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cover


[1]

Allied
Cookery

upright dividing line British
French
Italian
Belgian
Russian


Arranged by

Grace Clergue Harrison
and
Gertrude Clergue

TO AID THE WAR SUFFERERS IN THE DEVASTATED DISTRICTS
OF FRANCE


Introduction by

Hon. Raoul Dandurand
Commandeur de la Légion d'Honneur


Prefaced by
Stephen Leacock and Ella Wheeler Wilcox



G. P. Putnam's Sons
New York and London
The Knickerbocker Press
1916

[2]


[3]

THE PURPOSE

of this little book is to procure funds in aid of the farmers in that part of France which was devastated by the invasion of the German armies and subsequently regained by the French.

This region, in part, one of the most fertile in France, and which sustained hundreds of thousands of inhabitants engaged in agricultural pursuits, has been left desolate, with all buildings destroyed and all farming implements, cattle, and farm products taken off by the invaders for military uses.

Its old men, women, and children, who survived the slaughter of invasion, are now undertaking the labour of restoring their farms. To help in the supply of seeds, farm implements, and other simple but essential means of enabling these suffering people to regain by their own efforts the necessaries of life, the compilers offer to the public this book on Cookery.

Its proceeds will be distributed by Le Secours National, of France, whose effective organization assures its best and most helpful disposition.[4]

An acknowledgment must be made for the kind assistance of friends in securing desirable recipes. There are some that will be novel to many households, and all of them will give satisfaction when exactly followed.

The compilers will gladly answer requests for information from any one wishing further to support this cause.

Mrs. Wm. Lynde Harrison,
Milestone House,
Branford, Conn.

Miss Gertrude Clergue,
597 Sherbrooke Street West,
Montreal.

CONTENTS

  PAGE
Introduction.      Hon. R. Dandurand 5
Allied Food.      Stephen Leacock 8
Foreword.      Ella Wheeler Wilcox 12
Charlotte de Pommes.      Elise Jusserand      14

SOUPS
Bouillabaisse 15
Borcht 16
Mushroom Soup 17
Serbian Chicken Soup 17
Vegetable Soup 18
Lettuce Soup 19
Pot-au-Feu 19
Onion Soup 20
Soldiers' Soup 21
Stschi 21
Buraki 22
Lentil Soup 22
Black Bean Soup 23
Fish Chowder 23

FISH
Roast Oysters 24
Raie au Beurre Noir 24
Salmon Tidnish 25
Aubergine Aux Crevettes 25
Lobster Beaugency 26
Scallops en Brochette 26
Filet of Sole Florentine 26
Salmon Teriyaki 27
Filet of Sole Marguery 28
Codfish with Green Peppers 28
Herring Roes, Baked 29
Creamed Fish 30
Mousseline of Fish 30
Haddock Mobile 31
Kedgaree 31
Pickled Salmon 31

MEATS AND ENTRÉES
Russian Pirog Kulbak 33
Carbonade Flamande 33
Blanquette of Veal 34
Blanquette of Chicken 35
Stracotto 35
Duck St. Albans 36
Boned Turkey 37
Chicken and Cabbage 37
Leg-of-Mutton Pie 38
Russian Steaks 38
Another Russian Method for Beef-Steaks 39
Stewed Kidneys 39
Chicken 40
Baked Ham 40
Rillettes de Tours 41
Rice and Mutton 42
Baked Eggs 42
Tripe 42
Tripe, Italian 43
Timbale of Partridges 44
Stewed Hare 44
Indian Pilau 46
Stuffed Beef Steaks 47
Podvarak 47
Ribs of Pork en Casserole 48
Salmis de Lapin 48
Sheep's Head 49
Macaroni Pie 50
Kidney and Mushrooms 51

CURRIES
Indian Curry 52
Fricassee of Chicken 52
A Simpler Indian Curry 53
Another Curry Sauce 54

PASTES, CHEESE, ETC.
Macaroni with Cheese 56
Macaroni 56
Polenta with Cheese 57
Lentil Croquettes 57
Risotto 58
Risotto Milanaise 58
Ravioli 59
Egg Coquilles, with Spinach 60
Pirog of Mushrooms 60
Paste for Russian Pirog 60
Eggs Romanoff 61
Œufs Pochés Ivanhoe 61
Cheese Puffs 61
Moskva Cheesecakes 62
Cheese Fritters 62
Cheese Pudding 63
Chicory or Endive 63
Stewed Cos Lettuces 63
Asparagus 64
Celery Croquettes 65
Ragoût of Celery 66
Stuffed Onions 67
Onions, Venetian Style 67
Fried Pumpkin or Squash 68
Cucumbers 68
Sarma 69
Polenta Pasticciata 70
Fried Bread with Raisins 71
Polenta Croquettes 72
Rice with Mushrooms 72
Timbales of Bread with Parmesan Sauce 73

SAUCES
Cheese Sauce 74
Tomato Sauce 74
Another Tomato Sauce 74
Mustard Sauce 75
A Meat Sauce 75
Another Meat Sauce 76
Lombarda Sauce 76
Horse-Radish Sauce 77
Gnocchi di Semolina 77

SALADS
Italian Salad 79
Lettuce Salad 79
Sandwich Dressing 79
Salad Dressing 80
Cheese Dressing 80

VEGETABLES
Potato Cakes 81
Petits Pois 81
String Beans 81
Red Cabbage 82
Cabbage with Cheese Sauce 82
Glazed Onions 83
Spinach Soufflé 83

PUDDINGS, CAKES, ETC.
French Pancakes 84
Crepes Suzette 84
Sauce for Crepes Suzette 84
Another Suzette Pancake 85
Kisel 85
Carrot Pudding 86
Old English Plum Pudding 86
Banana Trifle 87
Cream Tart 87
Chocolate Pudding 88
Fried Apples 89
Orange Pudding 89
Oat Cakes 90
Tea-Cakes 91
Tea Pancakes 91
Canadian War Cake 92
Serbian Cake 92
Ravioli Dolce 93
Chestnuts 93
Gnocchi of Milk 94
Almond Pudding 94
Chestnut Fritters 95
Chestnut Cream 95
Tapioca Pudding 96
Ginger Ice-Cream 97
Almond Cake 97
Queen Cakes 98
Francescas 98
Oat Cakes 98
Gateau Polonais 99
Anise Cakes 99
Gordon Highlander Gingerbread 100
Scotch Short Bread 100
Cramique 100
Gaufres 101
Pets de Nonne 101
Brioche de la Lune 102
Victoria Scones 103
Nut Bread 103
Bran Muffins 103
Scotch Scones 104
Blinni 104
Baked Hominy 104
Marrons Glacés 105
Small Cucumber Pickles 105
Preserved Strawberries 106
Rhubarb Jelly 107
Tomato Soup for Canning 107
Budo Cup 108

[5]

INTRODUCTION

COMITÉ FRANCE-AMÉRIQUE
(Section Canadienne)
Chambre-31, Edifice "Duluth"
Montréal, March 2, 1916.
Mrs. Wm. Lynde Harrison,
Miss G. Clergue.

Mesdames:

Vous désirez faire quelque chose pour venir en aide aux victimes de la guerre en France et, dans ce but, vous publiez un livre utile dont vous faites tous les frais d'impression de manière à ce que le produit total de la vente soit versé au Comité de Secours National de Paris.

Le but que vous vous proposez est fort louable car les besoins sont grands au pays de France. On a fait dernièrement le recensement des réfugiés belges et français chassés de leurs demeures et recueillis dans les diverses communes de France. Ils sont plus de 900,000 et les allemands out renvoyé en France par la voie de la Suisse plus de 100,000 prisonniers—vieillards, femmes et enfants—qu'ils[6] ne voulaient plus nourrir et qui out été rendus, dénués de tout, à la charité publique. Tous ces malheureux doivent être vêtus de la tête aux pieds. Les Etats-Unis et le Canada out heureusement fait leur part pour soulager cette grande infortune, grâce aux appels réitérés de l'American Relief Clearing House de Paris et de New-York et des divers comités canadiens du Secours National de Paris, organisés par le Comité France-Amérique.

Les hôpitaux français réclament aussi, à bon droit, notre sollicitude, car c'est la France qui supporte le plus fort de l'assaut teuton sur la frontière de l'Ouest et ses blessés doivent dépasser le demi million. Devant cette grande détresse la Croix-Rouge américaine et la Croix-Rouge canadienne ne sont pas demeurées indifférentes et des milliers de caisses out été envoyées aux hôpitaux français. Malheureusement la liste des calamités qui out fondu sur la France ne s'arrête pas là: tout le territore envahi par les troupes allemandes, dont elles out été chassées, qui va de la Marne à l'Aisne, et que couvraient des centaines de villages prospéres dans une des régions les plus fertiles et les plus riches de la France, a été ravagé par les troupes ennemies. Les propriétaires de ces milliers de fermes—vieillards, femmes et enfants—sont revenus à leurs foyers détruits pour relever leurs[7] maisons et faire produire à la terre la nourriture dont ils ont besoin. Ils ont tout perdu: maisons, meubles, vêtements, animaux, instruments aratoires. Ce sont ces derniers qui attirent particulièrement votre commisération. En face de cette misère effroyable tous les cœurs s'émeuvent et chacun veut apporter son aide à ces braves gens. Vous donnez au public une occasion facile et agréable de faire ce geste en mettant à sa portée un livre intéressant dont le prix ira soulager les nobles victimes de la guerre en France.

Je vous souhaite une forte recette. Veuillez agréer, mesdames, avec mes félicitations, l'expression de mes sentiments distingués.

Signature: R. Dandurand

 





Président du Comité France-Amérique
Section Canadienne.


[8]

ALLIED FOOD

As soon as I heard of the proposed plan of this book I became positively frantic to co-operate in it. The idea of a cookery book which should contain Allied Recipes and Allied Recipes only, struck me at once as one of the finest ideas of the day.

For myself I have felt for some time past that the time is gone, and gone for ever, when I can eat a German Pretzel or a Wiener Schnitzel.

It gives me nothing but remorse to remember that there were days when I tolerated, I may even say I enjoyed, Hungarian Goulash. I could not eat it now. As for Bulgarian Boosh or Turkish Tch'kk, the mere names of them make me ill.

For me, for the rest of my life, it must be Allied Food or no food at all. One may judge, therefore, with what delight I received the news of this patriotic enterprise. I at once telegraphed to the editors the following words:

[9]

"Am willing to place at your service without charge entire knowledge of cookery. Forty-six years' practical experience."

To this telegram I received no reply. I am aware that there is, even in cooking circles, a certain amount of professional jealousy. It may be that I had overpassed the line of good taste in offering my entire knowledge. I should have only offered part of it.

I therefore resolved that instead of writing the whole book as I had at first intended, I would content myself with sending to the editors, a certain number of selected recipes of a kind calculated to put the book in a class all by itself.

I sent, in all, fifty recipes. I regret to say that after looking over the pages of the book with the greatest care, and after looking also on the back of them, I do not find my recipes included in it. The obvious conclusion is that while this book was in the press my recipes were stolen out of it.

The various dishes that I had selected were of so distinctive a character and the art involved in their preparation so entirely recherché that it seems a pity that they should be altogether lost. They contained a certain je ne sais quoi which would have marked them out as emphatically the perquisite of the few. To say that they[10] were dishes for a king is to understate the fact.

It is therefore merely in the public interest and from no sense of personal vanity that I reproduce the substance of one or two of them in this preface. There was a whole section, for example, on Eggs, which I am extremely loath to lose. It showed how by holding an egg down under boiling water till it is exhausted, it may be first cooked and then be passed under a flat iron until it becomes an Egg Pancake. It may be then given a thin coat of varnish and served in a railway restaurant for years and years.

I had also an excellent recipe for Rum Omelette. It read: "Take a dipper full of rum and insert an omelette in it. Serve anywhere in Ontario." I am convinced that this recipe alone would have been worth its weight in rum.

But it would be childish of me to lay too much stress on my own personal disappointment or regret. When I realized what had happened I felt at once that my co-operation in this book must take some other form. I therefore sent to the editors a second telegram which read:

"Am willing to eat free of charge all dishes contained in volume."

This offer was immediately accepted, and I am happy to assure readers of this book that I have eaten each and every one of the preparations in the[11] pages that follow. To prevent all doubt I make this statement under oath. I had intended to make merely an honest statement of the fact but my friends tell me that a statement under oath is better in such a case than a mere honest statement.

Signature: Stephen Leacock

[12]

FOREWORD

God what a world! if men in street and mart
Felt that same impulse of the human heart
Which makes them in the hour of flame and flood
Rise to the meaning of true Brotherhood!

The heart of the world throbs with sympathy for the suffering women and children in the war-devastated countries of Europe. He who does not long to be a helper in this hour of vast need and unprecedented anguish must be made of something more adamant than stone. America owes a large debt to the culinary artists of Europe. Without their originality and finished skill, in the creation of savory dishes for the table, the art of entertaining in our land could never have attained its present perfection.

Ever ready to incorporate in her own methods whatever other countries had to offer as improvements, America has received from the epicurean chefs of Europe conspicuous benefits. In every menu from coast to coast, these facts make themselves evident. It is then fitting, that at this crucial hour, we repay something of the debt we owe by[13] making this little cooking manual an instant and decided success, knowing the proceeds from its sale will relieve such distress as we in our sheltered homes can scarcely picture by the greatest effort of imagination.

Our souls should be vessels receiving
The waters of love for relieving
The sorrows of men.
For here lies the pleasure of living:
In taking God's bounties and giving
The gifts back again.
Signature Ella Wheeler Wilcox

[14]

CHARLOTTE DE POMMES

Prendre des pommes reinettes épépinées, émincées et sautées au beurre avec quelques pincées du sucre et une demi-gousse de vanille.

De cette fondue de pommes qui ne doit pas être trop cuite, on garnit un moule à charlotte dont les parois auront été revêtues d'étroites tranches de mie de pain trempées dans du beurre épuré et saupoudré de sucre.

Ces tranches de pain doivent être placées dans le moule, se chevauchant, les unes sur les autres.

Garnir le fond du moule d'une abaisse de pain de mie également beurrée et saupoudrée de sucre.

Recouvrir la charlotte d'une abaisse prise dans la croûte du pain de mie afin de la protéger contre l'action trop vive du calorique.

Faire cuire la charlotte au four pendant 35 ou 40 minutes; la laisser reposer pendant quelques minutes à l'étuve avant de la démouler, et la servir avec une sauce à l'abricot, parfumée au Kirsch.

Signature: Elise Jusserand






Ambassade de France aux Etats-Unis.
March 2, 1916.


[15]

Allied Cookery

Soups

BOUILLABAISSE

(The national dish of Marseille)
Indeed, a rich and savory stew 'tis;
And true philosophers, methinks,
Who love all sorts of natural beauties,
Should love good victuals and good drinks.
And Cordelier or Benedictine
Might gladly, sure, his lot embrace,
Nor find a fast day too afflicting,
Which served him up a Bouillabaisse.
Thackeray.
C
Cut off the best parts of 3 medium-sized flounders and 6 butterfish and put them aside; the remaining parts of the fish—skin, bones, heads, etc.—boil in water 20 minutes; this should make 1 quart of fish stock when strained.

Put 3 tablespoons of olive oil in stew-pan, add 4 chopped onions, 3 cloves of chopped garlic, a[16] few sprigs of parsley, 1 bayleaf, ¼ teaspoon fennel, ¼ teaspoon saffron, ½ teaspoon whole black pepper ground, salt, fry until golden brown. Then add 3 or 4 tomatoes and a pimento, 1/3 quart of white wine, 2/3 quart of water, boil 15 minutes. Strain and return to the kettle; add the flounder and butterfish in pieces as large as possible, ½ lb. of codfish tongues, 1 lb. of eel; boil 10 minutes, add the fish stock, 1 lb. of scallops, boil 10 more minutes. Rub together 1 oz. of flour and 1 oz. of butter; drop this in the soup in little balls five minutes before serving. Then put in ½ lb. of shrimps and 1 large boiled lobster cut in large pieces. Rub with garlic some round slices of bread and serve the Bouillabaisse on them.

This will serve 12 persons.

One is not able to obtain here the varieties of fish of the Midi, but the above will make an excellent substitute.

BORCHT

(Russian)
M
Make a clear, light-coloured, highly seasoned stock of beef and veal or of chicken. Strain and remove all fat. A Russian gourmet will say that really good Borcht should be made with 2 ducks and a chicken in the stock. Cut up some red beets and boil them in the stock; about 4 large[17] beets to 8 cups of stock. When the beets are cooked squeeze in enough lemon-juice to give it a slightly acid flavour, then clear by stirring in the whipped white of an egg and bringing it to the boiling point. Strain carefully. Serve in cups with a spoonful of sour cream. If the colour fails to be bright red, a few drops of vegetable colouring may be added.

MUSHROOM SOUP

(French)
T
Three-quarters lb. of fresh mushrooms, 1 cup of water, 2 tablespoons of butter, 2 tablespoons of flour, 4 cups of scalded milk, ½ cup of cream, a few gratings of nutmeg, salt, and pepper.

Put the mushrooms in a stew-pan with 1 tablespoon of butter, a few gratings of nutmeg, salt, and pepper, and 1 cup of water; cook over a good fire 20 minutes, then pass through a coarse sieve. Cream 1 tablespoon of butter with 2 tablespoons of flour, add this to 4 cups of scalded milk. When this thickens to a thin cream, add the mushrooms; just before serving add ½ cup of cream.

SERBIAN CHICKEN SOUP

C
Cut a fowl in four or five pieces. Put in a kettle with about one quart of water to each pound of fowl. When half cooked add salt and a carrot,[18] parsnip, some celery and parsley, an onion, and a few whole black peppers.

In a separate pan put a tablespoon of lard and ½ tablespoon of flour. Stir this until it is brown and add some paprika, according to taste. Add this to the soup. Let it boil a few minutes. Just before serving the soup stir in well the yolk of an egg beaten with three tablespoons of cream.

VEGETABLE SOUP

(Minestrone alla Milanese)
O
One-half quart of stock, 2 slices of lean pork, or a ham bone; 2 tomatoes, fresh or canned; 1 cup of rice, 2 tablespoons of dried beans, 1 tablespoon of peas, fresh or canned; 2 onions.

Put into the stock the slices of pork, cut into small pieces; or, if desired, a ham bone may be substituted for the pork. Add the tomatoes, cut into small pieces also, the onions, in small pieces, and the rice. Boil all together until the rice is cooked. Then add the beans and the peas and cook a little longer. The soup is ready when it is thick. If desired, this chowder can be made with fish broth instead of the stock, and with the addition of shrimps which have been taken from their shells.

This dish can be served hot or cold.

[19]

LETTUCE SOUP

(Zuppa di Lattuga)
O
One small lettuce, meat stock, 2 potatoes, the leaves of a head of celery, 2 tablespoons of peas, fresh or canned, 1 heaping tablespoon of flour.

Put the potatoes, cold boiled, into the stock when it boils, add the celery leaves, the lettuce chopped up, the peas, and the flour mixed well with a little cold stock or water. Boil for one hour and a half, and serve with little squares of fried bread.

POT-AU-FEU

(French family soup)
G
Ingredients.—4 lbs. of brisket of beef, the legs and neck of a fowl, ½ a cabbage, 2 leeks, 1 large onion, 2 carrots, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 1 dessert-spoonful of chopped parsley, 4 cloves, 12 peppercorns, 1 tablespoonful of salt, ½ lb. of French bread, 6 quarts of cold water.

Put the meat and water into a stock-pot or boiling pot; let it come gently to boiling point, and skim well. Wash and clean the vegetables, stick the cloves in the onion, tie up the cabbage and leeks, and put all in with the meat. Add the carrots cut into large pieces, the bouquet-garni, peppercorns, and salt, and let the whole simmer gently for 4[20] hours. Just before serving cut the bread into thin slices, place them in a soup tureen, and add some of the carrot, leeks, and onions cut into small pieces. Remove the meat from the pot, season the broth to taste, and strain it into the soup tureen. Sprinkle the chopped parsley on the top, and serve. The meat and remaining vegetables may be served as a separate course; they may also be used up in some form for another meal. Or the meat and vegetables may be served and the broth put aside and used on the following day as "Croute-au-pot."

ONION SOUP

(Soupe à l'Oignon)
S
Slice or chop two medium-sized onions; let them colour an instant in 1 oz. of butter; add a tablespoonful of flour; make a brown thickening. The onions must on no account be allowed to burn. Add 2½ quarts of water, salt, and a pinch of pepper; stir on the fire until it boils; let it cook five minutes. Cut some slices of bread very fine (like a leaf); dry them in an open oven. Place in the tureen a layer of bread, a layer of grated cheese, until the tureen is half full. Pass the soup through a sieve into the tureen. Allow a few minutes to well soak the bread; at the same time the soup must not be allowed to get cold. If onions are not objected to do not strain them off.

[21]

SOLDIERS' SOUP

(Soupe à la Bataille)
W
Wash well and chop fine a small white cabbage or lettuce (cos preferred), 1 carrot, 1 turnip, 3 leeks, 1 head of celery. Let these vegetables take colour for about three minutes in 2 ozs. of good fat or butter. Add 3 quarts of water and a pinch of salt; let it boil. Add five raw potatoes cut like the vegetables, a handful of green French beans cut up, the same quantity of green peas. Cook over a good fire for two hours. The soup should be quite smooth; if it is not so, beat it well with a whisk; if too much reduced add more water. Season to taste; at the last add a little chopped chervil. A bone of ham or the remains of bacon improve this soup immensely.

STSCHI

(Russian)
C
Cut up a cabbage, heat in butter, and moisten with 3 tablespoons of stock. Add 2 lbs. of beef brisket, cut into large dice, 3 pints of water, and cook 1½ hours. Chop up 2 onions, 2 leeks, and a parsnip in small dice, add 2 tablespoons of sour cream and 1 tablespoon of flour. Add this mixture to the soup about ½ hour before serving. Small buckwheat cakes are served with it.

[22]

BURAKI

(Russian)
C
Cut in cubes 4 or 5 lbs. of fat beef in enough water to make a good bouillon and boil it well. Cut some raw beets into small thin slices about an inch long, chop some onion, and with a tablespoon of butter stew them until tender and somewhat brown; add to the beef bouillon 1 spoonful of flour mixed with 2 spoonsful of vinegar, the beets, and onion and let all this cook in the oven until the beets and beef are quite tender. It should be closely covered. Sausages and some pieces of ham may be added if wished. Before you serve the bouillon, add some sour cream.

LENTIL SOUP

(French)
S
Soak overnight 1 cup of lentils; the next day boil them until tender enough to pass them through a sieve with 2 onions, 2 carrots, 2 leeks, 1 quart of water, 1 dessert-spoonful of salt. Cut some slices of bread and place them in the bottom of a tureen and pour over them a little olive oil. When ready to serve pour the strained soup over the slices of bread.

[23]

BLACK BEAN SOUP

(Russian)
S
Soak 1 cup of black beans in cold water several hours. Pour off the water and boil in 1 quart of fresh water until soft enough to rub through a strainer; if it boils away, add more water to cover them. There should be about 1 pint when strained. Add the same quantity of stock or water and put on to boil again. When boiling, add 1 tablespoon of corn-starch in a little cold water and cook 5 to 8 minutes. Season with salt, pepper, a little mustard, juice of 1 lemon, or wine; serve with fried bread cut in little squares and slices of hard boiled egg or lemon.

FISH CHOWDER

(New England)
F
Four lbs. of fresh cod or haddock, 2 onions, 6 potatoes, ¼ lb. of salt pork, salt, pepper.

Put the onions and potatoes, sliced in layers, in a kettle, then a layer of fish until all is used. Fry the pork, cut in small pieces, brown, take the fat and pour over all. Cover with boiling water and cook 20 minutes. Then mix 2 spoonsful of flour with a cup of cream, stir into the boiling chowder, boil up, and serve.

Clams may be substituted for fish.


[24]

Fish

ROAST OYSTERS

A
Arrange the oysters on the half-shell in a pan of coarse salt. Squeeze a little lemon-juice over each. Sprinkle with very little fine buttered bread-crumbs and place on each oyster bits of butter the size of a pea. Put under the grill until lightly browned. The flame must be over the oysters and care taken that they are not over-cooked.
A. A. B., Chef, Mount Royal Club.

RAIE AU BEURRE NOIR

B
Boil a piece of skate slowly in well salted water. When done, remove the skin and sprinkle with some blanched, that is, parboiled, capers. Pour over the fish a good quantity of butter which has been well browned in a frying pan; then a little boiling vinegar. Shake the platter once to mix the sauce together.

It may not commonly be known that the skate, so neglected in this country, takes very well the place of the delectable raie of Europe.

H. S., Chef, Ritz-Carlton Hotel.

[25]

SALMON TIDNISH

(Canadian)
S
Scrape the fish and wash it. Rub in a tablespoon of salt; place the fish in a baking pan and score it across 4 or 5 times. Mix 1 cup of fine bread-crumbs, a dessert-spoon of minced parsley, 1/8 teaspoon of whole black pepper ground, 2 dessert spoons of salt, milk to moisten well, rub over the fish, and put good-sized lumps of butter in the gashes. Cover the bottom of the pan with milk and put in a rather hot oven, basting every 10 or 15 minutes with the milk, which must be renewed in the pan often. When cooked lift from the pan onto a tin sheet, then slide carefully into the dish on which it is to be served; garnish with lemon and hard-boiled eggs, the gravy in the pan served with it. A piece of halibut may be cooked in the same manner.

AUBERGINE AUX CREVETTES

S
Scoop out one egg-plant, leaving shell about half an inch thick; parboil this and the shell for ten minutes. Chop the pulp and season with salt and pepper. Cut up an onion, brown in ¼ cup of butter, add one cup of chopped, cooked, shrimp meat, fry for five minutes, then add the chopped egg-plant; cook all together for ten minutes more.[26] Add 1 egg and ½ cup of bread-crumbs, fill shell with the mixture, cover with bread-crumbs, dot with butter, and brown in the oven.

LOBSTER BEAUGENCY

(St. James's Club specialty)
B
Boil a medium-sized lobster for 20 minutes; when cool, split in two. Remove flesh from shells and cut in dice. Fry in butter, add a glass of sherry. Add 2 tablespoonsful of cream sauce and ½ pint of cream, let it boil slowly for 10 minutes; in the meantime have 2 yolks of eggs, a few spoonsful of cream, an ounce of butter, mix slowly with the lobster and season to taste. Fill shells to the brim with this preparation and bake in oven.

SCALLOPS EN BROCHETTE

A
Alternate scallops and thin slices of bacon on skewers; place upright on the rack in the oven; bake until the scallops are well browned. Served on slices of buttered toast.

FILET OF SOLE FLORENTINE

A
After removing the skin put the fish in a plate with a slice of onion, a little parsley, and a spoonful of butter, ½ cup of white wine, salt, pepper, and[27] cook for 10 minutes slowly; when cooked remove the fish, take a long porcelain dish in which you lay some boiled spinach fried a minute in butter with a suspicion of minced onion. Put the fish on top of this spinach, add the juice of the fish in the plate to a good white sauce, a spoonful of grated cheese, a pinch of cayenne, and cover the fish with this sauce, put in oven, brown nicely and serve in the same dish.

Any fine white fish may be similarly treated.

SALMON TERIYAKI

(Japanese)
M
Mix well together ½ cup of Japanese Shoyu, and 1 tablespoonful of Mirin; put a salmon on the grill, and when nearly done spread the sauce on the salmon with a brush freely, then put back on the grill and cook until it browns. When that side is done, cook the other side the same way.

Note.—Japanese Shoyu is made of wheat and beans; it may be obtained in New York or in any city where there is a large Japanese Colony. Mirin is cooking wine. These are most important ingredients for Japanese cooking. Chinese sauce may be used instead of Shoyu which may be obtained at any Chinese restaurant. Sauterne may be used instead of Mirin in which case add 1 teaspoonful of sugar.

[28]

FILET OF SOLE MARGUERY

P
Poach the filet of sole or flounder in fish stock; pour over the dish a rich white wine sauce garnished with shrimps and mussels and glaze in a very hot oven.

CODFISH WITH GREEN PEPPERS

(Italian)
R
Remove the skin and bones from one-half pound of salted codfish which has been soaked. Cut the codfish into small squares. Then dip it again into fresh water, and put the squares onto a napkin to dry. The fish may either be left as it is, or, before proceeding, you may roll it in flour and fry it in lard or oil.

Then take two good-sized green peppers, roast them on top of the stove, remove the skins and seeds, wash them, dry them, and cut them in narrow strips. When this is done put three generous tablespoons of olive-oil into a saucepan with one onion cut up, and fry the onion over a slow fire. Take two big tomatoes, skin them, remove the seeds and hard parts, and cut them into small pieces. When the onion has taken a good colour, add the tomatoes, then add the peppers and a little salt and pepper. If the sauce is too thick, add a little water. When the peppers are half cooked,[29] add some chopped-up parsley and the codfish. Cover up the saucepan and let it simmer until the fish is cooked.

HERRING ROES, BAKED

(Manx)
E
Eight fresh soft roes, 3 tablespoonsful of thick brown sauce, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, a few drops of anchovy essence, 1½ ozs. of butter, 4 coarsely chopped button mushrooms, 1 very finely chopped shallot, ½ a teaspoonful of finely chopped parsley, lightly browned breadcrumbs, 8 round or oval china or paper soufflé cases.

Brush the inside of the cases with clarified butter. Heat 1 oz. of butter in a small stew-pan, put in the mushrooms, shallot, and parsley, fry lightly, then drain off the butter into a sauté pan. Add the brown sauce, lemon-juice, and anchovy essence to the mushrooms, etc., season to taste, and when hot pour a small teaspoonful into each paper case. Re-heat the butter in the sauté pan, toss the roes gently over the fire until lightly browned, then place one in each case, and cover them with the remainder of the sauce. Add a thin layer of bread-crumbs, on the top place 2 or 3 morsels of butter, and bake in a quick oven for 6 or 7 minutes. Serve as hot as possible.

[30]

CREAMED FISH

O
One and a half cups of flaked halibut, or any cold boiled fish. 2 cups milk, ¼ cup butter, 1 tablespoon of flour, bit of bayleaf, dash of mace, sprig of parsley, 1 small onion, ½ cup of buttered bread-crumbs, salt, pepper, 1 tablespoon of sherry.

Scald the milk with the onion, bay-leaf, mace, and parsley; remove the seasonings, melt the butter, add the flour, salt, pepper, and gradually the milk. Put the fish in a deep buttered dish (or in individual dishes). Pour over it the sauce and cover with the buttered crumbs. Just before taking from the oven make an opening in the crust of crumbs and put in a tablespoon of sherry.

MOUSSELINE OF FISH

O
One lb. of raw halibut chopped very finely (any firm white fish can be used).

Mix the whites of 4 eggs beaten stiff, 1 cup of bread-crumbs, very fine, 1 cup of cream, ¼ lb. of almonds cut in fine strips, a pinch of mace, a little bit of onion juice or, if preferred, ¼ teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper. Steam in a mould or bake in a pan of water or in individual moulds for three-quarters of an hour. Serve with a rich cream, or mushroom, or lobster sauce.

[31]

This is good cold in summer with a cucumber sauce or light mayonnaise.

HADDOCK MOBILE

B
Bone a good sized haddock and cut in pieces 4 inches square, place them side by side in a deep buttered pan, add salt and pepper; arrange 1 lb. of tomatoes, cut in thick slices, on the pieces of fish, cover with a thick layer of biscuit crumbs, put good sized lumps of butter at frequent intervals on the crumbs, baste it often with ¼ of a cup of butter in a cup of water. Serve with a thin tomato sauce.

KEDGAREE

P
Put 1 oz. of butter in a stew-pan; when melted, add 4 oz. of boiled rice (cold), stir for a minute, then add 8 or 10 oz. of cooked white fish which should be flaked and free from bones, then add any kind of fish sauce with the cut-up whites of 2 eggs hard boiled, and when quite hot, pile on a hot dish and sprinkle over it the 2 yolks of the eggs which have been passed through a sieve.

This is a good breakfast dish.

PICKLED SALMON

S
Salmon, ½ oz. of whole pepper, ½ oz. of whole allspice, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 2 bay-leaves, equal[32] quantities of vinegar and the liquor in which the fish was boiled.

After the fish comes from table and the bones have been removed, lay it in a deep dish. Boil the liquor and vinegar with the other ingredients for 10 minutes, let them stand to get cold, then pour them over the salmon, and in 12 hours it will be ready for use.


[33]

Meats and Entrées

RUSSIAN PIROG KULBAK

D
Dissolve in a pint of tepid salted water, 1 yeast-cake mixed with enough flour to make rather a stiff dough and let it rise until double its size. Add to this 2 eggs and ½ lb. of butter. Knead thoroughly. Put the paste in a warm place and let it rise again to double its size. Roll it out about ½ inch thick and put in a buttered pie dish; cover with cold boiled rice, then thin slices of smoked roe or smoked fish; sprinkle over some pepper and nutmeg. The other half of the dough is to be lapped over the filling and in giving to the Pirog the form of a loaf close the edges with the white of an egg. When closed, spread it over with beaten egg and bread-crumbs. Bake it a light brown.

CARBONADE FLAMANDE

G
In 1 tablespoonful of good drippings brown 2 lbs. of round steak (or any good part of the beef). Remove the steak and brown 6 chopped onions in[34] the same fat. Replace the steak in the casserole, add 1 small clove of garlic, salt, and pepper. Cover over with 1 or 2 slices of bread that have been spread with French mustard. Add 1½ cups of water and cook, closely covered, slowly, 3 or 4 hours. Just before removing from the oven, add 1 small dessert-spoonful of vinegar and I teaspoonful of sugar to the gravy.

BLANQUETTE OF VEAL

(French)
T
Take 3 lbs. of veal, cut it in squares (about 2 inches). As this dish is supposed to be very white, it is sometimes soaked half an hour in tepid water. Put the pieces of veal into a saucepan; cover with water; add a large pinch of salt, let it boil, skim. Add 1 onion stuck with cloves, 1 carrot cut in half, a cupful of white wine, a bouquet of laurel thyme, parsley, and cook half an hour. Strain the meat and save the stock.

With 2 oz. of butter and 2 oz. of flour make a white sauce; moisten it with veal stock, stir over the fire. The sauce must be perfectly smooth and not thick. Add the meat without the vegetables, continue to cook it until the meat is tender. The sauce should be reduced by one half. Thicken at the last moment with 3 yolks of eggs, 1 oz. of[35] butter, and the juice of a lemon. Arrange the meat on the dish with the sauce.

This dish is sometimes garnished with small round balls of veal made of raw minced veal seasoned with salt, and pepper, boiled about ½ an hour with the other veal, and then fried in butter. The balls should be only as big as marbles.

BLANQUETTE OF CHICKEN

(French)
O
One cold cooked chicken or fowl, 4 fresh mushrooms, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 pint of chicken broth, salt and pepper to taste. Peel the mushrooms, cut them into pieces, and simmer in the broth until tender. Add the chicken sliced into thin delicate pieces. Cook gently until heated when the beaten yolks of eggs should be stirred in gradually. As soon as the sauce is smooth and creamy, season with salt and pepper and a few drops of lemon-juice.

STRACOTTO

P
Place in a stewpan 5 or 6 lbs. of the round of beef. Cover with water and allow to simmer until the scum rises. Skim and add a quart of tomatoes (some people like also a clove of garlic), 5 or 6 onions, some stalks of celery, 1 or 2 carrots cut in small pieces, salt, and pepper.

[36]

Let it cook slowly closely covered about 5 hours. An hour before serving remove the beef (which is to be placed in a covered dish at the side of the stove) and strain the gravy.

Cook one cup of rice in this gravy. When the rice is cooked replace the beef in the stewpan and warm it.

Add ½ cup grated cheese and 2 tablespoons of butter to the rice and pour around the beef on a platter.

DUCK ST. ALBANS

(English)
R
Roast a fat duck. When cold carve the breast in thin slices. Lay these carefully aside. Break off the breastbone and cover the carcass smoothly with the liver farce. Replace the sliced fillets, using a little of the farce to bind them back into place on the duck. Coat the whole well with half set aspic jelly.

Farce.—1 lb. of calf's liver, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 slice of bacon, a slice of onion, 1 carrot sliced. Fry these carefully and pound in a mortar. Pass through a wire sieve. Then put in a basin and whisk in ½ pint of aspic jelly and a small teacupful of very thick cream. Season with cayenne pepper and salt. Grapefruit and orange salad is served with this.

[37]

BONED TURKEY

(English)
B
Bone a raw turkey, spread it flat on a board, season, and cover with good fresh sausage meat. Lay a well-boiled tongue down the centre and 2 long strips of fat bacon or ham, almonds, hard-boiled egg, salt, pepper, and sprinkle over a tablespoonful of brandy. Roll up carefully, taking care the various strips are not displaced. Tie firmly in a greased cloth and sew up. Boil gently 2 hours for a large fowl and 2½ hours for a turkey. When boiled the cloth may need to be tightened a little. Lay a light weight on the top and when quite cold glaze with a meat glaze and then a good coating of half set aspic. Decorate with chopped aspic.

CHICKEN AND CABBAGE

(A dish of Auvergne)
P
Put about ¼ of a lb. of salt pork, cut in slices, in the bottom of a kettle; when a little melted put in a fowl or a chicken or two partridges stuffed as for roasting. Put in 1 large clove of garlic and 3 large onions sliced, salt and pepper. Dredge with flour, put in a little water, and cover closely. Dredge and baste the fowl every 15 minutes, adding water each time. Have a cabbage ready cut[38] into four pieces and put in the kettle 1 hour before the fowl is cooked. A fowl will take not less than 3 hours and allow 2 hours for a chicken.

LEG-OF-MUTTON PIE

(Canadian)
B
Butter a pie dish, place in the bottom a few slices of fried salt pork and then slices of mutton cut from the leg; on top of this, lay slices of cooked potatoes, season each layer with salt and pepper, minced parsley and onions fried in butter; pour over some clear gravy. Moisten the edge of the dish, lay a narrow band of paste, moisten, and cover the whole with puff-paste, bake in moderate oven 1 hour and 20 minutes.

RUSSIAN STEAKS

C
Chop 1 lb. of round steak or any good part of the beef, season with salt and pepper. Add by degrees with a wooden spoon ¼ lb. of butter. Roll into fat balls and place in a very hot frying pan. Give 3 minutes to each side.

Serve with the following sauce: Mix together 2 tablespoonsful of oil and 1 of butter, 1½ tablespoons of flour, add 2 teaspoonsful of onion juice, 1 teaspoonful of grated horse-radish, ¼ teaspoonful of mixed mustard, salt and pepper, then gradually[39] 1½ cups of stock (one can use water instead), and cook 3 minutes, then take from the fire and add ¼ of a cup of cream and I teaspoonful of lemon-juice.

ANOTHER RUSSIAN METHOD FOR BEEFSTEAKS

C
Cut the steaks thin, season them with salt and paprika. Colour the steaks in 2 oz. of butter, but they must not be completely cooked. Chop up finely 2 onions, place half of the onions in a casserole that can be sent to table. Arrange the steaks upon it. Sprinkle them with the remainder of the onions. Throw the gravy from the pan, with stock or water added, to allow the steaks to be half covered. Cook in the oven 1 or 2 hours in tightly covered casserole. Before serving pour over 1 cupful of sour cream.

STEWED KIDNEYS

(English)
T
Take away the skin from three lamb kidneys; split them lengthwise in halves; take out the white nerve from the centre, and cut each half into small slices. Put 3 ozs. of oil in a pan, colour in it a small chopped onion, add the sliced kidneys, salt, pepper. Stir with a spoon briskly[40] over a good fire until all the pieces are equally coloured; sprinkle with a tablespoonful of flour; mix and stir well. Add a cupful of wine and one of gravy, stir until boiling. Cook two minutes longer; taste if well seasoned; at the last add the juice of half a lemon and chopped parsley.

Note.—Mushrooms stewed with the kidneys are an improvement.

CHICKEN

(Serbian)
P
Put a good slice of salt pork into a saucepan. When it has fried a little add some chopped parsley root, carrot, onion, and a small clove of garlic.

Joint the fowl and place it in the pan, add salt and pepper. Cook in the oven about one hour, then add 3 or 4 peeled tomatoes with the seeds removed. Continue to add in the pan enough water to baste the fowl frequently. Cook until the fowl is tender and serve with rice to which minced cooked ham or bacon has been added. Pour the gravy in the pan over the chicken.

BAKED HAM

(York fashion)
S
Soak overnight; in the morning scrub it and trim away any rusty part; wipe dry; cover the ham with[41] a stiff paste of bread dough an inch thick and lay upside down in a dripping pan with a little water; allow in baking 25 minutes to the pound; baste a few times and keep water in the pan. When a skewer will pierce the thickest part plunge the ham for 1 minute in cold water; remove the crust and outside skin, sprinkle with brown sugar and fine cracker crumbs, and stick with cloves and brown in the oven. Serve with a mustard sauce or white wine sauce if eaten hot.

RILLETTES DE TOURS

(Cretons Canadiens)
T
Three lbs. shoulder of fresh pork, 3 lbs. cutlets of pork, 1 filet of pork, 2 pork kidneys, 2 lbs. of kidney fat, 1 pint of water, 3 tablespoons of salt, pepper, and 4 onions minced fine with the pork fat. Chop the meat into small dice, mince the fat and kidneys very fine; let all boil gently for 4 hours. About ½ hour before removing from the fire, add 1 teaspoonful of mixed spices and ¼ lb. fresh mushrooms cut in large pieces. Line a mould with half-set aspic; when set, pour in the mixture, pour over more aspic.

This is excellent for a cold supper or can be used as pâté de foie gras, and it may be moulded in buttered dishes without the aspic.

[42]

A SERBIAN DISH OF RICE AND MUTTON

C
Cut 5 onions very fine, and ¼ lb. of lean salt pork, in thin slices. Put these into a deep pot to cook until the onions are a golden brown. Add 2 lbs. of lamb or mutton cut in pieces, add salt, pepper, and 3 pimentos; just cover the meat with water and cook gently about an hour, then add ½ cup of rice; cover tightly and let it stew 20 minutes more.

BAKED EGGS

(Bonhomme)
P
Put in a basin 2 dessert-spoonfuls of flour, a pinch of salt (or sugar if preferred); break into it 6 whole eggs; beat them up with a pint of milk. Pour this into a buttered dish, bake in a moderate oven. When the eggs have acquired a good colour serve directly. If this dish has been flavoured with salt send grated Parmesan or Gruyère cheese to table with it.

TRIPE

(Tripe à la Poulette)
C
Cut in filets or small squares 2 lbs. of tripe well boiled. Chop 1 onion finely; put it in a stew-pan[43] with 1½ ozs. of butter; colour lightly; mix in a good dessert-spoonful of flour; moisten with stock and half a glass of white wine to make a thin sauce; season with salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Add the tripe; cook for an hour; the sauce must be reduced one-half. At the moment of serving thicken the ragoût with two yolks of eggs mixed with the juice of a lemon, 1 oz. of fresh butter, and chopped parsley. Garnish the tripe on the dish with six croûtons of bread cut in shape of half a heart and fried in butter.

TRIPE

(Italian)
T
Two pounds of tripe well cooked; cut in thin strips, put them in a stew-pan with 2 ozs. of butter, 3 ozs. of chopped mushrooms, salt, pepper, half a tumblerful of good gravy or stock; cover, and let all cook until the liquid is entirely reduced. Spread upon a fireproof dish that has been well buttered, a layer of tripe, a layer of tomato sauce rather thick; sprinkle each layer with grated cheese; finish with the tomato. Sprinkle the top with grated cheese and bread-crumbs, then pour over a little butter melted to oil. Put the dish in the oven for fifteen minutes.

[44]

TIMBALE OF PARTRIDGES

(French)
M
Mince the raw flesh of two partridges, season, cut some truffles in small squares, ornament with them a buttered timbale-mould, half fill it with the farce, make a hollow in the centre of it allowing the farce to cover the sides of the mould to the top. Have ready a small ragoût of partridges, with slices of foie gras or truffles; the sauce should be thick, pour it into the empty centre of the mould, cover the whole with the remainder of the farce, then with a buttered paper. Poach the timbale in a covered bain-marie for thirty minutes in boiling water. Turn it upon a dish and pour Madeira sauce round.

STEWED HARE

(Belgian)
A
After having emptied the hare put aside the liver, carefully separated from the gall, and the blood in a basin; add to it a few drops of vinegar to prevent it curdling. Cut the hare into pieces of medium size; warm 3 ozs. of butter in a stew-pan, add to ¼ lb. of lean bacon cut in dice, colour them in the butter, add 3 ozs. of flour, make it all into a brown thickening, and put in the pieces of hare; moisten with a bottle of red wine and a quart[45] of stock, salt, and pepper. Stir without leaving it, with a wooden spoon, until it boils; the sauce should cover the meat and not be too thick; add a bouquet of herbs, an onion with cloves in it. Cover the stew-pan and leave it to stew until the hare is tender. A young hare will take from an hour and a quarter to an hour and a half, an old one may cook for three hours without becoming tender. The sauce should by this time be reduced to half; take out the onion and herbs, taste if sufficiently seasoned; mix the blood with a teacupful of thick cream, throw over the hare; shake the stew-pan briskly to allow all to mix well, but it must not boil; at the last moment add the liver, which has been sliced and sautéd (shaken) for two minutes in hot butter over the fire. Arrange in an entree dish, pour the sauce over and garnish round with croûtons of fried bread.

Note.—This dish may be rendered more highly flavoured, if desired, by steeping the pieces of hare for some hours in the following marinade or pickle: a bottle of red wine, a cupful of vinegar, salt, pepper, a bouquet of herbs, and an onion stuck with cloves. Leave the hare in this preparation four or five hours, then when the thickening is made, put in the hare with this marinade, then the stock, and finish as above. Small button onions or mushrooms may be added before the hare is tender; if[46] onions are cooked with it they must be previously boiled for a few minutes.

INDIAN PILAU

(English)
S
Six onions, 4 ozs. butter, 2 Indian mangoes, a chicken.

Peel and chop the onions, and put them into a stew-pan with the butter, and mangoes cut into shreds; on the top of these ingredients place the joints of a chicken previously fried in butter, and let this stew over a slow fire for about 1 hour. When done arrange the pieces of chicken on the rice lightly piled in a dish; stir the sauce to mix it, and pour it over the pilau. Serve very hot.

Rice for Pilau.—Wash and parboil for 5 minutes ½ lb. of rice, then drain it free from water; put it into a stew-pan with 2 ozs. of butter, and stir, over the fire until the rice acquires equally in every grain a light fawn colour, then add a ½ pint of stock, cayenne pepper, and a very little curry powder; put the lid on the stew-pan, and set the rice to boil, or rather simmer, very gently over a slow fire till done. Stir it lightly with a fork, to detach the grains. A few raisins added are an improvement.

[47]

STUFFED BEEF STEAKS

(Sicilian fashion)
T
Take three-quarters of a pound of beef, two ounces of ham, one tablespoon of butter, some bread, some parsley, and a piece of onion. Chop the onion fine and put it in a saucepan with the butter. When it is coloured, put in the parsley and the ham cut up into little pieces, at the same time add the bread cut up into three or four small dice, salt, pepper, and a dash of nutmeg. Mix all together well. Cut the meat into six slices, pound them to flatten out; salt slightly, and when the other ingredients are cooked, put a portion on each slice of meat. Then roll up the meat like sausages, put them on skewers, alternating with a piece of fried bread of the same size. Butter well, roll in fresh bread-crumbs, and broil on the gridiron over a slow fire.

PODVARAK

(Serbian)
P
Put in a pan 3 tablespoons of lard; when it is hot add 3 lbs. of sauerkraut.

Place a piece of ribs of pork or a small turkey in the pan and bake in the oven until the meat is cooked.

[48]

RIBS OF PORK IN CASSEROLE

Uynveche
(Serbian)
F
Fry 3 sliced onions in 1 tablespoon of lard. Mix this with 1 lb. of rice. Remove the seeds and cut in halves 3 green peppers. Add these to the rice; also 3 or 4 sliced tomatoes and 2 potatoes sliced. Place this rice mixture in a casserole and put on top a piece of ribs of pork of about 2 lbs. Pour in water enough to well cover the rice. Bake in the oven.

SALMIS DE LAPIN

(French)
C
Cut up your rabbit into neat pieces, removing as much of the bone as possible. Have an iron saucepan ready, in which you have put a good quarter of a pound of fat bacon. Put in your pieces of rabbit, which you fry until they become a nice golden brown, and which the French call doré; just before they are this colour add 2 tablespoonsful of rum, or of cognac, according to taste, also 2 échalotes cut up into very small pieces, which you must see do not burn.

For the Gravy.—Take the trimmings of the rabbit, the head, and liver, and pound them all up[49] in a mortar. When pounded, add a heaping spoonful of flour and pound it in. Now measure out a pint and a half of white ordinary wine (hock), to which you will add a good breakfastcupful of good bouillon, or gravy. Into this put what you have already pounded up and mix it in, then pass it all through a sieve (passoire). When ready pour it over the pieces of rabbit, now that they are become of a golden colour, and let it simmer with them in a covered saucepan by the side of the fire for a good two hours and more, so as to have it very tender. Salt and pepper to taste. Bouquet garni—which means thyme, and if one likes the flavour, a leaf of bay laurel—but for the latter just to let it be in an instant only, as it has such a strong flavour. Many prefer just the thyme, which is more delicate. Half an hour before the rabbit is cooked, add a good spoonful of vinegar[1]; two, should the vinegar not be strong. Add a piece of butter of the size of a walnut whilst it is simmering or stewing by the side of the fire.

[1] The vinegar is quite optional.

SHEEP'S HEAD

(Scotch)
C
Choose a nice sheep's head, get it slightly singed, then have it sawn up the middle, steep it all night [50]with a little soda in the water, then clean it thoroughly, take out the brains, put on with cold water, slowly bring to boil, and boil slowly for three hours. Boil the brains in a cloth for a quarter of an hour, then mince small, make a white sauce, stir in the minced brains, lay the head flat on a dish and pour sauce over. Decorate with a few small bits of parsley.

MACARONI PIE

(Italian)
T
Three-quarters lb. of cold beef, or mutton, ½ an onion, 3 or 4 tomatoes, ¼ lb. of macaroni, bread-crumbs, grated cheese, stock, salt, pepper, nutmeg.

Cut the beef or mutton into thin slices, peel the onion and slice it thinly, slice the tomatoes, and boil the macaroni in slightly salted water until tender. Cool and drain the macaroni, and cut it up into small pieces. Line a buttered baking-dish with macaroni, and arrange the meat, onion, and tomato slices in layers on the baking-dish. Season with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, pour over a little stock, and cover the top with macaroni. Sprinkle over some bread-crumbs, and grated cheese, and bake for about 20 minutes in a hot oven.

[51]

KIDNEY AND MUSHROOMS

(English)
T
Take some sheep's kidneys, skin, halve, and core them, sprinkle each piece with pepper, salt, and sauté them in butter till a good brown; have a large mushroom peeled and cored for each half kidney, fry in the same fat as the kidney; lay the mushrooms in a hot dish, on each put a piece of tomato heated in the oven, then a half kidney, put a little pat of butter on each, and serve with either a pile of mashed potatoes or spinach in centre of dish.

[52]

Curries

INDIAN CURRY

M
Most of the curry powder or paste to be found in this part of the world is a mixture of ¼ of dried chilli, ¼ coriander, ½ dagatafolum; but the native curry cook uses a much larger variety of spices and likes to grind them himself fresh daily between two stones. The spices commonly used are:
Red chilli (roasted)
Coriander seed (roasted)
"          "  (fresh)
Cinnamon
Nutmeg
Baked garlic
Scraped cocoanut
Dagatafolum
Caraway seed
Yellow pimentos
Red pimentos
Cardamon seeds
Curcuma (saffron root)

A FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN

(Ceylon style)
C
Cut 2 good-sized chickens in 8 pieces. Season with salt and pepper; put in a saucepan with about 1 quart of cocoanut milk; add to this a little[53] cinnamon, ¼ teaspoon fresh coriander, ¼ teaspoon of powdered saffron, a little red pimento, and boil until tender; at the last minute thicken the sauce with 4 yolks of eggs mixed well with ½ pint cocoanut cream; keep hot but do not boil, as the richness of the ingredients would make it curdle. As this curry is not hot it is served with a sambo which consists of small dishes on one tray containing such savories as plain scraped cocoanut, pimento paste, and chopped onion with a red pepper sauce.

To obtain cocoanut cream, use the same process as that for ordinary cream;—as for the milk: have 3 fresh cocoanuts scraped very fine to which you add 3 pints of water, stir together for a few moments, then strain, let this milk stand for 3 hours to obtain the cream.

A SIMPLER INDIAN CURRY

O
One lb. of beef, mutton, fish, or vegetables, as desired. One tablespoon of curry powder, 1 heaping tablespoon of butter, 1 onion, ½ fresh cocoanut, juice of half a lemon, salt to taste. Curry powder to be mixed in 2 ozs. of water. Onion to be finely chopped. Cocoanut to be scraped and soaked in a teacup of boiling water, then squeezed, and the milk (or the liquid) to be put in the curry. First[54] cook the butter till it bubbles, put in the onion and let it brown, add the curry powder, and let that cook a few minutes; if it becomes too dry and sticks to the pan add a little hot water. Then put in the meat (raw), cut in small pieces, fish, or vegetables, and fry them, add salt, and if dry, add a little more water, let all simmer till meat is thoroughly done; when about half done, add the cocoanut milk and the lemon-juice.

If not convenient to use the cocoanut milk, ordinary milk can be used, and the mixture thickened with a little flour. Cocoanut milk thickens without flour. When the butter separates and shows itself in the gravy, the curry is ready for serving. Curry should be served with plain boiled rice. Pass rice first, then curry.

If Indian chutney is served with curry it is a great addition. A banana may be cut up in pieces about half-inch thick, and added to the curry mixture while cooking, and is a pleasant addition to the flavour.

ANOTHER CURRY SAUCE

C
Chop 1 onion and 1 apple and cook them in 1 oz. of butter about 10 minutes, but do not let them brown. Add 1 dessert-spoonful of mild curry powder, the grated rind and juice of ½ a lemon, [55]½ pint of water or stock, some salt, and 1 tablespoonful of seedless raisins, and simmer until the onion is quite tender. Unless added to rice or paste put in 1 dessert-spoonful of flour after the onion and apple have cooked about 10 minutes.

[56]

Pastes, Cheese, Etc.

MACARONI WITH CHEESE

(Italian)
G
Into 2½ quarts of boiling water, well salted, throw ½ lb. of macaroni broken up into pieces. Let it boil 25 minutes, then drain it upon a sieve; replace in a stewpan with 3 ozs. of fresh butter cut in small pieces, 2 ozs. of grated cheese, and a pinch of pepper; mix all with a fork. The macaroni must not be broken. Add ½ cup of cream. Serve hot.

Note:—Macaroni should be tender but not pasty; it should possess a certain crispness; obtain this by passing cold water over it when it is in the sieve and quickly returning it to the saucepan.

MACARONI

(Milanaise)
B
Break up ½ lb. macaroni into pieces about ¼ of an inch long. Boil in salted water 25 minutes. Drain on a sieve. Put it back in the stewpan with[57] a cupful of tomato sauce and 2 oz. of ham cut into dice. Let it simmer a few minutes, then add 2½ oz. of butter and the same of grated cheese.

POLENTA WITH CHEESE

(Italian)
A
Add to 1½ pints of salted, boiling water, ½ lb. of Indian meal, sprinkling it in a little at a time. Let it cook until thick.

With a tablespoon form it into small lumps; arrange them on a dish, sprinkle them with grated cheese, and pour over them some butter cooked brown, but not burnt. Put the dish in the oven a few minutes to melt the cheese before serving.

LENTIL CROQUETTES

P
Put in cold water ½ a cup of dried beans or lentils and let soak overnight. Boil them 1½ hours or until tender. Pass them through a sieve; add ½ of a cup of fine bread-crumbs and 3 tablespoons of cream or butter, 1 egg, a grated onion, a pimento chopped, a little mace or nutmeg, 1 teaspoon of salt, and a pinch of cayenne. Make into croquettes and roll in bread-crumbs, then beaten egg and bread-crumbs, and fry in oil or butter.[58] If baked in the oven in a loaf, baste occasionally with oil or butter.

Serve with a tomato or horse-radish sauce.

This is a nourishing substitute for meat.

RISOTTO

C
Colour for an instant in butter a chopped onion, add to it ½ lb. of rice; stir an instant over the fire until it begins to frizzle, but do not colour; add stock to 3 times the quantity of rice, a cupful of tomato sauce, a pinch of saffron, one of pepper, let it boil, cover the saucepan, and let it cook by the side of the fire for 20 minutes. If the rice becomes dry before it is sufficiently tender add a little more stock. Place the saucepan on the corner of the stove away from the hot fire, then add to the rice 2 ozs. of grated Parmesan cheese and the same amount of butter. Arrange the rice on a dish and pour over it some good gravy and serve very hot.

The brown rice now procurable in most large cities is liked by gourmets cooked in this manner and served with partridge and other game.

RISOTTO MILANAISE

F
Fry a tablespoon of minced onion in a good bit of butter; when slightly browned, add 4 or 5[59] tomatoes and 1 pimento; after cooking pass through a sieve and replace in the casserole with pepper, salt, and a dash of cinnamon, 2 or 3 chicken livers, or some beef cut into small pieces. Add 1 cup of rice and 1 qt. of stock or, lacking stock, water will do; boil until the rice is tender, when add ¼ lb. of cheese grated.

RAVIOLI

P
Prepare a paste made of 4/5 of a lb. of flour, a pinch of salt, 5 eggs, 2 spoonfuls of water. Cover with a cloth and let stand at least 15 minutes. Make a farce with cooked chicken or veal minced—about 2 cups—1 tablespoonful of finely minced cooked ham, ½ of a calf's brain cooked, yolks of 2 eggs, a dash of nutmeg, 1 dessert-spoon of grated Parmesan cheese. Take ½ the paste, roll out thin into a large square; place a ball of the farce every 2½ inches apart about the size of a walnut, moisten with a brush the paste between the balls of farce. Roll the rest of the paste and place it over the farce; press edges together and between each ball. Cut with a round cutter or into squares as preferred and cook in boiling water 7 or 8 minutes, drain them and sprinkle with grated Parmesan cheese. Put on a dish and pour a tomato sauce around them.

[60]

EGG COQUILLES, WITH SPINACH

(French)
O
One-half lb. of prepared and seasoned spinach, 1 breakfastcupful of cream, 6 eggs, pepper, and salt.

Have 6 very small coquille or marmit pots, or china soufflé cases, butter them, and put 1 tablespoonful of spinach in each. Upon this put about 1 dessert-spoonful of cream. Break 1 egg in each, season with salt and pepper, and bake carefully in a moderately heated oven for 8 minutes. Serve quickly.

PIROG OF MUSHROOMS

B
Boil mushrooms until they are tender, chop them and mix them in the pan with butter, pepper and salt. Roll out the paste, put on one side of the dough cold boiled rice, then the mushrooms, hashed meat of boiled veal, chopped hard-boiled eggs, chopped onions, pepper, salt, and nutmeg. When filling is placed on half of the dough lap the other half over it, close the edges with the white of an egg, spread over some beaten egg, and bake in the oven light brown.

PASTE FOR RUSSIAN PIROG

O
One cup of milk, 3 eggs, 1½ cups of butter, a little salt mixed with flour to make a soft dough.[61] Knead it thoroughly, first with hands and then half an hour more with a wooden spoon.

EGGS ROMANOFF

C
Cover hard-boiled eggs with a stiff mayonnaise. Put a little highly flavoured aspic jelly in the bottom of individual moulds. When the jelly is firm add a spoonful of caviare and place the mayonnaised egg on the top. Pour in more jelly. When it is cold turn from the mould and serve on a garniture of lettuce. This is good for a cold supper.

ŒUFS POCHÉS IVANHOE

C
Cook a piece of finnan haddie in milk, then add 2 tablespoons of sauce (a good cream sauce) with a few fresh mushrooms, salt, pepper, a bit of cayenne, and 1 tablespoon of Parmesan cheese. Put this through a fine sieve, and in nests of this paste on slices of toast, slip poached eggs. Sprinkle with grated cheese and place for a moment in a hot oven to glaze.

CHEESE PUFFS

B
Bring to a boil 2/3 of a cup of water, 1½ oz. of butter, a pinch of salt, a pinch of pepper, then add ¼ of a lb. of flour and stir to a smooth paste, then stir in, one at a time, 3 eggs, 3½ oz. of grated[62] cheese (Parmesan preferred). Add ¼ teaspoon of English mustard; when all is well mixed, drop by tablespoonfuls on a baking tin and place on top of each a slice of Gruyère cheese. Put in a moderate oven increasing the heat gradually. Cook from 15 to 20 minutes. Serve hot.

MOSKVA CHEESECAKES

L
Line tartlet moulds with short paste. Take 2 tablespoons of thick white sauce, well seasoned, add a good pinch of cayenne pepper, bring it to a boil, add 2 yolks of eggs, 4 tablespoons of grated cheese. Again bring to a boil and remove from the fire, add 1 white of egg beaten stiff. Fill the tartlet moulds with this mixture, put in a hot oven for 10 minutes, serve immediately.

CHEESE FRITTERS

B
Boil ½ pint of water, 1 oz. of butter, pinch of salt, pepper. Remove from fire and add 3 oz. flour. Stir until a smooth paste is made, then add 3 oz. of grated cheese and 1 oz. chopped cooked ham; when the mixture is half cold add 3 eggs, one by one, stirring well.

Drop by spoonfuls into hot, not boiling fat; increase the temperature of the fat, turning the fritters often.

When golden brown drain and serve.

[63]

CHEESE PUDDING

(A simple and nutritious Welsh dish)
C
Chop ½ lb. of cheese. Toast and butter four slices of bread. Put two slices in the bottom of a dish, cover with half the cheese, sprinkle a little salt and pepper, put in the dish the other two slices of buttered bread and cover with the remaining cheese.

Pour over 1 pint of milk, let it stand for five minutes, then bake in a warm oven 20 minutes.

CHICORY OR ENDIVE

C
Chicory or endive is scalded the same as spinach, but needs a little longer time in the boiling water. It is prepared the same in brown butter, gravy, or cream.

STEWED COS LETTUCES

(French)
T
Take off the outer leaves; wash them carefully, keeping them as whole as possible; boil for ten minutes in boiling salted water; pour cold water through them; drain. Extract the water from them by pressing each lettuce lightly with two hands; split them in halves lengthwise; take off the stalk; sprinkle with salt and pepper. Put them in a stew-pan, placing each half lettuce partly over the[64] other round the pan. The latter must be well buttered before putting in the lettuces, or in place of butter some very good gravy from which all grease has been taken. Add stock to half the height of the lettuces; cover and cook them gently for an hour. The lettuces should be tender and the liquid much reduced.

Note.—Lettuces may be cooked in the same manner with a little lean bacon, ham, or sausage; in the latter case water may be used instead of stock. They can be served as a vegetable or for garnishing.

ASPARAGUS

(French)
O
One bundle or 100 heads of asparagus, 1 pint of milk (or equal quantities of milk and water), 1 head of lettuce finely shredded and cut into short lengths, 1 medium-sized onion par-boiled and finely chopped, 1 bay leaf, one sprig of thyme, 1½ oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonsful of flour, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper, croûtes of buttered toast or fried bread, chopped parsley, strips of cucumber.

Wash and trim the asparagus, and tie it into 3 or 4 bundles. Bring the milk to boiling point, put in the asparagus, lettuce, onion, bay-leaf, thyme, and salt, and simmer gently for about 20 minutes.[65] Drain the asparagus well, cut off the points and the edible parts of the stalks, and keep them hot. Strain the milk and return it to the stew-pan, add the butter and flour previously kneaded together, and stir until a smooth sauce is obtained. Beat the yolks of eggs slightly, add them to the sauce, and stir until they thicken, but do not allow the sauce to boil, or the yolks may curdle. Season to taste, and add the lemon-juice. Pile the asparagus on the croûtes, cover with sauce, garnish with strips of cucumber, and a little chopped parsley, and serve as a vegetable entremet or as an entrée for a vegetarian dinner.

CELERY CROQUETTES

T
Two heads of celery, stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 shallot, 1 gill of milk, seasoning, 2 yolks of eggs, egg and bread-crumbs, fat for frying.

Trim and wash the celery, and cut into short pieces, blanch them in salted water, and drain, then cook till tender in well-seasoned stock. Drain the cooked celery, and chop it rather finely. Melt the butter in a stew-pan, add the shallot (chopped), and fry a little, stir in the flour, blend these together, and gradually add a gill of milk. Stir till it boils, and put in the chopped celery. Season with salt and pepper, and cook for 15 minutes, add the egg-yolks at the last. Spread the[66] mixture on a dish and let it get cold. Make up into croquettes—cork or ball shapes—egg and crumb them, fry in hot fat to a golden colour, drain them on a cloth or paper, and dish up.

RAGOÛT OF CELERY

T
Two or 3 heads of celery, 1 pint of white stock, ½ pint of milk, 2 tablespoonsful of cream, 1 medium-sized Spanish onion, 24 button onions, 1 dessert-spoonful of finely chopped parsley, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, salt, and pepper.

Wash and trim the celery, cut each stick into pieces about 2 inches long, cover with cold water, bring to the boil, and pour the water away. Put in the stock, the Spanish onion finely chopped, season with salt and pepper, and cook gently for about ½ an hour. Meanwhile, skin the onions, fry them in hot butter, but very slowly, to prevent them taking colour, drain well from fat, and keep them hot. Add the flour to the butter, and fry for a few minutes without browning. Take up the celery, add the strained stock to the milk, pour both on to the roux or mixture of flour and butter, and stir until boiling. Season to taste, add the cream and ½ the parsley, arrange the celery in a circle on a hot dish, pour over the sauce, pile the onions high in the centre, sprinkle over them the remainder of the parsley, and serve. The[67] celery may also be served on croûtes of fried or toasted bread arranged in rows with the onions piled between them. A nice change may be made by substituting mushrooms for the onions.

STUFFED ONIONS

(Italian)
R
Remove from 6 onions the centres with an apple-corer and fill them up with the following stuffing: One tablespoon of grated Parmesan cheese mixed with 2 hard-boiled eggs and chopped parsley. Boil them first, then roll them in flour and fry them in olive-oil or butter. Then put them in a baking-dish with ½ tablespoon of grated Parmesan cheese and 1 tablespoon of melted butter. Put them in the oven and bake until golden.

ONIONS

(Venetian style)
R
Remove the centres of 6 small onions. Boil them for a few moments, drain them, and stuff them with the following: Take a piece of bread, dip it in milk, squeeze out the milk, and mix the bread with 1 tablespoon of grated Parmesan cheese, the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs. Mix well together, then add some fine-chopped parsley, a pinch of sugar, salt, and pepper, and the yolk of 1[68] raw egg; mix again well, and then stuff the onions with the mixture. Dip them in flour and in egg, and fry them in lard. Put them on a platter and serve with a piquante sauce made as follows: Chop up fine some pickles, capers, and peppers, and ½ cup of water. When these are cooked, add 1 tablespoon of butter and cook a little while longer, then pour over the onions and serve.

FRIED PUMPKIN OR SQUASH

(Italian)
T
Take a slice of pumpkin or squash, remove the rind and the seeds. Cut it into fine strips. Roll in flour and dip in egg, and fry in boiling lard or olive-oil.

If desired as garnishing for meat, cut the pumpkin exceedingly fine, roll in flour, but not in egg, and fry.

CUCUMBERS

(Italian)
P
Peel and boil 3 or 4 cucumbers in salted water for 5 minutes. Drain and cut them into pieces 1 inch thick and put them in a frying-pan with 1 ounce of butter, a little flour, and ½ pint of stock; stir well, and add some salt and pepper. Reduce for about 15 minutes, stirring until it boils; add 1 teaspoon of chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoon of[69] grated nutmeg, ½ a cup of cream, and the beaten-up yolks of 2 eggs. Put on the fire again for 3 or 4 minutes. Do not let boil, and serve hot.

SARMA

(Serbian)
P
Put a cabbage in boiling water. Let it stand while preparing the rest of the dish.

Fry 4 onions in 1 tablespoon of lard. Mix 2 lbs. of chopped pork and 2 lbs. of chopped beef with the onions. Stir into this 4 raw eggs. Add ½ lb. of rice, salt and pepper.

Remove the cabbage from the water, tear off the leaves and put into each leaf two tablespoonsful of the meat and rice mixture, wrapping it so that the contents should not come out.

Put a little sauerkraut in a pot, then a layer of the filled cabbage leaves, continue doing this until the pot is filled. Cook slowly about 1 hour.

Make a sauce putting 1 tablespoon of lard in a saucepan on the fire, and add a chopped onion. When a golden brown, add 1 tablespoonful of browned flour and paprika to taste. Add a cup of water. Pour this sauce into the pot and cook about half an hour longer. Some sour cream may be added if liked on serving.

[70]

POLENTA PASTICCIATA

(Italian)
T
Three-quarters of a cup of Indian meal and 1 quart of milk.

Boil the milk, and add the Indian meal, a little at a time, when milk is boiling. Cook for one-half an hour, stirring constantly. Add salt just before taking off the fire. The Indian meal should be stiff when finished. Turn it onto the bread-board, and spread it out to the thickness of two fingers. While it is cooking prepare a meat sauce, and a Béchamel sauce as follows:

MEAT SAUCE

Take a small piece of beef, a small piece of ham, fat and lean, 1 tablespoon of butter, a small piece of onion, a small piece of carrot, a small piece of celery, a pinch of flour, ½ cup of bouillon (or water), pepper. Cut the meat into small dice; chop up fine together the ham, onion, carrot, and celery. Put these into a saucepan with the butter, and when the meat is brown, add the pinch of flour, and the bouillon a little at a time, and cook for about one-half an hour. This sauce should not be strained.

BÉCHAMEL SAUCE

Take 1 tablespoon of flour, and 1½ tablespoon of butter. Put them into a saucepan and stir with a[71] wooden spoon until they have become a golden-brown colour. Then add, a little at a time, 1 pint milk; stir constantly until the sauce is as thick as custard, and is white in colour.

Now take the cold Indian meal and cut it into squares about two inches across. Take a baking-dish of medium depth, butter well, then put in a layer of squares of Indian meal close together, to entirely cover the bottom of the dish. Sprinkle over it grated cheese; then pour on the top enough meat sauce to cover the layer (about 2 tablespoons), then on the top of this add a layer of Béchamel sauce. Then put another layer of the squares of Indian meal, sprinkle with grated cheese as before, add meat sauce, then Béchamel sauce, and continue in this way until the baking-dish is full, having for the top layer the Béchamel sauce. Put the dish into a moderate oven, and bake until a golden brown.

FRIED BREAD WITH RAISINS

(Italian)
T
Take some rather stale bread, cut it into slices, removing the crust. Fry the bread in lard, and then arrange it on a platter; meanwhile prepare the raisins as follows: Take a small saucepan and put into it 2 tablespoons of raisins, a slice of raw ham chopped into small pieces, and a leaf of sage,[72] also chopped up, 1 tablespoon of granulated sugar, and 2 tablespoons of vinegar. Put these ingredients on the fire, and as soon as you have a syrup pour the raisins on the pieces of fried bread, and the sauce around.

POLENTA CROQUETTES

(Italian)
B
Boil ½ cup of corn-meal, and before removing from the fire add a piece of butter and a little grated cheese and mix well. Take it then by spoonfuls and spread it on a marble-top table. These spoonfuls should form little balls about the size of a hen's egg. On each of these croquettes place a very thin slice of Gruyère cheese, so that the cheese will adhere to the corn-meal. Then allow them to cool, and when cold dip into egg; then into bread-crumbs, and fry in boiling lard.

RICE WITH MUSHROOMS

(Italian)
F
Five or six mushrooms and ¾ of a cup of rice.

Chop up a little onion, parsley, celery, and carrot together, and put them on the fire with 2 tablespoons of good olive-oil. When this sauce is coloured, add 2 tablespoons of tomato paste, thinned with hot water. Season with salt and[73] pepper. Cut the mushrooms into small pieces, and add them to the sauce. Cook for 20 minutes over a medium fire. Put on one side and prepare the rice as follows:

Fry the rice with a lump of butter until dry; then add hot water, a little at a time, and boil gently. When the rice is half cooked (after about 10 minutes) add the mushrooms and sauce, and cook for another 10 minutes. Add grated Parmesan cheese before serving.

TIMBALES OF BREAD WITH PARMESAN SAUCE

S
Soak half an hour 2 cups bread-crumbs in 1 cup thin cream (milk will do with butter added).

To this add grated rind half lemon; 1 tablespoon minced parsley; 1 tablespoon minced chives; 1 teaspoon salt; pepper; yolks two eggs.

Fill buttered timbale moulds or one large mould with this mixture, cover with buttered paper, and bake 20 minutes in moderate oven in a pan half filled with hot water.

Remove from moulds and pour cheese sauce around it.


[74]

Sauces

CHEESE SAUCE

P
Put 2 tablespoons butter on fire. Add 2 tablespoons flour and blend to a paste. Add ½ teaspoon salt and a dash of cayenne. Then add gradually 1 cup milk. Cook five minutes, then add 1 cup grated cheese. Do not allow it to boil after adding the cheese but serve at once.

TOMATO SAUCE

(Italian)
T
Take 3 chopped shallots, put them in a stew-pan with a tablespoonful of olive oil, salt, pepper, a dash of ground ginger, a very little ground nutmeg. Let the shallots take a good colour without burning; add 6 tomatoes skinned and all the pits well squeezed out. Let them cook very gently until all the moisture has disappeared. They should take the consistency of jam.

This sauce may be eaten hot or cold.

ANOTHER TOMATO SAUCE

C
Cut in two 5 or 6 tomatoes, squeeze out the seeds, put in a stew-pan with 1 cup of stock; salt[75] and pepper, a bit of tarragon, laurel thyme, parsley, a chopped onion, and a dash of cinnamon. Cook until the moisture has disappeared, then pass through a sieve. Prepare a white thickening with 1 oz. of butter, the same of flour. Add the purée of tomatoes to it; thin the sauce with stock. Let it cook 10 to 15 minutes and finish with a pinch of sugar and 1 oz. of butter.

MUSTARD SAUCE

T
Two tablespoons of butter, 1½ tablespoons of flour, 1 cup of scalded milk, ¼ teaspoon of salt, ½ teaspoon of mustard, ½ teaspoon of vinegar.

Blend the butter and flour in a saucepan and pour on the milk little by little, then add the salt, mustard, and vinegar.

A spoonful of mixed capers is sometimes added.

A MEAT SAUCE

(Italian)
P
Put into a saucepan 1 pound of beef and ½ an onion chopped up with 3 ounces of lard, some parsley, salt, pepper, 1 clove, and a very small slice of ham. Fry these over a hot fire for a few minutes, moving them continually, and when the onion is browned add 4 tablespoons of red wine, and 4 tablespoons of tomato sauce (or tomato paste).[76] When this sauce begins to sputter add, little by little, some boiling water. Stick a fork into the meat from time to time to allow the juices to escape. Take a little of the sauce in a spoon, and when it looks a good golden colour, and there is a sufficient quantity to cover the meat, put the covered saucepan at the back of the stove and allow it to simmer until the meat is thoroughly cooked. Then take out the meat, slice it, prepare macaroni, or any paste you desire, and serve it with the meat, and the sauce poured over all, and the addition of butter and grated cheese.

ANOTHER MEAT SAUCE

(Italian)
C
Chop up some ham fat with a little onion, celery, carrot, and parsley. Add a small piece of beef and cook until beef is well coloured. Then add 1½ tablespoons of red wine (or white), cook until wine is absorbed, then add 1 tablespoon of tomato paste diluted with water, or 4 fresh tomatoes, and boil 15 minutes.

LOMBARDA SAUCE

P
Put 2 cups of white sauce and 1 of chicken stock into a saucepan, reduce, and add 3 yolks of eggs mixed with 2 ounces of butter and the juice of[77] ½ a lemon. Before it boils take the saucepan off the fire and add 1 cup of thick tomato sauce, strain, and just before serving add 1 tablespoon of sweet herbs minced fine.

HORSE-RADISH SAUCE

C
Cook about half an hour in a double boiler 1½ cups of milk, 1 dessert-spoon of sugar, 1/3 cup of bread-crumbs, and 1/3 cup of grated horse-radish root, ¼ cup of butter, half a teaspoon of salt.

GNOCCHI DI SEMOLINA

O
One pint of milk, 2 eggs, ½ cup of farina, butter and cheese.

Put the milk on, and when it boils add salt. Take a wooden spoon and, stirring constantly, add the farina little by little. Cook for 10 minutes, stirring constantly. Take off the fire and break into the farina 2 eggs; mix very quickly, so that the egg will not have time to set. Spread the farina about on a marble slab about ½ inch thick. Allow it to cool, then cut it into squares or diamonds about 2 or 3 inches across. Butter well a baking-dish, and put in the bottom a layer of the squares of farina; sprinkle over a little grated cheese, and here and there a small lump of butter. Then put in another layer of the squares of farina; add cheese and butter as before. Continue in this[78] way until your baking-dish is full, having on the top layer butter and cheese.

Bake in a hot oven until a brown crust forms. Serve in the baking-dish.


[79]

Salads

ITALIAN SALAD

C
Cut 1 carrot and 1 turnip into slices, and cook them in boiling soup. When cold, mix them with 2 cold boiled potatoes and 1 beet cut into strips. Add a very little chopped leeks or onions, pour some sauce, "Lombardo," over the salad, and garnish with watercress. Boiled Jerusalem artichokes cut into slices are a good addition.

LETTUCE SALAD

M
Mix one spoonful of thick mayonnaise, ½ spoonful of chilli sauce, a little finely hashed pimento, a sprinkling of finely hashed chives, add a few drops of tarragon vinegar, 1 teaspoon of A. I. sauce, and a little paprika.

Cut a firm head of tennis-ball lettuce in 4 parts. Put one part on a plate and pour the dressing over it. This recipe is enough for 1 person.

SANDWICH DRESSING

C
Cream ½ lb. of butter and add to it 1 dessert-spoonful of mixed mustard, 3 tablespoons of olive[80] oil, a little salt, and the yolk of 1 egg; one may add to this ¼ cup of very thick cream. Mix thoroughly and set away to cool. To make sandwiches, spread the bread with this mixture and put in very finely chopped ham, or chicken and celery, or cream cheese and chopped nuts, or green peppers and mustard and cress, or lettuce, or "Indian relish," or cucumber, or tomato or anything else you happen to have and may like.

SALAD DRESSING

(For grapefruit or orange)
M
Mix well 2 tablespoonfuls of Escoffier Sauce Diable and 1 tablespoonful of Escoffier Sauce Robert and then add olive oil, a little at a time. When it becomes thick, season with salt and pepper and vinegar.

CHEESE DRESSING

O
One quarter of a lb. of Roquefort cheese and 2 tablespoons of thick cream mixed to a smooth paste; stir in, little by little, enough olive oil to give the consistency of mayonnaise; season with tarragon vinegar, salt, and pepper. This is especially good for string beans, lettuce, or endive. One may fill celery stalks with this dressing made into a thick paste.

[81]

Vegetables

POTATO CAKES

(Russian)
P
Peel and grate 6 raw potatoes, season with salt and pepper, 1 egg. Mix all together. Drop onto a well-buttered griddle, spoonsful of the mixture, leaving space between to flatten them; continue to add a little butter to the griddle. Cook a golden brown on both sides. Arrange in a crown on a dish with a sprig of parsley in the centre.

PETITS POIS

F
Fry some finely shredded onion in about a tablespoonful of oil, with salt, pepper, and a sprig of tarragon. Lay the heart and best leaves of a head of lettuce at the bottom of a stew-pan with a quart of very young peas. Add a pint of stock. Stew gently. A little sugar is always an improvement to peas.

STRING BEANS

C
Cut off the ends of the string beans, slice them in three parts, cook them until three quarters done,[82] then put them into cold water and dry them. Cook an onion in butter and put the beans into a pan and simmer half an hour. Shake at intervals but do not stir them. Take out and pour over a little stock thickened with a very little flour and cream.

Peas may be done in the same way.

RED CABBAGE

(Flemish)
C
Chop 4 onions and cook in 1 tablespoonful of butter, add 1 large red cabbage chopped. Cover this with 6 chopped apples, next add 1 tablespoonful of rice, 2 cups of water, 1 dessert-spoonful of vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of sugar, 1½ teaspoonfuls of salt, pepper. Do not stir but cook slowly 4 hours or longer removing the cover occasionally to let out the steam.

CABBAGE WITH CHEESE SAUCE

C
Cabbage, cauliflower, or cucumbers boiled in salted water are excellent served with cheese sauce. (See Sauces.)

GLAZED ONIONS

B
Boil onions in water until they are half cooked, then strain. Put them in the stew-pan with a piece of butter, a pinch of powdered sugar, salt,[83] and a cupful of stock; let them finish cooking. The liquid will be reduced and the onions coloured. Young carrots are glazed in the same way.

SPINACH SOUFFLÉ

(Italian)
B
Boil some spinach in salted water. When cooked drain and chop it. There should be about 2 cupfuls when chopped.

Put into a saucepan on the fire 2 tablespoonsful of butter and 1½ level tablespoonsful of flour. When these are blended add the 2 cupfuls of spinach and one cup of cream. Cook five minutes, stirring carefully. Then mix into this the yolks of 3 eggs and remove the saucepan at once from the fire. When the mixture is cool stir into it the 3 whites of eggs, well beaten. Pour into a buttered soufflé dish, or individual dishes, and bake about twenty minutes in a moderate oven.


[84]

Puddings, Cakes, Etc.

FRENCH PANCAKES

M
Mix 1 teaspoonful of flour and 1 teaspoonful of sifted sugar with ½ pint of cream or rich milk. Beat 3 eggs separately and stir into the cream. Bake in a quick oven in 3 large saucers. When brown, place one cake on top of the other and spread jam between.

CRÊPES SUZETTE

M
Mix well 1 lb. of flour, 5 ozs. of powdered sugar, a pinch of salt, 10 eggs; add ¼ pint of cream, ¼ pint of milk, 2 spoonsful of whipped cream, a liqueur glass Curaçoa and a few drops of essence of mandarines. Three or 4 tablespoons of this mixture are enough for one pancake. Cook in a pan and when brown on both sides put in a hot covered dish.

SAUCE FOR CRÊPES SUZETTE

C
Cream ¼ lb. of butter, add ¼ lb. of powdered sugar, 3 liqueur glasses of Curaçoa, 1 liqueur glass[85] of essence of mandarines, the juice of ½ a lemon, and 1/8 of an oz. of hazelnut milk (Noisette de beurre d'aveline).

Put one spoonful of the sauce in a chafing dish, and when the sauce is hot, put in a pancake, fold it over twice, turn it in the sauce, and serve very hot. Prepare each pancake separately in this manner.

ANOTHER SUZETTE PANCAKE

M
Mix 3 cups of flour, 1½ tablespoons of baking powder, ¼ cup of sugar, and 1 teaspoon of salt. Add 2 cups of milk slowly, then a well-beaten egg, and 2 tablespoonsful of melted butter.

Cook in the same manner as the first Suzette pancake with the following sauce: Cream together ¼ cup of brown sugar and ½ cup of butter, add the juice of ½ orange and 1 pony of Curaçoa and 1 pony of brandy. Serve from the chafing dish as described for the first Crepe Suzette.

KISEL

(Russian)
M
Mix three cups of any kind of fruit syrup, add a little water if the syrup is very thick, sugar and vanilla according to taste, and ½ cup of potato flour. Cook them in a double boiler until a very[86] thick cream. Served hot or cold with cream and powdered sugar.

CARROT PUDDING

M
Mix 1 cup of grated carrots, 1 cup of bread-crumbs, 1 cup of minced suet, 1 cup of currants, 1 cup of chopped raisins, 1 cup of flour, 1 cup of milk, 1 teaspoon of salt, ¼ of a teaspoon of soda. Steam 4 hours, the longer the better.

Serve with the following sauce: ¼ cup of butter, 1 cup of powdered sugar, ½ cup of cream, 2 tablespoons of sherry or 1 teaspoonful of vanilla. The butter must be worked soft before adding the sugar gradually, then the cream and flavouring, little by little, to prevent separating.

OLD ENGLISH PLUM PUDDING

T
Two lbs. raisins stoned, 2 lbs. currants, 1½ lbs. Sultanas, 1 lb. mixed peel chopped fine, 2 lbs. brown sugar, 2 lbs. breadcrumbs, 2 lbs. chopped suet, 1½ lemons grated with the juice, 4 ozs. chopped almonds blanched, 2 nutmegs grated, ½ teaspoon of mixed spice, ¼ teaspoon crushed clove, pinch of salt, 6 eggs whisked, ¼ pint (generous) brandy.

Mix all together thoroughly, boil 12 hours, the longer the better on the first day and 2[87] hours just before serving. This is the secret for making it black and light. This makes about 1 two-quart and 5 one-quart puddings. This recipe makes excellent plum cake, black and rich, by substituting flour for the crumbs and lard for the suet.

BANANA TRIFLE

P
Put thin slices of bread and butter into a glass dish, then cut 3 or 4 bananas into round slices and place them on the top of bread and butter. Make a pint of sweet custard well flavoured with Madeira and pour over. Beat stiff ½ pint of cream and put on top of the trifle when cold.

CREAM TART

M
Make a puff paste and cut it into 3 round pieces; it must be very thin and a few holes pierced to keep it from rising too high. Make a cream filling and spread over each piece, placing one on top of the other. On the top layer sprinkle chopped pistachio nuts (or any chopped nuts) on the cream as a frosting.

Filling: Mix 2/3 of a cup of fine sugar with 1/3 of a cup of flour, add the yolks of 3 eggs and 1 whole egg, 1 cup of scalded milk, ¼ of a teaspoonful of salt, cook in double boiler 15 minutes. Add 2 tablespoons of butter, 2 tablespoons of either cocoanut[88] or almond macaroons, crumbed, 2/3 teaspoonful of vanilla, and ½ teaspoonful of lemon extract.

This may be put between simply two crusts, a bottom and a top, and served in a pie plate.

CHOCOLATE PUDDING

(French)
G
Grate ¼ pound of chocolate. In a separate basin soften ½ pound of butter at the entrance of the oven; work it well with a spoon for 5 minutes; add little by little to it 1 whole egg, 5 yolks, and the grated chocolate, ¼ lb. of white powdered sugar, and a dessert-spoonful of dried bread pounded. Beat up to a froth with 5 whites of eggs, add them delicately and gently to the mixture with two dessert-spoonfuls of dried and sifted flour. Pour into a mould that has been buttered and sprinkled with baked bread-crumbs. Boil in a stew-pan, the water to reach half-way up the mould; leave the stew-pan open, and boil from 35 to 45 minutes. This pudding may also be baked. Serve with cream and chocolate sauce.

Sauce crême au chocolat.—Dissolve a tablet of chocolate in 2 dessert-spoonfuls of hot water; add 2 ozs. of powdered sugar and 3 yolks of eggs, working the mixture for an instant with the spoon,[89] then add very gradually ¼ pint of hot milk. Stir over the fire until it commences to thicken and stick to the spoon; it must not boil. Pass it through a hair-sieve.

FRIED APPLES

(New England)
C
Cut 4 or 5 apples of fine flavour into quarters, then divide again until the pieces are about 1 inch in width—do not remove the skin. Throw into cold water.

Put into a saucepan 1 teaspoonful of lard. When this is hot heap all the apples into the pan; spread over the apples 1 cup darkest brown sugar; cover closely. Cook rather slowly about 15 minutes; then turn each piece with a fork. Cover closely again and cook 15 minutes more.

The apples should keep their shape and look clear with a rich syrup.

ORANGE PUDDING

(French)
P
Put into an enamel saucepan ¼ lb. of butter, the same of white sugar, a dessert-spoonful of flour, seven yolks of eggs, the juice of an orange, the same of lemon, and the grated rind of an orange. Stir all over a slow fire as you would an ordinary[90] custard, not allowing it to boil, nor must there be any lumps. Pour this custard into a basin of earthenware—it must not be put into any tin vessel; mix with the seven whites of eggs beaten to a firm froth, pour into a plain earthenware mould, and cook in the oven for 30 to 35 minutes. The mould must be placed in a bain-marie—that is to say, in a deep dish or vessel half full of boiling water. This pudding must be served quickly, and with a custard flavoured with orange.

OAT CAKES

(Scotch)
T
Two lbs. of oatmeal, 6 ozs. of flour, 2 ozs. of sugar, ½ lb. of butter and lard, ½ oz. of carbonate of soda, ¼ oz. of tartaric acid, a little salt, milk.

Weigh the flour and meal onto the board, take the soda, acid, and salt, and rub these ingredients through a fine hair sieve onto the flour and meal; then add the sugar and fat, and rub together until smooth; make a bay or hole in the centre and work into a smooth paste with milk, taking care not to have it too dry or tight, or considerable trouble will be experienced in rolling out the cakes, as they will be found very short. Having wet the paste take small pieces about the size of an egg, and roll these out thin and round with a small rolling-pin, dusting the board with[91] a mixture partly of oatmeal and flour. When rolled down thin enough, take a sharp knife and cut them in four, place them on clean, flat tins, and bake in a warm oven. These cakes require very careful handling or they will break all to pieces.

TEA-CAKES (HOT)

(Scotch)
O
One-half lb. flour, ¼ lb. butter, 1 oz. sugar, 1 saltspoon salt, 1 teaspoon baking-powder, 1 egg, and some sweet milk.

Make the ingredients into a nice soft dough with the milk, cut into rounds about ½ an inch thick, and bake for 10 minutes in a quick oven; split open with your fingers, butter, and eat hot.

TEA PANCAKES

(Scotch)
T
Two eggs, 1 lump of butter, ½ teacup sugar, 1 heaping teaspoon carbonate of soda, 1 lb. of flour, salt, 1 heaping teaspoon cream of tartar, 1 pint milk (or milk and water).

Rub together the dry ingredients. Beat up eggs and mix well with the milk, beating both together also. Then dredge in gradually with the hand the dry ingredients, stirring all the time.[92] Heat griddle well, rub over till quite greasy with a piece of bacon fat. Drop the mixture on griddle in spoonfuls from a tablespoon. A minute or two will brown them. Then turn over and cook other side.

CANADIAN WAR CAKE

T
Two cups brown sugar, 2 cups hot water, 2 tablespoons lard, 1 lb. raisins, cut once, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 teaspoon cinnamon, 1 teaspoon cloves.

Boil these ingredients 5 minutes after they begin to bubble. When cold add 1 teaspoon soda dissolved in 1 teaspoon hot water, and 3 cups of flour.

Bake in 2 loaves, 45 minutes in a slow oven.

SERBIAN CAKE

M
Mix together the yolks of 8 eggs, 1 cup of sugar, 7 tablespoons of pounded hazelnuts, 1 cup flour. Add the beaten whites of the eggs. Cook this in shallow pans and put between the layers and on the top a cream made as follows:

Boil 10 minutes ¼ lb. pounded nuts with 1 cup of milk. Put aside to cool. Cream ¼ lb. butter, add 2 tablespoons of rum and 1 teaspoon vanilla. Mix this with the boiled milk and nuts. Add fine sugar until stiff enough to put between the layers[93] of cake and then add more sugar to make it stiff enough for the top. Sprinkle the top and sides of the cake with chopped nuts.

RAVIOLI DOLCE

T
Take ½ pound of flour, 1 tablespoon of butter, and 2 tablespoons of lard. Work this into a paste and roll out thin.

Take ½ pound of curds, add 1 egg, and the yolk of a second egg, 2 tablespoons of granulated sugar, a few drops of extract of vanilla. Mix well together and add to the paste as for other ravioli. Then fry in lard until a golden brown. Serve with powdered sugar.

CHESTNUTS

(Italian)
T
Take 40 chestnuts and roast or boil them over a slow fire. Remove the shells carefully, put them in a bowl, and pour over them ½ a glass of rum and 3 tablespoons of powdered sugar. Set fire to the rum and baste the chestnuts constantly as long as the rum will burn, turning the chestnuts about so they will absorb the rum and become coloured.

[94]

GNOCCHI OF MILK

O
One cup of milk, 1 level tablespoon of powdered starch, ½ teaspoon of vanilla, 2 yolks of eggs; 2 tablespoons of sugar.

Put all these ingredients together into a saucepan and mix together with a wooden spoon for a few minutes. Then put on the back of the stove where it is not too hot, and cook until the mixture has become stiff. Cook a few minutes longer; then turn out onto a bread-board and spread to a thickness of an inch. When cold cut into diamonds or squares. Butter a baking-dish, and put the squares into it overlapping each other. Add a few dabs of butter here and there. Put another layer of the squares in the dish, more dabs of butter, and so on until the dish is full. Brown in the oven.

ALMOND PUDDING

(Italian)
T
Two ozs. of ground almonds, sugar to taste, 3 eggs, ½ pint of cream, 1 dessert-spoonful of orange-juice, blanched almonds, shredded candied peel.

Separate the yolks of the eggs, add 1 tablespoonful of castor-sugar, the ground almonds, and the cream gradually. Whisk the whites stiffly, stir them lightly in, and add more sugar if necessary.[95] Have ready a mould well buttered and lightly covered with shredded almonds and candied peel, then pour in the mixture. Steam gently for 1½ hours, and serve with a suitable sauce.

CHESTNUT FRITTERS

(Italian)
T
Take 20 chestnuts and roast them on a slow fire. Remove the shells and put them into a saucepan with 1 level tablespoon of powdered sugar and ½ glass of milk and a little vanilla. Cover the saucepan and let it cook slowly for more than a half-hour. Then drain the chestnuts and pass them through a sieve. Put them back in a bowl with one tablespoon of butter, the yolks of 3 eggs, and mix well without cooking. Allow them to cool, and then take a small portion at a time, the size of a nut, roll them, dip them in egg, and in bread-crumbs, and fry in butter and lard, a few at a time. Serve hot with powdered sugar.

CHESTNUT CREAM

(A favourite Florentine pudding)
C
Cut 1 lb. of chestnuts lightly with a knife; put them in a saucepan and cover with cold water; boil 5 minutes. The outer and inner skins should now peel easily.

[96]

Cover the peeled chestnuts with milk, add a little vanilla, let them boil in a covered pan until tender and the milk reduced. Now crush the chestnuts in the saucepan and add ¼ lb. powdered sugar. If the purée is too thick add a little milk, but it should be stiff enough to form into a border around the dish in which it is to be served.

In the centre of the dish heap whipped cream lightly sweetened and flavoured with vanilla. The chestnut border may be made in an ornamental form by a pastry bag and tube.

TAPIOCA PUDDING

(French)
B
Boil 1½ pints of milk with 3 oz. of sugar and two even tablespoons of butter. Stir in gradually 3 oz. of fine tapioca.

Place the saucepan on a slow fire and simmer 15 minutes.

Pour the mixture into a basin and add ½ cup stoned raisins, the grated rind of 1 lemon, 1½ oz. finely cut candied orange-peel, one whole egg, 3 yolks; mix all together. Beat the 3 whites stiff and add to the mixture.

Pour into a mould which has been buttered and well sprinkled with powdered sugar and steam 45 minutes. Serve with any sweet sauce.

[97]

With a larger quantity of raisins this resembles an old time "Whisper Pudding." So called because the plums were close together.

GINGER ICE-CREAM

(Canadian)
M
Make a pint of custard. When it is cold add ½ pint unsweetened condensed milk, ½ pint unsweetened condensed cream, 2 tablespoons of chopped preserved Canton ginger, and 4 tablespoons of the syrup from the ginger jar.

Freeze.

ALMOND CAKE

(Canadian)
T
The ingredients are: Whites of 10 eggs, 1 cup of flour, 1½ cups of sugar, 1 teaspoonful of cream tartar; the method of mixing similar to angel cake. Bake in 3 layers.

For the filling: Yolks of 4 eggs, 1 tablespoon of sugar, 2 teaspoons of corn-starch mixed in enough milk to moisten, 1 pint of cream. Heat the cream in a double boiler, then add other ingredients, stir constantly and do not let it thicken too much; add a few drops of almond flavouring and ½ cup of chopped almonds.

For the frosting: White of 1 egg beaten stiff,[98] 1 cup of sugar with enough water to melt it. Boil 2 minutes. Stir half of it into the egg, let the remainder boil thick. Add all together and beat to the right consistency; flavour with sherry or Madeira.

QUEEN CAKES

(English)
M
Melt 4 oz. of butter, then add 4 oz. of corn flour, 4 oz. flour, 6 oz. sugar, 3 eggs, 1/8 of a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 1/8 of a teaspoonful of lemon extract, 1 small teaspoonful of baking powder. Beat well for 10 minutes and then bake in well-buttered patty pans in a warm oven.

FRANCESCAS

M
Mix together 2 eggs, 1 cup of sugar, ½ cup of butter, ½ cup of flour (scant), 2 squares of melted bitter chocolate, and 1 cup of chopped (not too finely) walnuts. Bake on well-buttered paper in moderate oven. Cut in squares while hot.

OAT CAKES

(Canadian)
C
Cream 1 cup of sugar with 1 tablespoonful of butter, add 2 cups of rolled oats, a few drops of bitter almond, 2 scant teaspoons of baking powder,[99] then the yolks of 2 eggs, lastly the whites beaten stiff. Drop on buttered paper and bake until a good brown.

GATEAU POLONAIS

P
Proportions: ¼ lb. of almonds, ¼ lb. of sifted sugar, 2 tablespoons of orange water, 2 dessert-spoons of water. Pound the almonds, moistening them with the water and orange water; mix in the sugar. Take ½ lb. of puff paste, divide it into two parts one a little larger than the other. Roll the smaller piece to the thickness of 1/8 inch, lay it at the bottom of a round baking sheet, spread on it the almond paste to within ½ inch of the border, moisten the border; roll the other piece of pastry to twice the thickness of the lower piece, place it over the almonds, join by pressing lightly on the edges of the two pieces of pastry; brush over the top with yolk of egg. Bake in a good oven from 25 to 30 minutes; an instant before taking out, powder some sugar on the top to glaze it.

ANISE CAKES

(French)
B
Beat well together ½ lb. flour, ½ lb. sugar, and 3 eggs. Add aniseed to taste. Drop on[100] buttered pans, making small round cakes and bake slowly.

GORDON HIGHLANDER GINGERBREAD

P
Put in a mixing bowl ½ a lb. of flour, 2 oz. of brown sugar, 2 oz. peel, ¾ of an egg or 1 small egg, well beaten, ½ teaspoonful of soda mixed with ¼ of a cup of milk, ¼ oz. each of ginger, mace, and cinnamon, then beat into this slowly 3 oz. of butter that has been warmed in ½ pint of molasses.

Bake very slowly in a tin lined with buttered paper.

SCOTCH SHORT BREAD

B
Beat to a cream ½ lb. of butter and 1 lb. of flour and 5 oz. of sugar (fine), add 4 oz. ground almonds, mixing all thoroughly together. Roll out into 3 cakes about ½ inch thick. Ornament around the edges and prick the top with a fork. Bake in a moderate oven until a nice brown, about 20 to 30 minutes.

CRAMIQUE

(Belgium)
M
Mix together ¼ of a cup of sugar, 1/3 of a cup of butter, 1 cup of milk, ½ teaspoonful of salt, 1 yeast cake dissolved in ½ a cup of warm water,[101] 2 pounded cardamon seeds, and let rise. When light add 1 cup of seeded raisins and enough flour to make a stiff batter. Let this rise until it is twice the size, then shape in a round loaf and bake. Brush over the top with the yolk of an egg.

GAUFRES

½ lb. flour, ¼ lb. sugar, a little salt, ¼ lb. butter, 2 whole eggs, 1 yolk, 1 teaspoonful brandy, 1 teaspoonful warm water, ½ pint milk.

Mix all in basin to a liquid paste, beat well until creamy.

Heat the waffle irons, butter them lightly, pour into the middle a teaspoonful of the mixture; cook to a golden brown on both sides of the cakes. When done, should be quite thin like an ice cream wafer. These are delicious but it is necessary to have the proper irons.

PETS DE NONNE

P
Proportions: 2½ cups water, 3 oz. butter, 1¼ oz. sugar, a pinch salt, grated rind 1 lemon, ½ lb. flour, 4 whole eggs. Boil together the water, butter, sugar, and salt for two minutes.

When the liquid is boiling remove the stewpan from fire and add the flour all at once, then the[102] lemon peel. When half cool add the eggs one by one.

Drop by spoonfuls in hot frying fat, which must not be too hot. When a golden brown remove from fire, drain, and roll in fine sugar.

BRIOCHE DE LA LUNE

D
Dissolve 2 yeast cakes in 1 cup of warm water; mix this into ¼ lb. of flour, a pinch of salt, 1 even tablespoon of sugar and 2 pounded cardamon seeds. Put 2 dessert-spoonsful of warm water in a bowl and place the dough in it and put in a very warm place to rise. Then work soft ¾ of a lb. of butter and mix into it 8 eggs and ¾ of a lb. of flour by degrees so that a smooth paste is obtained; when the paste is smooth and shining add to it the yeast, butter, and 1 dessert-spoonful of cream.

Leave in gentle temperature 4 or 5 hours or until the dough has risen to twice its size.

Roll out on a board ¼ of an inch thick, spread thinly with softened butter, then turn the edges over to the center to make 3 layers. Roll out ½ an inch thick. Cut into small squares. With a wet finger make a hole in the center of each; into this hole put a piece of the dough in the shape of a little pear; brush the top lightly with the yolk of egg. Let it rise again and then bake in a moderate oven about 20 minutes.

[103]

VICTORIA SCONES

(English)
T
Two cups of flour, 4 teaspoonsful of baking powder, 2 teaspoonsful of sugar, ½ teaspoon of salt, 4 tablespoonsful of butter, 2 eggs, 1/3 cup of cream.

Mix and sift together flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Rub in butter, add beaten eggs and cream. Roll out on floured board ¾ in. thick, cut out with a small biscuit cutter, and brush over with white of egg. Bake in a hot oven 15 minutes.

NUT BREAD

(New England)
M
Mix 3 cups of flour with 4 teaspoonsful of baking powder and 1 teaspoonful of salt.

In another bowl beat together ½ cup of sugar, 1 egg, 1 cup of milk, and 1 cup of English walnuts broken in pieces. Add the dry ingredients to this mixture and let rise 20 minutes, then bake in a loaf 30 to 40 minutes.

BRAN MUFFINS

(New England)
M
Mix 2 cups of bran, 1 cup of flour, 1 cup of milk, ½ cup molasses, 1 teaspoon of soda, and a pinch of salt.

[104]

Bake 20 minutes.

To this may be added some chopped nuts and raisins.

SCOTCH SCONES

M
Mix 3 teaspoons of baking powder with 3 cups of flour. Rub in 1 tablespoon of butter, add 1 cup of currants or raisins, 1 beaten egg, and enough milk to make a paste to roll out. Cut into squares or rounds and bake in a quick oven.

BLINNI

(Russian)
M
Mix together 2½ cups of tepid milk, 4 cups of flour with ½ a yeast cake and put in a warm place to rise 6 or 8 hours. One hour before cooking add 2 cups of warm milk and 1 tablespoon of salt. Fry like ordinary pan cakes. Serve very hot one on top of the other, well buttered.

Blinni are spread with soured cream, and smoked salmon or caviare is usually served with them.

BAKED HOMINY

(New England)
A
A good way to prepare any cereal for children. Put a pint of milk with 2 teaspoons of sugar and one of salt in a saucepan on the fire—when at the[105] boiling point add 6 oz. of hominy; let it cook about ten minutes.

Remove the saucepan from the fire, add a tablespoonful of butter and three eggs. Pour this into a baking pan and bake about 20 minutes.

Baked hominy may be served with meats or fish.

MARRONS GLACÉS

P
Put the chestnuts on the fire in cold water, boil 5 minutes, take them out, and while hot strip them of their outer and inner skins. Put them in a big saucepan containing a syrup of the proportion of ½ lb. of sugar to 1 quart water and 1 teaspoonful of butter, when they come to the boiling point remove to the back of the stove. Use a large quantity of the syrup to the quantity of chestnuts. This syrup should diminish very slowly. When it has become very thick take out the chestnuts and drain them, add a little vanilla to the syrup. Now pour boiling water over the chestnuts to remove the syrup which covers them. Dry them well. Beat the thick syrup until it is opaque, then roll the dry chestnuts in it; remove with a skimmer and let them dry on a sieve.

Prunes may be treated in the same way.

SMALL CUCUMBER PICKLES

P
Put 1 pint of salt on ½ of a bushel of small green cucumbers, cover them with boiling water, and let[106] them stand over night. Drain off the water and put them on the stove, a gallon at a time, in cold vinegar, to which add a lump of alum the size of a small hickory nut. Let them come to a boil, then take out and place in a stone jar. Have on the stove a gallon of the best cider vinegar, to which add about 2 lbs. of brown sugar, let come to a good boil. Take out the seeds of 4 red peppers and 2 green peppers, cut them in rings, cut in pieces 1 horse-radish root, pour boiling water over them, and let stand 15 minutes; drain off, add ½ cup of white mustard seed, a few whole cloves, and some cinnamon sticks. Then put all of this mixture on the pickles, cover them with boiling vinegar, and put away. Two or three cloves of garlic put in the jar are an addition.

PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES

(French)
T
These berries will remain whole. Prepare a basin of lime water. When the lime water is cool put in the strawberries and let them stand ¼ of an hour, then rinse them an instant in fresh water, drain them, taking care not to bruise the fruit. Take an equal amount of sugar to the amount of berries. To each pound of sugar, add 1 cup of water, boil until a very thick syrup, then add the[107] berries. Cook 5 minutes, pour into sterilized jars and seal.

RHUBARB JELLY

(English)
R
Rhubarb, sugar, and 1 teaspoonful powdered alum.

Wash and cut the rhubarb in small pieces; wash again, and boil it over a slow fire with a breakfastcupful of water till well cooked and all the juice extracted; let it drip all night through a jelly bag; to each good ½ pint of juice add 1 lb. of sugar, and add the alum to the whole; stir till it comes to the boil, and let it boil for 10 minutes; pour into pots.

TOMATO SOUP FOR CANNING

(New England)
P
Put in a preserving kettle ½ bushel of ripe tomatoes, 2 bunches of celery (leaves and all), 30 sprays of parsley, 4 or 5 sweet green peppers, 20 onions, 1 clove of garlic, 12 whole cloves, ½ stick of cinnamon, 30 bay leaves, 1 teaspoonful of whole black pepper; boil this 4 hours, strain through a sieve, and add 1½ cups of flour, one cup of sugar, 1 lb. of butter, and 5 tablespoonsful of salt. Cook ½ hour longer and seal in sterilized jars.

This is a good soup and will keep all winter.

[108]

BUDO CUP

T
To 1 pint bottle of dry ginger ale, add 1 pint bottle of grape juice, juice of 1 orange, 1 lemon, 2 tablespoonsful of Jamaica rum, and 1 bottle of effervescent water.





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