to give more or less lift my hat and a relative length. I met the two ends of these bands, for a just and tight stitching, and I fit into the top piece of the same fabric, with a diameter equal to that of my forms.

I forms plush Similarly, taking care to form the side seams of the fabric placed within.

Thus arranged my forms, I coat externally and internally that of the cotton lint is to say the side of the fabric, an adhesive composed of half ordinary glue and glue half Flanders. I then take a form of cotton cloth and a soft toy; I dress the first with the second, arranging them so that the bottoms of two shapes match perfectly. Then I put on these two together forms a chuck wood consisting of four rooms and a living, such as those used by hatters as the broken forms. I push the corner as far as necessary to make sure that there are no fold, and that the adhesion surfaces of the two forms is perfect. Page 160

At this point, I let them dry for three or four days, even more, depending on the season and the degree of atmospheric temperature.

The edges of the cap are the same fabrics and in much the same way, only with the difference that the cotton fabric is coated on both sides of which are fixed strongly down by gluing and by means of a press: one attaches to the form when everything is dry and properly made by stitching.

To very light hats, I use instead of cotton cloth, a fabric formed of filaments released from willow.

We see that, according to my methods, silks adorning the hat can only be firmly attached and evenly distributed over its entire surface, since they are part of the fabric that makes up the body of the hat.

Method for making hats of men and women, waterproof felt silk. (Patent of invention and development of five years granted, December 31, 1821, to Messrs MIERQUE (Jacques François), owner and DRULHON, merchant, both in Anduze, Gard department.)

Felt that made these hats are made of good lambswool, which crowd; he is given the form as usual. The cap thus prepared was wrapped with a paper soaked in a gummy, resinous preparation that we'll see the recipe; is immediately applied after a second envelope perfectly just a crossover velvet, silk organzine longhaired, manufactured for this purpose, and that is glued forcefully through the gum which we have just spoken; this is fixed to the pile Page 161 of the wing or rise edge of the hat, and is completed by covering the rest of the felt in the same manner. Is then subjected to the action of hat hot iron half, still having treatment every time we put it on the hat to soak in cold water, less than the risk of burning the hair, which immediately frieze and then falls and its luster. We can not give too much attention to this, because it is she who keeps, when done well, his hat and his shiny black.

Recipe for the composition of the waterproof glue, for fifteen hats:

Four big gum arabic;
Half wholesale beeswax;
Two large almond oil;
Fourteen ounces of rosin.

Sprayed gum, they put it to heat over low heat in the oil, stir constantly with a spatula, until reduced into a soft dough: it is then that adds wax, cut open, continuing apply a gentle heat: the composition is complete when everything is melted and well mixed.

When we want to use this glue is melted apart rosin, to which is added after the merger, the composition above; obtained in this manner that the lacquer is spread over the hot fine paper, is applied to the felt.

This composition forms a disk so no fluid can pass through the body, and that the cap still retains its original form. Page 162

Hats of men and women plush silk or cotton, mounted on carcasses made ​​of cardboard, leather and canvas waterproof or not waterproof, and only those mounted on canvas and paper waterproof or not waterproof; by MM. Achard and AUDET Lyon. (Patent import and development.)

After letting soak for some time, the cardboard in water strongly impregnated with alum, it is removed and dried: they then form around the carcasses; is placed on the round top of that box, which is covered with a canvas cardboard for extra strength; it overflowed about six lines the perimeter of the top of the shape of the hat; whereupon adjusts the edge as follows.

Is formed with a strip of skin, divided into two parts, one of which is intended to reach the edge to the shape of the hat circle, and the other to receive the card which should give the necessary consistency to the edge or wing hat. This cardboard and adapted to this part of the skin is then covered over and under a cotton canvas just overlap the part of the circle of skin for joining the brim. The board arrived at this state, is attached to the shape of the hat by the first part of the circle of skin. This done, the carcass is coated with a varnish made with

Alcohol. 2 liters.
Shellac.
1/2 kg.

Isinglass.
2 hectograms.

Gum Elemi.
15 grams.

Soapstone.
20 grams.

The juice of six garlic cloves.

Treacle.
20 grams.

Page 163

Was melted shellac in alcohol heat from the sand bath; conjoined with gum elemi, then the juice of garlic, stir it and we add the treacle; the other is melted glue at a gentle heat in a pint of spirits of wine, there stirred the soapstone impalpable powder, and the two compositions are mixed well.

This varnish is not only the property to make the cardboard waterproof to water, but to give it a flexibility that can be increased at will, depending on the degree of density we give coating. Carcasses coated with this varnish are then covered with plush black or variously colored silk; when the seams are finished, the plush is fixed as we shall see.

Is covered with a cloth dampened in spirit-the part of the plush you want make it adhere to the frame, and a hot iron is happening on the machine. The vapor of the spirit of wine, penetrating the plush, softens the nail, which is incorporated into the fabric of the plush and makes it stick to the frame; This prevents the moisture through the fabric of the toy, and therefore soften the carcass is truly impermeable. Hats mounted on canvas or paper are lighter than the preceding, while also being waterproof.

Manufacturing hats cotton fabric and all kinds of filamentous fabrics. (Invention Patent granted for five years, June 7, 1816, to Mr. GURY in Paris.)

Forming the inner lining of the hat box cardboard is smoothed and polished.

The top of the form, as cardboard, is supported by a thin circular timber.

The cover is fabric of any color. Page 164

The tower is made of wire, and lends itself very well to the curved shape curved or not we want to give him.

These hats are not greasy; they resist all the insults seasons without experiencing deterioration, because they do not need, such as felt hats, a preparation which has the disadvantage of deteriorating moisture and break drought; they are also much lighter and cost less than felt hats.

Additions certificate issued to Mr. LOUSTAU, assignee of Mr. GURY.

These additions are intended to eliminate the differences that existed between the cloth hats of Mr. Gury and felt hats for.

The fabric that covered the bottom caps of Mr. Gury was not set and the edges offered neither round nor firmness.

Now the fabric is attached to the outside of the bottom of the cap by means of a carefully prepared glue and stitches imperceptible, so as to have all the necessary strength.

Firmness and perfect roundness of the edges of facings is obtained by the use of a battered leather, which, although very thin, very light, however, is a force equal to that of the felt: this leather is coated on both sides by the fabric, that is applied with the adhesive; three rows of stitches of the consolidated so that it can not be altered or by moisture or drought. Page 165

Development in the manufacture of silk hats, patented to Mathew W. and W. White. (. journ of arts Lond., January 1826, page 388)

The patented point out that we made two objections to the use of silk hats: that the harshness of the body to which is attached silk, often hurt the head, and the edges of the form longer exposed to shocks, silk is subject to removal and exposes the cotton fabric from below, which is a plant material is not likely to receive such a beautiful dyeing the silk, and then wears the hat promptly.

To remedy these shortcomings, the body of the hat should be made of silk as usual, and to correct the hardness of the inner edge, it covers the beaver makes it soft and able to bend; is then dyed hat in a beautiful black color inside and out, and after enough gummed, it is covered with silk, and instead of using to fix the cotton that is poorly color, we made the silk cover only, so that the cap retains its color in all its parts.

Manufacturing process hats tanned sheepskins. (Invention Patent granted for five years, June 14, 1816, to Mr. Ch. Pebrec in Brest.)

Process.

Soak in warm water a sheepskin tanned the necessary strength to the object; crush the skin in a mortar for eight to ten minutes; Make it on Page 166 form sheet provided for that purpose; roll over a drying linseed oil layer made, in which was dissolved copal at the rate of one ounce per quart; do drink this amount of size to moderate heat in an oven: Repeat this operation three times, and after each, sand dry your hat, then you paint with two coats of a black color, composed of primer linseed oil above and ivory black; these disposions made, sand all around the hat with crushed pumice, soft and wet, and apply two coats of varnish, being careful to sand the first layer.



OF schakos.

The shako is a particular hairstyle troops and takes various cylindrical shapes, sometimes descending slightly to the top, and sometimes rather widening much. The schakos are manufactured as wool felt hats; they can also be stuffed with silk, cotton, horsehair, leather, and generally in the same way that the various hats that we have listed. Strictly speaking the schakos hats are a particular shape, rimless, with the leather skullcap and often provided with a patent leather visor. As this manufacturing method is no different from that of hats, we pass over in silence; but true to our system to communicate the progress of the kinds of manufacturing in our care, we will know for invention patents that have been achieved in this regard.

Schakos two pens. (Invention Patent granted for five years, May 8, 1820, to Mr. DELPONT in Paris.)

These two compounds are schakos markers: one, which Page 167 is within, is not dyed and coated with a primer which we will see the composition; the other, which is outside, is without glue and no primer; it is strong enough not to be torn, and it can neither be ashamed nor become mangy; Finally, rain and moisture can damage it; it dries as a sheet.

These two markers are pure wool France.

Primer for the internal marker.

Cherry gum 4 parts.

Colle-strong Paris 8

Resin 4

Manufacturing schakos polished leather, especially for light infantry ; Mr. Bercy young. (By patent.)

With cowhides weighing fifteen to eighteen pounds, which manufactures these schakos.

We begin by scrape both surfaces of the skin, to make it spongy and have to receive finishes.

When the stitched schako, it is dipped into water heated to the point that it can hold the hand. It will softens and becomes capable of taking all forms we want to give him. He was then put on a form of copper to eight keys, whose background is isolated copper. It then places all in a press knives, which are made to take shape schako by high pressure.

He was removed from the press and shape to put on another form of wood, only five keys, but the size is the same. This shape is also topped by a buffer timber, which is intended to form Page 168 of the concave bottom schako whose depth is 15 lines by 8 inches 3 lines in diameter.

The shape and buffer are pressed and held against the other four iron flanges, down along the outside schako, will bind with many screws around the edge of the plateau of iron of the same caliber as schako which raises the form. It is in this state to be allowed to dry without being able to hide in any of its parts.

The shako is well prepared to receive the two following primers:

The first primer consists of a pound of good glue dissolved in four quarts of water that can actually reduce by boiling two pints and a half. Care is taken to remove the scum as it forms. This glue is allowed to cool until it is more than lukewarm, and we poured into the schako sufficient to coat. Left to dry in half; we substitute the form of wood well soaped and flanges to form copper; allowed to dry again in this state.

For the second primer is melted together in a double boiler, three pounds of yellow wax crude with a pound and a half of dry pitch. The boiler is removed from heat, and add a pound of ivory black powder, sifted silk; This mixture is stirred until it is dropped, since the ivory black is first up.

The shako is still on the form of wood and dry, iron flanges are also withdrawn, you coat brush outside schako a layer of this composition. After that you screw on the key medium in a hole provided for this purpose, an iron handle with which you are submitting this schako over a low heat, in order to penetrate the composition in the pores of the skin . As soon as the layer starts to disappear, we Page 169 remove from the heat and the brush to also expand strongly in what may remain on the surface.

While it is hot, you still put in the press, which, while cooling, it resumes its original shape. After which it is placed on the nose of a round in the air with its wooden form; and with a piece of wood carved properly given the polish is desired.

Fig. 27 . boiler mounted on the stove, in which we do soften the leather to make it suitable for work. Fig. 28 . Shape copper eight keys. Fig. 29 . Dice copper to form the bottom of the shako. Fig. 30 . Screw Press and balance. It is assumed that the shape of a copper lined schako is in press. Fig. 31 . Shape wooden five keys. Fig. 32 . Stamp wood which forms the bottom of the shako. Fig. 33 . Four iron flanges serving to maintain the shape and the pad against each other. Fig. 34 . Plateau iron placed against the form and which are fixed with clamps four screws above. Fig. 35 . Boiler with his furnace, in which the first preparations were prepared: we only see the tip, because this device is similar to the following. Fig. 36 . boiler on the stove for the second primer. Fig. 37 . Schako the form presented to the fire wood. Fig. 38 . handle iron screwed on form. Fig. 39 . Fireplace, called Prussian, sheet iron. Fig. 40 . scrub brush to extend the primer. Fig. 41 . Facing lathe to polish schakos. Fig. 42 . Piece of wood polish. Fig. 43 . Schako finished and trimmed his visor. Fig. 44 . Two concentric rings that are used to enter the upper circle schako to polish.
















Page 170
Fig. 45 . Chassis iron hinge mounted on a board, which is used to adjust and gather together the various pieces of brass that make up the jugular. Fig. 46 . Schako completely filled and placed on the head of an outfielder.

Process for dye the schakos cotton fabric whose color is altered.

This process involves boiling a quarter of wood from India or Logwood, cut up in three liters of water, enough to dye twenty schakos.

Extending this liqueur with a soft brush well stocked in the direction of the hair, being careful not to damage the tape, and so that the hair is soaked. When schako is dry, brush it with the other soft, dry brush to smooth the hair and décatir. ( Ann. March et al. , January and February 1824, page 47) Page 171




PART FOUR.



STRAW HATS AND WOOD.

Straw hats.

Italy has long been in possession of providing Europe with these beautiful straw hats that are so sought after by the ladies, and the price is still rising to 1,200 francs. for beautiful qualities made near Florence. Since the industry has taken a great boom in France, we focused on this type of manufacturing, to free ourselves from this luxury pays tribute to Italy. Already in 1819 we saw included in the exhibition of products of French industry straw hats due to our factories, whose beauty was remarkable. These fabricans there are:

Mr. 1º Clairvaux to Troyes (Aube) to the cutest tissue samples straw hat, imitating well enough hats Italy.

2º Mr. Thibault, of the same place, for her hats yellow and white straw, of any quality, very well made.

3rd MN, Saint-Loup (Haute-Saône), straw hats for the manufacture of which employed approximately 350 children.

4th MN, Ban-de-la-Roche (Vosges), beautiful samples of straw hats performed by young girls.

The exhibition in 1823 gave more satisfaisans results; finally that of 1827 largely implemented the hopes that 1823 had been conceived. Indeed, the departments of Ain and Isère seem Page 172 competed efforts to import this kind of industry that tests are usually non satisfaisans tended to be regarded as not being likely to flourish in France.

MM. Héricart Thury and Migneron, in their report on the products of French industry in 1827, submitted on behalf of the Central Board to the Minister of trade and manufactures, and Mr. Ad. Blanqui in his history of exposure to products 1827 reported the fabricans of these hats who got happier results. They are:

Mr. Dupré at Lagnieux (Ain), who was honorably mentioned in 1823, earned a silver medal . He outlined a series of straw hats, so Italy, in a variety of qualities: the most common are 2 fr. each and the finest 200 fr. Each type has a degree of finesse and soft corresponding to its price, and all are remarkable for careful preparation. This manufacturer occupied in 1827, fifteen hundred workers, instead of five hundred he occupied in 1823 his production, which was only eight to ten thousand hats, was increased from fifty to sixty thousand. One can judge by that development and progress in the industry.

Mr. Dupré also exposed samples of straw he uses to get the amount needed for maximum production indicated above; it took sow thirteen hundred and sixty bushels of wheat, which amounts to two bushels tenth for every hundred hats.

MM. Pecherand Dubois et Cie, Moirans (Isère), received a bronze medal . This is Moirans, near Grenoble, they have naturalized making straw hats in Italy. Those they display in the Louvre received no dressing; they come from the hands of the workers, and can stand comparison with what Italy has sent us more beautiful. Page 173

Any flaws, far from it, are not suitable for the manufacture of hats; those which are thinner, more flexible, longer, that is to say the most remote from each other node, and which are not rusted or stained, are most suitable for the manufacture; those of rye, the most beautiful of this cereal less are employed in the manufacture of certain grades of hats. For beautiful hats from Italy, quality wheat that is spelled variety is employed Triticum spelta , called spring wheat, Marzola or Marzolo , whose aborted fruiting. MM. Guy Harrison and obtained a patent in London for a process thereto, which is to pull the wheat with the root, when the ears are trained to assemble into bundles of about one hundred and fifty strands, and to dry celles- it carefully in the sun, avoiding shelters by the dews and rains. Straw acquires a beautiful yellow and very suitable for the manufacture of woven hats color. It also makes hats with straw prepared ryegrass, rice and rye. Regardless of what we have just stated, it is even more caring for straws: we must sow wheat that must occur in the soil be not exposed to mist or spring rains, because the straws of these localities are dotted with permanent stains. This grain can be grown in mountainous terrain; you must visit the field and choose only the finest straws. Having separated the leaves, in many mills, the straw above and beneath each node is cut; these nodes are discarded and the end straws: these pipes after their length in boxes compartments are classified then; the best have 15 to 20 inches in length; most valued are those that are thin, not stained, and are about the size of a pen ordinary. There is Page 174 of the pipes that have only 5-6 inches in length: one finds employment. Before this operation, usually straw bleaches as follows.

Bleaching straw.

If any flaws offered the same color, this operation would be unnecessary; but as it is not so, we are forced to use them, especially when you want to dye them and give them delicate colors. To help them acquire a beautiful white, they are immersed in the liquid chloride lime.

But as we do not try to manufacture the white hats, recourse to the sulfur treatment, we practice as follows: We take a barrel of about 4-5 feet tall and smashed both ends on the walls internal paper which is glued to butcher carefully all the issues that could give vent to sulphurous acid gas; it stands on the one end thereof, and 15 or 16 centimeters of the upper part is fixed to support four lugs on a circle which is tensioned wire netting with a mesh size of 3 cm, and straws by which we arrange small handles, folding layers; the barrel is sealed by a lid surrounded by edges; we finally covered with a blanket. All being well prepared, is introduced into the barrel stove full of lit coals on which a vase sheet containing sulfur powder is placed, lying in the mud in a very thin layer to prevent it clumps; because in this case too with the sulfur flame burns and darkens the straw. The sulfurous acid gas, which is the product of burning sulfur in the barrel and filled the whole capacity, acts on the coloring of the straw which is largely destroyed in about ten to twelve hours. Page 175 is then arranged between the bleached straw wet cloth to make it more flexible, and withdraws it in three or four hours. It was after the straw is bleached ordinarily you cut it in knots and splits lengthwise strands. We will return.

Dyeing straw.

Preliminary preparation.

Experience has shown that we can give some color to the straw, if we did previously opened. To achieve this we must not it is in a state of perfect dryness, because then it breaks; so you have to leave them overnight in a low place and a little wet; it is easy to incise, flatten and draw. For this, once employed a kind of wooden spindle A, fig. 47 ; hose straw left hand is held, we did get the time in one end, and tilting it and pushing it in the direction of the slot is extended it to the other end: after that straw was lying on the spindle, by rubbing it with the polisher, fig. 48 . Finally flatten it is also rubbed on his polished with very thick solid plank walnut and apple. The polisher is seen in profile in B and C. This face, which was all the longer we had to renew for each pipe was shortened and improved by ML Here is the process that has invented and described in Technological dictionary; we will borrow this description.

The fig. 49 represents the mill split, open and smooth straw. On board a rectangle applewood A, 20 to 15 centimeters, are assembled in two tenons and mortises strong binoculars BB, covered by an upper crossbar C, adjusted to the fork end Page 176 binoculars; it is between the binoculars are placed both cylinders D, E, seen perfectly in fig. 50 showing from behind the mill. The fig. 51 shows the profile of binoculars, so we can distinguish the projection has , upon which the cross b , to which is attached by two screws, the important part that is used to open the straw and navigate between the rolls of the mill. This cross member is placed on both ends of the twin projections, and is secured thereto by two wood screws, as shown at B, Fig. 49 . were seen in binoculars, fig. 51 , a notch c longitudinal receiving the two journals of the cylinders, the lower of which rests on a rounded notch, and is surmounted by a bearing of which is pressed by the screw f , so that the upper roller presses the straw sufficiently extend it. It is seen in these two screws fig. 49 .

The crossbar b door in the middle room g , which is secured by two screws, and bringing the woodcock's beak protruding h , which is seen on both sides, fig. 52 and 53 . The fig. 52 shown above, such as the present fig. 49 ; the fig. 53 shown from below, so that we can be conceived construction. The beak h is sharp protruding above, it is rounded downward, and will always widening, to direct the chaff as it flattens to engage it while extent, between the cylinders. Here is how to operate. We take the moist straw left hand, it brings the beak of woodcock in the pipe and it grows; straw splits, and we continue to grow until in turning the crank G, we feel that it is caught between the cylinders: one lets go of the straw; continue to crank until it is done all at last; then it all falls flat open and behind the mill. And ten thousand straws is prepared in a day, while the old process we do that preparing percent. These straws are thus disposed for dyeing. Page 177

Dyeing straw blue.

Indigo Guatimala powder quality.
Sulphuric acid 66 (oil of vitriol).
Potash quality.
30 gram.
60
15
(1 ounce).
(2 ounces).
(1/2 ounce).


Indigo is introduced and sulfuric in a small flask or vial medicine that is heated in a sand bath acid; once we realize that there is more excitement, we add potash and allowed to digest for a day and a night. The thus prepared solution of indigo, was boiled in a pan of water in sufficient quantity so that the straws can take a bath; is then added gradually sulfate indigo with a wooden spoon handle very long until we have the color you desire. The pan from the heat is then removed, immersed in the liquor straws unopened, and when they contracted the color is desired, washed with fresh, pure water, and allowed to dry in the free of dust.

For the sky blue or azure there is far less sulphate of indigo, and straws must be open.

Yellow.

Boiled turmeric powder ( terra merita ) and more or less quantity, according to the yellow shade to be obtained; one passes through a screen, the liquor on fire is reset, it plunges straws unopened, and boiled until they have acquired the desired color; then they are removed, washed and allowed to dry. Tincture of turmeric is not exhausted after this operation; is used in order to obtain lower color yellow.

Black color.

To dye black straws, it first starts Page 178 by engaller, that is to say, to immerse them in a decoction of galls; there is immersed in a bath of pyrolignite iron, and ultimately in a decoction or bath of logwood. Is washed and is dried.

We will pass over in silence the colors red, pink, green, brown, etc., since so far it does no use hats that color.

It is good to note that the flaws, though immersed in the same boat, do not all have the same color; so you have to sort and match. After that, either because they are naturally colored, sulfur, bleached or dyed, they must be resolved, smooth and submit them to the press in paper placed between two boards so that the wires are reduced in strips roughly purposes.

We have already said that after having cut the knots of the straw pipe is incised longitudinally into two or four ribbons, depending on the fineness of the hat: it is used for a small knife or knife blade tip curve . All these strands are then rounded up and placed in layers between wet cloth for about three hours to make them more flexible and able to be braided without this operation they would break at any moment.

Braiding straw.

straws for the manufacture of caps must be braided, and the size of the braid is on the size of the straw strands, depending on the quality of the caps, which is divided into two classes:

1 ° fine hats are those made with pigtails or braids which fourteen and even beyond, stitched together, offer a decimeter (47 lines) in length.

2 ° coarse hats or common are those whose Page 179 mats in a width of four inches, are composed of less than fourteen braids; of this number are those of rice straw, ryegrass, or whole wheat.

For those of straw or bark, the same width consists of less than ten braids; with this exception, the same mode of production.

It is good to note that for very fine straw hats, the division of the pipe into two or four strands using the knife is inadequate, and, as this division has to be much larger, we can not achieve this through the knife; also do you use a more convenient way. It is to set the embroidery needles muslin equidistant from each other and on the same line; for it is implanted in the head of the resin; these needles thus arranged form a kind of comb which is placed on the end of the straw, and wet pre-slit along its length; then it is obvious that this tape pulling straw to the other end it is divided into as many small strips as there are pins. These straws is matches, depending on their length and width, and are used according to the different degrees of beauty hats.

These are women who then braids with straws so prepared and moist. Notwithstanding this, they should always have their fingers a little wet, to keep the straw flexibility by preventing it from drying out. It is obvious that we must have intelligent working well for recorder straws and especially to weave a tight and equal manner so that the braids are united and bumpy spot on the sides. Once we have made enough of these braids and they were given the width and length on the quality hats with the manufacture of which they are intended, they go to another shop. There, other women sew in a way Page 180 almost imperceptible by rolling flat spiral on themselves, either edge to edge in the same plane, or to recovery. But the beauty of the work, it is essential that this be not apparent seam. It is in this state, or even the braid, which delivers the straw hats to merchants who shape or better give them the fashionable shape 49 and proper primer.

Note 49: (return) In this work, we proposed that we describe the first hat-making; preparation for high school, we refer to the manuals of ladies, ladies, etc.

Primer straw hats.

Whatever the skill of the workers, beauty and uniformity of straws; regardless of the care and skill with which the braids were made, we need to make this stuff straw is well connected and has the consistency and gloss, it receives a primer through the press or ironing. Here is how these two methods are practiced.

Primer by pressure . It starts by wetting hats with water, rice starch or gum arabic; when they are dry, they are piled on each other, placing between each of the timber trays well heated; in this state, they are subjected for twenty-four hours in the action of a strong pressure on the edges first, then the outline and top caps.

Primer by ironing . This average was largely abandoned in the previous one, since Mr. Mégnié has designed and built two machines that facilitate this singularly ironing. It is said MEM 50 , species Page 181 of turns in the air, one of which is intended to ironing the edges, and the other contour and top caps. In these two rounds, the bonnet, the same primer as cloth for the process of the press, is placed in a form that the timber exactly fills and which, rotating on itself slowly, using a gear angle that the worker Hatter puts himself in action, resulting in its rotation, and made ​​him successively present all points of its outer surface to the action of hot iron and immobile, strongly pressed over a lever disposed suitably for this purpose. This process, which leaves nothing to be desired for the perfection of the work, is so short, a worker returns to his day hundred twenty hats, instead of twenty four he had trouble making board act iron hand still on the hat. We will add to it as polished and shiny hats that are smoothed and is much higher than they gain by pressure. We have shown fig. 54 , the press that people use, and fig. 55 , 56 and 57 , other instruments for splitting straws.

Note 50: (return) Dict. technolog.

We will now discuss some processes put to use by several French and foreign fabricans; they contain some concepts that, to avoid repetition, we thought it necessary to mention. In England we also engages successfully with this kind of production if we are to judge at least by the following section of Galignani's Messenger 51 .

Note 51: (return) In England straw of two-row barley is primarily used for such manufacture, said hinge, hordeum distycum .

The Royal Dublin Society recently adjudged for this branch of industry, four prizes of 20, 15, 10 and 5 pounds. A statement read on this occasion contains Page 182 the following: The extraordinary progress that has taken place over the last three years in this kind of industry, and the sophistication with which it is managed today, give reason to believe that manufacture, if it is pushed with all perseverance and proper activity, will soon put Ireland in a good condition to compete with Italy for this product. Merchants of Dublin, who do this kind of business, asked for their opinion on the quality of the six straw hats who got the first prize, said that if the same caps Livorno quality first, such as those to import into these lands, were mixed with them, there is none, the fact of the article, which could make a distinction between one and the other. These dealers reported further in respect of another hat that had only won the third prize, such a cap would do in London, according to the current price, no less than five guineas. The committee was further notes that the cristatus Cynosurus is not the best fit for this kind of manufacturing raw materials, since this substance is its too hard and fibrous nature, and generally uneven color. In the opinion of the committee, rye straw ( Secale cereale ) is much better; and he added that one of the hats that got the first prize, hat made ​​of fragrant spring grass ( Anthoxanthum odoratum ) seemed a higher than any other part of the same competition quality. ( Dublin correspondent .) Page 183

Manufacture of straw hats in the Italian manner ; by WEBER. ( Verhandl of Vereins zur Befoerderung of Gewerbfl in Preussen.. , Jan and Feb 1826, p 45... 52 .)

Note 52: (return) The encouragement of Berlin Corporation proposed a price for such manufacture.

The hats of the most beautiful and the strongest straw are made in Italy. They are of two kinds: 1st hats Florence, bringing together the highest degree the strength to perfection of work, but are also the most expensive; 2 ° Those of Venice, not all-of-fact as thin and as strong as the first, but were less expensive.

Mats and hats of the most famous straw manufacture in Italy, in the Seven Towns ( Sette Communi ). This work is the main industry and the leading resource for this small country, the extent of which is about four square leagues of Germany, and the population of ten thousand.

The annual report of the production, including straw prices, amounts to three million pounds Venetian. It is in the towns of Lusiana and Giacomo that this industry has the greatest importance; this is also where the species grows mostly specific to this kind of work wheat. The straw is harvested and matched carefully, and torches, cut to equal lengths, gathered and sold by boots fabricans mats, at 8 fr. pound of twelve ounces. These sell their mats to fabricans hats.

Prizes were awarded for this purpose by the London Society for the encouragement of Mr. Wells of Weatherfield, and Mr. Cobbett, who dealt with the success of this production. Page 184

The grass used by Ms. Wells is the poa pratensis , which grows throughout Germany in pastures and low meadows. As for Mr. Cobbett, he experimented not only on the same poa pratensis , but several other natives of England grasses, such are: melica caerulea , the bentgrass stolonifera , the perennial solium , the Avena flavescens , the Cynosurus cristatus , the Anthoxanthum odoratum , and bentgrass canina . All these plants have provided mats may be used.

Their methods for making straw vary. Mrs. Wells is harvesting of the plant since the time of flowering until the approach of the maturity of the seed: it employs only the part that is between the top and the top node; she pours over boiling water, and then dried in the sun; She repeats this process once or twice, or until the leaves around the stem as a sheath, stand out. So it whitens as follows: it starts with making water soap, to which it adds pearl ash potash until it dominates; it moistens the plant with this solution and place straight into a box; she is burning sulfur, and covers fund cloths to enclose the sulphurous vapor; and it continues to burn sulfur until moistened with soapy water to dry plant: which requires about two hours. During this process the sulfur is repeated once or twice. The plant is then able to be braided. This preparation is, as we see, very simple; it does not require special instruments, and all farmers can do it themselves without difficulty.

Mr. Cobbett otherwise runs laundering. He places the stems of the plant, gathered in bundles, in a small bowl, and he overwhelms boiling water; there he left for ten minutes, then it removes, and extends over Page 185 turf well short. After seven days, the bleaching is completed. June is the most suitable for harvesting and preparation of the plant.

Helped by the work of aliens, I took care of that manufacture, says Weber, and did comparative tests, with the following results:

poa pratensis is very clean in the making of straw hats. His torch is at least as fine as those of Italy; but they seem more solid.

2 ° the wild grasses of Prussia can be used for the same purpose.

3rd The color of straw depends on how the money; we should do this operation especially in fine weather and bright sunshine. Thus, the process of Mr. Cobbett is it much better than Mrs. Wells.

4th Straw and prepared to leave well weave and sew.

At the request of Mr. Weber, the encouragement Company for growing gardens, was responsible for the increase native grasses that can be used in the manufacture of straw hats, and bring enough seed from Italy plant employed there to look at the spread in Prussia. This plant, in the opinion of the most learned members of this Society is the tricticum aestivum , which, sown in a thin and smokeless field, provides a thin thatch. It is likely that in the course of next summer, the fabricans who will seek straw hats in the Italian manner have access to the Italian straw and straw native grasses, and may use these comparatively first two in making hats materials. Page 186

Hats made ​​from native straw, imitating those Italian Straw by M. de Bernardière in Paris. (Invention Patent of five years.)

Straws used in the manufacture of these native hats are from Cotentin and around Paris; finest is more usually found in grasslands than anywhere else. Other straws in a less good quality, is more commonly found in rye sown slightly than in any other place.

One and the other of the spreader need to be a preparation of the straw color of Italy. This preparation is to put as promptly as possible after harvesting, the fetus not yet ripe in cold water, which is gradually reaching the boiling state; after which they are removed and exposed to the hot sun to dry, taking care to water them until the straw becomes a suitable binder and very yellow, or it breaks, and worthless to weave and even less to be sewn.

The braid is made with thirteen bits of straw; sewing to the plaits are disposed one in the other with a threaded through the inside of the mesh, and so that, to get them to a whole cap, it must travel all the stitches from one end to another.

Straw Hats from the Black Forest.

Once we did in the Black Forest as straw plaits very coarse; hats that were manufactured in only worn by the inhabitants of the country, and almost all were sold in France. The French government wanting to encourage this branch of industry in the Vosges, doubled entry fees straw hats, fixing to 8 francs per dozen 53 . This increase Page 187 tax put a stop to this lucrative trade with France. Mr. Huber, bailiff of Triberg, having knowledge of the methods used by the Italians for making hats for straw, urged his fellow citizens to give more finesse in their tissues, which were still very crude. In 1804 he was making instruments through which could be divided into ten parts, the straw finest; he cut the straw before the perfect ripeness, had bleach and distribute among the most skilled workers. So that in 1813 it had already reached to the straw hats such a degree of finesse and perfection, and a beautiful finish, they are usually sought not only in the country but also in France, Holland, Belgium, and even in Russia, where it makes large shipments. The sole bailiwick of Triberg, fifteen hundred people involved in this branch of industry and produce annually one hundred and twenty miles of fabric straw.

Note 53: (return) Bulletin Incentive Company, 1819.

Straw hats double tissue upside down on wicker sticks, whale, reed and other similar flexible materials , Mr. BLOUET, manufacturer of straw hats at the prison of Mont Saint-Michel, Department of Channel. (Patent of invention.)

Manufacturing processes.

Before splitting the straw, it is made a rule to flatten wood, scraping on both sides with a knife steals this operation a part of the spongy tissue that lines the inside of the tube and thus makes much more flexible less brittle; it is then split with a new tool called chain consisting simply several needles attached to a handle and Page 188 spaced from each other along the width as it is intended to give small blades of straw. By pushing these needles, and arranged on one end of the flattened straw and pulling themselves to this end, the tip of each needle and splits this straw reduces many equal portions as there are slots.

This is the straw so prepared that the manufacture of new hats; it bypasses the on extremely thin strips of willow and which one meets some fine blades whale for increased strength.

Private straw supports spongy by the operation of scraping that was just talk, being very thin, one double to implement it; this is the way to get a very tight fabric and also very equal, since the book does not present then these small bumps and imperfections that are inevitable when one uses straw to form a single point tissue; two straws give ease to adjust imperceptibly those just breaking. The hats are dyed and prepared by ordinary methods.

Men's hats and women in straw mats, wicker and whale, seamless , Mr. Michon eldest son. (Invention Patent of five years.)

These hats are made of a fabric with a warp in whale thinned using a kind of plane, consisting of a piece of wood three inches long and two inches wide, which houses a sharp iron .

The plot is filled or wicker or straw; wicker is split according to the form that we want to give to the fabric and preparing the same way that the whale. As for the straw, it is split by means of a tool or ivory knife or steel. Page 189

The hats are made by hand on wooden forms, and when they are completed, those intended for men are dyed in black or gray, and those women are in ecru. The women's hats are most commonly filled with straw or pieces of ears.

One can use the same process to make the schakos the use of the troops.

Improvement patent and adding issued December 28, 1822 , to Mr. ACHILLES OF Bernardière, assignee of the patent of Mr. Michon.

These perfectionnemens involve introducing the previous mode of production means to weave wicker with flat sides, to make the hats splints poplar, willow and generally any kind of green and dry wood frame; Finally, in the application of these various tissues in the making of schakos and other headgear for both civilian and for military

As for the preparation of various raw materials, it is absolutely the same as shown in the patent of Mr. Michon.

Straw hats sewn, etc .

These hats are for lower quality than those we have described; we see the one braid sewn around the edges slightly from each other and so that when the straw cutting with scissors, they fight it out easily. We also made with flat straws of varying widths glued or sewn on a base strip; sometimes it interweaves these braids more or less fine. All these hats that varies infinitely are lower than those in thin braids prices. Page 190

Straw hats are sewn with tiny straw mats sewn on the other; they start with the middle of the cap; forming a button and turning on the straw itself is the well conduit until it has made a great enough to round an ordinary cap. The sizes vary those heads that we want to do.

When the workers arrived at this point, it bends the two rows of straw so as to begin the so-called decline of the cap; Then she sews her always turning straw, being careful to also lead, that is to say not to drink more in one place than in another, which would form bumps that fade difficult to rolling and reappear at the slightest moisture.

The cap is complete, that is to say, reached the height that you want to give him, be folded into four: the front, back and sides of the ears, where to start the password; Taking straw, it is given a slight curve, and it starts from the fold indicating the right ear by turning the form to the fold indicating the left ear where one stops and the the straw is cut, taking care in the sewing of the drink lightly to force the pass to get up. The worker must be careful to spread the straw in the ears, that is to say, almost completely covers so as not to miss a very small portion to give way to all the ends of straw should call his pass; it must still be observed beginning how long is she wants to give the password of his hat, as if she wants to make a nearly round hat, so she does not radiate much or not at all. If his pass must be ten inches forward and four back, then it will cut its flaws and radiate until it six inches in advance; then, instead of cutting the straw P Page 191 as it has done until now, it will continue to sew by turning around the cap so she arrived ten inches in advance; the back will necessarily have four.

Children's hats are all round, that is to say that the form is complete, without leaving the straw, it is made to drink heavily, which forces her to get up and begin to advance and that 'Then we continue always turning until it is determined that the hat is big enough. When the first six laps of the pass is completed, workers must frequently ask his hat on a table to see if his lead is flat, as if the straw is too far ahead godera, something to be avoided ; if on the contrary it is not enough, it will fall on the eyes as a lampshade. Each piece of straw with only twelve yards long, one is forced to make frequent rentrures. Several cut through straw, leaving a strand of the braid at both ends, which, forming the hook fit into one another. This way is very clean, but very solid. My suggestion would cross his straw on one another, the length of only one line, taking care to keep the two ends by a point one above the other below; the small bump formed by the junction flattens the cylinder, and never risk to shed when cylindreur forces the shape of the hat to give it greater dimension than that for which it was made.

From the énuenchage.

Straw, some equal that we can choose the preserves sometimes browner parts that are only seen when the hat is finished; the worker must cut all shades and replace them with another straw whose color matches perfectly with the hat; she managed to hide this kind of mending Page 192 crossing the straw as I just said above.

The are used to make hats sewn straw small braids made in Switzerland, bundled twelve yards, and the price varies depending on the fineness or white.

Most estimates are those that come from Freiburg. Packets, folded over a quarter in length, are tight and arrested the two ends: that straw is a rounder, strong, and whitens very well.

Aargau instead is sold in packets of folded half a yard in length, arrested one end; its texture is loose, flat, and straw, although white when new, yellowing in the sun and whitens evil; Sewing can be indistinctly on both sides; Fribourg has to the contrary, it is known that small prickles form straws when making the braid; at the point they are all placed downwards, backwards and upwards. If the hat is made in reverse, it is studded with lots of little bits that the cylinder can not even lower and form a kind of stuffed that night and completely spoils the effect a hat.

I mentioned earlier how cylindrer these hats. One also uses smooth straw called French straw; manufacturing the cap is the same; fashion varies forms and straws that are used for sewn hats.

This note was given to us by a lady that modesty does not allow us to name.



CAPS WOOD.

The wooden hat are two ways: the first one operates with braids made with wood strands more or less fine, and like those of straw quality of these hats is known as the PA Page 193 rice straw ; the second is played by a very fine weave, like baskets and coarse hats of straw. Is used to manufacture the white wood without knots, very Lians and very flexible when they have just been cut. Preference is given to willow wood, poplar, willow, linden, etc. The process involves dividing them into very thin sections like brooms willow we are annually carried by the Alsatian. Several methods are known, one that seemed the easiest and best thing is a kind of jack plane with two chains, one of which is in sharp teeth in the vertical direction; it is followed by another which is usually iron: this provision that the chip removal thereof is divided into as many strips or threads, plus one, as the first tooth. It is good to add that in order for each tooth always returns to the same place, the jointer is constantly slipping between two guides.

We can dye the strands of wood like straw; the process is no different. If one wants to get white, these strands are dipped or hats made of cold water in a soap containing some indigo solution and extends them for a few days in a meadow, from taking care that they begin to dry to water them with pure water.

Hats wicker.

It grows three main species wicker France:

1 ° red osier, Salix purpurea . LIN.
2º Wicker yellow, Salix vitellina .
3rd Wicker White, Salix viminalis .

The red osier has Lians more than the other two branches, but it acquires less in length and thickness; yellow is a little less binder, but its branches are slightly longer and thicker; Finally, white is still Page 194 bigger, longer and less binder. It would appear from this that the red osier deserves preference for making hats.

Hats wood Bernardière.

Mr. Achilles Bernardière, because of its special education, managed to make beautiful hats and wicker schakos complexion. For Division wicker strands, it makes use of the machine that the English use to the straws, and they call bric-a-brac . This machine or instrument 54 is a cylinder ivory, iron or steel, 5 to 6 mm in diameter, 55 to 60 in length, which is topped with a cone height of 5 mm. Is proposed to take twelve strands of straw, divide the base of the cone into twelve equal parts, and using a triangular file division is pushed until we got to the point of cone, but not exceeding Clearly, the cone must have twelve equal edges and sharp. When we want to divide the straw, it has the peak of the cone as a pipe, and that the instrument is pushed wafer into twelve equal straw strands. The bric-a-brac have from three to forty divisions, according to the fineness you want to give straws and size of it.

Note 54: (return) See Technological dictionary.

M. Bernardière, using an instrument that differs little from the bric-a-brac , small wicker in very thin sections, it makes much thinner and more narrow by passing them in a variety of sectors sharp and so tight that these wicker strips barely half a millimeter in width; it is what is, so to speak, the frame of the fabric. Chain or frame adds Page 195 ML is part wicker part in whale; that is to say, alternately two wicker strands and strand whale suitable for this purpose as wicker.

These hats are then dyed, such as straw; they should not be confused with the following. We will attach here the report that was done about it by Mr. Bouriat to the Society for encouragement of domestic industry.

Report by Mr. Bouriat, on behalf of the Committee on Economic arts, on wicker hats M. of Bernardière.

The board instructed its Committee on Economic arts to visit the factory of wicker hats M. Bernardière, located in the house of correction Poissy, and to report to the products of this factory. The committee, unable to point transport mass at this distance, has asked me to go and take all the information he wanted, and tell him before you submit his opinion on this new kind of industry. I visited the workshop and many others that exist in the same house. I will be honored to give you an overview, after speaking from Mr. Bernardière of which is the main subject of this report.

I took in every detail the work that run on; I saw that the most incompetent hands could prepare wicker that is used to make hats. First this wicker split into five or six, according to the size of the strand, is thinned by species of cutting dies through which it is passed, and are graduated so that the opening of the latter more may pass a very thin and narrow strip. These are the strips which, according to their degree of thickness, form the fabric or string, because you can Page 196 pass tapered whale to support the body of the hat, the fabric is made ​​by hands more skilled than the first. These hats, made ​​up, are likely to receive the dye different colors according to the taste of a dealer who buys them. This is not without difficulty that sets the color wicker; also that part of the factory she still deserves some research on the part of Mr. Bernardière and dyers.

The strength of these hats is far superior to those made with straw; M. has also Bernardière he intended to make for light troops, and in peacetime, wicker schakos much lighter than felt. I put on the table a sample of schakos dyed black and covered with a plate to designate the regiment.

The price of these hats, though inferior to those of felt, did not appear before this committee in the proportions you could need; also he advised Mr. Bernardière to employ mechanical means to thin wicker. If, as we have no doubt it can reach arm to do without this preparation, the longest and most expensive, it can significantly reduce the price of his hats.

Your committee has seen in this kind of industry, a rather interesting object, since it tends to reduce considerably the use of hare that derives from abroad, to light felt hats that people rich wear during the summer. M. Bernardière has already made this year a lot of hats wicker; but he could not, despite his zeal, provide only some of the orders that were made to him. He will work tirelessly over the winter to be able to meet next summer all applicants.

After you have made known to the factory of Mr. Bernardière, you may learn some interest Page 197 activity prevailing in the House of Correction at Poissy, and the benefits to home and workers. Each inmate is a kind of occupation following his moral and physical faculties: the child as old engaged in a soft and easy. For this, it was determined workshops of various kinds; there include those of a weaver, jeweler, of braid maker, cabinetmaker, maker chard, shoemaker, tailor, finally a spinning colon and hat factory I just like to talk. It is with such occupations that often managed to change or modify the slope of several criminals who might have spent time in detention to ponder the most sinister plans if they had remained idle.

These results are due to the zeal and ability of Mr. Poizel, director of the institution, which has found a great ally in Mr. Picard, contractor work from home.

The price list for both prisoners is decided each year by the Prefect of the department of Seine-et-Oise. This salary is divided into three parts: one for home maintenance, some distributed to the workers every Saturday, and the third is set aside to be given to them when they leave. There's a lot that received 300 francs. at the time of their release, despite the short time that this scheme is fixed because it was only in March 1821 made the produce during the first twelve months of works was 48,000 fr., and this year, as the number of prisoners has increased, Headmaster thinks it will not be below 80,000 fr.

I now return to the factory of Mr. Bernardière on which your committee has taken all appropriate renseignemens. For you, for my body, thank the maker of the communication that you Page 198 made ​​its new kind of industry, and all the processes he employs in his factory, worthy of being known to the public through the Bulletin.

Adopted at the meeting, 21 August 1822.

Signed Bouriat, rapporteur .

In this report we will join the one that was taken off to a widow of Reyne.

Report by Mr. SILVESTRE, on behalf of the agriculture committees and crafts together, the manufacture of straw hats and like those of Italy, established by Widow REYNE, Valencia, Drôme .

Gentlemen, November 28, your committees mechanical arts and agriculture together got your approval for an interim report that they have had the honor to present you on applications that the widow Reyne you had addressed to the occasion of his hat factory Italian Straw established currently in Valencia, Drôme.

Your Commissioners have therefore done justice to the zeal of Ms. Reyne, who, after careful consideration, in Italy, the production processes of raw materials and those of their manufacture was imported into France a kind of industry that had could still be naturalized before it; they also expressed regret that the failure of several key documens the émetttre should prevent a final opinion on the success of a similar business; they hoped to get new importans renseignemens, and correspondence long since followed the Ministry of Interior in this regard, and one that could later be interviewed Ms. Reyne itself. Page 199

The Minister has kindly let you file concerning this matter. Ms. Reyne has answered many of your requests, it mainly expresses the desire that the report will be submitted promptly; accordingly we will put before you the results of the main documens we collected.

But before we deal with this presentation, and then not divert your attention from what especially concerns Ms. Reyne, we think we should put some general considerations on the importance and the difficulty of such an undertaking; its novelty and the likelihood of success.

The importance of a hat factory Italian Straw is notable enough for our trade; it would be to free ourselves from the annual export value of a million and a half, we give to Italy alone to acquire the objects of this kind: it is true that this cash balance does not take place not in cash. In exchange for straw hats and other items we provide Italy, we provide linens, wine, dry goods, jewelry, china, books, patterns, etc., etc., etc. ; and it should be noted that the tables formally trained to establish the balance of trade in our favor, an annual profit of more than eight million of the reciprocal exchanges. Anyway; these bases are not immutable, foreign industry always tries to make them more favorable, and we have no doubt welcome with interest all that can tend; is to consolidate our advantages or find within ourselves that our soil and our industry can provide (at price equal to those from abroad) to consumers.

This last consideration brings us back to the factory Ms. Reyne and circumstances leading up to his business; correspondence from the Minister of the Interior Page 200 provides us with that useful documens. It appears that similar attempts to hers were made; that patents similar to hers were issued. You know too well, gentlemen, the principle of these patents to be amazed at our assertion: the patent does not prove that the possessor has invented or has imported, but it only proves that at one time he said that determined he had invented or imported, except for him to prove if any, and to whom it may concern, the reality of his assertions or the priority of the request.

Some attempts have been made before Ms. Reyne in France to make straw hats of Italy; it is known to the merchants of such objects, in Paris, many of these attempts have been unsuccessful. In 1814, a patent was issued free importation Mr. Bastier, which aimed to raise a fabric of the same kind as that of Ms. Reyne.

Around 1815, Pierre Couyère established in St. Melaine, Calvados, a manufacturer of straw hats like those of Italy, with stems of native grasses. Apparently it is pratense phleum he used for this purpose. He received in 1819 a patent for ten years; match it with a factory sewing and finishing established in Paris by his brother and provides trade for over 40,000 fr. per year. In 1808, Mr. de Bernardière had also obtained a patent for five years for making similar to those of Italy hats, with the stems of native cereals; it seems that it was also the pratense phleum he used most commonly.

But a company even more similar to that of Ms. Reyne held for three years in the department of Haute-Garonne, and the care of hospice directors of Toulouse; it employs the same wheat straw used for this purpose in Tuscany, and is cultivated Page 201 success around Toulouse. Factory are a much surer advantage, His Excellency the Minister of the Interior has kindly sent to a hospice machines invented by Mr. Meigné prepare and mentioned in No. CXCIX page 6 of your Bulletins 1821 This machine is intended, at no risk to workers' health, to the proper hundred twenty-six finish caps a day, while men who were doing hard work in hand could not prepare eighteen .

It may be added that all the details on the wheat that provides in such work straw and processes that relate to the art of preparing the straw and make hats, were described in detail in Italian verse, by Mr. Lastri, Tuscan. Finally, in 1805, Count de Lasteyrie had brought from Italy seed wheat that will make straw hats: that seed has since grown every year in King's Garden by Mr. Thouin care . Mr. Yvart was also, in 1812, Italy reported that cereal seeds, and had successfully grown. So we knew long since the first and all the means of implementing substance; but one obstacle, which is the nature of this work, was always opposed to good hits. This obstacle appears the same for all the jobs that are not likely to use the machines, and we have to do to arm in countries where labor is higher than in places where the mill originates. It's about how to equalize the price of the first manual labor that we would want to have more positive renseignemens order to assess the probability of success that Ms. Reyne designs hope.

It was towards the end of 1817 that Ms. Reyne returned to Florence; during the three years of living she had done in this city, she had formed there plans to establish Page 202 in France a hat factory Italian Straw; she had carefully studied all the processes of wheat that provides clean straw in this work, and those of its preparation and its use in manufacture.

She first settled in the town of Bourg-Saint Andeol department of Ardèche; while she still had her husband who seconded in his work: they spoke for the first time the Minister of the Interior, in February 1818; then they have announced in their workshops thirty young people who took care to craft straw hats, equal in quality to those of Italy. They argued that they planted in France wheat grains marzole said they had brought from Italy; These grains are good outcomes, and besides that they had found in France even cereals, the rod had the same property. They hoped to provide, in a short time, the amount of caps needed for consumption in the kingdom, and they demanded the free issue of a patent of importation: the prefect of the Ardeche supported their petition. The Minister asked the renseignemens and samples were sent to him; Then he consulted the Advisory Committee on Arts and Manufactures, the Committee was of the view that Mr. and Ms. Reyne deserve to be encouraged when he was apparently found that their factory was providing to trade in straw hats of the same quality and finesse than those of Italy. He postponed at that time the decision to be made on the level of interest that the government should take in their work. Consequently, the Minister refused to grant the patent applied for free; but he left the hope that it might encourage the efforts of the manufacturers, when they would have provided constant trade in straw hats of the same quality as those of Italy.

He spent about fifteen months between the decision and the new demands that were made. In February 1820 Page 203 Ms. Reyne wrote to the minister that she had lost her husband, and moved his factory in Valencia, Drôme; She then announced that his factory supplied to trade, and in sufficient quantity, straw hats of the same quality and finesse than those from Italy. The petition was supported by the mayor of Valencia, who regretted not being able to give a small incentive, and the prefect of the Drôme, who sought relief for Ms. Reyne. The Minister gave 600 francs, and asked the prefect information respecting the activities of the institution, the number of workers employed, the amount of hats delivered each year to trade, and price compared with that of similar hats from Italy; Finally, what would be the amount needed to give all pertinent extension work. The prefect replied to these questions that the factory occupied seventy workers, it could provide eight hundred thousand annually hats, the price of these hats was almost the same as those of Italy, they were equal in quality; He also announced that prices would fall by a sixth if Ms. Reyne had suffisans funds to set up his establishment; he asked her a sum of 12,000 francs. April 12, 1820, the Minister agreed to grant 2,400 fr. to be used to a greater extent in the work of Ms. Reyne. It seems that indeed some of that money was used to purchase a press for finishing straw hats.

But soon after Ms. Reyne felt new needs; she spoke to you, gentlemen, in a letter which was supported by the prefect of the Drôme and the Mayor of Valencia, and who returned to the consideration of your committees mechanical arts and agriculture, was the purpose of the interim report that was presented to you on November 28, and according to which, according to your intentions, Page 204 your committees have had to deal with research and new checks.

Two orders of main renseignemens have come since then. Some were drawn from a large dossier concerning this matter, which you received by His Excellency the Minister of the Interior and we just present the analysis; others come from the direct correspondence we interviewed Ms. Reyne or his principal in Paris. We can not present them as mere assertions, the main memory that is part of having been seen by the Mayor of Valencia, including certifying that the manufacture of hats sent had occurred in said city, and seen by the Prefect for the legalization of the signature of the mayor.

Anyway, the result of this correspondence, 1 the hat you distinguished garment factory is Madame Reyne; 2d, that this lady and principal say she continues to use straw on the species of wheat that reported from Italy, and whose culture succeeds perfectly in the vicinity of Valencia; that the benefit of the workers it employs depends on their ability; these are usually the children who weave; as No. 30, taken for example, costs 15 cents the light sewing and weaving; a braider is a day seven or eight yards, and a seamstress sews always double. The labor of a hat this number back to 8 francs; namely, 6 francs 75 centimes for weaving and sewing, 75 cents for straw and 50 cents for the primer. The higher numbers become more expensive, to wit: No. 40-16 fr. 70 percent .; the 50-27 fr. 50 percent. Finally the No. 60, which is roughly similar to that set out in front of you, back to 52 francs.

As for the number of hats made annually Page 205 Ms. Reyne noted that manufacturing has limits that due to limited capital it can devote She cites several cities of the south and especially the fair Baucaire as its main markets.

She could not meet the demand of sending hats than the one she had previously sent the company straw; she only sent a few men's hats, the quality is insignificant to prove the superiority of its manufacture; She noted that the current situation in a few populous city and provides too few workers at low prices, is not very favorable; it proposes to move home again; she would like that without the encouragement same company, the government or the capitalists might set able to give all the desirable growth in its manufacture.

After you have presented the current state of affairs, your committee should not have you ignorant that she found herself embarrassed to present the findings in the case of Ms. Reyne. His workmanship is good and interesting; its products are very remarkable in the most important and most difficult parts of this work; it will find perfectionnemens to its handling here, where it is known as well and even better than in Italy, together braids butt bleaching straw hats and dress; and there is no doubt that it can eventually reach perfection in this. We have no doubt either that greater than those that could be obtained to date are very necessary for a proper pulse manufactures its capital; but your règlemens do not allow you to spend money to quicken the particular manufactures. On the other hand, the interior minister, giving 3,000 fr. Madame Reyne, wisely expressed that he understood Page 206 not ride his factory, but only to provide some encouragement.

Ruined, as it exposes, through various circumstances beyond her, she can not wait suffisans means of actions that capitalists who might take an interest in his work.

You can not give to Ms. Reyne tips and testimonials of respect.

Under the first report, you can recommend it to especially treat meeting her braids butt, bleaching and finishing of his hats; you can ask if it is possible to place her in an institution for orphans hospice or in a house of detention, finally a place where labor is at the lowest possible price.

Under the second report, and considering that Ms. Reyne appears to be the first to be introduced in large, growing the plant used to make straw hats in Italy; Whereas what is lacking in his work also performs here with great perfection and can easily be inserted into its own factory, we have the honor to propose to award him a silver medal in your next sitting .

Signed SILVESTRE, rapporteur.
Adopted in session, February 20, 1822.

This proposal was adopted, and in his public meeting, Mr. Charbonnel, attorney for the lady, received the silver medal intended for him.

Hats wood M. BERNARD.

These hats are different from the preceding ones in that it is only the carcass formed light wood, cut into thin, narrow blades by mechanical Page 207 he invented. These side plates are bonded to one another on a fabric that combines the light fastness; and the top edge of the cap are prepared in the same manner; and when he gave these three pieces the proper form and that he has met, he covers it all with a waterproof varnish. When it is dry, the cap is covered with a silk fabric plush, which mimics very hairs called gilding hats usually felt; Finally, the author goes on a plush sort of varnish around each strand of silk, do not trap dust and prevents water from entering. These hats have the advantage of still kept as bright and never deformed. For more details we refer to the Proceedings of the National and foreign industry, in August 1825.

Hats of straw.

All broom can be used to manufacture common hats, called plaiting; but it is mainly the Spanish broom, spartium Junceum , used to manufacture. It is used for the finest rods to make tissue, not into separate braids. Included three types of these hats are known white , straw-colored , mixed various colors . The fabric of straw is sold in square pieces, each of which is enough to make a hat. Their price is for 2 fr. up to 10 fr. the part of their beauty.

Hats chips.

This patented invention of summer hats, made ​​from wafers fabrics, painted black and varnish, is due to Joseph Lantenhammer Vienna. ( Archiv. fur Gesch, stats, liter, kunst und , July 1824, No. 89 and 90)

These hats, said the editor of the city, is recommended Page 208 by their shape, light weight, and even by the time they expect from their service. Mostly they deserve, he added, preference on straw hats, which the public has had the good sense not to grant his favor so far with reserve.

Hats braids other than straw.

We will devote this article to manufacture hats with braids formed of silk, cotton, flax and horsehair. The first reached such a degree of superiority, they seem to compete with the finest straw hats in Italy.

Silk woven hats.

The first hats braided silk were produced in Florence; since, ladies Manceau, of Paris, managed to wear this kind of production to such a degree of perfection that their tresses silk hats mimic the finest straw hats in Italy, producing a complete illusion by the nuance and by finesse and fabric construction. Already in 1823, ladies Manceau had obtained the exposure of French products industry a silver medal, which was confirmed in 1827 that they employ this manufacturing premium quality silk, weft and woven according to the fineness that is seeking. Regularity braids requires the utmost care; they are using mechanical materials that put in motion; they are then primed, assembled shaped hats and submitted to the cylinder. These hats together with lightness and strength are very easy to clean; Add to that they are twice cheaper than Italian Straw, as we shall see below.

Those 1º No. 70, carrying seventy straws Page 209x board, can be sold at 200 francs, while those of Florence would cost more than 2,000 francs.

2 The common qualities from number 34 to the 50 range between 28 and 56 francs.

To raise awareness of the method employed by the ladies Manceau, we will report the patent that one of them has taken on this issue.

Clean process to do with raw silk hats imitating straw hats Italy by Julie MANCEAU miss in Paris. (Invention Patent of five years.)

We first made fabrics made of raw silk of the finest quality and the best possible choice, which is deposited in dyeing; the dyer preparing these tissues so they retain some stiffness that approximates the state of consistency of straw or bark; then, using a mechanical plaiting, silk braids are converted into more or less fine and more or less tight, as the fineness of hats that we want to do; braided strips are carefully checked throughout their length, in order to prune the damaged components and parts that would affect the identity of the fabric.

These braids are prepared aunées, set balls in suitable quantity, and data to the workers responsible for the assembly; This operation runs the needle with silk cord with three strands of twisted fabric shade.

Lost seam is obtained by engaging the left portion of the braid with the right side of that on which it must be assembled, so that the seam, taking as a zigzag on the other side, is hidden Page 210 in all contact points. These hats are constructed in two pieces, crown and front.

We begin the first part through its center, the assembly points are combined so that as the circles get larger, spiral-shaped seam that has the facility to develop and assemble without binding; the cap must be made of a strip of a single piece.

The front of the hat runs according to the same procedures, the look and used to determine the seam in this work through the forms and contours. This piece also made of a single piece is assembled to the cap and then be primed and train the entire hat.

This primer consists of ten parts of gum tragacanth, a portion of alum and nineteen parts water. These materials having reached a mixed state by the action of heat, the fabric was dipped to saturation, and then left, not completely dry, but losing the excess moisture, to be made to the press and pressed hot.

Is used for this purpose, according to the form that we want to give to the cap, cylinder or other solid wood, composed of several pieces together in the center drilled a hole for receiving a tapered piece of wood. This cylinder is placed in the interior of the cap, the pressure on the conical piece and passing through the center of the shape determines the tension of the fabric, which therefore is ironed with a hot iron, whose size and shape are those of the object on which it must pass.

If, instead of using unbleached silk, we wanted to use hair, hats confectionneraient is the same way.

These new hats are lighter than Page 211 Italian straw, can be washed and re-stain at will in various colors.

Additions certificate.

The raw materials were ordinary raw silk, are replaced by the hair of ales, which has the advantage of making the finest fabric, not to produce inequalities, and give shades of colors enjoyable.

The hats were made of two pieces are now in one piece by the continuity of a single braid.

The first primer had the disadvantage of leaving stains as it dries, this is avoided by using gum tragacanth prepared, and, second primer coatings consisting of mastic in tears, to make them waterproof.

One cylinder by means of a mechanical press, which, at the same time press the caps, gives them a freshness that they could get with the iron.

We make hats for men by the same process.

Mrs. Milcent-Scherckenbick had obtained in 1823 an honorable mention for impervious called hats, woven silk and linen in a variety of colors. The same distinction was granted to the exhibition of 1827 These hats are a very fine fabric, light, elastic, and can easily be made new when they were deformed or stained. We will publicize the patent Madame Milcent took for this production, there will be a recipe for waterproof varnish it employs for this purpose. Page 212

Making hats made ​​of cotton laces, thread and silk , by Madame MILCENT-SCHERCKENBICK in Rouen. (Invention Patent of five years.)

The loops of cotton yarn and silk, are using mechanical composed of nine to thirteen spindles or coils son every four to eight or even more, depending on the fineness. These loops are added together as a knitting needle; they are made to take the figure of hats on a wooden form, as one knits.

The hats are trained prepared with the following composition, enough for a dozen hats:

Four ounces, isinglass,
two ounces, gum arabic,
four ounces of potato starch;
Half a pint of spirits of wine and about a pot of water.

To make these waterproof hats, applying it, a brush, nail Venice for white hats, and gum copal varnish for people of color.

The varnish applied to hats, they switched to hot roll.

Mrs. Milcent also took another patent for the manufacture of various kinds of hats braids different tissues: here. Page 213

Various kinds of hats for use by men and women, and made ​​up of different tissues braids . (Invention Patent granted for five years, August 26, 1820, to Mrs. MILCENT-SCHERCKENBICK in Paris.)

Women's hats are in braids and even knit cashmere braided or knitted merino, braided or knitted wool, and finally in braids or knit camel or goat.

All hats made with braid emmaillent needle as straw hats of Italy; those knit being made as usual, are pulled by the hair through the thistle and the card. They are then ready with isinglass dissolved in spirits of wine, which is mixed with a solution of gum arabic, gum and starch Senegal: After this operation, the cylinder with a hot iron.

All these hats are very strong and can be cleaned dye in all kinds of colors.

Other hats are white satin embossed or pressed, or any kind of silk, wool, cotton, etc., of all colors and various designs.

Etched drawing on a piece of copper or wood; the fabric is glued with the above composition, and this plate is subjected to the action of a strong press to obtain the drawing.

There are still hats that are made by plaiting straw-colored silk formed ecru, silk and cotton, white cotton with white thread, and yarn and cotton.

To manufacture this plaiting, materials spun dissolution indicated above is dipped; the son is allowed to dry, and weaves to the trade, as is done for other stuff, then cylinder hot. Page 214

Manceau ladies also make hats braided cotton, which perfectly mimic their white rice straw.

It is also makes hats braided horsehair. We will publicize the process, according to the same invention patents taken by their authors.

Millinery horsehair , J. REINS. (Patent of invention and development of five.)

This process consists of braiding horsehair three or five wicks, and sew by observing increase or decrease according to the different shapes or sizes you want to give hats; then applying a primer that resists moisture and rain, and caught hats proper form while giving them more substance.

We also applied this method of manufacturing the cups for use by troops; Here the process of M. Cavillon, according to his patent.

Manufacture of hats woven horsehair, for use by troops, and to replace those in bearskins , Mr. CAVILLON, furrier in Paris. (Invention Patent of five years.)

So far we have made these hats with bearskins Louisiana, schools of Newfoundland, Virginia and Canada, not Russia, as many people think. Russian bears are not unique to this job, they have leather and hair too late, that would be a misuse, and become four times more expensive than in Canada; Page 215 it is the latter that is used for hair troops.

You can count the English are going to France twenty thousand bearskins a year, at forty five en form a sum of nine hundred thousand francs.; if we add to this account those who spend on the continent, it will amount to approximately four million we are their tributaries. My new processes will provide the means for France to overcome this tribute.

The methods include forming a cow carcass reinforced on its form, arcançonnée and restated on the back, to accommodate a loop with two barbs, maintained by a enchapure black sheep, and against girth, as in sheep, to tighten cap at will.

This carcass is covered with a black cloth strong wire Laval raised very fair, and forming, as it were, one body together.

How to make cloth.

Take Collière or horsehair tail strand finest, start with good curry comb and to the suin out; if it is too fat, it should be boiled in water, remove it and let it dry; after which you cut four and a half inches tall, then you do braiding three strong son of silk, to the height of three inches: eighteen lines that remain are to line the braid. You then place your first braid down, turning and looking away three lines from one to the other. In this way, you cover the whole canvas, leaving uncovered parts of the cap for receiving plates or other ornaments.

When the cap is fitted, it is passed to water flaxseed for good clean; then raises the Page 216 cap sheepskin topped his canvas, and the slide is switched on.

Mrs. Celnart, in his interesting book 55 , published an article in the manufacture of hats gimp cotton or silk, imitation Italian straw. We will transcribe.

Note 55: (return) Manual ladies , part of the encyclopedic collection of Mr. Roret, 3rd ed.

Following the procedure described for the flat braid, small pieces of cotton and silk that goes shaped hat was prepared as follows:

One takes a boss hat a little big, because the strap is tightened by the laundry and work: this pattern or model consists of the password and the shape of the hat; it must be straw or cotton. We start with the middle of the bottom; one attaches the end of the cord in the center, and it is turned on itself by describing successively larger circle. These circles were built each other, as it has a certain amount, and after they have been attached with pins; but as soon as these circles are slightly enlarged, it is better to build on, not only to each other, but after the banding pattern. Thus, any circularly surrounds the shape of the model; then threading a needle end of the colon and if the cord is white cotton, and straw-colored silk if the cord is silk 56 , you sew the straps together at points lying Overlock, taking these points in the small mesh the edge of the strap. This is done, the book is removed from above the form, return it, and you go up the front or the pass in much the same way, except the difference controlled Page 217 of the model: we measure passes half, and it is from this fact that half the cord from the right and left on the brink of going to see where it takes the cut on the side to get the roundness of the pass. Banding strap on each row of the pass, so as not to lose too by trimming around the edges, or not having to start over if, by chance, a piece was too short is measured before.

Note 56: (return) must ensure that the color of the silk used to sew the loops is well matched to the loops so that the eye can not see the point that seam.

It thus raises twenty rows or so, in the Baguant well after the pass, and then building one after the other. At this point, we have to make étrécissures , that is to say, cut the cord before the end of row and lose the tip of the strap between the strap of the previous row and the next row, so it does not form a crease. This is achieved by cutting edges on both somewhat strongly. As we work backwards, the excédantes parts do not appear when the hats are returned. It is impossible to indicate the number of étrécissures; they depend on the shape of the cap. Must sew the pass like shape, and then join together. When the hat is made ​​of cotton and bleached and primed, it has the appearance of a hat of white wood, said rice straw ; if the cord is silk hat has the look of those Italian straw. It is good to note that the continuous suture braids should be done after close, lest they deviate and fight it out in the laundry. We can give these loops cotton or silk for various colors, besides white hats and straw-colored, black hats, gray, etc.

It is obvious that by the same process, that is to say with loops made with flax, hemp and other filamentous material, we can make similar hats; as the mode of operation is the same, we do not feel bound to return. Page 218

Hats of men and women, with the warp and weft whale in silk, cotton, or other filamentous material twisted . (Invention Patent granted for five years, September 27, 1822, the Sieur de Bernardière (Achilles), in Paris.

These caps are made using a wooden; the system is in whale and weft silk, cotton or other filamentous material twisted; turns around the frame of the chain, which is fixed to the form by the simple relief of the fingers of the hand.

The hat, emerging from the hands of the workman, is bleached, dyed and primed.

Although hats poultry feathers are developing hats braid or braids, however, as they are neither covered nor any felted fabric, we thought it best to store a result thereof.

Awards granted since 1798 until 1827, at exhibitions of the products of French industry, in the manufacture of hats.

The exhibition of the products of French industry is one of the finest human conceptions; it can be seen as a life-giving spirit of science and chemical and industrial arts, development of which she chairs, and as a way to know all our resources and all the progress of the domestic industry. Walking through the beautiful products that are on display in the galleries of the Louvre, is believed to be transported in these enchanted palace due to the imagination of poets, and of which there are such brilliant descriptions Page 219 in oriental tales: the appearance of so many masterpieces, the observer, the mind filled with admiration, remains immersed in a kind of ecstasy which he emerges only to pay a cult esteem and gratitude to these hard-working men who, by their talents, honor and homeland, the century should see the rise; it is in this sanctuary of science and industry that we are really proud to be French, and in the eyes of Europe learned the ignorant squire is forced to bend with respect humiliated his forehead before the genius the arts.

We must not forget that this is one of the most illustrious men nowadays, Count Francois de Neufchateau, then Minister of the Interior, this institution is due.

There was remarkable was that he put it into effect in the year VI (1798), just as we were closing the British seas. François Neufchâteau this exhibition, made known to all Europe all the resources of our beautiful France, and rekindled the flame of our industry as England sought to extinguish. Besides, this is not the only service that celebrated man has made in science and the arts; His ministry, like the Count Chaptal and Lucien Bonaparte, will always time in their history.

The first show was held at the Champ de Mars; it lasted only three days.

The second in the consulate, in the year IX (1801), in the courtyard of the Louvre, where, under one hundred and four porticos who were high, were placed two hundred and twenty to nine exponents: duration was eight days.

The third took place in the year X (1802), under the ministry of Count Chaptal; there were five hundred and forty exponents.

The fourth, in 1806, under the ministry of M. de Champagny: three thousand four hundred twenty-two exponents Page 220 ​​built on the Place des Invalides, and eleven rooms of bridges and causeways. It was distributed twenty-seven gold, silver and sixty-three, and fifty-three bronze.

The fifth was held in 1819; it was the most brilliant, here we live with the immense astonishment perfectionnemens that chemistry had produced almost all branches of industry; and we have not forgotten the flattering testimony Count Berthollet, of illustrious memory, and the Count Chaptal, received by Louis XVIII for the part they had taken in that progress. In this exhibition the number of exponents is further increased, and fifty six gold medals were distributed, as well as hundred forty-eight silver, and one hundred and fourteen bronze.

The sixth took place in 1823, and was remarkable for the variety of products that the large number of exponents; must however admit that the ease with which it had been accepted as trivia, these pretty nothings, fruits quackery and greed, had converted this fine institution into a kind of bazaar or visit the merchants who came to distribute addresses. It is an abuse that the jury in 1827 had the courage to attack; hope that eventually uproot completely. The exhibition in 1823 was celebrated by the products of our cotton mills. That is still to this exhibition we saw the glittering chemical arts, which have put France at the head of all nations.

Finally the seventh exhibition was held from August 1, under wooden rooms, located in the courtyard of the Louvre and some of those in this magnificent building. An immense concourse of strangers was quick to come here to admire the progress, always growing, which took place not only in the quantity of products but also in improving processes and many applications Page 221 that were made ​​to the arts of many discoveries; as we see with transportation structures that appear to have exceeded the limits of the human mind. Must witness the beauty of those who are subject to this scholarly event, to judge merit. However, we are forced to admit that this exhibition was neither as large nor as varied as that of 1823, since it has counted about six hundred and fifty thousand exponents, more than eight hundred of Paris. Should we put this discouragement to the woes of the time, or the fabricans province they believe that the jury's judge him impartially? They can rest assured the talent and loyalty of MM. Arago, Darcet, Gay-Lussac, Biot, Thenard, Malard, Brongniart, Heron Villefosse Oberkampf, Gerard, Camille, Beauvais, etc., whose reputation is European, should fully reassure them.

We said that the exhibition of 1798 only lasted three days; no paper manufacturer did not appear there; instead of medals that were awarded in other exhibitions, it is granted to it that distinctions of first , second and third order.

In 1801, he was awarded the gold, silver and bronze, as well as honorable mentions. The jury found along with the distinctions of first and second order of 1798 were equivalent to gold and silver; he gave the awards to the exponents of the first exhibition, in 1801 réexposèrent their advanced products.

In 1802, awards were the same. It was also decided that fabricans which in this exhibition would present the products of previous exhibitions in the same state of development would not have a new medal, but a reminder of their past would be granted. Page 222

In 1806, these four rewards, is added in a fifth as the citation ; it comes after the mention . A remarkable fact is that, for a well misunderstood stinginess, one gave a medal to several fabricans who were obliged to draw lots; but it looked like all the others who had, since it was recognized that they had earned.

In 1819, besides the distinction of 1806, was granted decorations and titles of Baron and monetary rewards.

And the rewards are well graded:

Quote : This is the lower; Honorable Mention ; Bronze medal , Silver medal , gold medal , Decorations , Honorary .





It also sometimes gives monetary rewards. As for fabricans whose progress has sustained, without having increased, they were awarded the same medal, under the title Return of the medal won .

We will now publicize fabricans who won awards since 1798 until today. Taking a look at the table we are going to present, it will be easy to see the influence that exposures have had on this branch of French industry.

Exponents since 1798 until the 1827 exhibition.

Exposition of 1798.

No manufacturer of hats not presented at the exhibition. Page 223

Exposition of 1801.

It was the same with this one.

Exhibition of 1802.

It was only after this exhibition that headgear began to appear among the products of French industry. The fabricans who were the first to respond to this noble call are:

MM. Bardinel, Limoges, for hats;
Bellegarde (Joseph), Gaillac, id. ;
Brouilland son, id. ;
Viot, Marseilles, id. ;
Desaint Riquier young of Quevavilliers for braids hats.

No compensation was awarded to the headgear.

Exposition of 1806 .

Many fabricans followed this year's early momentum, and this show, if it was not for the brightest headgear, was at least the most numerous. We saw included:

Page 224

MM. Bellegarde (Joseph), for hats;
Bernard eldest of Moulins, id. ;
Berthier (François), Issoudun, id. ;
Beylard elder, Marmande, id. ;
Boulanger, Rennes, id. ;
Bourdachon, d Issoudun, id. ;
Dulerys (Pierre) Bourganeuf, id.
Florentine Couyère and Co. for straw hats;
Guiffray et Cie, Lyon, id. ;
Juhel, Sens, id. ;
lama, of Oleron, id. ,
MM. Lamorte, for hats;
Meissonier, id. ;
Monnereau, Niort, id. ;
Pascal (Pierre), Marseilles, id. ;
Patoors, id. ;
Ribolet, Lyons, id. ;
Rouliés, Agen id . ,
Sade, Anduze, id. ;
Sandrot (widow), Grenoble, id.

All these exponents, MM. Guiffray only obtained an honorable mention. This failure cools so the zeal of these two fabricans only reappeared in the following exhibitions.

Exhibition of 1819.

This exhibition was less numerous than the previous; we saw only appear

MM. German, of Paris, for hats:
Brouilland son, id. ;
Chenard elder, father and son, id.
Couyère, hats willow
Delouchant, id. ;
Dormois and Co., id. ;
Guichardière, of Paris, id. ;
Lamorte, id. ;
Lauche (Antoine), id. ;
Lantier elder, id. ;
Masclet, id. ;
Maurisier, id. ; Poujal, id.
Thibault, for straw hats;
Vian de Mourche, Marseilles, id.

The latter won an honorable mention; it was the same Mr. Guichardière, who has since published some very good memories of hat-making. It is Page 225 regret that greater encouragement 57 were not granted to the widow Reyne factory in Valencia, Drôme, who in 1822 received a silver medal from the League of encouragement to the domestic industry. This lady being ruined was forced to abandon the operation. We promoted the report that was about it Mr. Sylvester.

Note 57: (return) Ms. Reyne asked the Government a sum of 12,000 francs .; that of 2,400 fr. was granted by the Minister of the Interior, April 12, 1820.

Exhibition of 1823.

We have not been able to obtain accurate information on the number of exponents of this year renseignemens; we could not know that those who received some awards. These were:

Ladies Le Mans , who obtained a silver medal for silk hats, imitation Italian Straw; and other hats braided cotton, imitation rice straw .

Mr. Dupre, of Lagnieux was honorably mentioned for his straw hats way to Italy.

Mrs. Milcent-Scherckenbick , honorable mention for hats, called raincoats, braided silk and linen in various colors.

Exposition of 1827.

The silver medal given to Le Mans ladies seems to have been a powerful incentive for other fabricans; Exposure 1827 also was the brightest for hat, the jury he had a much larger number of awards received. We will introduce, starting with the highest, and gradually descending to the weakest. Page 226

Silver medals.

Le Mans ladies who had also achieved in 1823.
M. Dupré, for straw hats way from Italy.

Bronze medals.

MM. Percherand Dubois et Cie, for straw hats, mimicking those of Florence.

Honorable Mentions.

Home central Bicetre in Paris for straw hats.
M. Gancel (Pierre), for woolen hats, and hair calf.
M. Giroux of Paris, for felt hats.
M. Lenoir (Epiphanes), for woolen hats, well made ​​and cheap.
Mrs. Milcent-Scherckenbick for waterproof hats silk and linen.

Quotes.

MM. Davilla and Dabbe for waterproof hats.
M. Dulong-Miergue, id.
M. Wansbroug, id.
M. Savornin for elastic hats.

Enlargement

Enlargement

Page 227



GLOSSARY
OF SIGNIFICANT TRANSACTIONS AND instruments
USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF HATS.

Acids.

Made substances which generally have a sour taste, redden litmus and most vegetable blues, and form a class known as salt body, uniting with the salt-forming bases. They are the result of the union of some body with oxygen, and then they are called oxo acid , or with hydrogen, and then they are known to hydracids ; Finally, they may be the result of the combination of some of them without body oxygen or hydrogen, such as chlorine with boron ; acid -chloro boric etc. We will indicate the acids that are used in the headgear.

Acetic acid . It is vinegar to the state of purity.

Citric acid . This is the acid lemons.

Muriatic acid or muriatic , formed by chlorine and hydrogen. This gives rise to acid salts or muriates muriates.

Nitric acid or etching . Extracted from potassium nitrate (saltpetre) acid. It consists of nitrogen and oxygen.

Sulfuric acid (oil of vitriol). Obtained by burning sulfur in large rooms lead. It is composed of oxygen and sulfur.

Tartaric acid . This is the acid with potassium hydroxide, which is the salt known as potassium acidulous tartrate (cream of tartar).

Alkalis.

Alkali. Substances most greening plant blue colors have a pungent taste and urinous, saturated acids and form salts with them.

Atmospheric air . Elastic fluid, apart from all the fumes and vapors, etc., it contains, envelope everywhere the globe, rises to a height unknown, penetrates the deepest depths, is part of all body, and adheres to their surface. It consists of 0.79 and 0.21 nitrogen oxygen; 0.01 more carbonic acid.

Copper acetate (sub) . Green verdigris. Salt of acetic acid compound with excess copper oxide.

Copper acetate . Acetic acid salt compound and copper oxide in a state of neutralization.

Iron acetate . A salt of acetic acid and iron oxide compound.

Primer hats.

Introduction of a glue, leaving the fabric flexibility in matted clumps parts, making it more consistent, stronger and more likely to retain the shape given to it.

Appropriage hats.

Hats reached the point of making decent, do not have this brilliant nor sweetness that constitute beauty. It is these qualities that give them by appropriage . As for the felts for the salon, we merely pass to iron or put them in the press to catir as wool fabrics.

Pommel (of).

The tree is a species of a large bow, which hung from the floor to the middle, so you can place it in every possible direction. This bow is located on top of a table covered with a wicker rack end and tight enough to allow only the garbage. The hair is placed on the rack; we brought the rope of the tree in the heap, and without it so, they put it in play with a check mark , a sort of time hardwood, terminated at each end by a button mushroom. This is by hooking it with the bolt rope, and pulling strongly, it ends up on the slide button, and enter into it all the more accelerated vibration, the movement was more abrupt arçonneur . The worker is careful to raise or lower the tree.

Agnelins.

Wool from lambs.

Lifting or pulling of hair hare.

In this operation, clamp the cutters down between the thumb and the blade of a knife said anvil, and pulling them down is washed away, and most of the jar remains on the skin. This complete tear plucking.

Range.

Impose a cap is in place similar to that it should have, taking care to take a slightly higher than that of dressage to the crowd form, that form the string does not occupy the same spot than where it was in the crowd, and thus avoid the cuts felt producing species étranglemens. It is only in terms of art called down the link.

Forward hand.

Synonymous to walk the crowd this name is that most of this work is done with bare hands.

Achieved crowd.

It is when the felt reaches the prescribed size , and is not subject to any further withdrawal for another crushing.

Basin and basting (du).

This is one of the main headgear; it must be done in a special room so that the worker no further exposure to the fumes produced during arçonnage. It gives the name of the basin to a set of hard wood and knit; and that of feutrière , strong canvas Alencon. We then wets the feutrière either with a brush or with a handful of willow sprig of heather or with a small broom rice; when it is wet enough, we place a few squares of thick, soft paper, overlaid with the hanging part, and we drive all that wetness also distributes. In this state, the worker held the feutrière and, after having drawn the papers, he fixes it, as we have already said, that is to say half of the basin, and the other pending on the front. Everything being thus prepared, the worker extends the feutrière parts on each other, taking care of the well spread, and especially that there are not any wrinkles or ridures on each piece, and after have slightly watered, it places a sheet of paper above; Finally, the last piece is covered by half the feutrière remained pending.

Parts working until 1 recognizes that they have become consistent enough and firm enough not to open or expand; 2 at the same time they are soft enough that, when brought together, they unite and bind so as to form a single and even felt. This is called building a felt .

Basin primer.

This operation aims to rid the surface markers of the excess primer for therein and keeps hair stuck together, we notice that those who have not been subjected to the pelvis. For this, the edges of these hats are dipped in a weak solution of soap in boiling water; it is dripping then it is wiped, there emerges the hair and allowed to dry in an oven for submission to the appropriage.

Bench crowd.

Incline bench, placed around the boiler on which the workers operate crushing felts.

Border skin.

It is deleting the tail, legs, etc.

Burse the stuff.

It's making her do the basting pockets when not well managed.

Burnish.

Synonymous with dye.

Cardboard (du).

This operation consists of sticking to the bottom of the hat bond paper, and another lighter around the shape.

Plaice.

You little card iron used to develop the down caps.

Hats mid-hairs.

The term half-naked ad that gilding is higher than that of ordinary and less than cubs golden pens. So this quality takes a middle ground between the other two. Both gilding is applied to what are called felt, in terms of art, first and second pose .

Hats cubs.

These hats have a more beautiful and longer gilding. The word Pooh is that these hats for the hairy, are compared with the chickens, though he faille much that their hair is too long.

Hats plumes.

Hats called plumes , and lined , etc., differ cubs that what we do dore like these that one side or only on the edges, etc.

Hot.

The hot is also known as the diving or fire ; its duration is 1:30 to 2:00.

Chiquettes,

Entrenched parts of the skin.

Iron citrate.

Salt of citric acid and iron oxide compound.

Colcothar red of England, Prussia red (tritoxide iron).

This oxide is a beautiful red, pulling a little on the brown, more fusible than iron, indecomposable by nonmagnetic caloric being reduced by the electric fluid, insoluble in water. It is the coloring principle of blood, red brown, etc.

Isinglass (isinglass).

These are the air bladders sturgeon ( Acipenser huso. LIN.), which is usually 24 feet long and 12 wide. These vesicles are cleaned, they are rolling on themselves, and they are dried, giving them the shape of a heart or a lyre; or, instead of rolling it folds like a briefcase.

Strong glue, glue Flanders.

Thus we call gelatin being removed ears and feet of cattle, horses, sheep, calves, and the white parts of these various animals. This glue is dry casting tablets, brittle, brown, yellowish, reddish, transparent or semi-transparent, according to their degree of purity and the care that was taken of the preparation.

Crystals of Venus. See copper acetate.

Bluestone, vitriolated copper, blue vitriol, vitriol copper vitriol of Cyprus, etc. (Deutoxide copper sulfate).

This salt is odorless, bitter taste and a very styptic into irregular tranfparent blue crystals, and sometimes octahedra and décaèdres, enjoying the double refraction, efflorescens slightly, and then with a powdery material greenish white; soluble in four portions of cold water, and the aqueous undergoing fusion. The volatile alkali precipitates the oxide which remains suspended in the liquor and gives it a nice blue color. We denote this preparation by the name of heavenly water . It is composed of sulfuric acid and copper oxide.

Rosacea, copperas, green vitriol, martial vitriol, March vitriolated, etc. (Iron sulphate).

Recently crystallized salt is in rhombic prisms, a beautiful emerald green, transparent, and effleurissant air by absorbing its oxygen; it then converts tritoxide iron sulfate, which is yellow spots on the above crystals. Iron sulfate is odorless, stytique, and if water soluble, nine parts of the boiling liquid to dissolve said salt twelve. It is composed of sulfuric acid and iron.

Cross the crowd

Is the set of all the movements that we are obliged to turn to roll the felt on all sides that shows his face and trample on each roulemens .

Décatir.

This is descrambling the hair by means of a card.

Dégalage.

The hair on the skin is often filled with dust and foreign matter that is important to rid it: this is what we call in terms of art, dégaler . This operation is doing through a sort of little cards, known as the plaice . A worker walks slowly this tool on the hair, and then beats the skin with a stick on the opposite side; both operations continues until in strongly stirring the skin, it does so more dust.

Gilding.

This is the most beautiful is applied to the surface of the felt coat.

Dressage.

It is putting caps on the form, to give them the proper shape.

Trimming or plucking.

Hair beaver, rabbits, hares, etc., consist of down and jar. The fabricans have used various means to separate the fluff jar.

Trimming and plucking the words seem almost synonymous; However, there is a little difference between them. We have already said that in the beaver and rabbit, jar adheres less to the skin than down; it is because of this property and given the greater length of the jar that attaches to the pull; this is called plucking , while the trimming there also applies, but more commonly the hare skins whose jar is more adherent to the leather than down.

('L) Enficelage.

After entering some of the hats on the proper forms and have stopped with a string, they are immersed in a bath of boiling water for pure extract disgorge and cream of tartar that can contain hair; after keeping in a few moments the boiler covered, they are read and placed on the similar to those of the host trays, and at their lower end having a flange which carries the water flowing out of the felts cottage. That's when we put the felt on form, until there is properly applied and that offers no cover. We then made two rounds of string around the middle of the form using a noose that greenhouse poorly.

Plucking.

This operation is also known under the name tear.

Felts.

Materials used in the manufacture of hats that were converted by the basting in a kind of cloth called felt.

Said bristles Flemish felts.

This name comes from what they originally this method of preparation was imported from factories in Flanders. This felt is most often made ​​with pure rabbit hair and brushed with the striking surface , while the crowd , which gives off a very long and smooth hair, which is its quality and makes it the main beauty.

Felt golden.

It gives the name of golden pens to those of ordinary or inferior quality, which covers the outer surface is a thin layer of material or finer hair.

Felt grigneux.

We already know what is meant by Grigne; we will add here called felts grigneux who, having been passed and pressed between the fingers, by dragging them horizontally on each other, still offer these rough and grain are the Grigne. This defect recognized because: 1 basting too short given the felt by the worker, to make it happen more quickly to the desired size; 2nd Vice mixture that produced too soft stuff to be built larger.

Felt scales.

These markers after their making, and pressed between fingers as above, offer points where the fabric has so little consistency that is about to dethatch or, if you will, to see an end adhesion and the interweaving of down which is the result of basting and pressing. According to Mr. Morel, this defect arises because the felt was built too big, and being achieved crowd before being reduced to the size requested, the worker continued to trample them in the hope of be reduced; or when, having been built in the right proportions, the stuff too feeble departed the area and chipped the late work the crowd. When this defect, the author adds, is carried to excess, it causes cracks and holes. We say that the stuff broke.

Felt pen.

Felts said birds are a rich gilding for which use is made ​​of the finest hare and the beaver. In general, this applies only when the foil has been trodden felt with the difference of the method of gold markers, for those birds of several layers or gilding is applied to hair.

Crowd (of).

Felt, basting after process is far from having the consistency, strength and adequate to assure him some time strength; he is given these qualities through the crowd , which go in all directions hair on themselves and thus tightens the tissue and make it more consistent, much stronger, or in terms of art, more substantial. Hair, taking this new arrangement, occupy less space than before; also the stuff is it shrinks in all directions; also felt, coming out of basting, must have a third or twice the size it will look upon the crowd. This new felting always goes hot with a few agents that increase the quality of felting materials there is not yet chemically identified this new mode of action.

Buckling.

Hats with feathers, of whatever kind, are singed before receiving the first pose. For this, while the worker reduced the background to the size where it needs to be asked , he drained as much as possible with the roulet, and passed over a fire of straw or shavings The surfaces on which the poses are to be applied in order to get rid of hair that cover and that would affect the introduction of those who make up the pen. We give it after buckling, a light tap anywhere matches, to thoroughly clean these surfaces.

Fumerette.

Wet cloth you put on the felt to soften.

Gum arabic.

This gum is the same as the one that oozes from the bark of apricot, almond, cherry, plum, etc. Gum arabic is solid, often in cells, odorless, a bland flavor, transparent, colorless when pure, golden yellow, or more or less reddish when it is united with foreign bodies.

Grigne.

Roughness that can be seen on the felt when they are not well drawn.

Indigo.

This dyestuff is provided by the leaves of many plants almost all rows in the genre, because of this property, I was given the name of indigotifera. Plants where it is specifically removed are:

1 ° The indigotifera argentea , wild indigo. This species provides less than others; but, however, it is the most beautiful.

2 ° The indigotifera tinctoria , indigo French; it is the one who gives the most, but it is also the least beautiful of all.

3rd The indigotifera disperma or Guatimala. This plant is the highest and most timber; its indigo is better than the last.

4th The indigotifera anil , or anil. His indigo is a minimum of oxidation.

These plants are native to India and Mexico, where they were transported to the Americas, China, Japan, Madagascar, Egypt, etc.

Jarre.

Black hair and bright which is very large, which only felt the point.

The luster.

Brush glaze used for shining hats; there also has brushes half luster.

Potholders.

Kind of instrument made of leather soles, whereby the worker plunges, without burning, felts place in the boiler to each bearing, and even felt that the ride is over; the felt is so hot.

Nuts Wales.

This name is given to a round excrescence produced from the buds of Quercus infectoria of Linnaeus, by the bite of an insect named by the same naturalist wasp Quercus folii , and Geoffroy, diplolepsis gallae tinctoria . This oak is very common throughout Asia Minor; it is found from the coast of the archipelago to the borders of Persia, and the Bosphorus to Syria, etc.

Oxygen.

Gas which accounts for twenty-one hundredths in the composition of the atmosphere, which, by uniting with the metal substances, passed the state of oxides or rust.

Red and black balls.

This woolly coat comes from the East, and takes its name from the shape into a ball given to it in the bullets used to transport; it is due to the goats of a particular species of Asiatic Turkey. There is a significant difference between the red and black balls. The latter pilling easier, but instead the red hair is much thinner. Goats of Tibet also have a very fine down, besides the jar. It was found that our goats also, besides their long hair, a kind of excellent wool hat.

Ball.

Piece of padded down we pass on the felts.

Room.

The piece is a tool of copper, which is used to make the liquid and impurities that may contain the felt out.

Diving.

Called diving or hot, in hat, what ordinary dyers call fire. The duration of each dive or fire is 1:30 to 2:00.

Poucier.

Thus we call a finger skin that serves to secure the edge of the tool when the jar press against the same edge with that finger.

Robage (the)

We must first comb the Flemish those hats and pens; about the hats ordinary hair, they dress, that is to say, they gently brush the surface with a piece of skin of dogfish, to produce a thick short hair, and end.

Schakos.

The shako is a particular hairstyle troops and takes various cylindrical shapes, sometimes descending slightly to the top, and sometimes rather widening much. The schakos are manufactured as wool felt hats; they can also be stuffed with silk, cotton, horsehair, leather, and generally in the same way that the various hats that we have listed. Strictly speaking the schakos hats are a particular shape, rimless, with the leather skullcap and often provided with a patent leather visor.

Sécrétage.

The sécrétage is an operation that subjected the hair to increase their felting property. Once the principle is employed in France for this purpose, but with limited success, a decoction of marshmallow root and comfrey or symphitum. It was around 1730 that a journeyman hatter, named Matthew, brought from England the process of sécrétage skins using the nitrate of mercury.

Sunflower bread.

It makes this dye Auvergne, Dauphiné, etc., with several lichens, mainly with varidaria Orcina Achard. The method involves spraying the leaves of these lichens, to make a paste with urine and half their weight of ash gravel, taking care of the urine added as it evaporates. After forty days of putrefaction, the mixture acquires a purple color; it is then placed in another trough, and further added thereto urine; that's when the blue color develops. Then we divide the paste is added thereto and the urine and lime. For last preparation, consideration is the composition of the paste thus obtained calcium carbonate to give it consistency, and is reduced to small bread is dried.

Violin.

By the name of violin , an assembly of sixteen to eighteen strings whip, about eight feet in length, which are retained by their ends into two brackets drilled enough holes distans two to three means inch to each other. Ropes and whip easily arranged when one of cleats being fixed to the floor, knocking on the carder double past him with the other cleat hits that has a handle with a foot and a half long. The worker must be careful to stir from time to time the job with two sticks so that work or mixing also takes place; he continues to whip until the various materials are blended, only in terms of art called erased .

End.

Table of Contents.



Agnelins 9
Acetic Acid 23
- citric 25
- Hydrochloric 29
- Nitric (high water) 30
- sulfuric acid (oil of vitriol) 31
- tartaric 33
copper acetate (sub) 43
- Copper 44
- to iron 45
Uprooting or draw hare 76
Arçon (of) 87
assorted hats 114
hats Primer 129
- (application of) 130
- (d bath) 130
- (pool of) 132
Appropriage 133
Primer straw 180
Logwood and India 33
- fustic of 34
- Yellow 35
Prussian Blue 46
Basin and basting (the) 90
Money straw 174
From millinery in France 21
strong glue and Flanders 35
- Fish 36
colcothar 43
Crystals Venus 44
Iron Citrate 46
green blotches 48
- Blue 48
Hats felted 51
Blending of rabbit hair 74
- - Beaver 76
ranking skins 64
Carding 85
Hats cubs or hair 107
- (perfected by Mr. Borradailles) 145
- (perfected by Mr. Moore Chaming) 145
- down with the goat Cashmere 147
- hairy otter 149
- mixed silk 152
silk hats 157
- perfected by John Wilcox 159
- waterproof silk and felt Mierque Drulhon 160
- plush silk or cotton 162
- Cotton fabric and all kinds of fabrics
filamentous 163
- perfected by Mr. Mayhew and White 165
- Straw 171
- in whale A. Bernardière 218
Cardboard 135
Description of materials used to manufacture the
hats. 1
Dégalage 53
Dressage hats 101
Trimming or plucking 53
- rabbit skins 54
- - Beaver 56
- - Hare 57
- (Report to the committee of chemical arts, on)
Mr. Malartre by Mr. Cadet Gassicourt
Enficelage 114
Water Polishing 135
Exposition hats 223
Crowd (the) 94
Felt grigneux 99
- shucked 99
- Miscellaneous 103
- United 103
- Flemish hairs called 103
- gold 104
- pen 106
Gum arabic 36
- Basra 37
- Senegal's 37
trim hats 136
Hydro-ferro-cyanate of iron 46
- - Potash 47
Indigo 37
Laines (the) 1
knowledge and choice for hat
Lambs wool 9
- antenois of 10
- vicuna 10
- cashmere sheep 11
machine clean opening and clean wool 57
- to cut the hair of the skin, by Collin 77
Mixture of felting materials 83
- Flemish hair 84
Means to extract the jar of fluff
skins, Mr. Malartre 63
Method to varnish waterproof hats 146
Walnut Wales 41
mercury nitrate 47
New methods of Mr. Guichardière 137
- - Mr. Perrin 143
comments on the hair of rabbit skins 23
Oxide of arsenic 42
- iron or colcothar 43
Hair Rabbit 11
- angora rabbit 12
- or wild rabbit warren 12
- Hare 14
- Beaver 16
- Otter 17
- Camel 19
Balls red and black 19
Purity and falsification vinegars 28
Award for the development of the dye hats 110
Notes on using the fur for headgear 20
Awards given to fabricans hats exposures 218
regulations concerning the manufacture of hats France 22
Red England 43
Robage 114
Copper sulphate 48
- Iron 48
Sécrétage 65
- (new method), by MM. Malard and Desfossés 68
- (report on this process) 69
schakos 166
- in polished 167
- (Process for re-stain) 170
iron tartrate 45
Sunflower 49
Clipping hair 73
Stain straw 175
- Blue 177
- Yellow 177
- Black 177
- hats 109
Braiding straws 178
Stain 300 caps 115
- 200 hats, Morel 118
- (by Guichardière) 121
- (by Buffum) 123
- by Pinard 124
- (processes) in Trieste, 125
- (_idem_) Neapolitans 127
gray-green 43
. Vocabulary 227
      

END TABLE.

_______________________________
PRINTING OF CHEVARDIÈRE,
STREET Colombier, No. 30.







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