APICIUS: COOKERY AND DINING IN IMPERIAL ROME
A Bibliography, Critical Review and Translation of the
NOW FOR THE FIRST TIME RENDERED INTO ENGLISH
JOSEPH DOMMERS VEHLING
With a Dictionary of Technical Terms, Many Notes,
INTRODUCTION BY PROF. FREDERICK STARR
HAND-MADE PAPER, LIMITED EDITION
Mary Barber, Battle Creek, Mich.
American Institute of Baking, Chicago, Ill.
AS THE ACTORS SHAKESPEARE AND MOLIÈRE CREATED
Made from originals and reproductions in the author’s collection
B—PEN AND INK DRAWINGS BY THE AUTHOR
Sketched from scenes and objects at Pompeii, Naples, Berlin and
EXPLANATION OF TYPESETTING, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYSTEM OF NUMBERING
TEXT AND HEADINGS
The original ancient text as presented and rendered in the present translation is printed in capital letters.
Matter in parenthesis () is original. Matter in square brackets  is contributed by the translator.
In most of the early originals the headings or titles of the formulæ are invariably part of the text. In the present translation they are given both in English and in the Latin used by those originals which the translator considered most characteristic titles.
They have been set in prominent type as titles over each formula, whereas in the originals the formulæ of the various chapters run together, in many instances without distinct separation.
NUMBERING OF RECIPES
A system of numbering the recipes has therefore been adopted by the translator, following the example of Schuch, which does not exist in the other originals but the numbers in the present translation do not correspond to those adopted by Schuch for reasons which hereafter become evident.
NOTES AND COMMENTS BY THE TRANSLATOR
The notes, comments and variants added to each recipe by the translator are printed in upper and lower case and in the same type as the other contributions by the translator, the Apiciana, the Critical Review and the Vocabulary and Index.
For the sake of convenience, to facilitate the study of each recipe and for quick reference the notes follow in each and every case such ancient recipe as they have reference to.
NY—The New York Codex (formerly Cheltenham), Apiciana, I
NO translation of Apicius into English has yet been published. The book has been printed again and again in Latin and has been translated into Italian and German. It is unnecessary to here give historic details regarding the work as Mr. Vehling goes fully and admirably into the subject. In 1705 the book was printed in Latin at London, with notes by Dr. Martinus Lister. It caused some stir in the England of that time. In a very curious book, The Art of Cookery, in Imitation of Horace’s Art of Poetry, with Some Letters to Dr. Lister and Others, Dr. Wm. King says:
“The other curiosity is the admirable piece of Cœlius Apicius, ‘De Opsoniis et condimentis sive arte coquinaria, Libri decem’ being ten books of soups and sauces, and the art of cookery, as it is excellently printed for the doctor, who in this important affair, is not sufficiently communicative....
“I some days ago met with an old acquaintance, of whom I inquired if he has seen the book concerning soups and sauces? He told me he had, but that he had but a very slight view of it, the person who was master of it not being willing to part with so valuable a rarity out of his closet. I desired him to give me some account of it. He says that it is a very handsome octavo, for, ever since the days of Ogilvy, good paper and good print, and fine cuts, make a book become ingenious and brighten up an author strangely. That there is a copious index; and at the end a catalogue of all the doctor’s works, concerning cockles, English beetles, snails, spiders, that get up into the air and throw us down cobwebs; a monster vomited up by a baker and such like; which if carefully perused, would wonderfully improve us.”
More than two hundred years have passed and we now have an edition of this curious work in English. And our edition has nothing to lose by comparison with the old one. For this, too, is a handsome book, with good paper and good print and fine cuts. And the man who produces it can equally bear comparison with Dr. Lister and more earlier commentators and editors whom he quotes—Humelbergius and Caspar Barthius.
The preparation of such a book is no simple task and requires a rare combination of qualities. Mr. Vehling possesses this unusual combination. He was born some forty-five years ago in the small town of Duelken on the German-Dutch [xiv] frontier—a town proverbial for the dullness of its inhabitants. There was nothing of dullness about the boy, however, for at the age of fourteen years, he had already four years study of Latin and one of Greek to his credit. Such was his record in Latin that his priest teachers attempted to influence him toward the priesthood. His family, however, had other plans and believing that he had enough schooling, decided that he should be a cook. As he enjoyed good food, had a taste for travel and independence, and was inclined to submit to family direction, he rather willingly entered upon the career planned for him. He learned the business thoroughly and for six years practiced his art in Germany, Belgium, France, England and Scandinavia. Wherever he went, he gave his hours of freedom to reading and study in libraries and museums.
During his first trip through Italy and on a visit to Pompeii he conceived the idea of depicting some day the table of the Romans and of making the present translation. He commenced to gather all the necessary material for this work, which included intensive studies of the ancient arts and languages. Meanwhile, he continued his hotel work also, quite successfully. At the age of twenty-four he was assistant manager of the fashionable Hotel Bristol, Vienna.
However, the necessities of existence prevented his giving that time and study to art, which is necessary if it was to become a real career. In Vienna he found music, drama, languages, history, literature and gastronomy, and met interesting people from all parts of the globe. While the years at Vienna were the happiest of his life, he had a distaste for the “superheated, aristocratic and military atmosphere.” It was at that city that he met the man who was responsible for his coming to America. Were we writing Mr. Vehling’s biography, we would have ample material for a racy and startling narrative. We desire only to indicate the remarkable preparation for the work before us, which he has had. A Latin scholar of exceptional promise, a professional cook of pronounced success, and an artist competent to illustrate his own work! Could such a combination be anticipated? It is the combination that has made this book possible.
The book has claims even upon our busy and practical generation. Mr. Vehling has himself stated them:
“The important addition to our knowledge of the ancients—for our popular notions about their table are entirely erroneous and are in need of revision.
“The practical value of many of the ancient formulæ—for ‘In Olde Things There is Newnesse.’
“The human interest—because of the amazing mentality and the culinary ingenuity of the ancients revealed to us from an altogether new angle.
“The curious novelty and the linguistic difficulty, the philological interest and the unique nature of the task, requiring unique prerequisites—all these factors prompted us to undertake this translation.”
One word as to Mr. Vehling’s work in America. He was for five years manager of catering at the Hotel Pfister in Milwaukee; for two and a half years he was inspector and instructor of the Canadian Pacific Railway; he was connected [xv] with some of the leading hotels in New York City, and with the Eppley and the Van Orman Hotels chains, in executive capacity. He not only has the practical side of food use and preparation, he is an authority upon the science in his field. His printed articles on food and cookery have been read with extraordinary interest, and his lectures upon culinary matters have been well received. It is to be hoped that both will eventually be published in book form.
There is no financial lure in getting out an English translation of Apicius. It is a labor of love—but worth the doing. We have claimed that Mr. Vehling has exceptional fitness for the task. This will be evident to anyone who reads his book. An interesting feature of his preparation is the fact that Mr. Vehling has subjected many of the formulæ to actual test. As Dr. Lister in the old edition of 1705 increased the value and interest of the work by making additions from various sources, so our editor of today adds much and interesting matter in his supplements, notes and illustrations.
It is hardly expected that many will follow Mr. Vehling in testing the Apician formulæ. Hazlitt in speaking of “The Young Cook’s Monitor” which was printed in 1683, says:
“Some of the ingredients proposed for sauces seem to our ears rather prodigious. In one place a contemporary peruser has inserted an ironical calculation in MS. to the effect that, whereas a cod’s head could be bought for fourpence, the condiments recommended for it were not to be had for less than nine shillings.”
We shall close with a plagiarism oft repeated. It was a plagiarism as long ago as 1736, when it was admitted such in the preface of Smith’s “The Compleat Housewife”:
“It being grown as fashionable for a book now to appear in public without a preface, as for a lady to appear at a ball without a hoop-petticoat, I shall conform to the custom for fashion-sake and not through any necessity. The subject being both common and universal, needs no argument to introduce it, and being so necessary for the gratification of the appetite, stands in need of no encomiums to allure persons to the practice of it; since there are but a few nowadays who love not good eating and drinking....”
Old Apicius and Joseph Dommers Vehling really need no introduction.
Seattle, Washington, August 3, 1926.
The present first translation into English of the ancient cookery book dating back to Imperial Roman times known as the Apicius book is herewith presented to antiquarians, friends of the Antique as well as to gastronomers, friends of good cheer.
Three of the most ancient manuscript books that exist today bearing the name of Apicius date back to the eighth and ninth century. Ever since the invention of printing Apicius has been edited chiefly in the Latin language. Details of the manuscript books and printed editions will be found under the heading of Apiciana on the following pages.
The present version has been based chiefly upon three principal Latin editions, that of Albanus Torinus, 1541, who had for his authority a codex he found on the island of Megalona, on the editions of Martinus Lister, 1705-9, who based his work upon that of Humelbergius, 1542, and the Giarratano-Vollmer edition, 1922.
We have also scrutinized various other editions forming part of our collection of Apiciana, and as shown by our “family tree of Apicius” have drawn either directly or indirectly upon every known source for our information.
The reasons and raison d’être for this undertaking become sufficiently clear through Dr. Starr’s introduction and through the following critical review.
It has been often said that the way to a man’s heart is through his stomach; so here is hoping that we may find a better way of knowing old Rome and antique private life through the study of this cookery book—Europe’s oldest and Rome’s only one in existence today.
J. D. V.
Chicago, in the Spring of 1926.
For many helpful hints, for access to works in their libraries and for their kind and sympathetic interest in this work I am especially grateful to Professor Dr. Edward Brandt, of Munich; to Professor Dr. Margaret Barclay Wilson, of Washington, D.C., and New York City; to Mr. Arnold Shircliffe, and Mr. Walter M. Hill, both of Chicago.
J. D. V.
Chicago, in the Summer of 1936.
THE BOOK OF APICIUS
POMPEII: CASA DI FORNO—HOUSE OF THE OVEN
Ancient bakery and flour mill of the year A.D. 79. Four grain grinders to the right. The method of operating these mills is shown in the sketch of the slaves operating a hand-mill. These mills were larger and were driven by donkeys attached to beams stuck in the square holes. The bake house is to the left, with running water to the right of the entrance to the oven. The oven itself was constructed ingeniously with a view of saving fuel and greatest efficiency.
Found in Pompeii. Each end of the long handle takes the form of a bird’s head. The one close to the bowl holds in its bill a stout wire which is loosely fastened around the neck of the bowl, the two ends being interlocked. This allows the bowl to tilt sufficiently to hold its full contents when retired from the narrow opening of the amphora. The ancients also had dippers with extension handles to reach down to the bottom of the deep amphora. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 73822; Field M. 24181.
THE BOOK OF APICIUS
A STUDY OF ITS TIMES, ITS AUTHORS AND THEIR SOURCES, ITS
|CHAP.||I.||FINE SPICED WINE. HONEY REFRESHER FOR TRAVELERS.|
|CHAP.||III.||ROSE WINE. VIOLET WINE. ROSE WINE WITHOUT ROSES.|
|CHAP.||V.||TO CLARIFY MUDDY WINE.|
|CHAP.||VI.||TO IMPROVE A BROTH WITH A BAD ODOR.|
|CHAP.||VII.||TO KEEP MEATS FRESH WITHOUT SALT. TO KEEP COOKED SIDES OF PORK.|
|CHAP.||VIII.||TO MAKE SALT MEATS SWEET.|
|CHAP.||IX.||TO KEEP FRIED FISH. TO KEEP OYSTERS.|
|CHAP.||X.||TO MAKE LASER GO A LONG WAY.|
|CHAP.||XI.||TO MAKE HONEY CAKES LAST. TO MAKE SPOILED HONEY GOOD. TO TEST SPOILED HONEY.|
|CHAP.||XII.||TO KEEP GRAPES. TO KEEP POMEGRANATES. TO KEEP QUINCES. TO PRESERVE FRESH FIGS. TO KEEP CITRON. TO KEEP MULBERRIES. TO KEEP POT HERBS. TO PRESERVE SORREL. TO KEEP TRUFFLES. TO KEEP HARD-SKINNED PEACHES.|
|CHAP.||XIII.||SPICED SALTS FOR MANY ILLS.|
|CHAP.||XIV.||TO KEEP GREEN OLIVES.|
|CHAP.||XV.||CUMIN SAUCE FOR SHELLFISH. ANOTHER.|
|CHAP.||XVI.||LASER FLAVOR. ANOTHER.|
|CHAP.||XVII.||WINE SAUCE FOR TRUFFLES. ANOTHER.|
|CHAP.||XX.||OXYGARUM, DIGESTIVE. ANOTHER.|
THE COMPOSITION OF [this] EXCELLENT SPICED WINE [is as follows]. INTO A COPPER BOWL PUT 6 SEXTARII  OF HONEY AND 2 SEXTARII OF WINE; HEAT ON A SLOW FIRE, CONSTANTLY STIRRING THE MIXTURE WITH A WHIP. AT THE BOILING POINT ADD A DASH OF COLD WINE, RETIRE FROM STOVE AND SKIM. REPEAT THIS TWICE OR THREE TIMES, LET IT REST TILL THE NEXT DAY, AND SKIM AGAIN. THEN ADD 4 OZS. OF CRUSHED PEPPER , 3 SCRUPLES OF MASTICH, A DRACHM EACH OF [nard or laurel] LEAVES AND SAFFRON, 5 DRACHMS OF ROASTED DATE STONES CRUSHED AND PREVIOUSLY SOAKED IN WINE TO SOFTEN THEM. WHEN THIS IS PROPERLY DONE ADD 18 SEXTARII OF LIGHT WINE. TO CLARIFY IT PERFECTLY, ADD [crushed] CHARCOAL  TWICE OR AS OFTEN AS NECESSARY WHICH WILL DRAW [the residue] TOGETHER [and carefully strain or filter through the charcoal].
 Sextarii. Tor. partes XV; G.-V. pondo XV; List. partes XV ... pondo lib.... qui continent sextarios sex. One sextarius (a “sixth”) equals about 1½ pint English.
 Pepper. Piperis uncias IV—ordinarily our black or white pepper grains, but in connection with honey, sweets, and so forth, the term “pepper” may just as well stand for our allspice, or even for any spicing in general.
 Charcoal. Still a favorite filterer for liquors.
List. Apicius is correct in starting his book with this formula, as all meals were started with this sort of mixed drink.
Tor. deviates from the other texts in that he elaborates on the cooking process.
THE WAYFARER’S HONEY REFRESHER (SO CALLED BECAUSE IT GIVES ENDURANCE AND STRENGTH TO PEDESTRIANS)  WITH WHICH TRAVELERS ARE REFRESHED BY THE WAYSIDE IS MADE IN THIS MANNER: FLAVOR HONEY WITH GROUND PEPPER AND SKIM. IN THE MOMENT OF SERVING PUT HONEY IN A CUP, AS MUCH AS IS DESIRED TO OBTAIN THE RIGHT DEGREE OF SWEETNESS, AND MIX SPICED WINE NOT MORE THAN A NEEDED QUANTITY;  ALSO ADD SOME WINE TO THE SPICED HONEY TO FACILITATE ITS FLOW AND THE MIXING.
 Tor. Melirhomum; non extat. G.-V. M. perpetuum, i.e., having good keeping qualities.
 Tor. reads thus whereas others apply “endurance” to the honey itself. The honey could not be preserved (perpetuum) by the addition of pepper. Any addition, as a matter of fact, would hasten its deterioration unless the honey were boiled and sealed tight, which the original takes for granted.
ROMAN VERMOUTH [or Absinth] IS MADE THUS: ACCORDING TO THE RECIPE OF CAMERINUM  YOU NEED WORMWOOD FROM SANTO  FOR ROMAN VERMOUTH OR, AS A SUBSTITUTE, WORMWOOD FROM THE PONTUS  CLEANED AND CRUSHED, 1 THEBAN OUNCE  OF IT, 6 SCRUPLES OF MASTICH, 3 EACH OF [nard] LEAVES, COSTMARY  AND SAFFRON AND 18 QUARTS OF ANY KIND OF MILD WINE. [Filter cold] CHARCOAL IS NOT REQUIRED BECAUSE OF THE BITTERNESS.
 G.-V. Apsinthium.
 The mention of a name in a recipe is very infrequent. Camerinum is a town in Umbria.
 Now Saintonge, Southern France.
 Black Sea Region.
 Weight of indefinite volume, from Thebæ, one of the several ancient cities by that name. List. thinks it is an Egyptian ounce, and that the author of the recipe must be an African.
 Wanting in Tor.; G.-V. costi scripulos senos.
MAKE ROSE WINE IN THIS MANNER: ROSE PETALS, THE LOWER WHITE PART REMOVED, SEWED INTO A LINEN BAG AND IMMERSED IN WINE FOR SEVEN DAYS. THEREUPON ADD A SACK OF NEW PETALS WHICH ALLOW TO DRAW FOR ANOTHER SEVEN DAYS. AGAIN REMOVE THE OLD PETALS AND REPLACE THEM BY FRESH ONES FOR ANOTHER WEEK;  THEN STRAIN THE WINE THROUGH THE COLANDER. BEFORE SERVING, ADD HONEY SWEETENING TO TASTE. TAKE CARE THAT ONLY THE BEST PETALS FREE FROM DEW BE USED FOR SOAKING.
 Used principally as a laxative medicine. List. These wines compounded of roses and violets move the bowels strongly.
IN A SIMILAR WAY AS ABOVE LIKE THE ROSE WINE VIOLET WINE IS MADE OF FRESH VIOLETS, AND TEMPERED WITH HONEY, AS DIRECTED.
ROSE WINE WITHOUT ROSES IS MADE IN THIS FASHION: A PALM LEAF BASKET FULL OF FRESH CITRUS LEAVES IS IMMERSED IN THE VAT OF NEW WINE BEFORE FERMENTATION HAS SET IN. AFTER FORTY DAYS RETIRE THE LEAVES, AND, AS OCCASION ARISES, SWEETEN THE WINE WITH HONEY, AND PASS IT UP FOR ROSE WINE.
 A substitute.
IN ORDER TO MAKE AN OIL SIMILAR TO THE LIBURNIAN OIL PROCEED AS FOLLOWS: IN SPANISH OIL PUT [the following mixture of] ELECAMPANE, CYPRIAN RUSH AND GREEN LAUREL LEAVES THAT ARE NOT TOO OLD, ALL OF IT CRUSHED AND MACERATED AND REDUCED TO A FINE POWDER. SIFT THIS IN AND ADD FINELY GROUND SALT AND STIR INDUSTRIOUSLY FOR THREE DAYS OR MORE. THEN ALLOW TO SETTLE. EVERYBODY WILL TAKE THIS FOR LIBURNIAN OIL. 
 Like the above a flagrant case of food adulteration.
PUT BEAN MEAL AND THE WHITES OF THREE EGGS IN A MIXING BOWL. MIX THOROUGHLY WITH A WHIP AND ADD  TO THE WINE, STIRRING FOR A LONG TIME. THE NEXT DAY THE WINE WILL BE CLEAR . ASHES OF VINES HAVE THE SAME EFFECT.
 Ex Lister whose version we prefer. He says, Alias die erit candidum while Tor. adds white salt, saying, sal si adieceris candidum, same as Tac. This is unusual, although the ancients have at times treated wine with sea water.
IF BROTH HAS CONTRACTED A BAD ODOR, PLACE A VESSEL UPSIDE DOWN AND FUMIGATE IT WITH LAUREL AND CYPRESS AND BEFORE VENTILATING  IT, POUR THE BROTH IN THIS VESSEL. IF THIS DOES NOT HELP MATTERS  AND IF THE TASTE IS TOO PRONOUNCED, ADD HONEY AND FRESH SPIKENARD  TO IT; THAT WILL IMPROVE IT. ALSO NEW MUST SHOULD BE LIKEWISE EFFECTIVE .
 List. Liquamen, id est, garum. Goll. Fish sauce.
 Tor. Qui liquamen corruptum corrigatur.
 Dann. Ventilate it. Goll. Whip the sauce in fresh air.
 List., G.-V. si salsum fuerit—if this makes it too salty—Tor. si hoc nihil effecerit.
 Tor. novem spicam immittas; List. Move spica; Goll.-Dann. stir with a whip.
 A classic example of Apician confusion when one interpreter reads “s” for “f” and “novem” for “move” and another reads something else. Tor. is more correct than the others, but this formula is beyond redemption. Fate has decreed that ill-smelling broths shall be discarded.
COVER FRESH MEAT WITH HONEY, SUSPEND IT IN A VESSEL. USE AS NEEDED; IN WINTER IT WILL KEEP BUT IN SUMMER IT WILL LAST ONLY A FEW DAYS. COOKED MEAT MAY BE TREATED LIKEWISE.
PLACE THEM IN A PICKLE OF MUSTARD, VINEGAR, SALT AND HONEY, COVERING MEAT ENTIRELY, AND WHEN READY TO USE YOU’LL BE SURPRISED.
V. Method still popular today for pickling raw meats. The originals treat of cooked meats (Tor. nucula elixa; G.-V. unguellæ coctæ; Tac. nucella cocta). Dispensing with the honey, we use more spices, whole pepper, cloves, bay leaves, also onions and root vegetables. Sometimes a little sugar and wine is added to this preparation which the French call marinade and the Germans Sauerbraten-Einlage.
YOU CAN MAKE SALT MEATS SWEET BY FIRST BOILING THEM IN MILK AND THEN FINISHING THEM IN WATER.
V. Method still in practice today. Salt mackerel, finnan haddie, etc., are parboiled in milk prior to being boiled in water or broiled or fried.
IMMEDIATELY AFTER THEY ARE FRIED POUR HOT VINEGAR OVER THEM.
Dann. Exactly as we today with fried herring and river lamprey.
FUMIGATE A VINEGAR BARREL WITH PITCH , WASH IT OUT WITH VINEGAR AND STACK THE OYSTERS IN IT 
 Tor. vas ascernum, corrected on margin, ab aceto. List. vas ab aceto, which is correct. G.-V. lavas ab aceto; V. the oysters? unthinkable! Besides it would do no good.
 Goll. Take oysters out of the shell, place in vinegar barrel, sprinkle with laurel berries, fine salt, close tight. V. Goll’s authority for this version is not found in our originals.
V. There is no way to keep live oysters fresh except in their natural habitat—salt water. Today we pack them in barrels, feed them with oatmeal, put weights on them—of no avail. The only way English oysters could have arrived fresh in Imperial Rome was in specially constructed bottoms of the galleys.
PUT THE LASER  IN A SPACIOUS GLASS VESSEL; IMMERSE ABOUT 20 PINE KERNELS [pignolia nuts]
IF YOU NEED LASER FLAVOR, TAKE SOME NUTS, CRUSH THEM; THEY WILL IMPART TO YOUR DISH AN ADMIRABLE FLAVOR. REPLACE THE USED NUTS WITH A LIKE NUMBER OF FRESH ONES 
 List. and G.-V. uncia—ounce. Making an ounce of laser go a long way. Tor. nucea; Tac. nucia. Lister, fond of hair-splitting, is irreconcilably opposed to Tor., and berates Caspar Barthius for defending Tor. List. Quam futilis sit in multis labor C. Barthii ut menda Torini passim sustineat, vel ex hoc loco intelligere licet: Et enim lege modo uncia pro nucea cum Humelbergio, & ista omnia glossemata vana sunt.
V. both readings, uncia or nucia are permissible, and make very little difference. We side with Tor. and Tac. because it takes more than an ounce of laser to carry out this experiment.
 Laser, laserpitium, cf. dictionary.
 V. This article illustrates how sparingly the ancients used the strong and pungent laser flavor [by some believed to be asa foetida] because it was very expensive, but principally because the Roman cooks worked economically and knew how to treat spices and flavors judiciously. This article alone should disperse for all time all stories of ancient Rome’s extravagance in flavoring and seasoning dishes. It reminds of the methods used by European cooks to get the utmost use out of the expensive vanilla bean: they bury the bean in a can of powdered sugar. They will use the sugar only which has soon acquired a delicate vanilla perfume, and will replace the used sugar by a fresh supply. This is by far a superior method to using the often rank and adulterated “vanilla extract” readily bottled. It is more gastronomical and more economical. Most commercial extracts are synthetic, some injurious. To believe that any of them impart to the dishes the true flavor desired is of course ridiculous. The enormous consumption of such extracts however, is characteristic of our industrialized barbarism which is so utterly indifferent to the fine points in food. Today it is indeed hard for the public to obtain a real vanilla bean.
TO MAKE HONEY CAKES THAT WILL KEEP TAKE WHAT THE GREEKS CALL YEAST  AND MIX IT WITH THE FLOUR  AND THE HONEY AT THE TIME WHEN MAKING THE COOKY DOUGH.
 Tor. and Tac. nechon; G.-V. cnecon; Dann. penion.
HOW BAD HONEY MAY BE TURNED INTO A SALEABLE ARTICLE IS TO MIX ONE PART OF THE SPOILED HONEY WITH TWO PARTS OF GOOD HONEY.
List. indigna fraus! V. We all agree with Lister that this is contemptible business. This casts another light on the ancients’ methods of food adulteration.
IMMERSE ELENCAMPANE IN HONEY AND LIGHT IT; IF GOOD, IT WILL BURN BRIGHTLY.
TAKE PERFECT GRAPES FROM THE VINES, PLACE THEM IN A VESSEL AND POUR RAIN WATER OVER THEM THAT HAS BEEN BOILED DOWN ONE THIRD OF ITS VOLUME. THE VESSEL MUST BE PITCHED AND SEALED WITH PLASTER, AND MUST BE KEPT IN A COOL PLACE TO WHICH THE SUN HAS NO ACCESS. TREATED IN THIS MANNER, THE GRAPES WILL BE FRESH WHENEVER YOU NEED THEM. YOU CAN ALSO SERVE THIS WATER AS HONEY MEAD TO THE SICK.
ALSO, IF YOU COVER THE GRAPES WITH BARLEY [bran] YOU WILL FIND THEM SOUND AND UNINJURED.
V. We keep grapes in cork shavings, bran and saw dust.
STEEP THEM INTO HOT [sea] WATER, TAKE THEM OUT IMMEDIATELY AND HANG THEM UP. [Tor.] THEY WILL KEEP.
 Tor. conditura malorum Punicorum; Tac. mala granata; G.-V. mala et mala granata.
PICK OUT PERFECT QUINCES WITH STEMS  AND LEAVES. PLACE THEM IN A VESSEL, POUR OVER HONEY AND DEFRUTUM  AND YOU’LL PRESERVE THEM FOR A LONG TIME .
 V. Excellent idea, for the stems, if removed, would leave a wound in the fruit for the air to penetrate and to start fermentation. Cf. also the next formula.
 G.-V. defritum, from defervitum; defrutum is new wine, spiced, boiled down to one half of its volume.
 This precept would not keep the fruit very long unless protected by a closefitting cover and sterilization. Cf. No. 24.
SELECT THEM ALL VERY CAREFULLY WITH THE STEMS ON  AND PLACE THEM IN HONEY SO THEY DO NOT TOUCH EACH OTHER.
 See the preceding formula.
PLACE THEM IN A GLASS  VESSEL WHICH IS SEALED WITH PLASTER AND SUSPENDED.
 Tor. conditura malorum Medicorum quæ et citria dicuntur. V. Not quite identified. Fruit coming from Asia Minor, Media or Persia, one of the many varieties of citrus fruit. Probably citron because of their size. Goll. Lemon-apples; Dann. lemons (oranges). List. Scilicet mala, quæ Dioscorides Persica quoque & Medica, & citromala, Plinius item Assyria appellari dicit.
 G.-V. vas vitreum; Tac. and Tor. vas citrum; V. a glass vessel could not be successfully sealed with plaster paris, and the experiment would fail; cf. note 3 to No. 21.
MULBERRIES, IN ORDER TO KEEP THEM, MUST BE LAID INTO THEIR OWN JUICE MIXED WITH NEW WINE [boiled down to one half] IN A GLASS VESSEL AND MUST BE WATCHED ALL THE TIME [so that they do not spoil].
V. This and the foregoing formulæ illustrate the ancients’ attempts at preserving foods, and they betray their ignorance of “processing” by heating them  in hermetically sealed vessels, the principle of which was not discovered until 1810 by Appert which started the now gigantic industry of canning.
PLACE SELECTED POT HERBS, NOT TOO MATURE, IN A PITCHED VESSEL.
TRIM AND CLEAN [the vegetable] PLACE THEM TOGETHER SPRINKLE MYRTLE BERRIES BETWEEN, COVER WITH HONEY AND VINEGAR.
ANOTHER WAY: PREPARE MUSTARD HONEY AND VINEGAR ALSO SALT AND COVER THEM WITH THE SAME.
 The kind of vegetable to be treated here has not been sufficiently identified. List. and G.-V. rapæ—turnips—from rapus, seldom rapa,—a rape, turnip, navew. Tac. and Tor. Lapæ (lapathum), kind of sorrel, monk’s rhubarb, dock. Tor. explaining at length: conditura Rumicis quod lapathon Græci, Latini Lapam quoque dicunt.
V. Tor. is correct, or nearly so. Turnips, in the first place, are not in need of any special method of preservation. They keep very well in a cool, well-ventilated place; in fact they would hardly keep very long if treated in the above manner. These directions are better applied to vegetables like dock or monk’s rhubarb. Lister, taking Humelbergii word for it, accepts “turnips” as the only truth; but he has little occasion to assail Torinus as he does: Torinus lapam legit, & nullibi temeritatem suam atque inscientiam magis ostendit.
Now, if Torinus, according to Lister, “nowhere displays more nerve and ignorance” we can well afford to trust Torinus in cases such as this.
THE TRUFFLES WHICH MUST NOT BE TOUCHED BY WATER ARE PLACED ALTERNATELY IN DRY SAWDUST; SEAL THE VESSEL WITH PLASTER AND DEPOSIT IT IN A COOL PLACE.
Dann. Clean [peel] the truffles ... in another vessel place the peelings, seal the vessels.... V. this would be the ruin of the truffles, unless they were “processed” in the modern way. Our originals have nothing that would warrant this interpretation.
SELECT THE BEST AND PUT THEM IN BRINE. THE NEXT DAY REMOVE THEM AND RINSING THEM CAREFULLY SET THEM IN PLACE IN A VESSEL, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND SATURY AND IMMERSE IN VINEGAR.
THESE SPICED SALTS ARE USED AGAINST INDIGESTION, TO MOVE THE BOWELS, AGAINST ALL ILLNESS, AGAINST PESTILENCE AS WELL AS FOR THE PREVENTION OF COLDS. THEY ARE VERY GENTLE INDEED AND MORE HEALTHFUL THAN YOU WOULD EXPECT. [Tor. MAKE THEM IN THIS MANNER]: 1 LB. OF COMMON SALT GROUND, 2 LBS. OF AMMONIAC SALT, GROUND [List. AND G.-V. 3 OZS. WHITE PEPPER, 2 OZS. GINGER] 1 OZ. [Tor. 1½ OZ.] OF AMINEAN BRYONY, 1 OF THYME SEED AND 1 OF CELERY SEED [Tor. 1½ OZ.] IF YOU DON’T WANT TO USE CELERY SEED TAKE INSTEAD 3 OZS. OF PARSLEY [SEED] 3 OZS. OF ORIGANY, 1 OZ. OF SAFFRON [List. and G.-V. ROCKET] 3 OZS. OF BLACK PEPPER  1½ OZS. ROCKET SEED, 2 OZS. OF MARJORAM [List. and G.-V. CRETAN HYSSOP] 2 OZS. OF NARD LEAVES, 2 OZS. OF PARSLEY [SEED] AND 2 OZS. OF ANISE SEED.
 In view of the white pepper as directed above, this seems superfluous. White pepper and ginger omitted by Tor.
This is one of the few medical formulæ found in Apicius.
Edward Brandt, op. cit., Apiciana No. 29, points out the similarity of this formula with that of the physician, Marcellus, who lived at Rome under Nero, Marcell. med. 30, 51.
TO KEEP OLIVES, FRESH FROM THE TREE, IN A MANNER ENABLING YOU TO MAKE OIL FROM THEM ANY TIME YOU DESIRE JUST PLACE THEM [in brine].  HAVING BEEN KEPT THUS FOR SOME TIME THE OLIVES MAY BE USED AS IF THEY  HAD JUST COME OFF THE TREE FRESH IF YOU DESIRE TO MAKE GREEN OIL OF THEM.
 The original does not state the liquid in which the olives are to be placed.
Hum. in illud, legendum puto, in muriam.
Hum. is correct. Olives are preserved in brine to this day.
Schuch’s version of this formula (his No. 27) follows our No. 28, together with his own No. 28, To Keep Damascene Plums [etc.] which is wanting in List., G.-V., and all the earlier editions because it is from the codex Salmasianus and will be found among the Excerpts of Vinidarius at the end of the Apician recipes.
[CUMINATUM. Hum., List. and G.-V.—Tac. and Tor. at the end of Book I.]
[Tor.] LASER IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER: LASER (WHICH IS ALSO CALLED LASERPITIUM BY THE ROMANS, WHILE THE GREEKS CALL IT SILPHION) FROM CYRENE  OR FROM PARTHIA  IS DISSOLVED IN LUKEWARM MODERATELY ACID BROTH; OR PEPPER, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH [are ground, compounded and dissolved together].
 Cyrene, a province in Africa, reputed for its fine flavored laser.
 Parthia, Asiatic country, still supplying asa fœtida.
The African root furnishing laser was exterminated by the demand for it. Cf. Laser in Index.
[ANOTHER LASER FLAVOR WHICH TAKES] PEPPER, CARAWAY, ANISE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, THE LEAVES  OF SILPHIUM, MALOBATHRUM  INDIAN SPIKENARD, A LITTLE COSTMARY, HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH.
 Tor. Silphij folium; List. Sylphium, folium; G.-V. Silfi, folium, the latter two interpretations meaning silphium (laser) and leaves (either nard or bay leaves) while both Tor. and Tac. (silfii folium) mean the leaves of silphium plant.
 Malobathrum, malobatrum, malabathrum—leaves of an Indian tree, wild cinnamon.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, RUE, BROTH, HONEY AND A LITTLE OIL.
ANOTHER WAY: THYME, SATURY, PEPPER, LOVAGE, HONEY, BROTH AND OIL.
 Also Elæogarum.
V. Directions wanting whether the above ingredients are to be added to the already prepared garum, which see in dictionary. Gollmer gives the following direction for garum: Boil a sextarium of anchovies and 3 sextarii of good wine until it is thick purée. Strain this through a hair sieve and keep it in glass flask for future use. This formula, according to Goll. should have followed our No. 9; but we find no authority for it in the original.
Oenogarum proper would be a garum prepared with wine, but in this instance it is the broth in which the truffles were cooked that is to be flavored with the above ingredients. There is no need and no mention of garum proper. Thus prepared it might turn out to be a sensible sauce for truffles in the hands of a good practitioner.
Note the etymology of the word “garum,” now serving as a generic name for “sauce” which originally stood for a compound of the fish garus.
Cf. Garum in index.
[Tor. OXYPORUM (WHICH SIGNIFIES “EASY PASSAGE”) SO NAMED BECAUSE OF ITS EFFECT, TAKES] 2 OZS. OF CUMIN, 1 OZ. OF GINGER [List. 1 OZ. OF GREEN RUE] 6 SCRUPLES OF SALTPETER, A DOZEN SCRUPLES OF PLUMP DATES, 1 OZ. OF PEPPER AND 11 [List. 9] OZS. OF HONEY. THE CUMIN MAY BE EITHER ÆTHIOPIAN, SYRIAN OR LYBIAN, MUST BE FIRST SOAKED IN VINEGAR, BOILED DOWN DRY AND POUNDED. AFTERWARDS ADD YOUR HONEY. THIS COMPOUND, AS NEEDED, IS USED AS OXYPORUM.
Cf. No. 111, A Harmless Salad.
Bran. op. cit., p. 25-6, of Greek origin.
[Tor. HYPOTRIMA, MEANING IN LATIN A PERFECT MESS OF POTAGE, REQUIRES THIS]: PEPPER, LOVAGE, DRY MINT,  PIGNOLIA NUTS, RAISINS, DATE WINE, SWEET CHEESE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, OIL, MUST OR REDUCED MUST 
 List. and G.-V. Hypotrimma.
V. This formula, lacking detailed instructions, is of course perfectly obscure, and it would be useless to debate over it.
 Tor. and Tac. cariotam; Sch. cariotum; List. and G.-V. carœnum. This (carenum) is new wine boiled down one half of its volume. Cariotum is a palm wine or date wine.
[Tor. OXYGARUM (WHICH IS SIMILAR TO GARUM OR RATHER AN ACID SAUCE) IS DIGESTIBLE AND IS COMPOSED OF]: ½ OZ. OF PEPPER, 3 SCRUPLES OF GALLIC SILPHIUM, 6 SCRUPLES OF CARDAMOM, 6 OF CUMIN, 1 SCRUPLE OF LEAVES, 6 SCRUPLES OF DRY MINT. THESE [ingredients] ARE BROKEN SINGLY AND CRUSHED AND [made into a paste] BOUND BY HONEY. WHEN THIS WORK IS DONE [or whenever you desire] ADD BROTH AND VINEGAR [to taste].
Cf. Note to No. 33.
1 OZ. EACH OF PEPPER, PARSLEY, CARRAWAY, LOVAGE, MIX WITH HONEY. WHEN DONE ADD BROTH AND VINEGAR.
 Wanting in Torinus.
MORTARIA ARE PREPARATIONS MADE IN THE MORTAR. PLACE IN THE MORTAR [Tor.] MINT, RUE, CORIANDER AND FENNEL, ALL FRESH AND GREEN AND CRUSH THEM FINE. LOVAGE, PEPPER, HONEY AND BROTH  AND VINEGAR  TO BE ADDED WHEN THE WORK IS DONE.
Ex Tor. first sentence wanting in other texts.
 List. and G.-V. moretaria, from moretum.
 Dann. calls this “Kalte Schale” which as a rule is a drink or a cold refreshing soup, popular on the Continent in hot weather. Not a bad interpretation if instead of the broth the original called for wine or fruit juices.
V. Mortaria are ingredients crushed in the mortar, ready to be used in several  combinations, similar to the ground fine herbs, remoulade, in French cuisine that may be used for various purposes, principally for cold green sauces.
 Wanting in Tor.
[Tor. CUMIN SAUCE (SO CALLED BECAUSE CUMIN IS ITS CHIEF INGREDIENT) FOR OYSTERS AND CLAMS IS MADE OF] PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, MALABAR LEAVES, QUITE SOME CUMIN, HONEY, VINEGAR, AND BROTH.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, PLENTY OF CUMIN, HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH.
 wanting in List.
The cumin sauce formulæ are under chap. XV in G.-V., following our No. 30.
END OF BOOK I
EXPLICIT APICII EPIMELES LIBER PRIMUS [Tac.]
COLANDER FOR STRAINING WINE
The intricate design of the perforation denotes that this strainer was used for straining wine. Various other strainers of simpler design, with and without handles, were used in the kitchen and bakery. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 77602; Field M., 24307.
SLAVES OPERATING A HAND-MILL
Reconstruction in Naples, in the new section of the National Museum.
FRUIT OR DESSERT BOWL
Round bowl, fluted symmetrically, with three claw feet, resting on molded bases. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 74000; Field M., 24028.
Lib. II. Sarcoptes 
|CHAP.||I.||FORCEMEATS, SAUSAGE, MEAT PUDDINGS, MEAT LOAVES.|
|CHAP.||II.||HYDROGARUM, SPELT PUDDING AND ROUX .|
|CHAP.||III.||SOW’S MATRIX, BLOOD SAUSAGE.|
 Tor. Artoptes; Tac. Artoptus. This may have been derived from artopta—a vessel in which bread and pudding are baked. However, Sarcoptes is the better word, which is Greek, meaning “chopped meats.”
 Tac. Ambolatum, and so in Tor. p. 15, De Ambolato. Cap. IIII. cf. our note following No. 58.
THERE ARE MANY KINDS OF MINCED DISHES  SEAFOOD MINCES  ARE MADE OF SEA-ONION, OR SEA CRAB-FISH, LOBSTER, CUTTLE-FISH, INK FISH, SPINY LOBSTER, SCALLOPS AND OYSTERS . THE FORCEMEAT IS SEASONED WITH LOVAGE , PEPPER, CUMIN AND LASER ROOT.
 Tor. Sentence wanting in other texts. V. Forcemeats, minced meats, sausage. Tor. Hysitia, from Isicia. This term is derived from insicium, from salsicium, from salsum insicium, cut salt meat; old French salcisse, saulcisse, modern  French saucisse, meaning sausage. This is a confirmation of the meaning of the word salsum—meaning primarily salt meat, bacon in particular. It has survived in modern French terminology in salés more specially petits salés—small rashers of bacon. Salsum has caused much confusion in some later formulæ. Cf. notes to Nos. 148, 150, 152.
 V. fish forcemeats, fish balls, fish cakes and similar preparations.
 Scallops and oysters wanting in List. and G.-V.
 Wanting in List.
THE MEAT IS SEPARATED FROM BONES, SKIN [and refuse] CHOPPED FINE AND POUNDED IN THE MORTAR. SHAPE THE FORCEMEAT INTO NEAT CROQUETTES  AND COOK THEM IN LIQUAMEN .
THEY ARE DISPLAYED NICELY ON A LARGE DISH.
V. This formula plainly calls for fish balls braised or stewed in broth. Ordinarily we would boil the fish first and then separate the meat from the bones, shred or chop it fine, bind with cream sauce, flour and eggs; some add potatoes as a binder, and fry.
 G.-V. lolligine; Tor. loligine, which is correctly spelled.
 Tac. and Tor. in pulmento tundes. G.-V. fulmento which is wrong. Pulmentum, abbreviated for pulpamentum, from pulpa. It means a fleshy piece of fish or meat, a tid-bit.
 The original says in liquamine fricatur—fry in l., which is impossible in the sense of the word, frying. Either “frying” here stands for cooking, stewing, braising, poaching, or else the so mysterious liquamen must here mean deep fat. Most likely these fish forcemeat balls were fried in olive oil. Cf. ℞ No. 46.
THE SHELLS OF THE LOBSTERS OR CRABS [which are cooked] ARE BROKEN, THE MEAT EXTRACTED FROM THE HEAD AND POUNDED IN THE MORTAR WITH PEPPER AND THE BEST KIND OF BROTH. THIS PULP [is shaped into neat little cakes which are fried] AND SERVED UP NICELY .
 Scilla or squilla, squill, sea-onion, also a crab, cammarus amplus, large lobster, langouste, spiny lobster.
 The original omits the mode of cooking the fish. A case where it is taken for granted that the shellfish is boiled in water alive. The broth (liquamen) is a thick fish sauce in this case, serving as a binder for the meat, conforming to present methods.
Dann. Fill this into sausage casing. There is no authority for this.
OMENTATA ARE MADE IN THIS MANNER: [lightly] FRY PORK LIVER, REMOVE SKIN AND SINEWS FIRST . CRUSH PEPPER AND RUE IN A MORTAR WITH [a little] BROTH, THEN ADD THE LIVER, POUND AND MIX. THIS PULP SHAPE INTO SMALL SAUSAGE, WRAP EACH IN CAUL AND LAUREL LEAVES AND HANG THEM UP TO BE SMOKED. WHENEVER YOU WANT AND WHEN READY TO ENJOY THEM TAKE THEM OUT OF THE SMOKE, FRY THEM AGAIN, AND ADD GRAVY .
 From omentum—caul, the membrane enclosing the bowels. Hence “omen.” Minced meats wrapped in caul and fried are kromeskis in kitchen terminology.
 First—an after thought so characteristic in culinary literature, proof enough that this formula originated in a kitchen. The ante tamen of the original belongs to this sentence, not to the next, as the editors have it.
 Wanting in G.-V. The original continues without interruption to the next, an entirely new formula.
PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND RUB; ADD COOKED BRAINS AND MIX DILIGENTLY SO THAT THERE BE NO LUMPS. INCORPORATE FIVE EGGS AND CONTINUE MIXING WELL TO HAVE A GOOD FORCEMEAT WHICH YOU MAY THIN WITH BROTH. SPREAD THIS OUT IN A METAL PAN, COOK, AND WHEN COOKED [cold] UNMOULD IT ONTO A CLEAN TABLE. CUT INTO HANDY SIZE. [Now prepare a sauce] PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, CRUSH, MIX WITH BROTH PUT INTO A SAUCE PAN, BOIL, THICKEN AND STRAIN. HEAT THE PIECES OF BRAIN PUDDING IN THIS SAUCE THOROUGHLY, DISH THEM UP, SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER, IN A MUSHROOM DISH .
 The Original has no title for this dish.
 List. and G.-V. here start the next formula, but Tor. continues without interruption. Cf. Note 2 to No. 46.
[Lightly] COOK SCALLOPS [or the firm part of oysters] REMOVE THE HARD AND OBJECTIONABLE PARTS, MINCE THE MEAT VERY FINE, MIX THIS WITH COOKED SPELT AND  EGGS, SEASON WITH PEPPER, [shape into croquettes and wrap] IN CAUL, FRY, UNDERLAY A RICH FISH SAUCE AND SERVE AS A DELICIOUS ENTRÉE .
 Sch. sfondilis; G.-V. sphondylis; List. spongiolis. According to Lister, this is a dish of mushrooms, but he is wrong. He directs to remove sinews when mushrooms haven’t any, but shellfish have. Torinus is correct. Gollmer makes the same mistake, believing spondyli to be identical with spongioli. He and Danneil take elixata for “choice” when this plainly means “cooked.” If one were not sure of either word, the nature of the subject would leave no room for any doubt. Cf. note 1 to Nos. 115-121.
 We may find a reason for the combination of these last three distinctly different formulæ into one article in the following explanation. It is possible that these dishes were served together as one course, even on one platter, thus constituting a single dish, as it were. Such a dish would strongly resemble platters of “fritures” and “fritto misto” (mixed fried foods) esteemed in France and Italy. We, too, have “Shore Dinners” and other “Combination Platters” with lobster, crabs, scallops, shrimps, mushrooms, tomatoes—each article prepared separately, but when served together will form an integral part of ONE dish.
The above formulæ, though somewhat incomplete, are good and gastronomically correct. A combination of these isicia such as we here suggest would be entirely feasible and would in fact make a dish of great refinement, taxing the magiric artist’s skill to the utmost. We would class them among the entremets chauds which are often used on a buffet table or as hot hors d’œuvres.
FINELY CUT PULP [of pork] IS GROUND WITH THE HEARTS  OF WINTER WHEAT AND DILUTED WITH WINE. FLAVOR LIGHTLY WITH PEPPER AND BROTH AND IF YOU LIKE ADD A MODERATE QUANTITY OF [myrtle] BERRIES ALSO CRUSHED, AND AFTER YOU HAVE ADDED CRUSHED NUTS AND PEPPER  SHAPE THE FORCEMEAT INTO SMALL ROLLS, WRAP THESE IN CAUL, FRY, AND SERVE WITH WINE GRAVY.
 Wanting in Lister.
 Fine wheat flour, cream of wheat.
 Either pepper corns or allspice.
The original leaves us in doubt as to the kind of meat to be used, if any.
[Lightly roast choice] FRESH PHEASANTS [cut them into dice and mix these with a] STIFF FORCEMEAT MADE OF THE FAT AND THE TRIMMINGS OF THE PHEASANT, SEASON WITH PEPPER, BROTH AND REDUCED WINE, SHAPE INTO CROQUETTES OR SPOON DUMPLINGS, AND POACH IN HYDROGARUM [water seasoned with garum, or even plain salt water].
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND JUST A SUSPICION OF PELLITORY, MOISTEN WITH STOCK AND WELL WATER, ALLOW IT TO DRAW, PLACE IT IN A SAUCE PAN, BOIL IT DOWN, AND STRAIN. POACH YOUR LITTLE DUMPLINGS OF FORCEMEAT IN THIS LIQUOR AND WHEN THEY ARE DONE SERVE IN A DISH FOR ISICIA, TO BE SIPPED AT THE TABLE.
[Raw] CHICKEN MEAT, 1 LB. OF DARNEL  MEAL, ONE QUARTER PINT OF STOCK AND ONE HALF OUNCE OF PEPPER.
 Tor. lolæ floris; Hum.-List. and G.-V. olei floris—virgin olive oil?—first choice flour? Goll. olive (violet?) flowers; Dann. Olive oil.
The suggestion of oil is plausible because of the lack of fat in chicken meat, but the quantity—1 lb.—is out of question. Moreover, the binder would be lacking. This is found in the Torinus rendering.
His lolæ floris should read lolii—from lolium—darnel rye grass or ray grass which was supposed to have intoxicating qualities, injurious to the eye sight.—Ovid and Plautus. The seeds of this grass were supposed to possess narcotic properties but recent researches have cast doubt upon this theory.
A little butter, fresh cream and eggs are the proper ingredients for chicken forcemeat. Any kind of flour for binding the forcemeat would cheapen the dish. Yet some modern forcemeats (sausage) contain as much as fifty percent of some kind of meal. The most effective is that of the soya bean which is not starchy.
CHICKEN MEAT, 31 PEPPERCORNS CRUSHED, 1 CHOENIX  FULL OF THE VERY BEST STOCK, A LIKE AMOUNT OF BOILED MUST AND ELEVEN MEASURES  OF WATER. [Put  this in a sauce pan] PLACE IT UPON THE FIRE TO SEETH AND EVAPORATE SLOWLY.
 V. 2 sextarii; Tor. chœnicem, cenlicem; List. calicem.
 chœnices?—left in doubt.
This seems to be a chicken broth, or essence for a sauce or perhaps a medicine. Torinus mentions the chicken meat, the others do not.
The original without interruption continues to describe the isicium simplex which has nothing to do with the above.
TO 1 ACETABULUM  OF STOCK  ADD 7 OF WATER, A LITTLE GREEN CELERY, A LITTLE SPOONFUL OF GROUND PEPPER, AND BOIL THIS WITH THE SAUSAGE MEAT OR DUMPLINGS. IF YOU INTEND TAKING THIS TO MOVE THE BOWELS THE SEDIMENT SALTS  OF HYDROGARUM HAVE TO BE ADDED .
 A measure, 15 Attic drachms.
 Tor. pectines, alias peces hydrogaro conditi; List. sales; G.-V. fæces.
 V. The formula is unintelligible, like No. 52 and others, perhaps just another example of medicinal cookery, dishes not only intended to nourish the body but to cure also certain ills. Authors like Hannah Wolley (The Queen-like Closet, London, 1675) and as late as the middle of the 18th century pride themselves in giving such quasi-Apician formulæ.
[Entrées of] PEACOCK OCCUPY THE FIRST RANK, PROVIDED THEY BE DRESSED IN SUCH MANNER THAT THE HARD AND TOUGH PARTS BE TENDER. THE SECOND PLACE [in the estimation of the Gourmets] HAVE DISHES MADE OF RABBIT  THIRD SPINY LOBSTER  FOURTH COMES CHICKEN AND FIFTH YOUNG PIG.
 List. and G.-V. Pheasant.
 Wanting in the above. Dann. Crane fourth.
Isicia, like in the foregoing formula, commences to become a generic term for “dishes.”
GROUND PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, VERY LITTLE SILPHIUM, A PINCH OF GINGER AND A TRIFLE OF HONEY AND  A LITTLE STOCK. [Put on the fire, and when boiling] ADD THE ISICIA [sausage, meat balls and so forth] TO THIS BROTH AND COOK THOROUGHLY. FINALLY THICKEN THE GRAVY WITH ROUX  BY SOWING IT IN SLOWLY AND STIRRING FROM THE BOTTOM UP .
 Tor. multa ab alieno; Brandt [a]mul[a]ta ab aheno; List. amylata—French: liés. Ab aheno—out of the pot.
 French, for a mixture of wheat or rice flour with fats or liquids to thicken fluids. Amylum, or amulum which hereafter will occur frequently in the original does not cover the ground as well as the French term roux. The quality of the “binder” depends upon the material in hand. Sometimes the fat and flour are parched, sometimes they are used raw. Sometimes the flour is diluted with water and used in that form.
 List. and G.-V. sorbendum; Tor. subruendum.
GRIND PEPPER WHICH HAS BEEN SOAKED OVERNIGHT, ADD SOME MORE STOCK AND WORK IT INTO A SMOOTH PASTE; THEREUPON ADD QUINCE-APPLE CIDER, BOILED DOWN ONE HALF, THAT IS WHICH HAS EVAPORATED IN THE HEAT OF THE SUN TO THE CONSISTENCY OF HONEY. IF THIS IS NOT AT HAND, ADD FIG WINE  CONCENTRATE WHICH THE ROMANS CALL “COLOR” . NOW THICKEN THE GRAVY WITH ROUX OR WITH SOAKED RICE FLOUR AND FINISH IT ON A GENTLE FIRE.
 Tor. cammarum, which should read caricarum—wine of Carica figs.
 V. the Roman equivalent for “singe,” “monkey,” “Affe,”—(the vulgo French is literally translated into and in actual use in other languages) caramel color made of burnt sugar to give gravies a palatable appearance. Cf. No. 73.
The reference by the original to “which the Romans call ‘color’” indicates, according to Brandt, that this formula is NOT of ROMAN origin but probably a translation into Latin from a Greek cookery book.
This is an interesting suggestion, and it could be elaborated on to say that the entire Apicius is NOT of Roman origin. But why should the Greeks who in their balmy days were so far in advance of Rome in culinary matters go there for such information?
It is more likely that this reference to Rome comes from the Italian provinces or the colonies, regions which naturally would look to Rome for guidance in such matters.
DISJOINT A CHICKEN AND BONE IT. PLACE THE PIECES IN A STEW PAN WITH LEEKS, DILL AND SALT [water or stock]  WHEN WELL DONE ADD PEPPER AND CELERY SEED, THICKEN WITH RICE  ADD STOCK, A DASH OF RAISIN WINE OR MUST, STIR WELL, SERVE WITH THE ENTRÉES.
 G.-V. oryzam; Tor. ditto (and on margin) oridam; Hum. oridiam legendum orindam—a kind of bread. Dann. and Goll. rice flour.
In a general way the ancient formula corresponds exactly to our present chicken fricassée.
BOIL SPELT WITH [Tor. PIGNOLIA] NUTS AND PEELED ALMONDS  [G.-V. AND] IMMERSED IN [boiling] WATER AND WASHED WITH WHITE CLAY SO THAT THEY APPEAR PERFECTLY WHITE, ADD RAISINS, [flavor with] CONDENSED WINE OR RAISIN WINE AND SERVE IT IN A ROUND DISH WITH CRUSHED  [nuts, fruit, bread or cake crumbs] SPRINKLED OVER IT .
 V. We peel almonds in the same manner; the white clay treatment is new to us.
G.-V. and—which is confusing.
 The original: confractum—crushed, but what? G.-V. pepper, for which there is neither authority nor reason. A wine sauce would go well with it or crushed fruit. List. and Goll. Breadcrumbs.
 This is a perfectly good pudding—one of the very few desserts in Apicius. With a little sweetening (supplied probably by the condensed wine) and some grated lemon for flavor it is quite acceptable as a dessert.
Ex Torinus, not mentioned by the other editors. The sense of this word is not clear. It must be a recipe or a chapter the existence of which was known to Torinus, for he says: “This entire chapter is wanting in our copy.”
ENTRÉES  OF SOW’S MATRIX  ARE MADE THUS: CRUSH PEPPER AND CUMIN WITH TWO SMALL HEADS OF LEEK, PEELED, ADD TO THIS PULP RUE, BROTH [and the sow’s matrix or fresh pork] CHOP, [or crush in mortar very fine] THEN ADD TO THIS [forcemeat] INCORPORATING WELL PEPPER GRAINS AND [pine] NUTS  FILL THE CASING  AND  BOIL IN WATER [with] OIL AND BROTH [for seasoning] AND A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND DILL.
 G.-V. Vulvulæ Botelli; Sch. Vulvulæ isiciata; Tor. De Vulvulis et botellis. See note No. 3.
 V. “Entrées” out of respect for the ancients who used them as such; today we would class such dishes among the “hors d’œuvres chauds.”
 V. Vulvula, dim. for vulva, sow’s matrix. Cf. vulva in dictionary. Possible, also possible that volva is meant—a meat roll, a croquette.
 V. Combinations of chopped nuts and pork still in vogue today; we use the green pistachios.
 V. The casings which were filled with this forcemeat may have been the sow’s matrices, also caul. The original is vague on the point.
BOTELLUM IS MADE OF  HARD BOILED YOLKS OF EGG  CHOPPED PIGNOLIA NUTS, ONION AND LEEKS, RAW GROUND PINE  FINE PEPPER, STUFF IN CASINGS AND COOK IN BROTH AND WINE .
 V. Botelli, or botuli, are sausage of various kind; (French, Boudin, English, Pudding). Originally made of raw blood, they are in fact, miniature blood sausage. The absence of meat in the present formula makes me believe that it is not complete, though hard boiled yolk when properly seasoned and mixed with the right amount of fat, make a tasty forcemeat for sausage.
 Tor. Botellum sic fades ex oui; Sch. and G.-V. sex ovi—the number of eggs is immaterial.
 Dann. Calf’s Sweetbreads.
 Goll. Thus crudum—raw blood. Thus or tus is either frankincense or the herb, ground-pine. Dann. Rosemary. Hum. Thus crudum lege jus crudum—jus or broth which would make the forcemeat soft. There is no reason for changing “thus” into “jus!”
 G.-V. Adicies liquamen et vinum, et sic coques. Tor. & vino decoquas.
LUCANIAN SAUSAGE [or meat pudding] ARE MADE SIMILAR TO THE ABOVE: CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, SAVORY, RUE, PARSLEY, CONDIMENT, LAUREL BERRIES AND BROTH; MIX WITH FINELY CHOPPED [fresh Pork] AND POUND WELL WITH BROTH. TO THIS MIXTURE, BEING RICH, ADD WHOLE PEPPER AND NUTS. WHEN FILLING CASINGS CAREFULLY  PUSH THE MEAT THROUGH. HANG SAUSAGE UP TO SMOKE.
V. Lister’s interesting remarks about the makers of these sausages are given in the dictionary. Cf. Longano.
POUND EGGS AND BRAINS [eggs raw, brains cooked] PINE NUTS [chopped fine] PEPPER [whole] BROTH AND A LITTLE LASER WITH WHICH FILL THE CASINGS. FIRST PARBOIL THE SAUSAGE THEN FRY THEM AND SERVE.
V. The directions are vague enough, but one may recognize in them our modern brain sausage.
WORK COOKED SPELT AND FINELY CHOPPED FRESH PORK TOGETHER, POUND IT WITH PEPPER, BROTH AND PIGNOLIA NUTS. FILL THE CASINGS, PARBOIL AND FRY WITH SALT, SERVE WITH MUSTARD, OR YOU MAY CUT THE SAUSAGE IN SLICES AND SERVE ON A ROUND DISH.
WASH SPELT AND COOK IT WITH STOCK. CUT THE FAT OF THE INTESTINES OR BELLY VERY FINE WITH LEEKS. MIX THIS WITH CHOPPED BACON AND FINELY CHOPPED FRESH PORK. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND THREE EGGS AND MIX ALL IN THE MORTAR WITH PIGNOLIA NUTS AND WHOLE PEPPER, ADD BROTH, FILL CASINGS. PARBOIL SAUSAGE, FRY LIGHTLY, OR SERVE THEM BOILED.
Tor. and Tac. Serve with pheasant gravy. In the early editions the following formula which thus ends is wanting.
FILL THE CASINGS WITH THE BEST MATERIAL [forcemeat] SHAPE THE SAUSAGE INTO SMALL CIRCLES, SMOKE. WHEN THEY HAVE TAKEN ON (VERMILLION) COLOR FRY THEM LIGHTLY. DRESS NICELY GARNISHED ON A PHEASANT WINE GRAVY, FLAVORED, HOWEVER, WITH CUMIN.
V. In Tor. and in the earliest edition this formula has been contracted with the preceding and made one formula.
END OF BOOK II
EXPLICIT LIBER SECUNDUS APICII ARTOPTUS [Tac.]
A heater for the service of hot foods and drinks in the dining room. Hot drinks were mixed and foods were served from apparatus of this kind. The fuel was charcoal. There were public places, specializing in hot drinks, called Thermopolia. This specimen was found at Stabiæ, one of the ill-fated towns destroyed by eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 72986; Field M., 24307.
Round, with decorated handle. This and the pan with the Hercules head on handle used in connection with the plain Thermospodium to serve hot foods in the dining room. Hildesheim Treas.
Lib. III. Cepuros
|CHAP.||I.||TO BOIL ALL VEGETABLES GREEN.|
|CHAP.||II.||VEGETABLE DINNER, EASILY DIGESTED.|
|CHAP.||V.||CITRUS FRUIT, CITRON.|
|CHAP.||VII.||MELON GOURD, MELON.|
|CHAP.||IX.||YOUNG CABBAGE, SPROUTS, CAULIFLOWER.|
|CHAP.||XIV.||HORSERADISH AND RADISHES.|
|CHAP.||XVIII.||ENDIVE AND LETTUCE.|
|CHAP.||XXI.||CARROTS AND PARSNIPS.|
TO KEEP ALL VEGETABLES GREEN.
UT OMNE HOLUS SMARAGDINUM FIAT.
ALL VEGETABLES WILL REMAIN GREEN IF BOILED WITH COOKING SODA .
 Nitrium. Method still in use today, considered injurious to health if copper vessel is used, but the amount of copper actually absorbed by the vegetable is infinitesimal, imperceptible even by the taste. Copper, to be actually harmful would have to be present in such quantity as to make enjoyment impossible.
ALL GREEN VEGETABLES ARE SUITED FOR THIS PURPOSE  VERY YOUNG  BEETS AND WELL MATURED LEEKS ARE PARBOILED; ARRANGE THEM IN A BAKING DISH, GRIND PEPPER AND CUMIN, ADD BROTH AND CONDENSED MUST, OR ANYTHING ELSE TO SWEETEN THEM A LITTLE, HEAT AND FINISH THEM ON A SLOW FIRE, AND SERVE.
 V. Ad ventrem, “for the belly,” simple home laxative.
 V. This sentence in Torinus only. Possibly a contraction of the foregoing formula, No. 66.
 V. minutas, “small,” i.e., young.
PARBOIL POLYPODY  ROOT SO AS TO SOFTEN THEM, CUT THEM INTO SMALL PIECES, SEASON WITH GROUND PEPPER AND CUMIN, ARRANGE IN A BAKING DISH, FINISH ON THE FIRE AND SERVE .
 V. Roots of the fern herb.
 V. Although these instructions for vegetable dinners are rather vague, they resemble primitive chartreuses—fancy vegetable dishes developed by the Carthusian monks to whom flesh eating was forbidden. Elsewhere in Apicius we shall find the chartreuse developed to a remarkable degree.
SCRUB AND WASH BUNDLES OF BEETS BY RUBBING THEM WITH A LITTLE SODA . TIE THEM IN INDIVIDUAL BUNDLES, PUT INTO WATER TO BE COOKED, WHEN DONE, SEASON WITH REDUCED MUST OR RAISIN WINE AND CUMIN,  SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER, ADD A LITTLE OIL, AND WHEN HOT, CRUSH POLYPODY AND NUTS WITH BROTH, ADD THIS TO THE RED-HOT PAN, INCORPORATING IT WITH THE BEETS, TAKE OFF THE FIRE QUICKLY AND SERVE.
 This formula wanting in Tor.
 V. Ingenious method to skin tender root vegetables, still in vogue today. We remove the skin of tender young root vegetables, carrots, beets, etc., by placing them in a towel, sprinkling them with rock salt and shaking them energetically. The modern power vegetable peeler is really built on the same principle, only instead of salt (which soon melts) carborundum or rough concrete surfaces are used, against which surfaces the vegetables are hurled by the rotary motion; often enough, too much of the skin is removed, however.
VARRO BEETS, THAT IS, BLACK ONES  OF WHICH THE ROOTS MUST BE CLEANED WELL, COOK THEM WITH MEAD AND A LITTLE SALT AND OIL; BOIL THEM DOWN IN THIS LIQUOR SO THAT THE ROOTS ARE SATURATED THEREBY; THE LIQUID ITSELF IS GOOD DRINKING. IT IS ALSO NICE TO COOK A CHICKEN IN WITH THEM.
 G.-V. Betacios; Tor. B. Varrones. Probably named for Varro, the writer on agriculture.
 Roots on the order of parsnips, salsify, oysterplant.
ANOTHER VEGETABLE DISH, PROMOTING GOOD HEALTH; WASH CELERY, GREENS AND ROOTS, AND DRY IT IN THE SUN: THEN ALSO COOK THE TENDER PART AND HEAD OF LEEKS IN A NEW  POT, ALLOWING THE WATER TO BOIL DOWN ONE THIRD OF ITS VOLUME. THEREUPON GRIND PEPPER WITH BROTH AND HONEY IN EQUAL AMOUNTS PROPERLY MEASURED, MIX IT IN THE MORTAR WITH THE WATER OF THE COOKED CELERY, STRAIN, BOIL AGAIN AND USE IT TO MASK THE [cooked] CELERY WITH. IF DESIRED, ADD [the sliced root of the] CELERY TO IT .
 V. “new,” i.e., cook leeks in a separate sauce pan; NOT together with the celery, which, as the original takes for granted, must be cooked also.
 V. We would leave the honey out, make a cream sauce from the stock, or, adding bouillon, tie same with a little flour and butter, and would call the dish Stewed Celery and Leeks. The ancient method is entirely rational because the mineral salts of the vegetables are preserved and utilized (invariably observed  by Apicius) which today are often wasted by inexperienced cooks who discard these precious elements with the water in which vegetables are boiled.
ASPARAGUS [Tor. IN ORDER TO HAVE IT MOST AGREEABLE TO THE PALATE] MUST BE [peeled, washed and] DRIED  AND IMMERSED IN BOILING WATER BACKWARDS  .
 V. Must be dried before boiling because the cold water clinging to the stalks is likely to chill the boiling water too much in which the asparagus is to be cooked. Apicius here reveals himself as the consummate cook who is familiar with the finest detail of physical and chemical changes which food undergoes at varying temperatures.
The various editions all agree: asparagos siccabis; Schuch, however, says: “For the insane siccabis I substitute siciabis, isiciabis, prepare with sicio [?] and cook.” He even goes on to interpret it cucabis from the Greek kouki, cocoanut milk, and infers that the asparagus was first cooked in cocoanut milk and then put back into water, a method we are tempted to pronounce insane.
 V. Backwards! G.-V. rursum in calidam; Tac. rursus in aquam calidam; Tor. ac rursus ...
This word has caused us some reflection, but the ensuing discovery made it worth while. Rursus has escaped the attention of the other commentators. In this case rursus means backwards, being a contraction from revorsum, h.e. reversum. The word is important enough to be observed.
Apicius evidently has the right way of cooking the fine asparagus. The stalks, after being peeled and washed must be bunched together and tied according to sizes, and the bunches must be set into the boiling water “backwards,” that is, they must stand upright with the heads protruding from the water. The heads will be made tender above the water line by rising steam and will be done simultaneously with the harder parts of the stalks. We admit, we have never seen a modern cook observe this method. They usually boil the tender heads to death while the lower stalks are still hard.
Though this formula is incomplete (it fails to state the sauce to be served, also that the asparagus must be peeled and bunched, that the water must contain salt, etc.) it is one of the neatest formulæ in Apicius. It is amusing to note how the author herein unconsciously reveals what a poor litérateur but what a fine cook he is. This is characteristic of most good practitioners. One may perfectly master the vast subject of cookery, yet one may not be able to give a definition of even a single term, let alone the ability to exactly describe one of the many processes of cookery. Real poets often are in the same predicament; none of them ever explained the art satisfactorily.
 G.-V. add to the formula callosiores reddes—give back [eliminate] the  harder ones. This sentence belongs to the next article. And Torinus, similar to Humelbergius, renders this sentence ut reddas ad gustum calliores—to render the harder ones palatable—the squash and pumpkin namely—and we are inclined to agree with him.
TO HAVE THE HARDER ONES PALATABLE, DO THIS:  [Cut the fruit into pieces, boil and] SQUEEZE THE WATER OUT OF THE BOILED FRUIT AND ARRANGE [the pieces] IN A BAKING DISH. PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, CUMIN AND SILPHIUM, THAT IS, A VERY LITTLE OF THE LASER ROOT AND A LITTLE RUE, SEASON THIS WITH STOCK, MEASURE A LITTLE VINEGAR AND MIX IN A LITTLE CONDENSED WINE, SO THAT IT CAN BE STRAINED  AND POUR THIS LIQUID OVER THE FRUIT IN THE BAKING DISH; LET IT BOIL THREE TIMES, RETIRE FROM THE FIRE AND SPRINKLE WITH VERY LITTLE GROUND PEPPER.
 Cf. note 3 to No. 72.
 List. Ut coloretur—to give it color; Tor. ut ius coletur—from colo—to strain, to filter.
Cf. also note 2 to No. 55.
BOIL THE PUMPKIN IN WATER LIKE COLOCASIA; GRIND PEPPER, CUMIN AND RUE, ADD VINEGAR AND MEASURE OUT THE BROTH IN A SAUCEPAN. THE PUMPKIN PIECES [nicely cut] WATER PRESSED OUT [are arranged] IN A SAUCEPAN WITH THE BROTH AND ARE FINISHED ON THE FIRE WHILE THE JUICE IS BEING TIED WITH A LITTLE ROUX. BEFORE SERVING SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER .
 V. Colocasia Antiquorum belonging to the dasheen or taro family, a valuable tuber, again mentioned in No. 172, 216, 244 and 322. Cf. various notes, principally that to No. 322. Also see U. S. Dept. of Agr. Farmer’s Bulletin No. 1396, p. 2. This is a “new” and commercially and gastronomically important root vegetable, the flavor reminding of a combination of chestnuts and potatoes, popularly known as “Chinese potatoes” which has been recently introduced by the U. S. Government from the West Indies where it received the name, Dasheen, derived from de Chine—from China.
 Tor. continues without interruption into the next formula.
PRESS THE WATER OUT OF THE BOILED PUMPKIN, PLACE IN A BAKING DISH, SPRINKLE WITH SALT, GROUND PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, GREEN MINT AND A LITTLE LASER ROOT; SEASON WITH VINEGAR. NOW ADD DATE WINE AND PIGNOLIA NUTS GROUND WITH HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH, MEASURE OUT CONDENSED WINE AND OIL, POUR THIS OVER THE PUMPKIN AND FINISH IN THIS LIQUOR AND SERVE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER BEFORE SERVING.
[Boiled Pumpkin] STEWED IN BROTH WITH PURE OIL.
[Fried pumpkin served with] SIMPLE WINE SAUCE AND PEPPER.
BOILED PUMPKIN FRIED IS PLACED IN A BAKING PAN. SEASON WITH CUMIN WINE, ADD A LITTLE OIL; FINISH ON THE FIRE AND SERVE.
FRIED  PUMPKIN, SEASONED WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, ORIGANY, ONION, WINE BROTH AND OIL: STEW THE PUMPKIN [in this] IN A BAKING DISH, TIE THE LIQUID WITH ROUX [mash] AND SERVE IN THE DISH.
 V. Baking the fruit reduces the water contents, renders the purée more substantial. G.-V. Tritas—mashed. Tor. connects tritas up with pepper, hence it is doubtful whether this dish of pumpkin is mashed pumpkin.
[Stew the pumpkin with a hen, garnish with] HARD-SKINNED PEACHES, TRUFFLES; PEPPER, CARRAWAY, AND CUMIN,  SILPHIUM AND GREEN HERBS, SUCH AS MINT, CELERY, CORIANDER, PENNYROYAL, CRESS, WINE  OIL AND VINEGAR.
 Tor. Vinum vel oleum; List. vinum, mel, oleum.
FOR THE PREPARATION OF CITRON FRUIT WE TAKE SILER  FROM THE MOUNTAINS, SILPHIUM, DRY MINT, VINEGAR AND BROTH.
 List. Citrini—a lemon or cucumber squash.
 Tor. Silerem; List. sil, which is hartwort, a kind of cumin or mountain fennel.
[Stew the] PEELED CUCUMBERS EITHER IN BROTH  OR IN A WINE SAUCE; [and] YOU WILL FIND THEM TO BE TENDER AND NOT CAUSING INDIGESTION.
 Usually cucumbers are parboiled in water and then finished in broth; most often after being parboiled they are stuffed with forcemeat and then finished in broth.
[Peeled cucumbers are] STEWED WITH BOILED BRAINS, CUMIN AND A LITTLE HONEY. ADD SOME CELERY SEED, STOCK AND OIL, BIND THE GRAVY WITH EGGS  SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Tor. bis obligabis—tie twice—for which there is no reason, except in case the sauce should curdle. List. oleo elixabis—fry in oil—obviously wrong, as the materials for this stew are already cooked. Sch. ovis obligabis—bind with eggs—which is the thing to do in this case.
CUCUMBERS, PEPPER, PENNYROYAL, HONEY OR CONDENSED MUST, BROTH AND VINEGAR; ONCE IN A WHILE ONE ADDS SILPHIUM.
Sounds like a fancy dressing for raw sliced cucumbers, though there are no directions to this effect.
PEPPER, PENNYROYAL, HONEY OR CONDENSED MUST, BROTH AND VINEGAR; ONCE IN A WHILE ONE ADDS SILPHIUM.
Same as 84; which confirms above theory. It is quite possible that melons were eaten raw with this fancy dressing. Many people enjoy melons with pepper and salt, or, in salad form with oil and vinegar. Gourds, however, to be palatable, must be boiled and served either hot or cold with this dressing.
THE SMALLER MALLOWS [are prepared] WITH GARUM , STOCK  OIL AND VINEGAR; THE LARGER MALLOWS [prepare] WITH A WINE SAUCE, PEPPER AND STOCK, [adding] CONDENSED WINE OR RAISIN WINE.
 Tor. Garum; List. Oenogarum.
 Liquamen—depending upon the mode of serving the mallows, hot or cold.
[Boil the] SPROUTS;  [season with] CUMIN , SALT, WINE AND OIL; IF YOU LIKE [add] PEPPER, LOVAGE, MINT, RUE, CORIANDER; THE TENDER LEAVES OF THE STALKS [stew] IN BROTH; WINE AND OIL BE THE SEASONING.
 Including, perhaps, cauliflower and broccoli.
 List. Cimæ & Coliculi. Nunc crudi cum condimentis nunc elixati inferentur. Served sometimes raw with dressing, sometimes boiled.
 Cumin or carraway seed is still used today in the preparation of the delicious “Bavarian” cabbage which also includes wine and other spices.
CUT THE STALKS IN HALF AND BOIL THEM. THE LEAVES ARE MASHED AND SEASONED WITH CORIANDER, ONION, CUMIN, PEPPER, RAISIN WINE, OR CONDENSED WINE AND A LITTLE OIL.
Very sensible way of using cabbage stalks that are usually thrown away. Note the almost scientific procedure: the stalks are separated from the leaves, split to  facilitate cooking; they are cooked separately because they require more time than the tender greens.
Our present method appears barbarous in comparison. We quarter the cabbage head, and either boil it or steam it. As a result either the tender leaves are cooked to death or the stems are still hard. The overcooked parts are not palatable, the underdone ones indigestible. Such being the case, our boiled cabbage is a complete loss, unless prepared the Apician way.
THE COOKED  STALKS ARE PLACED IN A [baking] DISH; MOISTEN WITH STOCK AND PURE OIL, SEASON WITH CUMIN, SPRINKLE  WITH PEPPER, LEEKS, CUMIN, AND GREEN CORIANDER [all] CHOPPED UP.
 Tor. Coliculi assati—sauté, fried; (Remember: Choux de Bruxelles sauté) List. elixati—boiled. G.-V. Cauliculi elixati.
 Tor. Superasperges; G.-V. piper asperges.
Sounds like a salad of cooked cabbage. The original leaves us in doubt as to the temperature of the dish.
THE VEGETABLE, SEASONED AND PREPARED IN THE ABOVE WAY IS STEWED WITH PARBOILED LEEKS.
TO THE SPROUTS OR STALKS, SEASONED AND PREPARED AS ABOVE, ARE ADDED GREEN OLIVES WHICH ARE HEATED LIKEWISE.
PREPARE THE SPROUTS IN THE ABOVE WAY, COVER THEM WITH BOILED SPELT AND PINE NUTS  AND SPRINKLE  WITH RAISINS.
 The nuts should not astonish us. The French today have a delicious dish, Choux de Bruxelles aux Marrons—Brussels Sprouts with Chestnuts. Sprouts and chestnuts are, of course, cooked separately; the lightly boiled sprouts are sauté in butter; the chestnuts parboiled, peeled, and finished in stock with a little sugar or syrup, tossed in butter and served in the center of the sprouts.
The Apician formula with cereal and raisins added is too exotic to suit our modern taste, but without a question is a nutritious dish and complete from a dietetic point of view.
 Tor. Superasperges; G.-V. piper asperges.
WELL MATURED LEEKS  ARE BOILED WITH A PINCH OF SALT  IN [combined] WATER AND OIL . THEY ARE THEN STEWED IN OIL AND IN THE BEST KIND OF BROTH, AND SERVED.
 Tor. Poros bene maturos; G.-V. maturos fieri.
 One of the rare instances where Apicius mentions salt in cookery, i.e., salt in a dry form. Pugnum salis—a fist of salt—he prescribes here. Usually it is liquamen—broth, brine—he uses.
 Tor. is correct in finishing the sentence here. G.-V. continue et eximes., which is the opening of the next sentence, and it makes a difference in the formula.
WRAP THE LEEKS WELL IN CABBAGE LEAVES, HAVING FIRST COOKED THEM AS DIRECTED ABOVE  AND THEN FINISH THEM IN THE ABOVE WAY.
 Tor. in primis—first; List., G.-V. in prunis—hot embers.
COOK THE LEEKS WITH [laurel] BERRIES , [and otherwise treat them] AND SERVE AS ABOVE.
 Tor. Porros in bacca coctos; List. in cacabo—cooked in a casserole; Sch. bafa embama—steeped, marinated (in oil); G.-V. in baca coctos. Another way to read this: baca et fabæ—with beans—is quite within reason. The following formula, 96, is perhaps only a variant of the above.
Brandt: with olives, referring to No. 91 as a precedent.
AFTER HAVING BOILED THE LEEKS IN WATER, [green string] BEANS WHICH HAVE NOT YET BEEN PREPARED OTHERWISE, MAY BE BOILED [in the leek water]  PRINCIPALLY ON ACCOUNT OF THE GOOD TASTE THEY WILL ACQUIRE; AND MAY THEN BE SERVED WITH THE LEEKS.
 Apicius needed no modern science of nutrition to remind him of the value of the mineral salts in vegetables.
TO MAKE A DISH OF BEETS THAT WILL APPEAL TO YOUR TASTE  SLICE [the beets,  with] LEEKS AND CRUSH CORIANDER AND CUMIN; ADD RAISIN WINE , BOIL ALL DOWN TO PERFECTION: BIND IT, SERVE [the beets] SEPARATE FROM THE BROTH, WITH OIL AND VINEGAR.
 Sentence in Tor.; wanting in List. et al.
 List. No mention of beets is made in this formula; therefore, it may belong to the foregoing leek recipes. V. This is not so. Here the noun is made subject to the first verb, as is practiced frequently. Moreover, the mode of preparation fits beets nicely, except for the flour to which we object in note 3, below. To cook beets with leeks, spices and wine and serve them (cold) with oil and vinegar is indeed a method that cannot be improved upon.
 Tac., Tor., List., G.-V. uvam passam, Farinam—raisins and flour—for which there is no reason. Sch. varianam—raisin wine of the Varianian variety; Bas. Phariam. V. inclined to agree with Sch. and Bas.
COOK THE BEETS WITH MUSTARD [seed] AND SERVE THEM WELL PICKLED IN A LITTLE OIL AND VINEGAR.
V. Add bay leaves, cloves, pepper grains, sliced onion and a little sugar, and you have our modern pickled beets.
[The greens] TIED IN HANDY BUNDLES, COOKED AND SERVED WITH PURE OIL; ALSO PROPER WITH FRIED FISH.
 Tac. Olisera; Tor. Olifera (sev mauis olyra) Tor. is mistaken. Hum., List. Olisatra; (old Ms. note in our Hum. copy: “Alessandrina uulgò”) from olusatrum—olus—pot herbs, cabbage, turnips. G.-V. Holisera, from holus, i.e. olus and from olitor one who raises pot herbs.
[Turnips are] COOKED [soft, the water is] SQUEEZED [out; then] CRUSH A GOOD AMOUNT OF CUMIN AND A LITTLE RUE, ADD PARTHICAN  LASER OR  VINEGAR, STOCK, CONDENSED WINE AND OIL  HEAT MODERATELY AND SERVE.
 i.e. Persian laser; List. laser, Parthicum; (the comma makes a difference!) Sch. particum—a part.
  Tac., Tor. vel acetum; List. G.-V. mel, acetum. Another comma; and “honey” instead of “or.” V. We doubt this: the vinegar is an alternative, for it takes the place of the more expensive Persian laser (which was an essence of the laser root, often diluted with vinegar).
 List., G.-V. oleum modice: fervere; Tor. & oleum, quæ modice fervere facias. Again note Lister’s punctuation here and in the foregoing notes. The misplaced commas and colons raise havoc with the formulæ everywhere. Torinus, who in his preface complains that his authority has no punctuation whatsoever and thereby indicates that it must have been a very ancient copy, (at least prior to the 1503 Tac. ed.) is generally not far from the mark. It is also doubtful that the variants are by him, as is claimed by List. In this instance, indeed, Tor. is again correct.
[The turnips are] BOILED, SERVED DRESSED WITH OIL, TO WHICH, IF DESIRED, YOU MAY ADD VINEGAR .
 Tor. ad delitias—delightful.
 V. Presumably served cold, as a salad; cf. No. 122.
PEPPER THE RADISHES WELL; OR, EQUALLY WELL: GRATE IT WITH PEPPER AND BRINE.
Sch., G.-V. Rafanos; Raphanos agria,—a kind of horseradish; Plinius: h.e. raphanus sylvestris.
THE CABBAGE IS COOKED WITH POT HERBS IN SODA WATER; PRESS [the water out] CHOP IT VERY FINE: [now] CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, DRY SATURY WITH DRY ONIONS, ADD STOCK, OIL AND WINE.
COOK CELERY IN SODA WATER, SQUEEZE [water out] CHOP FINE. IN THE MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, ONION [and mix with] WINE AND STOCK, ADDING SOME OIL.  COOK THIS IN THE BOILER  AND MIX THE CELERY WITH THIS PREPARATION.
 in pultario. The pultarius is a pot in which cereals were boiled; from puls—porridge, pap.
COOK THE LETTUCE LEAVES WITH ONION IN SODA WATER, SQUEEZE [the water out] CHOP VERY FINE; IN THE MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, DRY MINT, ONION; ADD STOCK, OIL AND WINE.
IT WILL BE REQUIRED ABOVE ALL TO CLEAN THE VEGETABLES WELL, TO CUT OFF ALL DECAYED PARTS AND TO COVER [the cooked vegetables] WITH WORMWOOD WATER.
 Tor. ne ... exarescat, the difference in the meaning is immaterial.
FIELD AND FOREST  HERBS ARE PREPARED  [either raw] WITH STOCK  OIL AND VINEGAR [as a salad, ] OR AS A COOKED DISH  BY ADDING PEPPER, CUMIN AND MASTICH BERRIES.
 Tor. ac sylvestres; V. German, Feldsalat.
 Tor. parantur; wanting in other editions.
 Liquamine, here interpreted as brine.
 Tac., Sch., et al. a manu; Tor. vel manu—because eaten with the hand.
 Tor. vel in patina.
THE FEMALE NETTLES, WHEN THE SUN IS IN THE POSITION OF THE ARIES, IS SUPPOSED TO RENDER VALUABLE SERVICES AGAINST AILMENTS OF VARIOUS KINDS .
 Tac., List., Sch., et al. adversus ægritudinem.
Barthius: Quam ægritudinem? etc., etc.
Reinsenius: ad arcendum morbum, etc., etc.
 Hum. scilicet quamcunque hoc est ... etc., etc., etc.
G.-V. si voles.
V. This innocent little superstition about the curative qualities of the female nettle causes the savants to engage in various speculations.
Nettles are occasionally eaten as vegetables on the Continent.
ENDIVES [are dressed] WITH BRINE, A LITTLE OIL AND CHOPPED ONION, INSTEAD OF THE REAL LETTUCE  IN WINTER TIME THE ENDIVES ARE TAKEN OUT OF THE PICKLE  [and are dressed] WITH HONEY OR VINEGAR.
 Hum. pro lactucis uere; Tor. p. l. accipint; G.-V. p. l. vero (separated by period)—all indicating that endives are a substitute for lettuce when this is not available.
[Dress it] WITH VINEGAR DRESSING AND A LITTLE BRINE STOCK; WHICH HELPS DIGESTION AND IS TAKEN TO COUNTERACT INFLATION .
 Tor. sic; Hum. agri l.; Tac. id.; Sch. and G.-V. have acri as an adjective to vinegar, the last word in the preceding formula.
 List. and Hum. continuing: “And this salad will not hurt you”; but Tor., Sch. and G.-V. use this as a heading for the following formula.
[And in order that the lettuce may not hurt you take (with it or after it) the following preparation]  2 OUNCES OF GINGER, 1 OUNCE OF GREEN RUE, 1 OUNCE OF MEATY DATES, 12 SCRUPLES OF GROUND PEPPER, 1 OUNCE OF GOOD HONEY, AND 8 OUNCES OF EITHER ÆTHIOPIAN OR SYRIAN CUMIN. MAKE AN INFUSION OF THIS IN VINEGAR, THE CUMIN CRUSHED, AND STRAIN. OF THIS LIQUOR USE A SMALL SPOONFUL MIX IT WITH STOCK AND A LITTLE VINEGAR: YOU MAY TAKE A SMALL SPOONFUL AFTER THE MEAL .
 Tac. and Tor. Ne lactucæ lædant [take it] cum zingiberis uncijs duabus, etc. Hum., List., G.-V. cumini unc. II. They and Sch. read the cum of Tac. and Tor. for cumini, overlooking the fact that the recipe later calls for Aethopian or  Syrian cumin as well. This shifts the weights of the various ingredients from the one to the other, completely upsetting the sense of the formula.
 Goll. ignores this passage completely.
V. This is another of the medical formulæ that have suffered much by experimentation and interpretation through the ages. It seems to be an aromatic vinegar for a salad dressing, and, as such, a very interesting article, reminding of our present tarragon, etc., vinegars. To be used judiciously in salads.
Again, as might be expected, the medicinal character of the formula inspires the medieval doctors to profound meditation and lively debate.
CARDOONS [are eaten with a dressing of] BRINY BROTH, OIL, AND CHOPPED [hard] EGGS.
V. Precisely as we do today: French dressing and hard boiled eggs. We do not forget pepper, of course. Perhaps the ancient “briny broth” contained enough of this and of other ingredients, such as fine condiments and spices to make the dressing perfect.
RUE, MINT, CORIANDER, FENNEL—ALL GREEN—FINELY CRUSHED; ADD PEPPER, LOVAGE, AND  BRINE AND OIL .
 Tac. and Tor. vel.; List., Sch., G.-V. mel—honey—which would spoil this fine vinaigrette or cold fines herbes dressing. However, even nowadays, sugar is quite frequently added to salad dressings.
 Gollmer claims that this dressing is served with cooked cardoons, the recipe for which follows below. This is wanting in Tor.
[Are served with] PEPPER, CUMIN, BROTH AND OIL.
COW-PARSNIPS ARE FRIED [and eaten] WITH A SIMPLE WINE SAUCE.
 Tac. Spondili uel fonduli and Sphon ...; Tor. as above; Hum. Spongioli  uel funguli; List., id.; Sch. Sfondili uel funguli; G.-V. Sphondyli uel funduli.
BOIL THE PARSNIPS IN SALT WATER [and season them] WITH PURE OIL , CHOPPED GREEN CORIANDER AND WHOLE PEPPER.
 Tac. Oleo mero; Other editors: Oleo, mero. V. The comma is misplaced.
PREPARE THE BOILED PARSNIPS WITH THE FOLLOWING SAUCE: CELERY SEED, RUE, HONEY, GROUND PEPPER, MIXED WITH RAISIN WINE, STOCK AND A LITTLE OIL; BIND THIS WITH ROUX [bring to a boiling point, immerse parsnips] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
MASH THE PARSNIPS, [add] CUMIN, RUE, STOCK, A LITTLE CONDENSED WINE, OIL, GREEN CORIANDER [and] LEEKS AND SERVE; GOES WELL WITH SALT PORK .
 Again faulty punctuation obscures the text. Carefully compare the following: Tac. and Tor. Spondylos teres, cuminum, etc. Hum., List. and G.-V. S. teres cuminum, i.e. crush the cumin. Sch. S. tores—dry, parch!
 Inferes pro salso—serve with salt pork or bacon, or, instead of—Salsum—salt pork. Dann. Well seasoned with salt! Sch. infares pro salsa. For further confirmation of salsum cf. ℞ Nos. 148-152.
BOIL THE PARSNIPS [sufficiently, if] HARD  [then] PUT THEM IN A SAUCE PAN AND STEW WITH OIL, STOCK, PEPPER, RAISIN WINE, STRAIN  AND BIND WITH ROUX.
 Tor. præduratos; List. prædurabis. How can they be hardened? It may perhaps stand for “parboil.” We agree with Tor. that the hard ones (præduratos) must be cooked soft.
 Tor. and Tac. Colabis—strain; List. and G.-V. Colorabis—color. No necessity for coloring the gravy, but straining after the binding with roux is important which proves Tor. correct again. Cf. note 1 to ℞ No. 73 and note 2 to ℞ No. 55.
FINISH [marinate] THE PARSNIPS IN OIL AND BROTH, OR FRY THEM IN OIL, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND PEPPER, AND SERVE.
 Ex G.-V. wanting in Tor. and List. Found in Sch. also. V. Procedure quite in accordance with modern practice. We envelope the p. in flour or frying batter.
BRUISE THE BOILED PARSNIPS [scallops, muscular part of shellfish] ELIMINATE THE HARD STRINGS; ADD BOILED SPELT AND CHOPPED HARD EGGS, STOCK AND PEPPER. MAKE CROQUETTES OR SAUSAGE FROM THIS, ADDING PIGNOLIA NUT AND PEPPER, WRAP IN CAUL [or fill in casings] FRY AND SERVE THEM AS AN ENTRÉE DISH IN A WINE SAUCE.
 V. This formula is virtually a repetition of ℞ No. 46, all the more bewildering because of the divergence of the term (Cf. ℞ No. 115), which stands for “scallops” or the muscular part of any bivalve, at least in the above formula.
The Græco-Latin word for cow-parsnip is spondylium, sphondylium, spondylion. It is almost certain that the preceding parsnips formulæ are in the right place here. They are in direct line with the other vegetables here treated—the shellfish—spondylus—would be out of place in this chapter, Book III, The Gardener. All the recipes, with the exception of the above, fit a vegetable like parsnips. Even Lister’s and Humelberg’s interpretation of the term, who read spongioli—mushrooms—could be questioned under this heading, Book III.
Cf. ℞ No. 122 which appears to be a confirmation of the view expressed above.
CARROTS OR PARSNIPS ARE FRIED [and served] WITH A WINE SAUCE.
V. Exactly like ℞ No. 115, which may be a confirmation that spondyli stands for cow-parsnips.
THE CARROTS [are cooked] SALTED [and served] WITH PURE OIL AND VINEGAR.
V. As a salad. “Italian Salad” consists of a variety of such cooked vegetables, nicely dressed with oil and vinegar, or with mayonnaise. Cf. ℞ No. 102.
THE CARROTS [are] BOILED [and] SLICED, STEWED WITH CUMIN AND A LITTLE OIL AND ARE SERVED. AT THE SAME TIME  [here is your opportunity] MAKE A CUMIN SAUCE [from the carrot juice] FOR THOSE WHO HAVE THE COLIC .
 Ex Tor. wanting elsewhere.
 Tac. coliorum; Tor. cuminatum colicorum; List. c. coloratum—colored; G.-V. c. colorium.
END OF BOOK III
EXPLICIT APICII CEPURICA DE OLERIBUS LIBER TERTIUS [Tac.]
THERMOSPODIUM OF PLAIN DESIGN
Water and food heater for everyday purposes. Charcoal fuel. Foods were kept on top in pans, dishes or pots, and were thus carried from the kitchen into the dining room. They were also used for food service in hotel rooms, supplied from adjacent tavern kitchens, as some hotels had no food preparation facilities. This handy apparatus was designed for general utility, as it also served as a portable stove on chilly days in living rooms that were not heated from the central heating plant found in larger houses. Ntl. Mus. Naples, 73882; Field M. 24179.
ROMAN WINE PRESS
Reconstruction in Naples, in the new section of the National Museum.
A DISH FOR THE SERVICE OF EGGS
Lib. IV. Pandecter 
|CHAP.||II.||DISHES OF FISH, VEGETABLES, FRUITS, AND SO FORTH.|
|CHAP.||III.||FINELY MINCED DISHES, OR ISICIA.|
PEPPER, FRESH MINT, CELERY, DRY PENNYROYAL, CHEESE , PIGNOLIA NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, YOLKS OF EGG, FRESH WATER, SOAKED BREAD AND THE LIQUID PRESSED OUT, COW’S CHEESE AND CUCUMBERS ARE ARRANGED IN A DISH, ALTERNATELY, WITH THE NUTS; [also add] FINELY CHOPPED CAPERS , CHICKEN LIVERS ; COVER COMPLETELY WITH [a lukewarm, congealing] BROTH, PLACE ON ICE [and when congealed unmould and] SERVE UP .
 Read: Pandectes—embracing the whole science.
 Read: Salacaccabia—from salsa and caccabus—salt meat boiled in the pot. Sch. Sala cottabia; G.-V. cattabia.
 Sch. casiam instead of caseum.
 Sch. Copadiis porcinis—small bits of pork; List. cepas aridas puto—“shallots, I believe”; Lan. capparis; Vat., G.-V. id.
  Dann. Chicken meat.
 This dish if pork were added (cf. Sch. in note 4 above) would resemble our modern “headcheese”; the presence of cheese in this formula and in our word “headcheese” is perhaps not accidental; the cheese has been eliminated in the course of time from dishes of this sort while the name has remained with us. “Cheese” also appears in the German equivalent for custard—Eierkäse.
PUT IN THE MORTAR CELERY SEED, DRY PENNYROYAL, DRY MINT, GINGER, FRESH CORIANDER, SEEDLESS RAISINS, HONEY, VINEGAR, OIL AND WINE; CRUSH IT TOGETHER [in order to make a dressing of it]. [Now] PLACE 3 PIECES OF PICENTIAN BREAD IN A MOULD, INTERLINED WITH PIECES OF [cooked] CHICKEN, [cooked] SWEETBREADS OF CALF OR LAMB, CHEESE , PIGNOLIA NUTS, CUCUMBERS [pickles] FINELY CHOPPED DRY ONIONS [shallots] COVERING THE WHOLE WITH [jellified] BROTH. BURY THE MOULD IN SNOW UP TO THE RIM; [unmould] SPRINKLE [with the above dressing] AND SERVE .
 List. caseum Vestinum—a certain cheese from the Adriatic coast.
 The nature of the first passage of this formula indicates a dressing for a cold dish. The dish was probably unmoulded when firm, and the jelly covered with this dressing, though the original does not state this procedure. In that case it would resemble a highly complicated chicken salad, such as we make today—mayonnaise de volaille en aspic, for instance. We recall the artistic molds for puddings and other dishes which the ancients had which were nicely suited for dishes such as the above.
The Picentian bread—made of spelt—was a celebrated product of the bakeries of Picentia, a town of lower Italy, near the Tuscan sea, according to Pliny.
Cf. ℞ No. 141.
HOLLOW OUT AN ALEXANDRINE LOAF OF BREAD, SOAK THE CRUMBS WITH POSCA [a mixture of water, wine, vinegar or lemon juice] AND MAKE A PASTE OF IT. PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, HONEY  MINT, GARLIC, FRESH CORIANDER, SALTED COW’S CHEESE, WATER AND OIL. WINE  POURED OVER BEFORE SERVING .
 Wanting in Tor.
 G.-V. insuper nivem—chilled on snow (like the preceding formula). Tac. insuper vinum; Sch. id.
  A panada as is found in every old cookery book. Today it remains as a dressing for roast fowl, etc. Quoting from “A Collection of Receipts in Cookery, Physick and Surgery,” London, 1724:
“Panada for a Sick or Weak Stomach. Put the crumbs of a Penny White-Loaf grated into a Quart of cold Water, set both on the Fire together with a blade of Mace: When ’tis boil’d smooth, take it off the fire and put in a bit of Lemon-peel, the juice of a Lemon, a glass of Sack [Spanish Wine] and Sugar to your Taste. This is very Nourishing and never offends the Stomach. Some season with butter and Sugar, adding Currants which on some occasions are proper; but the first is the most grateful and innocent.”
Mrs. Glasse, a quarter century later, in her famous book [The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy, London, 1747, 1st ed.] omits the wine, but Mrs. Mason, at about the same time, insists on having it with panada.
The imaginary or real relation between the sciences of cookery and medicine is illustrated here.
DISHES OF FISH, VEGETABLES, FRUITS AND SO FORTH PATINÆ PISCIUM, HOLERUM & POMORUM
MAKE A PASTE OF STEWED BRAINS [calf’s, pig’s, etc.] SEASON WITH PEPPER, CUMIN, LASER, BROTH, THICKENED WINE, MILK AND EGGS  POACH IT OVER A WEAK FIRE OR IN A HOT WATER [BATH].
 Tac. quottidiana; List. cottidiana.
 List. ovis—with eggs, which is correct. Tor. holus; Lan. olus—herbs, cabbage.
Cf. ℞ No. 142.
THE DISH, CALLED TURN-OVER, IS THUS MADE  CRUSH VERY FINE WALNUTS AND HAZELNUTS  TOAST THEM AND CRUSH WITH HONEY, MIX IN PEPPER, BROTH, MILK AND EGGS AND A LITTLE OIL .
 This laconic formula indicates a custard poached, like in the preceding, in  a mould, which, when cooled off, is unmoulded in the usual way. This patina versatilis is in fact the modern crême renversée, with nuts.
It is characteristic of Apicius for incompleteness and want of precise directions, without which the experiment in the hands of an inexperienced operator would result in failure.
ANOTHER DISH IS MADE OF THE  STRUNKS OF LETTUCE CRUSHED WITH PEPPER, BROTH, THICKENED WINE, [add] WATER AND OIL, AND COOK THIS; BIND WITH EGGS, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
 Very much like a modern soup, purée of lettuce.
TAKE VEGETABLES, CLEAN AND WASH, SHRED  AND COOK THEM  COOL THEM OFF AND DRAIN THEM. TAKE 4 [calf’s] BRAINS, REMOVE [the skin and] STRINGS AND COOK THEM  IN THE MORTAR PUT 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND CRUSH FINE; THEN ADD THE BRAINS, RUB AGAIN AND MEANWHILE ADD THE VEGETABLES, RUBBING ALL THE WHILE, AND MAKE A FINE PASTE OF IT. THEREUPON BREAK AND ADD 8 EGGS. NOW ADD A GLASSFUL  OF BROTH, A GLASSFUL OF WINE, A GLASSFUL OF RAISIN WINE, TASTE THIS PREPARATION. OIL THE BAKING DISH THOROUGHLY [put the mixture in the dish] AND PLACE IT IN THE HOT PLATE, (THAT IS ABOVE THE HOT ASHES)  AND WHEN IT IS DONE [unmould it] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
 List. frictilis; Vat. Ms. fusilis; G.-V. id.; Lan. frisilis.
Patina frisilis remains unexplained. None of the various readings can be satisfactorily rendered. If the vegetables had remained whole the dish might be compared to a chartreuse, those delightful creations by the Carthusian monks who compelled by the strictest rules of vegetarianism evolved a number of fine vegetable dishes. On the other hand, the poached mixture of eggs and brains is akin to our farces and quenelles; but in modern cookery we have nothing just like this patina frisilis.
 Wanting in List.
 and  Wanting in Tor.
  Sentence in () ex Tor.
 This and some of the following recipes are remarkable for their preciseness and completeness.
COLD ASPARAGUS PIE IS MADE IN THIS MANNER  TAKE WELL CLEANED [cooked] ASPARAGUS, CRUSH IT IN THE MORTAR, DILUTE WITH WATER AND PRESENTLY STRAIN IT THROUGH THE COLANDER. NOW TRIM, PREPARE [i.e. cook or roast] FIGPECKERS  [and hold them in readiness]. 3  SCRUPLES OF PEPPER ARE CRUSHED IN THE MORTAR, ADD BROTH, A GLASS OF WINE, PUT THIS IN A SAUCEPAN WITH 3 OUNCES OF OIL, HEAT THOROUGHLY. MEANWHILE OIL YOUR PIE MOULD, AND WITH 6 EGGS, FLAVORED WITH ŒNOGARUM, AND THE ASPARAGUS PREPARATION AS DESCRIBED ABOVE; THICKEN THE MIXTURE ON THE HOT ASHES. THEREUPON ARRANGE THE FIGPECKERS IN THE MOULD, COVER THEM WITH THIS PURÉE, BAKE THE DISH. [When cold, unmould it] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Lan. and Tac. ficedulas curtas tres; Tor. curtas f.—three figpeckers cut fine. G.-V. F. curatas. Teres in ... (etc.)—Prepared F.
 List. six; G.-V. id.
ASPARAGUS PIE IS MADE LIKE THIS  PUT IN THE MORTAR ASPARAGUS TIPS  CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, SAVORY AND ONIONS; CRUSH, DILUTE WITH WINE, BROTH AND OIL. PUT THIS IN A WELL-GREASED PAN, AND, IF YOU LIKE, ADD WHILE ON THE FIRE SOME BEATEN EGGS TO IT TO THICKEN IT, COOK [without boiling the eggs] AND SPRINKLE WITH VERY FINE PEPPER.
 Reference to wine wanting in Tor. We add that the asparagus should be cooked before crushing.
BY FOLLOWING THE ABOVE INSTRUCTIONS YOU MAY MAKE  A PIE OF FIELD VEGETABLES, OR OF THYME  OR OF GREEN PEPPERS  OR OF CUCUMBERS OR OF SMALL TENDER SPROUTS  SAME AS ABOVE, OR, IF YOU LIKE, MAKE ONE UNDERLAID WITH BONELESS PIECES OF FISH OR OF CHICKEN [combined with any of the above vegetables] .
 Tor. Patina ex oleribus agrestibus.
 Tor. wanting in other texts.
 Sch., G.-V. tamnis—wild wine; List. cymis cuminis; Lan., Tac. tinis; Vat. Ms. tannis. Thyme is hardly likely to be the chief ingredient of such a dish; the chances are it was used for flavoring and that the above enumerated vegetables were combined in one dish.
 List., G.-V., Goll.—mustard; Dann. green mustard. Tor. sive pipere viridi—green peppers, which we accept as correct, gastronomically at least.
 Goll., Dann. cabbage, the originals have coliculis—small tender sprouts on the order of Brussels sprouts or broccoli, all belonging to the cabbage family.
 Pulpa—boneless pieces of meat, also fruit purée; pulpamentum—dainty bits of meat.
A DISH OF ELDERBERRIES, EITHER HOT OR COLD, IS MADE IN THIS MANNER  TAKE ELDERBERRIES  WASH THEM; COOK IN WATER, SKIM AND STRAIN. PREPARE A DISH IN WHICH TO COOK THE CUSTARD  CRUSH 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER WITH A LITTLE BROTH; ADD THIS TO THE ELDERBERRY PULP WITH ANOTHER GLASS OF BROTH, A GLASS OF WINE, A GLASS OF RAISIN WINE AND AS MUCH AS 4 OUNCES OF OIL. PUT THE DISH IN THE HOT BATH AND STIR THE CONTENTS. AS SOON AS IT IS GETTING WARM, QUICKLY BREAK 6 EGGS AND WHIPPING THEM, INCORPORATE THEM, IN ORDER TO THICKEN THE FLUID. WHEN THICK ENOUGH SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE UP.
 G.-V. Sabuco.
 Tor. wanting in other texts.
 Hum. semen de sambuco—E. seed.
 List. Place the berries in a dish; to their juice add pepper, (etc.).
TAKE ROSES FRESH FROM THE FLOWER BED, STRIP OFF THE LEAVES, REMOVE THE WHITE [from the petals and] PUT THEM IN THE MORTAR; POUR OVER SOME BROTH [and] RUB FINE. ADD A GLASS OF BROTH AND STRAIN THE JUICE THROUGH THE COLANDER. [This done] TAKE 4 [cooked calf’s] BRAINS, SKIN THEM AND REMOVE THE NERVES; CRUSH 8 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER MOISTENED WITH THE JUICE AND RUB [with the brains]; THEREUPON BREAK 8 EGGS, ADD 1  GLASS OF WINE, 1 GLASS OF RAISIN WINE AND A LITTLE OIL. MEANWHILE GREASE A PAN, PLACE IT ON THE HOT ASHES [or in the hot bath] IN WHICH POUR THE ABOVE DESCRIBED MATERIAL; WHEN THE MIXTURE IS COOKED IN THE BAIN MARIS  SPRINKLE IT WITH PULVERIZED PEPPER AND SERVE .
 List., G.-V. 1½ glass.
 Hot water bath.
 Tor. continues ℞ No. 135 without interruption or caption, and describes the above recipe. He reads: De thoris accipies rosas, but List. insists that de thoris be read de rosis; Lan., Tac. de toris; V. de thoris may be read “fresh from the flower bed.”
AND PUMPKIN PIE IS MADE THUS  STEWED AND MASHED PUMPKIN IS PLACED IN THE PAN [or pie dish] SEASONED WITH A LITTLE CUMIN ESSENCE. ADD A LITTLE OIL; HEAT [bake] AND SERVE .
 Dann. Cucumber Dish.
 Tor. Wanting in other texts.
 Modern English recipes for stewed pumpkin resemble this Apician precept, but America has made a really palatable dish from pumpkin by the addition of eggs, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger—spices which the insipid pumpkin needs. The ancient original may have omitted the eggs because Apicius probably expected his formula to be carried out in accordance with the preceding formulæ. Perhaps this is proven by the fact that Tor. continues the Rose Pie recipe with et cucurbita patina sic fiet.
CLEAN THE SMELTS [or other small fish, filets of sole, etc. of white meat] MARINATE [i.e. impregnate with] IN OIL, PLACE IN A SHALLOW PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH  AND WINE. BUNCH  [fresh] RUE AND MARJORAM AND COOK WITH THE FISH. WHEN DONE REMOVE THE HERBS, SEASON THE FISH WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
 Ex List. and G.-V. wanting in Tor.
 Liquamen, which in this case corresponds to court bouillon, a broth prepared from the trimmings of the fish, herbs, and wine, well-seasoned and reduced.
 Our very own bouquet garni, a bunch of various aromatic herbs, inserted during coction and retired before serving.
 Excellent formula for fish in white wine, resembling our ways of making this fine dish.
This again illustrates the laconic style of the ancient author. He omitted to say that the fish, when cooked, was placed on the service platter and that the juices remaining in the sauce pan were tied with one or two egg yolks, diluted with cream, or wine, or court bouillon, strained and poured over the fish at the moment of serving. This is perhaps the best method of preparing fish with white meat of a fine texture. Pink or darker fish do not lend themselves to this method of preparation.
BONELESS PIECES OF ANCHOVIES OR [other small] FISH, EITHER ROAST [fried] BOILED, CHOP VERY FINE. FILL A CASSEROLE GENEROUSLY WITH THE SAME [season with] CRUSHED PEPPER AND A LITTLE RUE, ADD SUFFICIENT BROTH AND SOME OIL, AND MIX IN, ALSO ADD ENOUGH RAW EGGS SO THAT THE WHOLE FORMS ONE SOLID MASS. NOW CAREFULLY ADD SOME SEA-NETTLES BUT TAKE PAIN THAT THEY ARE NOT MIXED WITH THE EGGS. NOW PUT THE DISH INTO THE STEAM SO THAT IT MAY CONGEAL [but avoid boiling] . WHEN DONE SPRINKLE WITH GROUND PEPPER AND CARRY INTO THE DINING ROOM. NOBODY WILL BE ABLE TO TELL WHAT HE IS ENJOYING .
 Tac., Tor. sic. List., G.-V. p. de apua sine apua—a dish of anchovies (or smelts) without anchovies. Tor. formula bears the title patina de apua, and his  article opens with the following sentence: patin de abua sive apua sic facies. He is therefore quite emphatic that the dish is to be made with the abua or apua (an anchovy) and not without apua, as List. has it. Lan. calls the dish: P. de apabadiade, not identified.
 Tor. impones ad uaporem ut cum ouis meare possint—warning, get along with the eggs, i.e. beware of boiling them for they will curdle, and the experiment is hopelessly lost. List. however, reads meare possint thus: bullire p.—boil (!) It is quite plain that Tor. has the correct formula.
 et ex esu nemo agnoscet quid manducet. Dann. renders this sentence thus: “Nobody can value this dish unless he has partaken of it himself.” He is too lenient. We would rather translate it literally as we did above, or say broadly, “And nobody will be any the wiser.” List. dwells at length upon this sentence; his erudite commentary upon the cena dubia, the doubtful meal, will be found under the heading of cena in our vocabulary. List. pp. 126-7. List. undoubtedly made the mistake of reading sine for sive. He therefore omitted the apua from his formula. The above boastful sentence may have induced him to do so.
The above is a fish forcemeat, now seldom used as an integral dish, but still popular as a dressing for fish or as quenelles. The modern fish forcemeat is usually made of raw fish, cream and eggs, with the necessary seasoning. The material is poached or cooked much in the same manner as prescribed by the ancient recipe.
SOAK [pignolia] NUTS, DRY THEM, AND ALSO HAVE FRESH SEA-URCHINS  READY. TAKE A DEEP DISH [casserole] IN WHICH ARRANGE THE FOLLOWING THINGS [in layers]: MEDIUM-SIZED MALLOWS AND BEETS, MATURE LEEKS, CELERY, STEWED TENDER GREEN CABBAGE, AND OTHER BOILED GREEN VEGETABLES , A DISJOINTED  CHICKEN STEWED IN ITS OWN GRAVY, COOKED [calf’s or pig’s] BRAINS, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, HARD BOILED EGGS CUT INTO HALVES, BIG TARENTINIAN SAUSAGE  SLICED AND BROILED IN THE ASHES, CHICKEN GIBLETS OR PIECES OF CHICKEN MEAT. BITS OF FRIED FISH, SEA NETTLES, PIECES OF [stewed] OYSTERS AND FRESH CHEESE ARE ALTERNATELY PUT TOGETHER; SPRINKLE IN BETWEEN THE NUTS AND WHOLE PEPPER, AND THE JUICE AS IS COOKED FROM PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED AND SILPHIUM. THIS ESSENCE, WHEN DONE, MIX WITH MILK TO WHICH RAW EGGS HAVE BEEN ADDED [pour  this over the pieces of food in the dish] SO THAT THE WHOLE IS THOROUGHLY COMBINED, STIFFEN IT [in the hot water bath] AND WHEN DONE [garnish with] FRESH MUSSELS [sea-urchins, poached and chopped fine] SPRINKLE PEPPER OVER AND SERVE.
 Sea-urchins, wanting in Tor.
 Sentence wanting in G.-V.
 Pullum raptum, in most texts; G.-V. p. carptum—plucked. Of course! Should raptum be translated literally? A most atrocious way of killing fowl, to be sure, but anyone familiar with the habits of the ancients, particularly with those of the less educated element, should not wonder at this most bestial fashion, which was supposed to improve the flavor of the meat, a fashion which, as a matter of fact still survives in the Orient, particularly in China.
 Vat. Ms. Tarentino farsos; Tor. cooks the sausage in the ashes—coctos in cinere; List. in cinere legendum jecinora—chicken giblets. Lister’s explanation of the Tarentinian sausage is found in the vocabulary, v. Longano.
THE APICIAN DISH IS MADE THUS: TAKE SMALL PIECES OF COOKED SOW’S BELLY [with the paps on it] PIECES OF FISH, PIECES OF CHICKEN, THE BREASTS OF FIGPECKERS OR OF THRUSHES [slightly] COOKED, [and] WHICHEVER IS BEST. MINCE ALL THIS VERY CAREFULLY, PARTICULARLY THE FIGPECKERS [the meat of which is very tender]. DISSOLVE IN OIL STRICTLY FRESH EGGS; CRUSH PEPPER AND LOVAGE, POUR OVER SOME BROTH AND RAISIN WINE, PUT IT IN A SAUCEPAN TO HEAT AND BIND WITH ROUX. AFTER YOU HAVE CUT ALL IN REGULAR PIECES, LET IT COME TO THE BOILING POINT. WHEN DONE, RETIRE [from the fire] WITH ITS JUICE OF WHICH YOU PUT SOME IN ANOTHER DEEP PAN WITH WHOLE PEPPER AND PIGNOLIA NUTS. SPREAD [the ragout] OUT IN SINGLE LAYERS WITH THIN PANCAKES IN BETWEEN; PUT IN AS MANY PANCAKES AND LAYERS OF MEAT AS IS REQUIRED TO FILL THE DISH; PUT A FINAL COVER OF PANCAKE ON TOP AND SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AFTER THOSE EGGS HAVE BEEN ADDED [which serve] TO TIE THE DISH. NOW PUT THIS [mould or dish] IN A BOILER [steamer, hot water bath, allow to congeal] AND DISH IT OUT [by unmoulding it]. AN EXPENSIVE SILVER PLATTER WOULD ENHANCE THE APPEARANCE OF THIS DISH MATERIALLY.
 Cf. ℞ No. 126.
PIECES OF COOKED SOW’S UDDER, PIECES OF COOKED FISH, CHICKEN MEAT AND SIMILAR BITS, MINCE UNIFORMLY, SEASON WELL AND CAREFULLY . TAKE A METAL DISH [for a mould]. BREAK EGGS [in another bowl] AND BEAT THEM. IN A MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY , WHICH CRUSH; MOISTEN [this] WITH BROTH, WINE, RAISIN WINE AND A LITTLE OIL; EMPTY IT INTO THE BOWL [with the beaten eggs, mix] AND HEAT IT [in the hot water bath]. THEREUPON WHEN [this is] THICKENED MIX IT WITH THE PIECES OF MEAT. NOW PREPARE [alternately] LAYERS OF STEW AND PANCAKES, INTERSPERSED WITH OIL [in the metal mould reserved for this purpose] UNTIL FULL, COVER WITH ONE REAL GOOD PANCAKE , CUT INTO IT A VENT HOLE FOR CHIMNEY ON THE SURFACE [bake in hot water bath and when done] TURN OUT UPSIDE DOWN INTO ANOTHER DISH. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 List. cottidiana; G.-V. cotidiana. Everyday Dish, in contrast to the foregoing Apician dish which is more sumptuous on account of the figpeckers or thrushes. In the originals these two formulæ are rolled into one. Cf. ℞ No. 128.
 G.-V. Hæc omnia concides; Tor. condies; List. condies lege concides which we dispute. Condies—season, flavor—is more correct in this place; concides—mince—is a repetition of what has been said already.
 Origany wanting in G.-V.
 List. superficie versas in discum insuper in superficium pones; Sch. a superficie versas indusium super focum pones; G.-V. in discum; Tor. unum uerò laganum fistula percuties à superficie uersas in discum in superficiem præterea pones—which we have translated literally above, as we believe Tor. to be correct in this important matter of having a chimney on top of such a pie.
PIGNOLIA NUTS, CHOPPED OR BROKEN NUTS [other varieties] ARE CLEANED AND ROASTED AND CRUSHED WITH HONEY. MIX IN [beat well] PEPPER, BROTH, MILK, EGGS, A LITTLE HONEY  AND OIL. [Thicken slowly on fire without boiling, fill in moulds, taking care that the nuts do not sink to the bottom, bake in hot water bath, when cold unmould].
 Tor. modico melle; List. m. mero—pure wine and also pure honey, i.e. thick honey for sweetening. Wine would be out of place here. This is an excellent example of nut custard, if the “pepper” and the “broth” (liquamen), of the original, in other words spices and brine, or salt, be used very sparingly. For “pepper” nutmeg or allspice may be substituted, as is used today in such preparations. The oil seems superfluous, but it is taking the place of our butter. This very incomplete formula is characteristic because of the absence of weights and measures and other vital information as to the manipulation of the materials. None but an experienced practitioner could make use of this formula in its original state.
Goll. adds toasted raisins, for which there is no authority.
The text now proceeds without interruption to the next formula.
TAKE ANY KIND OF SALT FISH  COOK [fry or broil it] IN OIL, TAKE THE BONES OUT, SHRED IT [and add] PIECES OF COOKED BRAINS, PIECES OF [other, fresh (?)] FISH, MINCED CHICKEN LIVERS  AND [cover with] HOT SOFT [i.e. liquefied] CHEESE. HEAT ALL THIS IN A DISH; [meanwhile] GRIND PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, SEEDS OF RUE WITH WINE, HONEY WINE AND OIL; COOK ALL ON A SLOW FIRE; BIND [this sauce] WITH RAW EGGS; ARRANGE [the fish, etc.]. PROPERLY [incorporate with the sauce] SPRINKLE WITH CRUSHED CUMIN AND SERVE .
 Tor. Wanting in other texts.
 List., G.-V. here add hard boiled eggs, which is permissible, gastronomically.
 Modern fish au gratin is made in a similar way. Instead of this wine sauce a spiced cream sauce and grated cheese are mixed with the bits of cooked fish, which is then baked in the dish.
Brains, chicken, etc., too, are served au gratin, but a combination of the three in one dish is no longer practiced. However, the Italian method of baking fish, etc., au gratin à l’Italienne contains even more herbs and wine reduction than the above formula.
DRY PIECES OF SALT TURSIO  ARE BONED, CLEANED [soaked in water, cooked] SHREDDED FINE AND SEASONED WITH GROUND PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, PARSLEY, CORIANDER, CUMIN, RUE SEEDS AND DRY MINT. MAKE FISH BALLS OUT OF THIS MATERIAL AND POACH THE SAME IN WINE, BROTH AND OIL; AND WHEN COOKED, ARRANGE THEM IN A DISH. THEN MAKE A SAUCE [utilizing the broth, the court bouillon in which the balls were cooked] SEASON WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, SATURY, ONIONS AND WINE AND VINEGAR, ALSO ADD BROTH AND OIL AS NEEDED, BIND WITH ROUX  [pour over the balls] SPRINKLE WITH THYME AND GROUND PEPPER .
 Reminding us of the Norwegian fiske boller in wine sauce, a popular commercial article found canned in delicatessen stores.
 List. patella sicca—dry, perhaps because made of dried fish.
 List. isicia de Tursione; G.-V. Thursione. Probably a common sturgeon, or porpoise, or dolphin. List. describes it as “a kind of salt fish from the Black Sea; a malicious fish with a mouth similar to a rabbit”; Dann. thinks it is a sturgeon, but in Goll. it appears as tunny. The ancients called the sturgeon acipenser; but this name was gradually changed into styrio, stirio and sturio, which is similar to tursio (cf. styrio in the vocabulary). The fish in question therefore may have been sturgeon for which the Black Sea is famous.
 List., G.-V. ovis obligabis—tie with eggs—certainly preferable to the Tor. version.
 Tor. thyme.
The above is an excellent way of making fish balls, it being taken for granted, of course, that the salt fish be thoroughly soaked and cooked in milk before shaping into balls. The many spices should be used very moderately, some to be omitted entirely. We read between the lines of the old formula that the Tursio had a long journey from Pontus to Rome; fish however dry acquires a notorious flavor upon such journeys which must be offset by herbs and spices.
It is quite possible that the ancients made a réduction of the herbs and spices mentioned in this formula; in fact, the presence of vinegar leads us to believe this, in which case this formula would be nothing but a very modern sauce. The herbs and spices in a réduction are crushed and boiled down in vinegar and wine, and strained off, they leave their finest flavor in the sauce.
[Any kind of vegetables or herbs] BLANCHED OFF IN WATER  WITH [a little] SODA; SQUEEZE [out the water] ARRANGE IN A SAUCEPAN. GRIND PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, SATURY, ONION WITH WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR AND OIL; ADD [this] TO THE VEGETABLES, STEW [all until nearly done] AND TIE WITH ROUX. SPRINKLE WITH THYME, FINELY GROUND PEPPER AND SERVE. ANY KIND OF VEGETABLE  MAY BE PREPARED IN THE ABOVE MANNER, IF YOU WISH.
 Wanting in Tac. and Tor. G.-V. patellam ex holisatro.
 It is worth noting that Tor. and Tac. omit this recipe entirely and that Tor. concludes the preceding formula with the last sentence of the above formula, except for the difference in one word. Tor. et de quacunque libra [List. et al. herba] si volueris facies ut demonstratum est suprà. This might mean that it is optional (in the preceding formula) to shape the fish into one pound loaves instead of the small fish balls, which is often done in the case of forcemeats, as in veal, beef, ham loaves, or fish pie.
We are inclined to accept the reading of Torinus, for the above way of preparing “any kind of vegetables or herbs” is somewhat farfetched. Furthermore, the vegetable dish would more properly belong in Book III.
Just another example of where readings by various editors are different because of the interpretations of one word. In this case one group reads libra whereas the other reads herba.
SARDINE LOAF (OR OMELETTE) IS MADE IN THIS MANNER  CLEAN THE SARDINES [of skin and bones]; BREAK [and beat] EGGS AND MIX WITH [half of the] FISH ; ADD TO THIS SOME STOCK, WINE AND OIL, AND FINISH [the composition] BY HEATING IT. WHEN DONE TO A POINT, ADD [the remaining part of the] SARDINES TO IT, LET IT STAND A WHILE [over a slow fire to congeal] CAREFULLY TURN OVER [dish it up] MASK WITH A WARM  WINE SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 G.-V. Patina de apua fricta—same as aphya, fried fresh small fish of the kind of anchovies, sardines, sprats.
In experimenting with this formula we would advise to use salt and oil judiciously if any at all. We have no knowledge of the ancient apua fricta other than our making of modern sardines which is to fry them in oil as quickly as possible after the fish has left the water, for its meat is very delicate. For an omelette, our modern sardines, including kippered smelts, sprotten, and similar smoked and processed fish, contain sufficient salt and fat to season the eggs of an omelette.
  Tor. Sentence wanting in other texts.
 Tor. cum aqua; List., G.-V. cum apua. Perhaps a typographical error in Tor. A little water is used to dilute the eggs of an omelette, but Apicius already prescribes sufficient liquids (stock or brine, wine) for that purpose.
 Tor. et in calore œnogarum perfundes; List., G.-V. ut coloret—to keep the omelette in the pan long enough to give it “color.” We prefer the Torinus version because an omelette should have no or very little color from the fire (the eggs thus browned are indigestible) and because hot œnogarum (wine-fish sauce, not in List.) is accompanying this dish, to give additional savour and a finishing touch.
THE DISH OF BACON AND BRAINS IS MADE IN THIS MANNER  STRAIN [or chop fine] HARD BOILED EGGS  WITH PARBOILED BRAINS [calf’s or pig’s] THE SKIN AND NERVES OF WHICH HAVE BEEN REMOVED; ALSO COOK CHICKEN GIBLETS, ALL IN PROPORTION TO THE FISH  PUT THIS AFORESAID MIXTURE IN A SAUCEPAN, PLACE THE COOKED BACON IN THE CENTER, GRIND PEPPER AND LOVAGE AND TO SWEETEN ADD A DASH OF MEAD, HEAT, WHEN HOT STIR BRISKLY WITH A RUE WHIP AND BIND WITH ROUX.
 G.-V. lagitis; Tor. laridis and largitis; Vat. Ms. lagatis; List. pro lagitis ... legendum Lacertis. The lacertus, according to List., is a much esteemed salt fish; not identified. List. et al. seem to be mistaken in their reading of lacertis for laridis. This work stands for salt pork, from laridum and lardum (French, lard; the English lard is applied to the rendered fat of pork in general). Cf. notes to ℞ No. 41.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 oua dura; Sch. o. dua—two eggs.
 This formula would be intelligible and even gastronomically correct were it not for this word “fish.” However, we cannot accept Lister’s reading lacertis. We prefer the reading, laridis, bacon. The French have another term for this—petits salés. Both this and the Torinus term are in the plural. They are simply small strips of bacon to which Torinus again refers in the above formula, salsum, coctum in media pones—put the bacon, when done, in the center (of the dish). Regarding salsum also see note to ℞ No. 41.
The above dish resembles ragoût fin en coquille, a popular Continental dish, although its principal ingredients are sweetbreads instead of brains.
A DISH OF MULLET CONSISTS OF  SCALED SALT MULLET PLACED IN A CLEAN PAN WITH ENOUGH OIL  AS IS NECESSARY FOR COOKING; WHEN DONE ADD [a dash of honey-] WINE OR RAISIN WINE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 List., G.-V. mullorum loco salsi—salt mullet.
 Tor. wanting in other texts.
 List. liquamen—broth, brine, which would be worse than carrying owls to Athens. As a matter of fact, the mullet if it be what List. says, loco salsi—salted on the spot, i.e. as caught, near the sea shore, requires soaking to extract the salt.
ANOTHER FISH DISH IS THUS MADE  FRY ANY KIND OF CURED  FISH, CAREFULLY TREATED [soaked and cleaned] PLACE IN A PAN, COVER WITH SUFFICIENT OIL, LAY [strips of] COOKED SALT  [pork or bacon—petits salés] OVER THE CENTER, KEEP IT HOT, WHEN REAL HOT, ADD A DASH OF HONEY WINE TO THE GRAVY AND STIR IT UP .
 Ex Tor.; G.-V. P. piscium loco salsi.
 Tor.; sentence wanting in other texts.
 Tor. duratos—hard—no sense here, probably a misprint of the d. List. curatos—carefully treated, “cured,” processed.
 Salsum coctum, cf. notes to ℞ No. 148; Goll., Dann.—sprinkle [the fish] with salt.... Like Lister’s error in the preceding formula it would be a great blunder to add salt to a cured fish already saturated with salt to the utmost. Cf. also note 2 to ℞ Nos. 41, 148.
 Virtually a repetition of ℞ No. 149, except for the addition of the pork.
ANOTHER FISH DISH MAKE AS FOLLOWS  CLEAN ANY KIND OF FISH AND PLACE IT PROPERLY IN A SAUCEPAN WITH SHREDDED DRY ASCALONIAN ONIONS [shallots] OR WITH ANY OTHER KIND OF ONIONS, THE FISH ON TOP. ADD STOCK AND OIL AND COOK. WHEN DONE, PUT BROILED BACON IN THE CENTER, GIVE IT A DASH OF VINEGAR,  SPRINKLE WITH [finely chopped] SAVORY AND GARNISH WITH [the] ONIONS.
 Tor., sentence wanting in other texts.
CLEAN YOUNG ONIONS, REJECTING THE GREEN TOPS, AND PLACE  THEM IN A SAUCEPAN WITH A LITTLE BROTH, SOME OIL AND WATER, AND, TO BE COOKED [with the onions] PLACE SALT PORK  IN THE MIDST [of the scallions]. WHEN NEARLY DONE, ADD A SPOON OF HONEY  A LITTLE VINEGAR AND REDUCED MUST, TASTE IT, IF INSIPID ADD MORE BRINE [broth] IF TOO SALTY, ADD MORE HONEY, AND SPRINKLE WITH SAVORY .
 Dann. Named for Lucretius Epicuræus, a contemporary of Cicero. List. ab authore cui in usu fuit sic appellata.
 G.-V. concides. Not necessary.
 To glaze the pork, no doubt; reminding us of our own use of sugar to glaze ham or bacon, and of the molasses added to pork (and beans).
 G.-V. coronam bubulam. In experimenting with this formula omit salt completely. Instead of honey we have also added maple syrup once. To make this a perfect luncheon dish a starch is wanting; we have therefore added sliced raw potatoes and cooked with the rest, to make it a balanced meal, by way of improving upon Lucretius. Since the ancients had no potatoes we have, on a different occasion, created another version by added sliced dasheens (colocasia, cf. ℞ Nos. 74, 216, 244, 322). It is surprising that the ancients who used the colocasium extensively did not combine it with the above dish.
CLEAN AND WASH [soak] THE FISH  [cook and flake it] BREAK AND BEAT EGGS, MIX THEM WITH THE FISH, ADD BROTH, WINE AND OIL. PLACE THIS ON THE FIRE, WHEN COOKED [scrambled] ADD SIMPLE FISH WINE SAUCE  TO IT, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
 Ex List. wanting in Tor. G.-V. P. de lagitis; cf. note to ℞ No. 148.
 Oenogarum, cf. ℞ No. 147, the Sardine Omelette.
 To cook the eggs as described above would be disastrous. The fish, if such was used, was probably first poached in the broth, wine and oil, and when done, removed from the pan. The fond, or remaining juice or gravy, was subsequently  tied with the egg yolks, and this sauce was strained over the fish dressed on the service platter, the œnogarum sparingly sprinkled over the finished dish. This would closely resemble our modern au vin blanc fish dishes; the œnogarum taking the place of our meat glacé.
Another interpretation of this vexatious formula is that if fish was used, the cooked fish was incorporated with the raw beaten eggs which were then scrambled in the pan. In that event this formula resembles closely the sardine omelette.
THE ZOMORE FISH DISH IS MADE AS FOLLOWS  TAKE RAW GANONAS  AND OTHER [fish] WHICHEVER YOU LIKE, PLACE THEM IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING OIL, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, A BUNCH  OF LEEKS AND [green] CORIANDER; WHILE THIS COOKS, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND A BUNCH OF ORIGANY WHICH CRUSH BY ITSELF AND DILUTE WITH THE JUICE  OF THE FISH. NOW DISSOLVE [break and beat egg yolks for a liaison] PREPARE AND TASTE THE DISH, BINDING [the sauce with the yolks] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 List. Zomoteganite—“a dish of fish boiled in their own liquor”; G.-V. zomoteganon; Lan. zomoreganonas; Vat. Ms. zomonam Ganas.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 ganonas crudas—an unidentified fish.
 “Bouquet garni.”
 ius de suo sibi—old Plautian latinity. Cf. H. C. Coote, cit. Apiciana; the proof of the antiquity and the genuineness of Apicius.
A DISH OF SOLE IS THUS MADE  BEAT THE SOLE  PREPARE  AND PLACE THEM IN A [shallow] SAUCE PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH AND WINE, AND POACH THEM THUS; NOW CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY AND ADD OF THE FISH JUICE; THEN BIND THE SAUCE WITH RAW EGGS [yolks] TO MAKE A GOOD CREAMY SAUCE OF IT; STRAIN THIS OVER THE SOLE, HEAT ALL ON A SLOW FIRE [to fill it with live heat] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
 G.-V. P. solearum.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 Beat, to make tender, to be able to remove the skin.
 Tor. curatos—trim, skin, remove entrails, wash.
A LIQUOR [in which to cook fish] IS MADE BY TAKING  ONE OUNCE OF PEPPER, ONE PINT OF REDUCED WINE, ONE PINT OF SPICED WINE AND TWO OUNCES OF OIL.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
TAKE RAISINS, PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, ONIONS, WINE, BROTH AND OIL, PLACE THIS IN A PAN; AFTER THIS HAS COOKED ADD TO IT THE COOKED SMALL FISH, BIND WITH ROUX AND SERVE.
 Smelts, anchovies, whitebait.
TAKE THE FISH, PREPARE [clean, trim, wash] AND HALF BROIL OR FRY THEM; THEREUPON SHRED THEM [in good-sized] PIECES: NEXT PREPARE OYSTERS; PUT IN A MORTAR 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND CRUSH. ADD A SMALL GLASS OF BROTH, ONE OF WINE TO IT; PUT IN A SAUCE PAN 3 OUNCES OF OIL AND THE [shelled] OYSTERS AND LET THEM POACH WITH WINE SAUCE. WHEN THEY ARE DONE, OIL A DISH ON WHICH PLACE THE ABOVE MENTIONED FISH PIECES AND STEWED OYSTERS, HEAT AGAIN, AND WHEN HOT, BREAK 40  EGGS [whip them] AND POUR THEM OVER THE OYSTERS, SO THAT THEY CONGEAL. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE. .
 dentex—“tooth-fish”; aurata—“gilt”—dory, red snapper; mugilis—Sea Mullet, according to some.
 G.-V. ova XI—11 eggs. Tac. ova Xl, which may be read XL—forty.
 This dish may be allowed to congeal slowly; if done quickly it may become a dish of scrambled eggs with fish and oysters.
GRIND PEPPER, CUMIN, PARSLEY, RUE, ONIONS, HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE AND DROPS OF OIL .
 G.-V. p. de pisce lupo—wolf, because of its voracity; a sea fish, sea  pike, or sea bass; perhaps akin to our barracuda, wolfish both in appearance and character. Sch. Perca labrax Lin.
 The cleaned fish is cut into convenient portions or fillets, placed in an oiled pan, the ingredients spread over; it is either poached in the oven or cooked under the open fire.
TAKE MEDLARS, CLEAN THEM; CRUSH THEM IN THE MORTAR AND STRAIN THROUGH COLANDER. 4 COOKED [calf’s or pork] BRAINS, SKINNED AND FREED FROM STRINGY PARTS, PUT IN THE MORTAR WITH 8 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, DILUTE WITH STOCK AND CRUSH, ADDING THE MEDLAR PULP AND COMBINE ALL; NOW BREAK 8 EGGS AND ADD A SMALL GLASS OF BROTH. OIL A CLEAN PAN AND PLACE IT IN THE HOT BATH OR IN THE HOT ASHES; AFTER YOU HAVE FILLED IT WITH THE PREPARATION, MAKE SURE THAT THE PAN GETS ENOUGH HEAT FROM BELOW; LET IT CONGEAL, AND WHEN DONE SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE FINE PEPPER AND SERVE.
Sch. ℞ No. 166.
CLEAN HARD-SKINNED PEACHES AND SLICE, STEW THEM; ARRANGE IN A DISH, SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE OIL AND SERVE WITH CUMIN-FLAVORED WINE .
 Tor. is not sure whether this is a Persian fish or peaches—persica.
 Dann. Pepper, for which there is no authority.
Sch. ℞ No. 167.
A DISH OF PEARS IS MADE THIS WAY:  STEW THE PEARS, CLEAN OUT THE CENTER [remove core and seeds] CRUSH THEM WITH PEPPER, CUMIN, HONEY, RAISIN WINE, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL; MIX WITH EGGS, MAKE A PIE [custard] OF THIS, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
Sch. ℞ No. 168.
A DISH OF SEA-NETTLES, EITHER HOT OR COLD, IS MADE THUS:  TAKE SEA-NETTLES, WASH AND DRAIN THEM ON THE COLANDER, DRY ON THE TABLE AND CHOP FINE. CRUSH 10 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD 2 SMALL GLASSES OF BROTH AND 6 OUNCES OF OIL. HEAT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN AND WHEN COOKED TAKE IT OUT AND ALLOW TO COOL OFF. NEXT OIL A CLEAN PAN, BREAK 8 EGGS AND BEAT THEM; COMBINE THESE WITH THE ABOVE PREPARATIONS, PLACE THE PAN ON HOT ASHES TO GIVE IT HEAT FROM BELOW, WHEN DONE [congealed] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 G.-V. p. urticarum calida et frigida.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
A DISH OF QUINCES IS MADE AS FOLLOWS:  QUINCES ARE COOKED WITH LEEKS, HONEY AND BROTH, USING HOT OIL, OR THEY ARE STEWED IN HONEY .
 G.-V. p. de Cydoneis.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 This latter method would appeal to our modern notion of preparing fruits of this sort; we use sugar syrup to cook them in and flavor with various spices, adding perhaps a little wine or brandy.
OF FINELY CHOPPED, MINCED MEATS DE MINUT ALIBUS 
PLACE THE FISH IN SAUCE PAN, ADD BROTH OIL AND WINE [and poach it]. ALSO FINELY CHOP LEEK HEADS [the white part only of leeks] AND [fresh] CORIANDER. [When cool, mince the fish fine] FORM IT INTO SMALL CAKES  ADDING CAPERS  AND SEA-NETTLES WELL CLEANED. THESE FISH CAKES COOK IN A LIQUOR OF PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, CRUSHED, DILUTED WITH BROTH AND THE ABOVE  FISH LIQUOR WHICH SKIM WELL, BIND [with roux or eggs] STIR [strain] OVER THE CAKES, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 G.-V. minutal de piscibus vel Isiciis.
 Tac. G.-V. isiciola ... minuta—resembling our modern quenelles de poisson—tiny fish dumplings.
 Tac. cum caparis; Tor. c. capparibus; Vat. Ms. concarpis; List. G.-V. concerpis.
FINELY CHOP THE WHITE PART OF LEEKS AND PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN; ADD OIL [fry lightly] AND BROTH; NEXT ADD SMALL SAUSAGE TO BE COOKED LIKEWISE. TO HAVE A GOOD TARENTINE DISH, THEY MUST BE TENDER. THE MAKING OF THESE SAUSAGE WILL BE FOUND AMONG THE ISICIA [Nos. 60-66] . ALSO MAKE A SAUCE IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD OF THE ABOVE [sausage] GRAVY, WINE, RAISIN WINE; PUT IN A SAUCE PAN TO BE HEATED, WHEN BOILING, SKIM CAREFULLY, BIND, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 G.-V. Terentinum, for which there is no reason. Tarentum, town of lower Italy, now Taranto, celebrated for its wine and luxurious living.
 Such references to other parts of the book are very infrequent.
THE APICIAN MINUTAL IS MADE AS FOLLOWS:  OIL, BROTH WINE, LEEK HEADS, MINT, SMALL FISH, SMALL TIDBITS  COCK’S FRIES OR CAPON’S KIDNEYS  AND PORK SWEETBREADS; ALL OF THESE ARE COOKED TOGETHER  NOW CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, OR SEEDS, MOISTENED WITH BROTH; ADD A LITTLE HONEY, AND OF THE OWN LIQUOR  OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, WINE AND HONEY TO TASTE; BRING THIS TO A BOILING POINT SKIM, BIND, STIR WELL [strain, pour over the morsels] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 isitia—quenelles, dumplings of some kind, mostly fine forcemeats.
 testiculi caponum; the capon has no testiculi, these organs having been  removed by an operation when the cock is young. This operation is said to have been first performed by a Roman surgeon with the intention of beating the Lex Fannia, or Fannian law, sponsored by a fanatic named Fannius. It prohibited among other restrictions the serving of any fowl at any time or repast except a hen, and this hen was not to be fattened. Note the cunning of the law: The useful hen and her unlaid eggs could be sacrificed while the unproductive rooster was allowed to thrive to no purpose, immune from the butcher’s block. This set the shrewd surgeon to thinking; he transformed a rooster into a capon by his surgical trick. The emasculated bird grew fat without his owner committing any infraction of the Roman law against fattening chickens. Of course the capon, being neither hen nor rooster, was perfectly safe to eat, for he was within the law. Thus he became a huge success as an ancient “bootleg” chicken.
 These integral parts must be prepared and poached separately and merely heated together before the final service.
 Again the Plautian colloquialism ius de suo sibi.
 This dish is worthy of Apicius. It is akin to our Ragoût Financière, and could pass for Vol-au-vent à la Financière if it were served in a large fluffy crust of puff paste.
PUT IN A SAUCE PAN OIL, BROTH FINELY CHOPPED LEEKS, CORIANDER, SMALL TID-BITS, COOKED PORK SHOULDER, CUT INTO LONG STRIPS INCLUDING THE SKIN, HAVE EVERYTHING EQUALLY HALF DONE. ADD MATIAN APPLES  CLEANED, THE CORE REMOVED, SLICED LENGTHWISE AND COOK THEM TOGETHER: MEANWHILE CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, GREEN CORIANDER, OR SEEDS, MINT, LASER ROOT, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, HONEY AND BROTH AND A LITTLE REDUCED MUST, ADD TO THIS THE BROTH OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, VINEGAR TO TASTE, BOIL, SKIM, BIND [strain over the morsels] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Named for Matius, ancient author, or because of the Matian apples used in this dish, also named for the same man. Plinius, Nat. Hist. lib. XV, Cap. 14-15, Columella, De re Rustica, lib. XII, Cap. XLIIII.
This is not the first instance where fruits or vegetables were named for famous men. Beets, a certain kind of them were named for Varro, writer on agriculture. Matius, according to Varro, wrote a book on waiters, cooks, cellar men and food service in general, of which there is no trace today. It was already lost during Varro’s days.
 Cf. note 1, above. This illustrates the age-old connection of pork and apples.
IN A SAUCE PAN PUT TOGETHER OIL, BROTH, COCTURA  FINELY CUT LEEK HEADS AND GREEN CORIANDER, COOKED PORK SHOULDER, SMALL TID-BITS. WHILE THIS IS BEING COOKED, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER OR [its] SEEDS, GREEN RUE, LASER ROOT, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND THE GRAVY OF THE ABOVE MORSELS; ADD VINEGAR TO TASTE: WHEN THIS [sauce] IS COOKED, HOLLOW OUT CITRON SQUASH  CUT IN DICE, BOIL AND PLACE THEM TOGETHER WITH THE REST IN THE DISH, SKIM, BIND [strain] THE SAUCE [pour it over the morsels] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 G.-V. m. ex citriis.
 At this late point Apicius commences to use the term coctura which does not designate any particular ingredient but rather stands for a certain process of cookery, depending upon the ingredients used in the dish. We would here interpret it as the frying of the leeks in oil, etc. In another instance coctura may mean our modern réduction.
 The fruit to be used here has not been satisfactorily identified. The texts have citrium and citrum—a sweet squash or cucumber—perhaps even a melon, but not the citron, the mala citrea as read by List. This specimen is hard to identify because of the many varieties in the cucumber, squash and the citrus families. Citrus, as a matter of fact, is but a corruption of cedrus, the cedar tree.
We are not sure whether this fruit is to be stuffed with the ragout and then baked, as is often the custom to do with such shells; the texts prescribes distinctly to hollow out the fruit.
The title, implying a “sweet dish” is obviously wrong.
It may be remarked here that Apicius makes no mention of that marvelous citrus fruit, the lemon, nor of the orange, both of which are indispensable to modern cookery.
IN A SAUCE PAN PUT OIL, BROTH AND WINE, FINELY CUT SHALLOTS, DICED COOKED PORK SHOULDER. WHEN THIS IS COOKED, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, DRY MINT, DILL, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE [and] A LITTLE VINEGAR, SOME OF THE GRAVY OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, ADD FRUITS THE SEEDS OF WHICH HAVE BEEN TAKEN OUT, LET BOIL, WHEN THOROUGHLY COOKED, SKIM, BIND, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
THE WAY TO MAKE A MINUTAL OF HARE’S GIBLETS MAY BE FOUND AMONG THE HARE RECIPES .
[170a] IN A SAUCE PAN PUT OIL, BROTH AND WINE, FINELY CUT SHALLOTS, DICED COOKED PORK SHOULDER. WHEN THIS IS COOKED, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, DRY MINT, DILL, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE [and] A LITTLE VINEGAR, SOME OF THE GRAVY OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, ADD SEEDLESS FRUITS, LET BOIL, WHEN THOROUGHLY COOKED, SKIM, BIND, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 ℞ No. 386, Book VIII is one of these recipes. This is one of the few instances where the ancient original makes any reference to any other part of the Apicius book.* After this bare reference, the original proceeds to repeat the text of the preceding formula verbatim.
* Cf. ℞ No. 165.
Brandt suggests a new title for [170a] ANOTHER SWEET MINUTAL.
The G.-V. version differs but little from ℞ No. 169.
MAKE THIS THE SAME WAY AS DESCRIBED IN THE FOREGOING, ONLY ADD MORE RAISIN WINE.
 List. Roses; Tor. Rosatium; this term, medieval Latin, does not exist in the ancient language.
The above title has led to the belief that the ancients made pies, etc., of roses, an idea that was much ridiculed in England after the publication of Lister’s work in 1705.
We concur with Schuch’s interpretation that rosy apples were used, remembering, however, that the fruit of the rose tree, the hip, dog-briar, eglantine is also made into dainty confections on the Continent today. It is therefore entirely possible that this recipe calls for the fruit of the rose tree.
GRUELS TISANAM VEL SUCUM
CRUSH BARLEY, SOAKED THE DAY BEFORE, WELL WASHED,  PLACE ON THE FIRE TO BE COOKED [in a double boiler] WHEN HOT ADD ENOUGH OIL, A BUNCH OF DILL, DRY ONION, SATURY AND COLOCASIUM  TO BE COOKED TOGETHER BECAUSE FOR THE BETTER JUICE, ADD GREEN CORIANDER AND A LITTLE SALT; BRING IT TO A BOILING POINT. WHEN DONE TAKE OUT THE BUNCH [of dill] AND TRANSFER THE BARLEY INTO ANOTHER KETTLE TO AVOID STICKING TO THE BOTTOM AND BURNING, MAKE IT LIQUID [by addition of water, broth, milk] STRAIN INTO A POT, COVERING THE TOPS OF THE COLOCASIA. NEXT CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, A LITTLE DRY FLEA-BANE, CUMIN AND SYLPHIUM  STIR IT WELL AND ADD VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND BROTH; PUT IT BACK INTO THE POT, THE REMAINING COLOCASIA FINISH ON A GENTLE FIRE .
 Tor. ptisana siue Cremore.
 G.-V. Colœfium; Tor. colœsium and colesium (the different readings perhaps on account of the similarity of the “long” s with the f). Tor. spells this word differently every time he is confronted with it. Tac., Lan. coledium—unidentified. List. colocasium, which see in notes to ℞ Nos. 74, 200, 216, 244, and 322, also Sch. p. 95.
 List. sil frictum; Tor. silphium f.
 Tor. continuing without interruption. This formula is reported in ℞ No. 200.
THE CEREAL  IS SOAKED; CHICKPEAS, LENTILS AND PEAS ARE CRUSHED AND BOILED WITH IT; WHEN WELL COOKED, ADD PLENTY OF OIL. NOW CUT GREEN HERBS, LEEKS, CORIANDER, DILL, FENNEL, BEETS, MALLOWS, CABBAGE STRUNKS, ALL SOFT AND GREEN AND FINELY CUT, AND PUT IN A POT. THE CABBAGE COOK [separately. Also] CRUSH FENNEL SEED, ORIGANY, SYLPHIUM AND LOVAGE, AND WHEN CRUSHED, ADD BROTH TO TASTE, POUR THIS OVER THE PORRIDGE, STIR IT TOGETHER AND USE SOME FINELY CHOPPED CABBAGE STEMS TO SPRINKLE ON TOP .
 Variants: barrica, farrica; List. legendum, puto, Taricam; id. est Salsam. Cf. ℞ 144, 149, 426-8. Lan., Tor., G.-V. barricam, not identified. Sch. farrica—corn spelt; probably not far from the mark. We would venture to suggest that our “farina” is the thing here used, or any ordinary corn meal.
 This formula is repeated in ℞ No. 201.
HORS D’ŒUVRES, APPETIZERS, RELISHES GUSTUM
THE MOVEABLE  APPETIZERS ARE THUS MADE:  SMALL WHITE BEETS, MATURE LEEKS, CELERY ROOTS  STEWED COCKLES  GINGER  CHICKEN GIBLETS, SMALL FOWL  SMALL MORSELS COOKED IN THEIR OWN LIQUOR . OIL A PAN, LINE IT WITH MALLOW LEAVES AND A COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLES, AND, IF YOU HAVE ROOM ENOUGH, BULBS, DAMASCUS PLUMS, SNAILS, TID-BITS  SHORT LUCANIAN SAUSAGE SLICED; ADD BROTH, OIL, WINE, VINEGAR PUT ON THE FIRE TO HEAT AND SO COOK THEM. MEANWHILE CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GINGER, A LITTLE TARRAGON, MOISTEN IT AND LET IT COOK. BREAK SEVERAL EGGS IN A DISH, USE THE REMAINING LIQUOR IN THE MORTAR TO MIX IT WITH THE SAUCE IN THE DISH AND TO BIND IT. WHEN THIS IS DONE, MAKE A WINE SAUCE FOR IT AS FOLLOWS: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, RAISIN WINE TO TASTE; IN A SMALL SAUCE PAN PUT A LITTLE OIL [with the other ingredients] HEAT, AND BIND WITH ROUX WHEN HOT. NOW [unmould] UPSET THE DISH ON A PLATTER, REMOVE THE MALLOW LEAVES, POUR OVER THE WINE SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
 Moveable, either because it is one show piece that is carried from one guest to another, or, as here indicated, a dish that is to be unmoulded or turned out of its mould or pan before service.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 Celery roots, i.e. the thick bulbs. G.-V. apios, bulbos—celery, onions; note the comma after apios.
 Periwinkles, also snails.
 Tac., Lan. gingibera; Tor. zinziber; Vat. Ms. gibera; G.-V. Gigeria; Hum. id.—giblets. Wanting in List.
 List. avicellas; Vat. Ms. aucellare and scellas; Tac., Lan. id.; Tor. pullorum axillas—chicken wings (?); G.-V. ascellas.
 ex iure.
 isitia—quenelles of forcemeat, etc.
 An extremely complicated composition of varied morsels, definite instructions lacking, however. It is not clear whether the dish was served hot (in which case the dish would not stand up long) or whether served cold, jellyfied.  Moreover, the title gustum—hors d’œuvres—is not consistent either with similar creations by Apicius or with our own notions of such dishes. This title may merely suggest that such a dish was to be served at the beginning of a repast. This recipe presents an instance of the difficulty to render the text and its variants in a manner acceptable to our modern palates.
We are of the opinion that the above recipe is a contraction of two or more formulæ, each of which, separately, might make acceptable hot appetizers.
FOR THIS VEGETABLE DISH BOIL BULBS  [in] BROTH, OIL, AND WINE; WHEN DONE [add] LIVER OF SUCKLING PIG  CHICKEN LIVERS AND FEET AND SMALL BIRDS  CUT IN HALVES, ALL TO BE COOKED WITH THE BULBS. WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, WINE, RAISIN WINE TO SWEETEN IT. ADD OF THE OWN LIQUOR OF THE MORSELS, RETIRE THE ONIONS, WHEN DONE [group the morsels together in the service dish] BIND [the sauce] WITH ROUX IN THE LAST MOMENT [strain over the morsels] AND SERVE.
 An entremet of fowl and livers.
 a misnomer, as vegetables play the least part in this dish.
 Onions, etc.
 jecinora porcelli; Sch. iscinera porcellum.
 Tor. axillas and scellas; see note 6 to ℞ 174.
A DISH OF STUFFED PUMPKIN  IS MADE THUS:  PEEL AND CUT THE PUMPKIN LENGTHWISE INTO OBLONG PIECES WHICH HOLLOW OUT AND PUT IN A COOL PLACE. THE DRESSING FOR THE SAME MAKE IN THIS WAY: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, MOISTENED WITH BROTH; MINCE COOKED BRAINS AND BEAT RAW EGGS AND MIX ALL TOGETHER TO FORM A PASTE; ADD BROTH AS TASTE REQUIRES. STUFF THE ABOVE PREPARED PIECES OF PUMPKIN THAT HAVE NOT BEEN FULLY COOKED WITH THE DRESSING; FIT TWO PIECES TOGETHER AND CLOSE THEM TIGHT [holding them by means of strings or skewers]. [Now poach them and] TAKE THE COOKED ONES OUT AND FRY THEM . [The proper] WINE SAUCE [for this dish] MAKE THUS: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE MOISTENED WITH WINE, RAISIN WINE TO  TASTE, A LITTLE OIL, PLACE IN PAN TO BE COOKED; WHEN DONE BIND WITH ROUX. COVER THE FRIED PUMPKIN WITH THIS SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
 Dann. cucumbers, for which there is no authority. Cucumbers lend themselves equally well for a dish of this kind; they are often stuffed with a forcemeat of finely minced meats, mushrooms, eggs, breadcrumbs, or simply with raw sausage meat, cooked as above, and served as a garnish with entrées.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 Presumably in deep fat or oil, a procedure which would require previous breading in bread crumbs or enveloping in frying batter.
 Whether you like pumpkin and brains or not—Apicius in this dish reveals himself as the consummate master of his art that he really is—a cook for cooks; Moreover, the lucidity of his diction in this instance is equally remarkable. It stands out in striking contrast to his many other formulæ which are so obscured. Many of them perhaps were precepts of likewise striking originality as this one just cited.
CLEAN HARD-SKINNED EARLY FRUITS  REMOVE THE SEEDS AND KEEP THEM COLD IN A PAN. CRUSH PEPPER  DRY MINT, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, ADDING HONEY, RAISIN WINE, WINE AND VINEGAR; POUR THIS OVER THE FRUIT IN THE PAN, ADDING A LITTLE OIL. STEW SLOWLY ON A WEAK FIRE, THICKEN [the juice] WITH ROUX [rice flour or other starch diluted with water] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER  AND SERVE .
 Lister praises the early green fruit and the use thereof, and, as a physician, recommends imitation of the above as follows: In aliis plurimis locis hujus fructus mentio fit; ususque mirabilis fuit; & certe propter salubritatem, nostram imitationem meretur.
 We do not like the “pepper” in this connection and we venture to suggest that in this case the term probably stands for some other kind of aromatic seed less pungent than the grain known to us as “pepper” and one more acceptable to the fine flavor of fruit, namely pimiento, allspice for instance, or clove, or nutmeg, or a mixture of these. “Pepper” formerly was a generic term for all of these spices but was gradually confined to the grain pepper of black and white varieties.
 We concur with Lister’s idea of the use of early fruits. The use of early and unripe fruit for this and similar purposes is excellent. The above formula is a  good example of our own “spiced” peaches, pears, etc., usually taken as a relish. Of course, we use sugar instead of honey for sweetening, and brandy instead of wine; but the underlying principles are alike.
This is a good illustration of and speaks well for the economy and the ingenuity of the ancients.
END OF BOOK IV
EXPLICIT APICII PANDECTER, LIBER QUARTUS [Tac.]
Claw-footed bronze legs on triangular base, consisting of three molded cylindrical supports, connected by cross-bars. Near the top the legs take on a greyhound design, with a three-armed brace connecting them. The round top is of marble. Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 78613; Field M., 24281.
POMPEII: WINE STOCK ROOM OF A TAVERN
Wine was kept in these great jugs, tightly sealed with plaster and pitch, properly dated and labeled, often remaining for many years. Some writers mention wine thus kept for a hundred years; the porosity of the earthen crocks, often holding fifty gallons or more, allowed evaporation, so that the wine in time became as thick as oil or honey, which necessitated diluting with water.
Smaller amphoræ, with various vintages readily mixed, were kept cool in “bars” very similar to our present ice cream cabinets, ready for service for the guests in tavern rooms.
Elaborate dippers (see our illustration) were used to draw the wine from the amphoræ.
FRUIT OR DESSERT DISH, SEA-SHELL SHAPE
The curved handle ends in the head of a griffin. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 76303; Field M. 24298.
Lib. V. Osprion 
|CHAP.||I.||PULSE, MEAL MUSH, PORRIDGE, ETC.|
|CHAP.||IV.||BEANS OR PEAS IN THE POD.|
|CHAP.||VI.||GREEN BEANS, BAIÆAN BEANS.|
|CHAP.||VIII.||GREEN STRING BEANS AND CHICK-PEAS.|
MEAL MUSH, MUSH, PULSE, PAP, PORRIDGE, POLENTA DE PULTIBUS 
JULIAN PULSES ARE COOKED THUS: SOAK WELL-CLEANED SPELT, PUT IT ON THE FIRE; WHEN COOKED, ADD OIL. IF IT THREATENS TO BECOME THICK, CAREFULLY THIN IT DOWN. TAKE TWO COOKED BRAINS AND HALF A POUND OF MEAT GROUND AS FOR FORCEMEAT, CRUSH THIS WITH THE BRAINS AND PUT IN A POT. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND FENNEL SEED, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, A LITTLE  WINE AND PUT IT ON TOP OF THE BRAIN AND MEAT. WHEN THIS FORCEMEAT IS HEATED SUFFICIENTLY, MIX IT WITH THE SPELT [finish boiling] TRANSFER INTO SERVICE DISH, THINNED. THIS MUST HAVE THE CONSISTENCY OF A HEAVY JUICE .
 List. Osprios; G.-V. Ospreon—cookery of leguminous plants.
 Puls—formerly a simple porridge of various kinds of cereals or legumes, eaten by the Romans before bread came into use. Puls remained in use after the introduction of bread only as a food of the poor. It was also used at sacrifices. The pultes and pulticulæ given by Apicius are illustrations of the ever-present desire to improve—to glorify, as it were, a thing which once was or still is of vital importance in the daily life of humans. The nouveaux-riches of the ancient and the modern world cannot find it easy to separate themselves from their traditions nor are they wont to put up with their plainness, hence the fancy trimmings. The development of the American pie is a curious analogy in this respect. We see in this the intricate working of human culture, its eternal strife for perfection. And perfection is synonymous with decay. The fare of the Carthusian monks, professed, stern vegetarians, underwent the same tortuous evolution.
 Named for Didius Julianus, the emperor who was a vegetarian. Of course, his majesty could not live on a plain porridge, hence the Apician artistry. The pultes were popular with the many professed vegetarians though the obliging cooks mixed finely ground meat in this and other porridges.
Our various cream soups and legume purées—those most salubrious creations of modern cookery are no doubt lineal descendants from the Apician pultes. They are so scarce comparatively because they require all the ingenuity and resourcefulness of a gifted cook to be perfect.
 Dann. remarks that this formula is wanting in List. Both Lister’s first and second editions have it.
PORRIDGE AND WINE IS THUS MADE:  FLAVOR THE PULSE WELL WITH WINE  AND IMMERSE IN THE JUICE DAINTY MORSELS .
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 Tor. Oenogari; G.-V. Oenococti.
 Tor. cupedias; copadia.
OR FLAVOR COOKED SPELT WITH THE LIQUOR OF DAINTY PIECES OF PORK, OR CAPON  COOKED IN WINE .
 Tac. inulam; Tor. mulam—misreading.
 Tor.; List. apponis.
PUT A PINT OF MILK AND SOME WATER ON THE FIRE IN A NEW [clean] POT; BREAK ROUND BREAD INTO IT  DRY, STIR WELL TO PREVENT BURNING; ADD WATER AS NECESSARY .
 Tor. pulticula tractogala.
 List. tres orbiculos tractæ; Tor. teres sorbiculos tractæ.
Tractum is a piece of pastry, a round bread or roll in this case, stale, best suited for this purpose.
 The text continues without interruption.
HONEY AND MEAD ARE TREATED SIMILARLY, MIXED WITH MILK, WITH THE ADDITION OF SALT AND A LITTLE OIL.
[178-183] PULSE PULTES 
 Tor. Alia pulticula.
This is a verbatim repetition of ℞ No. 178.
LENTILS LENTICULA 
PUT THE LENTILS IN A CLEAN SAUCE PAN [and cook with salt]. IN THE MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, MINT, RUE, AND FLEA-BANE, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, ADD HONEY AND BROTH AND REDUCED MUST, VINEGAR TO TASTE AND PUT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN. THE COOKED COW-PARSNIPS CRUSH, HEAT [mix with the lentils] WHEN THOROUGHLY COOKED, TIE, ADD GREEN [fresh olive] OIL AND SERVE IN AN APPROPRIATE DISH .
 Tor. De Lenticula et Castaneis.
 Boletar—a “mushroom” dish. G.-V. in boletari; Tac. insuper oleum uiridem mittis; Tor. inuolutari—unidentified.
TAKE A NEW SAUCE PAN, PLACE THEREIN THE CHESTNUTS CAREFULLY CLEANED  ADD WATER AND A LITTLE SODA AND PLACE ON THE FIRE TO BE COOKED. THIS DONE, CRUSH IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, MINT, RUE, LASER ROOT AND FLEA-BANE MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, HONEY AND BROTH; ADD VINEGAR TO TASTE AND POUR THIS OVER THE COOKED CHESTNUTS, ADD OIL AND ALLOW TO BOIL. WHEN DONE CRUSH IT IN THE MORTAR . TASTE TO SEE IF SOMETHING IS MISSING AND IF SO, PUT IT IN, AND AT LAST ADD GREEN [fresh virgin] OIL.
 Lentils are omitted in this formula; therefore see the following formula.
 Thus G.-V.; Tor. Chestnuts.
 i.e. peeled and skinned. To do this easily, boil the chestnuts with the skin, whereupon the outer brown shell and the inner membrane are easily removed.
 To make a purée of the chestnuts which strain through the colander.
COOK THE LENTILS, SKIM THEM [strain] ADD LEEKS, GREEN CORIANDER; CRUSH CORIANDER SEED, FLEA-BANE, LASER ROOT, MINT SEED AND RUE SEED MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR; ADD HONEY, BROTH, VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST TO TASTE, THEN OIL, STIRRING [the purée] UNTIL IT IS DONE, BIND WITH ROUX, ADD GREEN OIL, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 It is evident that ℞ No. 184 and the above are really one formula, the former dealing with the cooking of the maroons, the latter describing the lentils. Presumably the two purées are to be mixed, or to be served as integral parts of one dish.
COOK THE PEAS, WHEN SKIMMED, LAY LEEKS, CORIANDER AND CUMIN ON TOP. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DILL AND GREEN BASILICA, WINE AND BROTH TO TASTE, MAKE IT BOIL; WHEN DONE STIR WELL, PUT IN WHAT PERCHANCE SHOULD BE MISSING AND SERVE .
 This reminds us of Petits Pois à la Française, namely green peas (often  very young ones with the pods) cooked in broth, or bouillon, with shredded bacon, lettuce, parsley, onions (or leeks, as above) fresh mint, pepper, salt and other fresh herbs such as chervil. Which is a very delectable way of preparing the tender pea. Some of its refreshing green color is sacrificed by this process, but this loss is amply offset by the savour of the dish.
COOK THE PEAS WITH OIL AND A PIECE OF SOW’S BELLY  PUT IN A SAUCE PAN BROTH, LEEK HEADS [the lower white part] GREEN CORIANDER AND PUT ON THE FIRE TO BE COOKED. OF TID-BITS  CUT LITTLE DICE. SIMILARLY COOK THRUSHES OR OTHER SMALL [game] BIRDS, OR TAKE SLICED CHICKEN AND DICED BRAIN, PROPERLY COOKED. FURTHER COOK, IN THE AVAILABLE LIQUOR OR BROTH, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE AND BACON; COOK LEEKS IN WATER; CRUSH A PINT OF TOASTED PIGNOLIA NUTS; ALSO CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY AND GINGER, DILUTE WITH THE BROTH OF PORK, TIE  TAKE A SQUARE BAKING DISH SUITABLE FOR TURNING OVER WHICH OIL WELL AND LINE WITH CAUL  SPRINKLE [on the bottom] A LAYER OF CRUSHED NUTS UPON WHICH PUT SOME PEAS, FULLY COVERING THE BOTTOM OF THE SQUASH DISH; ON TOP OF THIS ARRANGE SLICES OF THE BACON  LEEKS AND SLICED LUCANIAN SAUSAGE; AGAIN COVER WITH A LAYER OF PEAS AND ALTERNATE ALL THE REST OF THE AVAILABLE EDIBLES IN THE MANNER DESCRIBED UNTIL THE DISH IS FILLED, CONCLUDING AT LAST WITH A LAYER OF PEAS, UTILIZING EVERYTHING. BAKE THIS DISH IN THE OVEN, OR PUT IT INTO A SLOW FIRE [covering it with live coal] SO THAT IT MAY BE BAKED THOROUGHLY. [Next make a sauce of the following] PUT YOLKS OF HARD BOILED EGGS IN THE MORTAR WITH WHITE PEPPER, NUTS, HONEY, WHITE WINE AND A LITTLE BROTH; MIX AND PUT IT INTO A SAUCE PAN TO BE COOKED; WHEN [the sauce is] DONE, TURN OUT THE PEAS INTO A LARGE [silver dish] AND MASK THEM WITH THIS SAUCE WHICH IS CALLED WHITE SAUCE .
 List. Pisa farsilis; Tor. p. farsilia; Tac., G.-V. pisam farsilem—same as fartilis, from farcio—fattened, stuffed, or crammed, or as full as it can hold, metaphorically perhaps “supreme style,” “most sumptuous,” etc.
 This meat being fat enough, the oil seems superfluous.
 isicia, formerly called Greek hysitia—any fine forcemeats, cut into or cooked in tiny dumplings.
  Liaison wanting in Tor.
 Tor. makes no mention of the square dish and its caul lining. Caul is the abdominal membrane.
 petasonis pulpas; Dann. ham, which is not quite correct. The petaso is the shoulder part of pork, either cured or fresh, generally fresh. The cooked pork shoulder here is cut into small pieces. Nothing is said about the utilization of the sow’s belly mentioned at the opening of the formula. We assume that the petaso can take its place in the dish.
 There is nothing just like this dish in the history of gastronomy, considering both the comparatively cheap materials and the refinement of the gastronomic idea which it embodies. The chartreuses of Carême are the nearest thing to it. Lister waxes enthusiastic about it.
COOK PEAS; WHEN SKIMMED, PUT IN THE SAUCE PAN FINELY CHOPPED LEEKS AND CORIANDER TO BE COOKED [with the peas]. TAKE SMALL CUTTLE FISH, MOST DESIRABLE BECAUSE OF THE BLACK LIQUOR AND COOK THEM ALSO. ADD OIL, BROTH AND WINE, A BUNCH OF LEEK AND [green] CORIANDER AND MAKE IT BOIL. WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, A LITTLE WILD CUMIN  MOISTEN WITH THE JUICE [of the peas] ADD WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE; MINCE THE FISH VERY FINE, INCORPORATE IT WITH THE PEAS, AND SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER .
 Tor. pisum Indicum.
 Tor., Tac. casei modicum; other texts, carei.
 The texts continues without interruption to the next formula.
COOK THE PEAS, WORK WELL [to make a purée] PLACE IN THE COLD, STIRRING UNTIL THEY HAVE COOLED OFF. FINELY CHOP ONIONS AND THE WHITES OF HARD BOILED EGGS, SEASON WITH SALT AND A LITTLE VINEGAR; THE YOLKS PRESS THROUGH A COLANDER INTO AN ENTRÉE DISH, SEASON WITH FRESH OIL AND SERVE .
 The texts fail to state that the whites, yolks, onions, vinegar and oil must eventually be combined into a dressing very similar to our own modern vinaigrette; for decorative and other gastronomic reasons the separate treatment of the whites and the yolks is both ingenious and excellent, and is very often practised in good kitchens today.
PEAS OR BEANS WITH YOLKS ARE MADE THUS:  COOK THE PEAS, SMOOTHEN  THEM; CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GINGER, AND ON THE CONDIMENTS PUT HARD BOILED YOLKS, 3 OUNCES OF HONEY, ALSO BROTH, WINE AND VINEGAR; [mix and] PLACE ALL IN A SAUCE PAN; THE FINELY CHOPPED CONDIMENTS WITH OIL ADDED, PUT ON THE STOVE TO BE COOKED; WITH THIS FLAVOR THE PEAS WHICH MUST BE SMOOTH; AND IF THEY BE TOO HARSH [in taste] ADD HONEY AND SERVE .
 List. Pisa Vitelliana—named for Vitellius, ninth Roman emperor, notorious glutton, according to Hum. who says that V. invented this dish: ab auctore Vitellio Imperatore luxui deditissimo. But Tor. differs; his pisum uitellinum stands for peas with yolks—vitellum—yolk, (also calf) dim. vitellinum; Tac. v——am. Cf. ℞ No. 193.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 lias—to make a purée by crushing and straining. Tor. lævigabis, from levigo—meaning the same.
 If Vitellius never invented any other dish than this one, his gluttony was overrated. As a gastronomer he may be safely relegated to the vast multitude of ill-advised people whose craving for carbohydrates (which is perhaps pathological) causes them to accumulate a surplus of fat. This was fatal to Vitellius and his faithful court baker who is said to have stuck to his master to the last. The poor emperor’s embonpoint proved cumbersome when he fled the infuriated mob. Had he been leaner he might have effected a “getaway.” He was dragged through the streets and murdered, Dec. 21 or 22, A.D. 69.
WHEN [the peas or beans are] SKIMMED MIX BROTH, HONEY, MUST, CUMIN, RUE, CELERY SEED, OIL AND WINE, STIR . SERVE WITH CRUSHED PEPPER AND SAUSAGE .
 G.-V. tudiclabis; Tor. misceas.
 cum isiciis—bits of forcemeat.
WHEN [the peas or beans are] SKIMMED FLAVOR THEM WITH CRUSHED PERSIAN  LASER, BROTH AND MUST; POUR A LITTLE OIL OVER AND SERVE.
 Parthian, from Parthia, a country of Asia.
THIS ADROIT, TEMPTING DISH OF PEAS IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER:  COOK PEAS; BRAINS OR SMALL BIRDS, OR BONED THRUSHES, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, CHICKEN LIVERS AND GIBLETS—ALL OF WHICH ARE PUT IN A SAUCE PAN; BROTH, OIL AND A BUNCH OF LEEKS, GREEN CORIANDER FINELY CHOPPED, COOK WITH THE BRAINS; CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND BROTH .
 Sch., Dann. crafty, i.e. not genuine. Adulteram cannot here be used in its most accepted sense, because the peas are genuine, and no attempt is made to adulterate or “fake” this dish in any way, shape or form. Never before have we applied the term “seductive” to any dish, but this is just what adultera means. “Tempting” of course is quite common.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 This formula is incomplete or mutilated, the last sentence breaks off in the middle—very likely a description of the sauce or condiments belonging to the peas.
Each and every component of this (really tempting) dish must be cooked separately; they are then composed in a dish, nicely arranged, with the peas in the center, surrounded by the several morsels, with an appropriate gravy made from the natural liquor or juices of the component parts poured over the dish.
PEAS OR BEANS IN THE STYLE OF VITELLIUS PREPARE THUS:  [The peas or beans] ARE COOKED, WHEN CAREFULLY SKIMMED, ADD LEEKS, CORIANDER AND MALLOW FLOWERS : WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, AND FENNEL SEED MOISTENED WITH BROTH [and put it] INTO A SAUCE PAN WITH WINE , ADDING OIL, HEAT THOROUGHLY AND WHEN BOILING STIR WELL; PUT GREEN OIL ON TOP AND SERVE.
 Named for the inventor, Emperor Vitellius; cf. notes to ℞ No. 189. Tor. Vitellianum.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 Wanting in Dann.
COOK THE BEANS ; MEANWHILE CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, GREEN CORIANDER, MOISTENED WITH BROTH AND WINE, AND ADD [more] BROTH TO TASTE, PUT INTO THE SAUCE PAN [with the beans] ADDING OIL; HEAT ON A SLOW FIRE AND SERVE.
 Tor. Concicla—conchis—conchicula—young, immature beans, string or wax, boiled in the shell or pod.
 conchiclam cum faba—young string beans and (dry, white or kidney) beans, cooked separately of course and mixed when done, ready for service.
FOR PEAS IN THE POD  APICIAN STYLE TAKE:  A CLEAN EARTHEN POT IN WHICH TO COOK THE PEAS; TO THE PEAS ADD FINELY CUT LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, LITTLE PORK CAKES , PIECES OF MEAT  AND PORK SHOULDER . CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, DILL, DRY ONIONS  GREEN CORIANDER MOISTENED WITH BROTH, WINE, AND ADD [more] BROTH TO TASTE; UNITE THIS WITH THE PEAS IN THE EARTHEN POT TO WHICH ADD OIL IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY TO BE ABSORBED BY THE PEAS; FINISH ON A SLOW FIRE TO GIVE IT LIVE HEAT AND SERVE.
 Peas in the pod are likewise called conchicla; hence perhaps any legumes cooked in the shells.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 isiciola porcina.
 pulpas—in this case no specific meat.
 petaso; Dann. pieces of ham
 cepam siccam—ordinary dry onions, not shallots.
COOK THE PEAS [in the pods] WHEN SKIMMED ADD A BUNCH  OF LEEKS AND GREEN CORIANDER. WHILE BEING COOKED CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, AND [the above] BUNCH [of herbs]  MOISTEN WITH ITS OWN JUICE,  WINE  ENOUGH TO SUIT YOUR TASTE, THEN ADD OIL AND FINISH ON A SLOW FIRE .
 Thus G.-V.; Tor. Concicla Pisorum.
 Sch. feniculum instead of fasciculum.
 G.-V. de suo sibi fricabis; Tor. seorsim f.
 G.-V. wine wanting in Tor.
 Brandt, referring to ℞ No. 154, suggests that the things crushed in a mortar be placed on top of the peas.
MAKE PEAS COMMODIAN STYLE THUS:  COOK THE PEAS, WHEN SKIMMED, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, DILL, SHALLOTS MOISTENED WITH BROTH; ADD WINE AND BROTH TO TASTE: STIR IN A SAUCE PAN [with the peas] TO COMBINE; FOR EACH SEXTARIUS OF PEAS BEAT 4 EGGS, AND COMBINE THEM WITH THE PEAS, PLACE ON THE FIRE TO THICKEN [avoiding ebullition] AND SERVE.
 Hum. Named for Commodus, the emperor; List. for Commodus Antonius, son of the philosopher Marcus.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
CUT [raw] CHICKEN INTO SMALL PIECES, ADD BROTH, OIL AND WINE, AND STEW IT. CHOP ONIONS AND CORIANDER FINE AND ADD BRAINS [calf’s or pork, parboiled] THE SKIN AND NERVES REMOVED, TO THE CHICKEN. WHEN THIS IS COOKED TAKE [the chicken] OUT AND BONE IT. THE PEAS COOK SEPARATELY, WITHOUT SEASONING, ONLY USING CHOPPED ONIONS AND CORIANDER AND THE BROTH OF THE CHICKEN; STRAIN [part of] THE PEAS AND ARRANGE THEM ALTERNATELY [in a dish with the pieces of chicken, brains and the unstrained peas] THEN CRUSH PEPPER AND CUMIN, MOISTENED WITH CHICKEN BROTH. IN THE MORTAR BEAT 2 EGGS WITH BROTH TO TASTE, POUR THIS OVER THE CHICKEN AND PEAS, FINISH ON A SLOW FIRE , DISH OUT ON A HEAP OF PEAS, GARNISH WITH PINE NUTS AND SERVE.
 By congealing in a mould, which is unmoulded on a heap of peas. Danneil directs to stuff the whole chicken with the pea preparation, brains, etc., and to poach it in a square pan.
BONE [either] CHICKEN [or suckling pig] FROM THE CHICKEN REMOVE THE BREAST BONE AND THE [upper joint bones of the] LEGS; HOLD IT TOGETHER BY MEANS OF WOODEN SKEWERS, AND MEANWHILE  PREPARE [the following dressing in this manner]: ALTERNATE [inside of the chicken or pig] PEAS WITH THE PODS [washed and cooked], BRAINS, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, ETC. NOW CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY AND GINGER, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, RAISIN WINE AND WINE TO TASTE, MAKE IT BOIL, WHEN DONE, USE IT MODERATELY FOR SEASONING AND ALTERNATELY WITH THE OTHER DRESSING; WRAP [the chicken, or pig] IN CAUL, PLACE IT IN A BAKING DISH AND PUT IT IN THE OVEN TO BE COOKED SLOWLY, AND SERVE.
 G.-V., Tor. Concicla farsilis.
 Tor. here splits the formula, using the above title.
GRUELS TISANAM ET ALICAM 
CRUSH WELL WASHED BARLEY, SOAKED THE DAY BEFORE, PLACE ON THE FIRE TO BE COOKED. WHEN HOT ADD PLENTY OIL, A SMALL BUNCH OF DILL, DRY ONION, SATURY AND COLOCASIUM, TO BE COOKED TOGETHER BECAUSE THIS GIVES A BETTER JUICE; ADD GREEN CORIANDER AND A LITTLE SALT; BRING IT TO A BOILING POINT. WHEN WELL HEATED TAKE OUT THE BUNCH [dill] AND TRANSFER THE BARLEY INTO ANOTHER VESSEL TO AVOID BURNING ON THE BOTTOM OF THE POT; THIN IT OUT [with water, broth, milk] AND STRAIN INTO A POT, COVERING THE TIPS OF THE COLOCASIA . NEXT CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, A LITTLE DRY FLEA-BANE, CUMIN AND SYLPHIUM, STIR WELL, ADD VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND BROTH; PUT IT BACK IN THE POT; THE REMAINING COLOCASIA FINISH ON A GENTLE FIRE.
 Tor. still has difficulties with the vegetable called by Lister colocasium.  He reads here colonium and colosium. G.-V. colœfium. Cf. Note 1 to ℞ No. 172 and Note to Nos. 74, 216, 244 and 322.
SOAK CHICK-PEAS, LENTILS AND PEAS, CRUSH BARLEY AND COOK WITH THE LEGUMES, WHEN WELL COOKED ADD PLENTY OF OIL. NOW CUT GREENS, LEEKS, CORIANDER, DILL, FENNEL, BEETS, MALLOWS, CABBAGE STRUNKS, ALL SOFT AND GREEN AND VERY FINELY CUT, AND PUT IN A POT. THE CABBAGE COOK [separately; also] CRUSH FENNEL SEED, PLENTY OF IT, ORIGANY, SILPHIUM, AND LOVAGE, AND WHEN GROUND, ADD BROTH TO TASTE, POUR THIS OVER THE PORRIDGE, STIR, AND USE SOME FINELY CHOPPED CABBAGE STEMS TO SPRINKLE ON TOP.
 A repetition of ℞ No. 173.
GREEN BEANS FABACIÆ VIRIDES ET BAIANÆ 
GREEN BEANS ARE COOKED IN BROTH, WITH OIL, GREEN CORIANDER, CUMIN AND CHOPPED LEEKS, AND SERVED.
 Beans grown in Baiæ, also called bajanas or bacanas; beans without skin or pods.
FRIED BEANS ARE SERVED IN BROTH.
[The beans previously cooked are seasoned with] CRUSHED MUSTARD SEED, HONEY, NUTS, RUE, CUMIN, AND SERVED WITH VINEGAR.
COOKED BEANS FROM BAIÆ ARE CUT FINE [and finished with] RUE, GREEN CELERY, LEEKS, VINEGAR  A LITTLE MUST OR RAISIN WINE AND SERVED .
 Named for Baiæ, a town of Campania, noted for its warm baths; a favorite resort of the Romans.
 Wanting in Tor.
  These apparently outlandish ways of cooking beans compel us to draw a modern parallel in a cookery book, specializing in Jewish dishes. To prove that Apicius is not dead “by a long shot,” we shall quote from Wolf, Rebekka: Kochbuch für Israelitische Frauen, Frankfurt, 1896, 11th edition. As a matter of fact, Rebekka Wolf is outdoing Apicius in strangeness—a case of Apicium in ipso Apicio, as Lister sarcastically remarks of Torinus.
Rebekka Wolf: ℞ No. 211—wash and boil the young beans in fat bouillon (Apicius: oleum et liquamen) adding a handful of chopped pepperwort (A.: piper, ligusticum) and later chopped parsley (A.: petroselinum) some sugar (A.: mel pavo—little honey) and pepper. Beans later in the season are cooked with potatoes. The young beans are tied with flour dissolved in water, or with roux.
Id. ibid., ℞ No. 212, Beans Sweet-Sour. Boil in water, fat, salt, add vinegar, sugar or syrup, “English aromatics” and spices, lemon peel, and a little pepper; bind with roux.
Id. ibid., ℞ No. 213, Cut Pickled Beans (Schneidebohnen) prepare as ℞ No. 212, but if you would have them more delicious, take instead of the roux grated chocolate, sugar, cinnamon, lemon peel and lemon juice, and some claret. If not sour enough, add vinegar, but right here you must add more fat; you may lay on top of this dish a bouquet of sliced apples.
Id. ibid., ℞ No. 214, Beans and Pears. Take cut and pickled beans and prepare as above. To this add peeled fresh pears, cut into quarters; then sugar, lemon peel cut thin, cinnamon, “English” mixed spices, and at last the roux, thinned with broth. This dish must be sweet and very fat.
As for exotic combinations, Apicius surely survives here, is even surpassed by this Jewish cookery book where, no doubt, very ancient traditions have been stored away.
FENUGREEK [is prepared] IN BROTH, OIL AND WINE.
 Tor. or fenum; G.-V. Fænum.
ARE SERVED WITH SALT, CUMIN, OIL, AND A LITTLE PURE WINE.
 Tor. Faseolus, the bean with a long, sabre-like pod; a phasel, kidney bean, when ripened.
[Beans or chick-peas] ARE COOKED IN A WINE SAUCE AND SEASONED WITH PEPPER .
 Dann. and Goll.: “roasted” beans.
AND COOK THE BEANS, IN A RICH MANNER, REMOVE THE SEEDS AND SERVE [as a Salad ], WITH HARD EGGS, GREEN FENNEL, PEPPER, BROTH, A LITTLE REDUCED WINE AND A LITTLE SALT, OR SERVE THEM IN SIMPLER WAYS, AS YOU MAY SEE FIT.
 The original continues with the preceding formula.
 For a salad we would add finely chopped onion, pepper, and some lemon juice.
The purpose of removing the seeds is obscure. G.-V. reads semine cum ovis; Tac. semie; Hum. s. cum lobis. The passage may mean to sprinkle (sow) with hard boiled (and finely chopped) eggs, which is often done on a salad and other dishes.
END OF BOOK V
EXPLICIT APICII OSPRION LIBER QUINTUS [Tac.]
Polychrome marble in bronze frame. Four elaborately designed bronze legs, braced and hinged, so that the table may be raised or lowered. The legs end in claw feet resting on a molded base. Above they are encircled with leaves, from which emerge young satyrs, each holding a rabbit under the left arm. The legs below the acanthus leaves are ornamented with elaborate floral patterns, inlaid, with other inlaid patterns on the connecting braces and around the frame of the marble top. Bronze and marble tables that could be folded and taken down after banquets were used by the Babylonians centuries before this table was designed in Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 72994; Field M. 24290.
THE GREAT CRATER
Found at Hildesheim in 1868. This and a number of other pieces form the collection known as The Hildesheim Treasure, now at the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin.
This wine crater is entirely of silver, a piece of supreme workmanship of Roman origin. Very delicate decoration, anticipating the Renaissance: Winged griffins and other monsters, half ox, half lion, at the base; aquatic animals, genii angling and spearing fish.
There is a second vessel inside, acting as a liner, to take the weight of the fluid off the decorated bowl. The complete weight is 9451.8 gr., but the inner liner is stamped CVM BASI PONDO XXXXI—41 pounds with the base. The weight of silver pieces was inscribed as a check on the slaves.
The bowl is 0.36 meter (about 14¼ inches) in height and 0.353 meter in diameter. It stands on the tripod which is depicted separately.
THE DIONYSOS CUP
The Dionysos head in the center and the two satyrs are modeled realistically by a most able artist. Lion and lioness heads on the other side. Hildesheim Treasure.
Lib. VI. Aëropetes 
|CHAP.||II.||CRANE OR DUCK, PARTRIDGE, DOVES, WOOD PIGEON, SQUAB AND DIVERS BIRDS.|
 Tac., Tor. Trophetes; probably an error in their rendering. List. Aëroptes, Greek for Fowl.
 The titles of these chapters and the classification is not adhered in the text of Book VI. The chapters are actually inscribed as follows:
Chap. I, Ostrich; II, Crane or Duck, Partridge, Turtle Dove, Wood Pigeon, Squab and divers birds; III, Partridge, Heathcock (Woodcock), Turtle Dove; IV, Wood Pigeon, Squab [Domestic Fattened Fowl, Flamingo]; V, Sauce for divers birds; VI, Flamingo; VII, In Order That Birds May Not Be Spoiled; VIII, Goose; IX, Chicken.
OSTRICH IN STRUTHIONE
[A stock in which to cook ostrich] PEPPER, MINT, CUMIN, LEEKS , CELERY SEED, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, RAISIN WINE, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL. BOIL THIS IN THE STOCK KETTLE [with the ostrich, remove the bird when done, strain the liquid] THICKEN WITH ROUX. [To this sauce] ADD THE OSTRICH MEAT CUT IN CONVENIENT PIECES, SPRINKLE  WITH PEPPER. IF YOU WISH IT MORE SEASONED OR TASTY, ADD GARLIC [during coction].
 G.-V. Cuminum; Tor. C., porrum, which is more likely.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, ALSO SATURY, HONEY, MUSTARD, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.
CRANE, DUCK, PARTRIDGE, DOVE, WOOD PIGEON, SQUAB, AND DIVERS BIRDS IN GRUE VEL ANATE PERDICE TURTURE PALUMBO COLUMBO ET DIVERSIS AVIBUS
WASH [the fowl] AND DRESS IT NICELY  PUT IN A STEW POT, ADD WATER, SALT AND DILL, PARBOIL  SO AS TO HAVE THEM HALF DONE, UNTIL THE MEAT IS HARD, REMOVE THEM, PUT THEM IN A SAUCE PAN [to be finished by braising] WITH OIL, BROTH, A BUNCH OF ORIGANY AND CORIANDER; WHEN NEARLY DONE, ADD A LITTLE REDUCED MUST, TO GIVE IT COLOR. MEANWHILE CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT, RUE [moistened with] REDUCED WINE AND SOME HONEY, ADD SOME OF THE FOWL BROTH  TO IT AND VINEGAR TO TASTE; EMPTY [the sauce] INTO A SAUCE PAN, HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX, AND [strain] THE SAUCE OVER THE FOWL IN AN ENTRÉE DISH.
 Lavas et ornas, i.e., singe, empty carcass of intestines, truss or bind it to keep its shape during coction, and, usually, lard it with either strips or slices of fat pork and stuff the carcass with greens, celery leaves, etc.
 Dimidia coctura decoques. Apicius here pursues the right course for the removable of any disagreeable taste often adhering to aquatic fowl, feeding on fish or food found in the water, by parboiling the meat. Cf. ℞ No. 214.
 Again, as so often: ius de suo sibi; here the liquor of the braising pan, for stock in which the fowl is parboiled cannot be used for reasons set forth in Note 2.
PEPPER, SHALLOTS, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, PRUNES OR DAMASCUS PLUMS STONES REMOVED, FRESH MUST, VINEGAR  BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND OIL. BOIL THE CRANE; WHILE COOKING IT TAKE CARE THAT ITS HEAD IS NOT TOUCHED BY THE WATER BUT THAT IT REMAINS WITHOUT. WHEN THE CRANE IS DONE, WRAP IT IN A HOT TOWEL, AND PULL THE HEAD OFF SO THAT THE SINEWS FOLLOW IN A MANNER THAT THE MEAT AND THE BONES REMAIN; FOR ONE CANNOT ENJOY THE HARD SINEWS .
 Dann. mead.
 Remarkable ingenuity! Try this on your turkey legs. Danneil is of the opinion that the head and its feathers were to be saved for decorative purposes, in style during the middle ages when game bird patties were decorated with the fowl’s plumage, a custom which survived to Danneil’s time (ca. 1900). But this is not likely to be the case here, for it would be a simple matter to skin the bird before cooking it in order to save the plumage for the taxidermist.
TAKE OUT [remove entrails, ] CLEAN WASH AND DRESS [the bird] AND PARBOIL  IT IN WATER WITH SALT AND DILL. NEXT PREPARE TURNIPS AND COOK THEM IN WATER WHICH IS TO BE SQUEEZED OUT . TAKE THEM OUT OF THE POT AND WASH THEM AGAIN . AND PUT INTO A SAUCE PAN THE DUCK WITH OIL, BROTH, A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER; THE TURNIPS CUT INTO SMALL PIECES; THESE PUT ON TOP OF THE [duck] IN ORDER TO FINISH COOKING. WHEN HALF DONE, TO GIVE IT COLOR, ADD REDUCED MUST. THE SAUCE IS PREPARED SEPARATELY: PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR AND DILUTED WITH ITS OWN BROTH [of the fowl]; BRING THIS TO A BOILING POINT, THICKEN WITH ROUX. [In a deep dish arrange the duck] ON TOP OF THE TURNIPS [strain the sauce over it] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Duck and Turnips, a dish much esteemed on the Continent today. Only  few prepare it correctly as does Old Apicius; hence it is not popular with the multitude.
 Tac., Tor. excipies; Hum. legendum: ex rapis.
 G.-V. ut exbromari possint; Tor. expromi; Hum. expromari; all of which does not mean anything. To cook the turnips so that they can be squeezed out (exprimo, from ex and premo) is the proper thing to do from a culinary standpoint.
 The turnips are cooked half, the water removed, and finished with the duck, as prescribed by Apicius. It is really admirable to see how he handles these food materials in order to remove any disagreeable flavor, which may be the case both with the turnips (the small white variety) and the duck. Such careful treatment is little known nowadays even in the best kitchens. Cf. Note 2 to ℞ No. 212.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DRY CORIANDER, MINT, ORIGANY, PINE NUTS, DATES, BROTH, OIL, HONEY, MUSTARD AND WINE .
 Supposedly the ingredients for a sauce in which the parboiled fowl is braised and served.
POUR OVER [the roast bird] THIS GRAVY: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY WITH BROTH, HONEY, A LITTLE VINEGAR AND OIL; BOIL IT WELL, THICKEN WITH ROUX [strain] IN THIS SAUCE PLACE SMALL PIECES OF PARBOILED PUMPKIN OR COLOCASIUM  SO THAT THEY ARE FINISHED IN THE SAUCE; ALSO COOK WITH IT CHICKEN FEET AND GIBLETS (all of which) SERVE IN A CHAFING DISH, SPRINKLE WITH FINE PEPPER AND SERVE.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, ROCKET, OR CORIANDER, MINT, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND MUSTARD. LIKEWISE USED FOR FOWL ROAST [braised] IN THE POT.
WAYS TO PREPARE PARTRIDGE, HEATH-COCK OR WOODCOCK, AND BOILED TURTLE-DOVE IN PERDICE ET ATTAGENA ET IN TURTURE ELIXIS
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, MINT, MYRTLE BERRIES, ALSO RAISINS, HONEY  WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND OIL. USE IT COLD  THE PARTRIDGE IS SCALDED WITH ITS FEATHERS, AND WHILE WET THE FEATHERS ARE TAKEN OFF; [the hair singed] IT IS THEN COOKED IN ITS OWN JUICE [braised] AND WHEN DONE WILL NOT BE HARD IF CARE IS TAKEN [to baste it]. SHOULD IT REMAIN HARD [if it is old] YOU MUST CONTINUE TO COOK IT UNTIL IT IS TENDER.
 Honey wanting in Tor.
 G.-V. Aliter. This is one formula.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, MINT, RUE SEED, BROTH, PURE WINE, AND OIL, HEATED.
WOOD PIGEONS, SQUABS, FATTENED FOWL, FLAMINGO IN PALUMBIS COLUMBIS AVIBUS IN ALTILE ET IN FENICOPTERO
TO THE BOILED FOWL ADD  PEPPER, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, PARSLEY, CONDIMENTS, MORTARIA  DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, OIL AND MUSTARD.
 Tor. wanting in other texts.
 Mortaria: herbs, spices, things pounded in the “mortar.” Cf. ℞ No. 38.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, CELERY SEED, RUE, PINE NUTS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD AND A LITTLE OIL.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, LASER, WINE  MOISTENED WITH BROTH. ADD WINE AND BROTH TO TASTE. MASK THE WOOD PIGEON OR SQUAB WITH IT. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER  AND SERVE.
 Tac., Tor. laserum, vinum; G.-V. l. vivum.
 Wanting in Tor.
PEPPER, DRY CUMIN, CRUSHED. LOVAGE, MINT, SEEDLESS RAISINS OR DAMASCUS PLUMS, LITTLE HONEY, MYRTLE WINE TO TASTE, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND OIL. HEAT AND WHIP IT WELL WITH CELERY AND SATURY .
 For centuries sauce whips were made of dry and green twigs, the bark of which was carefully peeled off.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, FENNEL BLOSSOMS  MOISTENED WITH WINE; ADD ROASTED NUTS FROM PONTUS  OR ALMONDS, A LITTLE HONEY, WINE, VINEGAR, AND BROTH TO TASTE. PUT OIL IN A POT, AND HEAT AND STIR THE SAUCE, ADDING GREEN CELERY SEED, CAT-MINT; CARVE THE FOWL AND COVER WITH THE SAUCE .
 Dann. Cnecus.
 Turkish hazelnuts.
 Tor. continuing without interruption.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, TOASTED NUTS FROM PONTUS, OR ALMONDS, ALSO SHELLED PINE NUTS, HONEY  A LITTLE BROTH, VINEGAR AND OIL.
 Tor. vel; List. mel.
PEPPER, CARRAWAY, INDIAN SPIKENARD, CUMIN, BAY LEAVES, ALL KINDS OF GREEN HERBS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, LITTLE BROTH, AND OIL.
PEPPER, CARRAWAY, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, THYME, ONION, LASER ROOT, TOASTED NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL 
 A “sweet-sour” white sauce with herbs and spices is often served with goose in northern Germany.
FOR BIRDS OF ALL KINDS THAT HAVE A GOATISH  SMELL  PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, DRY MINT, SAGE, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED MUST, MUSTARD. THE BIRDS WILL BE MORE LUSCIOUS AND NUTRITIOUS, AND THE FAT PRESERVED, IF YOU ENVELOP THEM IN A DOUGH OF FLOUR AND OIL AND BAKE THEM IN THE OVEN .
 Probably game birds in an advanced stage of “haut goût” (as the Germans use the antiquated French term), or “mortification” as the French cook says. Possibly also such birds as crows, black birds, buzzards, etc., and fish-feeding fowl. Moreover, it must be borne in mind that the refrigeration facilities of the ancients were not too good and that fresh goods spoiled quickly. Hence, perhaps, excessive seasoning, at least, as compared to our modern methods.
List. aves piscivoras; Hum. thinks the birds to be downright spoiled: olidas, rancidas, & grave olentes.
 Tor. Sentence wanting in other texts.
 For birds with a goatish smell Apicius should have repeated his excellent formula in ℞ No. 212, the method of parboiling the birds before final coction, if, indeed, one cannot dispense with such birds altogether. The above recipe does not in the least indicate how to treat smelly birds. Wrapping them in dough would vastly increase the ill-savour.
As for game birds, we agree with most connoisseurs that they should have just a suspicion of “haut goût”—a condition of advanced mellowness after the rigor mortis has disappeared.
[IF THE BIRDS SMELL, ] STUFF THE INSIDE WITH CRUSHED FRESH OLIVES, SEW UP [the aperture] AND THUS COOK, THEN RETIRE THE COOKED OLIVES.
 Tor.; other texts aliter avem, i.e. that the olive treatment is not necessarily confined to ill smelling birds alone.
SCALD  THE FLAMINGO, WASH AND DRESS IT, PUT IT IN A POT, ADD WATER, SALT, DILL, AND A LITTLE VINEGAR, TO BE PARBOILED. FINISH COOKING WITH A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER, AND ADD SOME REDUCED MUST TO GIVE IT COLOR. IN THE MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT, MINT, RUE, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD DATES, AND THE FOND OF THE BRAISED BIRD, THICKEN, [strain] COVER THE BIRD WITH THE SAUCE AND SERVE. PARROT IS PREPARED IN THE SAME MANNER.
 Prior to removing the feathers; also singe the fine feathers and hair.
ROAST THE BIRD. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, SESAM  PARSLEY, MINT, SHALLOTS, DATES, HONEY, WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR, OIL, REDUCED MUST TO TASTE.
 Tor. sesamum, defrutum; G.-V. s. frictum.
SCALDED WITH THE FEATHERS BIRDS WILL NOT ALWAYS BE JUICY; IT IS BETTER TO FIRST EMPTY THEM THROUGH THE NECK AND STEAM THEM SUSPENDED OVER A KETTLE WITH WATER .
 Dry picking is of course the best method. Apicius is trying to overcome the evils of scalding fowl with the feathers. This formula is mutilated; the various texts differ considerably.
[FOR GOOSE] [IN ANSERE]
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER SEED  MINT, RUE, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND A MODERATE AMOUNT OF OIL. TAKE THE COOKED GOOSE OUT OF THE POT AND WHILE HOT WIPE IT CLEAN WITH A TOWEL, POUR THE SAUCE OVER IT AND SERVE.
 G.-V.; Tor. (fresh) coriander, more suited for a cold sauce.
[FOR CHICKEN] [IN PULLO]
PUT IN THE MORTAR DILL SEED, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, FIG WINE, BROTH, A LITTLE MUSTARD, OIL AND REDUCED MUST, AND SERVE  [Known as] DILL CHICKEN .
 This and the preceding cold dressings are more or less variations of our modern cold dressings that are used for cold dishes of all kinds, especially salads.
 Tor. heads the following formula præparatio pulli anethi—chicken in dill sauce, which is the correct description of the above formula. Tac., G.-V. also commence the next with pullum anethatum, which is not correct, as the following recipe contains no dill.
A LITTLE HONEY IS MIXED WITH BROTH; THE COOKED [parboiled] CHICKEN IS CLEANED [skin taken off, sinews, etc., removed] THE CARCASS DRIED WITH A TOWEL, QUARTERED, THE PIECES IMMERSED IN BROTH  SO THAT THE SAVOUR PENETRATES THOROUGHLY. FRY THE PIECES [in the pan] POUR OVER THEIR OWN GRAVY, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER, SERVE.
 Hum., List. cf. Note 2 to ℞ No. 235.
 Marinated; but the nature of this marinade is not quite clear; a spicy marinade of wine and herbs and spices would be appropriate for certain game birds, but chicken ordinarily requires no marinade except some oil before frying. It is possible that Apicius left the cooked chicken in the broth to prevent it from drying out, which is good.
DRESS THE CHICKEN CAREFULLY  AND QUARTER IT. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND A LITTLE CARRAWAY  MOISTENED WITH BROTH, AND ADD WINE TO TASTE. [After frying] PLACE THE CHICKEN IN AN EARTHEN DISH  POUR THE SEASONING OVER IT, ADD LASER AND WINE  LET IT ASSIMILATE WITH THE SEASONING AND BRAISE THE CHICKEN TO A POINT. WHEN DONE SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Lister is of the opinion that the pullus Parthicus is a kind of chicken that came originally from Asia, Parthia being a country of Asia, the present Persia or northern India, a chicken of small size with feathers on its feet, i.e., a bantam.
 Pluck, singe, empty, wash, trim. The texts: a navi. Hum. hoc est, à parte posteriore ventris, qui ut navis cavus & figuræ ejus non dissimile est. Dann. takes this literally, but navo (navus) here simply means “to perform diligently.”
 Tor. casei modicum; List. carei—more likely than cheese.
 Cumana—an earthenware casserole, excellent for that purpose.
 G.-V. laser [et] vivum.
A GOOD-SIZED GLASS OF OIL, A SMALLER GLASS OF BROTH, AND THE SMALLEST MEASURE OF VINEGAR, 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, PARSLEY AND A BUNCH OF LEEKS.
G.-V. [laseris] satis modice.
These directions are very vague. If the raw chicken is quartered, fried in the oil, and then braised in the broth with a dash of vinegar, the bunch of leeks and parsley, seasoned with pepper and a little salt, we have a dish gastronomically correct. The leeks may be served as a garnish, the gravy, properly reduced and strained over the chicken which like in the previous formula is served in a casserole.
PREPARE  THE CHICKEN [as usual; par-] BOIL IT; CLEAN IT  SEASONED WITH LASER AND PEPPER, AND FRY [in the pan; next] CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, RUE, FIG DATES AND NUTS, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, HONEY, BROTH AND OIL TO TASTE  WHEN BOILING THICKEN WITH ROUX [strain] POUR OVER THE CHICKEN, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
  Remove skin, tissues, bones, etc., cut in pieces and marinate in the pickle.
 Immerse the chicken pieces in this sauce and braise them to a point.
DRESS THE CHICKEN CAREFULLY  CLEAN, GARNISH  AND PLACE IN AN EARTHEN CASSEROLE. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, LASER MOISTENED WITH WINE  ADD BROTH AND WINE TO TASTE, AND PUT THIS ON THE FIRE; WHEN DONE SERVE WITH PEPPER SPRINKLED OVER.
 a navi. cf. Note 2 to ℞ No. 237.
 G.-V. lavabis, ornabis, with vegetables, etc.
 G.-V. laser vivum.
A LITTLE LASER, 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, A GLASS OF OIL, A GLASS OF BROTH, AND A LITTLE PARSLEY.
 Paropsis, parapsis, from the Greek, a platter, dish.
A most incomplete formula. It does not state whether the ingredients are to be added to the sauce or the dressing. We have an idea that the chicken is pickled in this solution before roasting and that the pickle is used in making the gravy.
CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, A LITTLE THYME, FENNEL SEED, MINT, RUE, LASER ROOT, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, ADD FIG DATES  WORK WELL AND MAKE IT SAVORY WITH HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL TO TASTE: THE BOILED CHICKEN PROPERLY CLEANED AND DRIED [with the towel] IS MASKED WITH THIS SAUCE .
 Goll. cloves—cariophyllus; the originals have caryotam and careotam.
 Apparently another cold sauce of the vinaigrette type similar to ℞ No. 235.
TO THE ABOVE DESCRIBED DRESSING ADD MUSTARD, POUR OVER  AND SERVE.
 G.-V. Perfundes; Tor. piper fundes.
The pumpkin, not mentioned here, is likewise served cold boiled, seasoned with the same dressing. It is perhaps used for stuffing the chicken and cooked simultaneously with the same.
THE ABOVE SAUCE IS ALSO USED FOR THIS DISH. STUFF THE CHICKEN WITH [peeled] DASHEENS AND [stoned] GREEN OLIVES, THOUGH NOT TOO MUCH SO THAT THE DRESSING MAY HAVE ROOM FOR EXPANSION, TO PREVENT BURSTING WHILE THE CHICKEN IS BEING COOKED IN THE POT. HOLD IT DOWN WITH A SMALL BASKET, LIFT IT UP FREQUENTLY  AND HANDLE CAREFULLY SO THAT THE CHICKEN DOES NOT BURST .
 For inspection. G.-V. levas; Tor. lavabis, for which there is no reason.
 Dann. and Goll., not knowing the colocasium or dasheen have entirely erroneous versions of this formula. The dasheen is well adapted for the stuffing of fowl. Ordinarily the dasheen is boiled or steamed, mashed, seasoned and then stuffed inside of a raw chicken which is then roasted. Being very starchy, the dasheen readily absorbs the fats and juices of the roast, making a delicious dressing, akin in taste to a combined potato and chestnut purée.
As the above chicken is cooked in bouillon or water, the dasheen may be used in a raw state for filling. We have tried this method. Instead of confining the chicken in a basket, we have tied it in a napkin and boiled slowly until done. Serve cold, with the above dressing.
COOK THE CHICKEN IN THIS STOCK: BROTH, OIL, WINE, A BUNCH OF LEEKS, CORIANDER, SATURY; WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, NUTS WITH 2 GLASSES OF WATER  AND THE JUICE OF THE CHICKEN. RETIRE THE BUNCHES OF GREENS, ADD MILK TO TASTE. THE THINGS CRUSHED IN THE MORTAR ADD TO THE CHICKEN AND COOK IT TOGETHER: THICKEN THE SAUCE WITH BEATEN WHITES OF EGG  AND POUR THE SAUCE OVER THE CHICKEN. THIS IS CALLED “WHITE SAUCE.”
 G.-V. Vardanus; Tor. Vardamus; Hum. Vardanus legendum, puto, Varianus, portentuosæ luxuriæ Imperator. Hum. thinks the dish is dedicated to emperor Varianus (?) The word may also be the adjective of Varus, Quintilius V., commander of colonial armies and glutton, under Augustus. Varus committed suicide after his defeat in the Teutoburg Forest by the Germans.
 G.-V. broth, own stock—ius de suo sibi.
 Strain, avoid ebullition after the eggs have been added. Most unusual  liaison; usually the yolks are used for this purpose. The whites are consistent with the name of the sauce.
A HALF-COOKED CHICKEN MARINADED IN A PICKLE OF BROTH, MIXED WITH OIL, TO WHICH IS ADDED A BUNCH OF DILL, LEEKS, SATURY AND GREEN CORIANDER. FINISH IT IN THIS BROTH. WHEN DONE, TAKE THE CHICKEN OUT  DRESS IT NICELY ON A DISH, POUR OVER THE [sauce, colored with] REDUCED MUST, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Named for a Roman by the name of Fronto. There is a sucking pig à la Fronto, too. Cf. ℞ No. 374. M. Cornelius Fronto was orator and author during the reign of Emperor Hadrian. According to Dann. a certain Frontone under Emperor Severus.
 List., G.-V. levabis; Tor. lavabis, for which there is little or no occasion. He may mean to clean, i.e. remove skin, tissues, sinews, small bones, etc.
COOK THE CHICKEN [as follows, in] BROTH, OIL, WITH WINE ADDED, TO WHICH ADD A BUNCH OF CORIANDER AND [green] ONIONS. WHEN DONE TAKE IT OUT  [strain and save] THE BROTH, AND PUT IT IN A NEW SAUCE PAN, ADD MILK AND A LITTLE SALT, HONEY AND A PINT  OF WATER, THAT IS, A THIRD PART: PLACE IT BACK ON A SLOW FIRE TO SIMMER. FINALLY BREAK [the paste, ] PUT IT LITTLE BY LITTLE INTO [the boiling broth] STIRRING WELL SO IT WILL NOT BURN. PUT THE CHICKEN IN, EITHER WHOLE OR IN PIECES  DISH IT OUT IN A DEEP DISH. THIS COVER WITH THE FOLLOWING SAUCE  PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTENED WITH HONEY AND A LITTLE REDUCED MUST. ADD SOME OF THE [chicken] BROTH, HEAT IN A SMALL SAUCE PAN AND WHEN IT BOILS THICKEN WITH ROUX  AND SERVE.
 Spätzle, noodles, macaroni; this dish is the ancient “Chicken Tetrazzini.” Dann. Chicken pie or patty.
 tractum and gala, prepared with paste and milk. Cf. tractomelitus, from tractum and meli, paste and honey.
 List. vel carptum, which is correct. Tor. vel careotam, out of place here.
 This sauce seems to be superfluous. Very likely it is a separate formula for a sauce of some kind.
 Seems superfluous, too. The noodle paste in the chicken gravy makes it sufficiently thick.
EMPTY THE CHICKEN THROUGH THE APERTURE OF THE NECK SO THAT NONE OF THE ENTRAILS REMAIN. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GINGER, CUT MEAT  COOKED SPELT, BESIDES CRUSH BRAINS COOKED IN THE [chicken] BROTH, BREAK EGGS AND MIX ALL TOGETHER IN ORDER TO MAKE A SOLID DRESSING; ADD BROTH TO TASTE AND A LITTLE OIL, WHOLE PEPPER, PLENTY OF NUTS. WITH THIS DRESSING STUFF EITHER A CHICKEN OR A SUCKLING PIG, LEAVING ENOUGH ROOM FOR EXPANSION .
 Tor. fusilis.
 Preferably raw pork or veal.
 A most sumptuous dressing; it compares favorably with our popular stale bread pap usually called “chicken dressing.”
THE CAPON IS STUFFED IN A SIMILAR WAY BUT IS COOKED WITH ALL THE BONES REMOVED .
 Sch. in capso. May be interpreted thus: Cooked in an envelope of caul or linen, in which case it would correspond to our modern galantine of chicken.
 Tor. ossibus eiectis; Hum. omnibus e.; i.e. all the entrails, etc., which is not correct. The bones must be removed from the capon in this case.
TAKE A CHICKEN AND PREPARE IT AS ABOVE. EMPTY IT THROUGH THE APERTURE OF THE NECK SO THAT NONE OF THE ENTRAILS REMAIN. TAKE [a little] WATER  AND PLENTY OF SPANISH OIL, STIR, COOK TOGETHER UNTIL ALL MOISTURE IS EVAPORATED  WHEN THIS IS DONE TAKE THE CHICKEN OUT, SO THAT THE GREATEST POSSIBLE  AMOUNT OF OIL REMAINS BEHIND  SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
 The ancient version of Chicken à la Maryland, Wiener Backhähndl, etc.
 Tor. Leocozymus; from the Greek leucozomos, prepared with white sauce. The formula for the cream sauce is lacking here. Cf. ℞ No. 245.
 The use of water to clarify the oil which is to serve as a deep frying fat is an ingenious idea, little practised today. It surely saves the fat or oil, prevents premature burning or blackening by frequent use, and gives a better tasting friture. The above recipe is a mere fragment, but even this reveals the extraordinary knowledge of culinary principles of Apicius who reveals himself to us as a master of well-understood principles of good cookery that are so often ignored today. Cf. Note 5 to ℞ No. 497.
 The recipe fails to state that the chicken must be breaded, or that the pieces of chicken be turned in flour, etc., and fried in the oil.
 Another vital rule of deep fat frying not stated, or rather stated in the language of the kitchen, namely that the chicken must be crisp, dry, that is, not saturated with oil, which of course every good fry cook knows.
 With the cream sauce, prepared separately, spread on the platter, with the fried chicken inside, or the sauce in a separate dish, we have here a very close resemblance to a very popular modern dish.
END OF BOOK VI
[explicit] TROPHETES APICII. LIBER SEXTUS [Tac.]
FRYING PAN, ROUND
Provided with a lip to pour out fluids, a convenience which many modern pans lack. The broad flat handle is of one piece with the pan and has a hole for suspension. On some ancient pans these handles were hinged so as to fold over the cavity of the pan, to save room in storing it away, particularly in a soldier’s knapsack. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 76571; Field M. 24024.
FRONTISPICE, SECOND LISTER EDITION
purporting to represent the interior of an ancient kitchen. J. Gœree, the artist and engraver, has invented it. The general tidiness differs from contemporary Dutch kitchens and the clothing of the cooks reminds one of Henry VIII, who issued at Eltham in 1526 this order: “... provide and sufficiently furnish the kitchens of such scolyons as shall not goe naked or in garments of such vilenesse as they doe ... nor lie in the nights and dayes in the kitchens ... by the fire-side....”—MS. No. 642, Harleian Library.
THE GREAT PALLAS ATHENE DISH
One of the finest show platters in existence. Of Hellenic make. The object in the right hand of Athene has created considerable conjecture but has never been identified.
FRYING PAN, OVAL
This oblong pan was no doubt primarily used in fish cookery. An oblong piece of food material fitted snugly into the pan, thus saving fats and other liquids in preparation. Around the slender handle was no doubt one of non-heat-conducting material. The shape and the lip of the pan indicate that it was not used for “sauter.” Ntl. Mus., Naples, 76602; Field M. 24038.
Lib. VII. Polyteles
|CHAP.||I.||SOW’S WOMB, CRACKLINGS, BACON, TENDERLOIN, TAILS AND FEET.|
|CHAP.||IV.||TID-BITS, CHOPS, STEAKS.|
|CHAP.||VI.||BOILED AND STEWED MEATS.|
|CHAP.||VIII.||LOINS AND KIDNEYS.|
|CHAP.||X.||LIVERS AND LUNGS.|
[In addition to the above chapters two more are inserted in the text of Book VII, namely Chap. X, Fresh Ham and Chap. XI, To Cook Salt Pork; these being inserted after Chap. IX, Pork Shoulder, making a total of XIX Chapters.]
SOW’S WOMB, CRACKLINGS, UDDER, TENDERLOIN, TAILS AND FEET VULVÆ STERILES, CALLUM LUMBELLI COTICULÆ ET UNGELLÆ
STERILE SOW’S WOMB (ALSO UDDER AND BELLY) IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER: TAKE  LASER FROM CYRENE OR PARTHIA, VINEGAR AND BROTH.
 The vulva of a sow was a favorite dish with the ancients, considered a great delicacy. Sows were slaughtered before they had a litter, or were spayed for the purpose of obtaining the sterile womb.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
TAKE PEPPER, CELERY SEED, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH.
WITH PEPPER, BROTH AND PARTHIAN LASER.
WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE  AND BROTH AND A LITTLE CONDIMENT.
 Wanting in Lister.
SERVE WITH PEPPER, BROTH AND LASER (WHICH THE GREEKS CALL “SILPHION”) .
 Tor., G.-V. libelli.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
ENVELOPE IN BRAN, AFTERWARDS  PUT IN BRINE AND THEN COOK IT.
 We would reverse the process: first pickle the vulva, then coat it with bran (or with bread crumbs) and fry.
SOW’S UDDER OR BELLY WITH THE PAPS ON IT IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER  THE BELLY BOIL, TIE IT TOGETHER WITH REEDS, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND PLACE IT IN THE OVEN, OR, START ROASTING ON THE GRIDIRON. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, WITH BROTH, PURE WINE, ADDING RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, THICKEN [the sauce] WITH ROUX AND POUR IT OVER THE ROAST.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
FULL  SOW’S BELLY IS STUFFED WITH  CRUSHED PEPPER, CARRAWAY, SALT MUSSELS; SEW THE BELLY TIGHT AND ROAST. ENJOY THIS WITH A BRINE SAUCE AND MUSTARD.
 Full grown, also stuffed with forcemeat.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
FIG-FED PORK FICATUM 
 Tor. De Sycoto, id est, Ficato.
FIG-FED PORK LIVER (THAT IS, LIVER CRAMMED WITH FIGS) IS PREPARED IN A WINE SAUCE WITH  PEPPER, THYME, LOVAGE, BROTH, A LITTLE WINE AND OIL .
 Tor. Ficatum, iecur suillum.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 Reinsenius, ficatum [or sicatum] projecore.
According to the invention of Marcus Apicius, pigs were starved, and the hungry pigs were crammed with dry figs and then suddenly given all the mead they wanted to drink. The violent expansion of the figs in the stomachs, or the fermentation caused acute indigestion which killed the pigs. The livers were very much enlarged, similar to the cramming of geese for the sake of obtaining abnormally large livers. This latter method prevailed in the Strassburg District until recently when it was prohibited by law.
TRIM [the liver] MARINATE IN BROTH, WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE,  TWO LAUREL BERRIES, WRAP IN CAUL, GRILL ON THE GRIDIRON AND SERVE.
Goll. Stick figs into the liver by making apertures with the knife or with a needle.
It is by no means clear that the liver is meant.
TID-BITS, CHOPS, CUTLETS OFFELLÆ 
PREPARE THE MEAT IN THIS MANNER  CLEAN THE MEAT [of bones, sinews, etc.] SCRAPE IT AS THIN AS A SKIN [and shape it]. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CARRAWAY, SILPHIUM, ONE LAUREL BERRY, MOISTENED WITH BROTH; IN A SQUARE DISH PLACE THE MEAT BALLS AND THE SPICES WHERE THEY REMAIN IN PICKLING FOR TWO OR THREE DAYS, COVERED CROSSWISE WITH TWIGS. THEN PLACE THEM IN THE OVEN [to be roasted], WHEN DONE TAKE THE FINISHED MEAT BALLS OUT. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, WITH THE BROTH, ADD A LITTLE RAISIN WINE TO SWEETEN. COOK IT, THICKEN WITH ROUX, IMMERSE THE BALLS IN THE SAUCE AND SERVE.
 G.-V. Ofellæ; apparently the old Roman “Hamburger Steak.” The term covers different small meat pieces, chops, steaks, etc.
 Ostia, town at the mouth of the river Tiber, Rome’s harbour.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
BONE THE MEAT FOR THE [roulades—a pork loin, roll it, tie it] OVEN, SHAPE ROUND, COVER WITH OR WRAP IN RUSHES. [Roast] WHEN DONE, RETIRE, ALLOW TO DRIP AND DRY ON THE GRIDIRON BUT SO THAT THE MEAT DOES NOT HARDEN. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, RUSH , CUMIN, ADDING BROTH AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE. PLACE THE ROULADES WITH THIS SAUCE TOGETHER IN A SAUCE PAN [finish by braising] WHEN DONE, RETIRE THE ROULADES AND DRY THEM. SERVE WITHOUT THE GRAVY SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER. IF TOO FAT REMOVE THE OUTER SKIN .
 Cyperis, —os, —um, cypirus, variants for a sort of rush; probably “Cyprian Grass.”
 Dann. Dumplings; but this formula appears to deal with boneless pork chops, pork roulades or “filets mignons.”
IN THE SAME MANNER YOU CAN MAKE TIDBITS OF SOW’S BELLY  PORK CHOPS PREPARED IN A MANNER TO RESEMBLE WILD BOAR ARE  PICKLED IN OIL AND BROTH AND PLACED IN SPICES. WHEN THE CUTLETS ARE DONE [marinated] THE PICKLE IS PLACED ON THE FIRE AND BOILED; THE CUTLETS ARE PUT BACK INTO THIS GRAVY AND ARE FINISHED WITH CRUSHED PEPPER, SPICES, HONEY, BROTH, AND ROUX. WHEN THIS IS DONE SERVE THE CUTLETS WITHOUT THE BROTH AND OIL, SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER.
 G.-V. Aprugineo; List. Offellæ Aprugneæ, i.e. wild boar chops or cutlets. Vat. Ms. aprogneo more; Tor. pro genuino more; Tac. aprogeneo—from aprugnus, wild boar.
Mutton today is prepared in a similar way, marinated with spices, etc., to resemble venison, and is called Mouton à la Chasseur, hunter style.
 This sentence, probably belonging to the preceding formula, carried over by Torinus.
 This sentence only in Torinus.
THE BALLS OR CUTLETS ARE  PROPERLY FRIED IN THE PAN, NEARLY DONE. [Next prepare the following] ONE WHOLE  GLASS BROTH, A GLASS OF WATER, A GLASS OF VINEGAR AND A GLASS OF OIL, PROPERLY MIXED; PUT THIS IN AN EARTHEN BAKING DISH [immerse meat pieces] FINISH ON THE FIRE AND SERVE.
 Tor. Summi; List. sumis, i.e. broth of the pork.
ALSO FRY THE CUTLETS THIS WAY:  IN A PAN WITH PLENTY OF WINE SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE. [ANOTHER WAY]  THE CUTLETS PREVIOUSLY SALT AND PICKLED IN A BROTH OF CUMIN, ARE PROPERLY FRIED .
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 The texts have two formulæ; by the transposition of the two sentences  the formula appears as a whole and one that is intelligible from a culinary point of view.
 The texts have: in aqua recte friguntur; the acqua presumably belongs to the cumin pickle. To fry in water is not possible.
CHOICE ROASTS  ASSATURÆ
SIMPLY PUT THE MEATS TO BE ROASTED IN THE OVEN, GENEROUSLY SPRINKLED WITH SALT, AND SERVE [it glazed] WITH HONEY .
 Tor. De assaturæ exquisitæ apparatu.
 Brandt adds “plain.”
 Corresponding to our present method of roasting; fresh and processed ham is glazed with sugar.
Roasting in the oven is not as desirable as roasting on the spit, universally practised during the middle ages. The spit seems to have been unknown to the Romans. It is seldom used today, although we have improved it by turning it with electrical machinery.
TAKE 6 SCRUPLES OF PARSLEY, OF LASER  JUST AS MANY, 6 OF GINGER, 5 LAUREL BERRIES, 6 SCRUPLES OF PRESERVED LASER ROOT, CYPRIAN RUSH 6, 6 OF ORIGANY, A LITTLE COSTMARY, 3 SCRUPLES OF CHAMOMILE [or pellitory], 6 SCRUPLES OF CELERY SEED, 12 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, AND BROTH AND OIL AS MUCH AS IT WILL TAKE UP .
 G.-V. asareos [?] Asarum, the herb foalbit, wild spikenard.
 No directions are given for the making of this compound which are essential to insure success of this formula. Outwardly it resembles some of the commercial sauces made principally in England (Worcestershire, etc.), which are served with every roast.
CRUSH DRY MYRTLE BERRIES WITH CUMIN AND PEPPER, ADDING HONEY ALSO BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND OIL. HEAT AND BIND WITH ROUX. POUR THIS OVER THE ROAST THAT IS MEDIUM DONE, WITH SALT; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
6 SCRUPLES PEPPER, 6 SCRUPLES LOVAGE, 6 SCRUPLES PARSLEY, 6 SCRUPLES CELERY SEED, 6 SCRUPLES DILL, 6 SCRUPLES LASER ROOT, 6 SCRUPLES WILD SPIKENARD , 6 SCRUPLES CYPRIAN RUSH, 6 SCRUPLES CARRAWAY, 6 SCRUPLES CUMIN, 6 SCRUPLES GINGER, A PINT OF BROTH AND A SPOONFUL OIL.
 Tor. assareos; cf. note 1 to ℞ No. 267.
PUT IN A BRAISIÈRE  AND BOIL PEPPER, SPICES, HONEY, BROTH; AND HEAT THIS WITH THE MEAT IN THE OVEN. THE NECK PIECE ITSELF, IF YOU LIKE, IS ALSO ROASTED WITH SPICES AND THE HOT GRAVY IS SIMPLY POURED OVER AT THE MOMENT OF SERVING .
 A piece of meat from the neck of a food animal, beef, veal, pork; a muscular hard piece, requiring much care to make it palatable, a “pot roast.”
 A roasting pan especially adapted for braising tough meats, with closefitting cover to hold the vapors.
 Tor. combines this and the foregoing formula. G.-V. siccum calidum, for hot gravy. Perhaps a typographical error for succum.
BOILED, STEWED MEATS, AND DAINTY FOOD IN ELIXAM ET COPADIA
PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, RUE, SILPHIUM, DRY ONION, WINE, REDUCED WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, A LITTLE OIL, BOILED DOWN, STRAINED THROUGH A CLOTH AND POURED UNDER THE HOT COOKED MEATS .
 A very complicated sauce for boiled viands. Most of the ingredients are found in the Worcestershire Sauce.
MAKE IT THUS: [Tor.] PEPPER, PARSLEY, BROTH, VINEGAR, FIG-DATES, ONIONS, LITTLE OIL, POURED UNDER VERY HOT.
CRUSH PEPPER, DRY RUE, FENNEL SEED, ONION, FIGDATES, WITH BROTH AND OIL.
WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED DISHES IS MADE THUS:  PEPPER, BROTH, WINE, RUE, ONIONS, NUTS, A LITTLE SPICE, BREAD SOAKED TO THE SATURATION POINT, OIL, WHICH IS COOKED AND SPREAD UNDER [the meat].
 Our present bread sauce, somewhat simpler, but essentially the same as the Apician sauce, is very popular with roast partridge, pheasant and other game in England.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
ANOTHER WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED DISHES CONTAINS:  PEPPER, CARRAWAY, LOVAGE, THYME, ORIGANY, SHALLOTS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.
TAKE CUMIN, LOVAGE, RUE SEED, PLUMS FROM DAMASCUS  SOAK IN WINE, ADD HONEY MEAD AND VINEGAR, THYME AND ORIGANY TO TASTE .
 Lacking definite description of the copadia it is hard to differentiate between them and the offelæ.—Cupedia (Plaut. and Goll.), nice dainty dishes, from cupiditas, appetite, desire for dainty fare. Hence cupedinarius (Terent.) and cupediarius (Lamprid.) a seller or maker of dainties, a confectioner.
 Damascena; they correspond apparently to our present stewed (dried) prunes. It is inconceivable how this sauce can be white in color, but, as a condiment and if taken in small quantity, it has our full approval.
 G.-V. agitabis, i.e. stir the sauce with a whip of thyme and origany twigs. Cf. note to following.
IS MADE THUS  PEPPER, THYME, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, FENNEL, RUE, MINT , MYRTLE BERRIES, RAISINS, RAISIN  WINE, AND MEAD TO TASTE; STIR IT WITH A TWIG OF SATURY .
 G.-V., rue wanting.
 An ingenious way to impart a very subtle flavor. The sporadic discoveries of such very subtle and refined methods (cf. notes to ℞ No. 15) should dispell once and for all time the old theories that the ancients were using spices to excess. They simply used a greater variety of flavors and aromas than we do today, but there is no proof that spices were used excessively. The great variety of flavors at the disposal of the ancients speaks well for the refinement of the olfactory sense and the desire to bring variety into their fare. Cf. ℞ Nos. 345, 369 and 385.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, MINT, LEAVES OF SPIKENARD (WHICH THE GREEKS CALL “NARDOSACHIOM”) [sic!]  YOLKS, HONEY, MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL. STIR WELL WITH SATURY AND LEEKS  AND TIE WITH ROUX.
 Tor. [sic!] spicam nardi—sentence wanting in other texts. G.-V. nardostachyum, spikenard.
IS MADE THUS:  PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, THYME, NUTS, WHICH SOAK AND CLEAN, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL TO BE ADDED .
[1, 2] First three and last three words in Tor.
PEPPER, CELERY SEED, CARRAWAY, SATURY, SAFFRON, SHALLOTS, TOASTED ALMONDS, FIGDATES, BROTH, OIL AND A LITTLE MUSTARD; COLOR WITH REDUCED MUST.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, SHALLOTS, TOASTED ALMONDS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND OIL.
CHOP HARD EGGS, PEPPER, CUMIN, PARSLEY, COOKED LEEKS, MYRTLE BERRIES, SOMEWHAT MORE HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.
PEPPER, DILL SEED, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, POUR UNDER: VINEGAR, DATE WINE, HONEY, BROTH, AND A LITTLE MUSTARD, REDUCED MUST AND OIL TO TASTE; AND SERVE IT WITH ROAST PORK SHOULDER.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, THYME, SHALLOTS, DATES, FISH BRINE  STRAINED HONEY, AND WINE TO TASTE; SPRINKLE WITH CHOPPED GREEN CELERY AND OIL AND SERVE.
 G.-V. allecem; Tor. Halecem.
CLEAN THE PAUNCH OF A SUCKLING PIG WELL WITH SALT AND VINEGAR AND PRESENTLY WASH WITH WATER. THEN FILL IT WITH THE FOLLOWING DRESSING: PIECES OF PORK POUNDED IN THE MORTAR, THREE BRAINS—THE NERVES REMOVED—MIX WITH RAW EGGS, ADD NUTS, WHOLE PEPPER, AND SAUCE TO TASTE. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, SILPHIUM, ANISE, GINGER, A LITTLE RUE; FILL THE PAUNCH WITH IT, NOT TOO MUCH, THOUGH, LEAVING PLENTY OF ROOM FOR EXPANSION LEST IT BURSTS WHILE BEING COOKED. PUT IT IN A POT WITH BOILING WATER, RETIRE AND PRICK WITH A NEEDLE SO THAT IT DOES NOT BURST. WHEN HALF DONE, TAKE IT OUT AND HANG IT INTO THE SMOKE TO TAKE ON COLOR; NOW BOIL IT OVER AGAIN AND FINISH IT LEISURELY. NEXT TAKE THE BROTH, SOME PURE WINE AND A LITTLE OIL, OPEN THE PAUNCH WITH A SMALL KNIFE. SPRINKLE WITH THE BROTH AND LOVAGE; PLACE THE PIG NEAR THE FIRE TO HEAT IT, TURN IT AROUND IN BRAN [or bread crumbs] IMMERSE IN [sprinkle with] BRINE AND FINISH [the outer crust to a golden brown] .
 The good old English way of finishing a roast joint called dredging.
Lister has this formula divided into two; Danneil and Schuch make three different formulas out of it.
LOINS AND KIDNEYS LUMBI ET RENES
SPLIT THEM INTO TWO PARTS SO THAT THEY ARE SPREAD OUT  SPRINKLE THE OPENING WITH CRUSHED PEPPER AND [ditto] NUTS, FINELY CHOPPED CORIANDER AND CRUSHED FENNEL SEED. THE TENDERLOINS ARE THEN ROLLED UP TO BE ROASTED; TIE TOGETHER, WRAP IN CAUL, PARBOIL IN OIL  AND BROTH, AND THEN ROAST IN THE OVEN OR BROIL ON THE GRIDIRON.
 “Frenched,” the meat here being pork tenderloin.
 G.-V. best broth and a little oil, which is more acceptable.
THE HAM SHOULD BE BRAISED WITH A GOOD NUMBER OF FIGS AND SOME THREE LAUREL LEAVES; THE SKIN IS THEN PULLED OFF AND CUT INTO SQUARE PIECES; THESE ARE MACERATED WITH HONEY. THEREUPON MAKE DOUGH CRUMBS OF FLOUR AND OIL  LAY THE DOUGH OVER OR AROUND THE HAM, STUD THE TOP WITH THE PIECES OF THE SKIN SO THAT THEY WILL BE BAKED WITH THE DOUGH [bake slowly] AND WHEN DONE, RETIRE FROM THE OVEN AND SERVE .
 Ordinary pie or pastry dough, or perhaps a preparation similar to streusel, unsweetened.
 Experimenting with this formula, we have adhered to the instructions as closely as possible, using regular pie dough to envelop the parboiled meat. The figs were retired from the sauce pan long before the meat was done and they were served around the ham as a garnish. As a consequence we partook of a grand dish that no inmate of Olympus would have sneezed at.
In Pompeii an inn-keeper had written the following on the wall of his establishment: Ubi perna cocta est si convivæ apponitur non gustat pernam linguit ollam aut caccabum.
When we first beheld this message we took the inn-keeper for a humorist and clever advertiser; but now we are convinced that he was in earnest when he said that his guests would lick the sauce pan in which his hams were cooked.
HAM SIMPLY COOKED IN WATER WITH FIGS IS USUALLY DRESSED ON A PLATTER [baking pan] SPRINKLED WITH CRUMBS AND REDUCED WINE, OR, STILL BETTER, WITH SPICED WINE [and is glazed under the open flame, or with a shovel containing red-hot embers].
 Perna is usually applied to shoulder of pork, fresh, also cured.
Coxa is the hind leg, or haunch of pork, or fresh ham. Cf. note 1 to ℞ No. 289.
A FRESH HAM IS COOKED WITH 2 POUNDS OF BARLEY AND 25 FIGS. WHEN DONE SKIN, GLAZE THE SURFACE WITH A FIRE SHOVEL FULL OF GLOWING COALS, SPREAD HONEY OVER IT, OR, WHAT’S BETTER: PUT IT IN THE OVEN COVERED WITH HONEY. WHEN IT HAS A NICE COLOR, PUT IN A SAUCE PAN RAISIN WINE, PEPPER, A BUNCH OF RUE AND PURE WINE TO TASTE. WHEN THIS [sauce] IS DONE, POUR HALF OF IT OVER THE HAM AND IN THE OTHER HALF SOAK SPECIALLY MADE GINGER BREAD  THE REMNANT OF THE SAUCE AFTER MOST OF IT IS THOROUGHLY SOAKED INTO THE BREAD, ADD TO THE HAM .
 Musteus, fresh, young, new; vinum mustum, new wine, must. Properly perhaps, Petasonem ex mustaceis; cf. note 3.
 Hum. verum petaso coxa cum crure [shank] esse dicitur....
Plainly, we are dealing here with fresh, uncured ham.
 A certain biscuit or cake made of must, spices and pepper, perhaps baked on laurel leaves. Mustaceus was a kind of cake, the flour of which had been kneaded with must, cheese, anise, etc., the cake was baked upon laurel leaves.
 Tor. continues without interruption. He has the three foregoing formulæ thrown into one.
COVER WITH WATER AND COOK WITH PLENTY OF DILL; SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE OIL AND A TRIFLE OF SALT.
 Lister, at this point, has forgotten his explanation of laridum, and now accepts the word in its proper sense. This rather belated correction by Lister  confirms the correctness of our own earlier observations. Cf. note to ℞ Nos. 41 and 148.
LIVERS AND LUNGS JECINORA SIVE PULMONES
COOK THUS: MAKE A MIXTURE OF WATER, MEAD, EGGS AND MILK IN WHICH THOROUGHLY SOAK THE SLICED LIVER. STEW THE LIVER IN WINE SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 G.-V. Iecinera hœdina.
LIVER AND LUNG ARE ALSO COOKED THIS WAY:  SOAK WELL IN MILK, STRAIN IT OFF IF OFFENSIVE IN TASTE  BREAK 2 EGGS AND ADD A LITTLE SALT, MIX IN A SPOONFUL HONEY AND FILL THE LUNG WITH IT, BOIL AND SLICE .
 Lungs of slaughtered animals are little used nowadays. The soaking of livers in milk is quite common; it removes the offensive taste of the gall.
 G.-V. continue without interruption.
CRUSH PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, RAISIN WINE, PURE OIL, CHOP THE LIGHTS  FINE AND ADD WINE SAUCE .
 Edible intestines, livers, lung, kidney, etc., are thus named.
 List., Tor., G.-V. have both recipes in one. Dann. is in doubt whether to separate them or not.
HOME-MADE SWEET DISHES AND HONEY SWEET-MEATS DULCIA DOMESTICA  ET MELCÆ
LITTLE HOME CONFECTIONS (WHICH ARE CALLED DULCIARIA) ARE MADE THUS:  LITTLE PALMS OR (AS THEY  ARE ORDINARILY CALLED)  DATES ARE STUFFED—AFTER THE SEEDS HAVE BEEN REMOVED—WITH A NUT OR WITH NUTS AND GROUND PEPPER, SPRINKLED WITH SALT ON THE OUTSIDE AND ARE CANDIED IN HONEY AND SERVED .
 Dulcia, sweetmeats, cakes; hence dulciarius, a pastry cook or confectioner.
The fact that here attention is drawn to home-made sweet dishes may clear up the absence of regular baking and dessert formulæ in Apicius. The trade of the dulciarius was so highly developed at that time that the professional bakers and confectioners supplied the entire home market with their wares, making it convenient and unprofitable for the domestic cook to compete with their organized business, a condition which largely exists in our modern highly civilized centers of population today. Cf. “Cooks.”
[2 + 3] Tor.
 Still being done today in the same manner.
GRATE [scrape, peel] SOME VERY BEST FRESH APHROS  AND IMMERSE IN MILK. WHEN SATURATED PLACE IN THE OVEN TO HEAT BUT NOT TO DRY OUT; WHEN THOROUGHLY HOT RETIRE FROM OVEN, POUR OVER SOME HONEY, STIPPLE [the fruit] SO THAT THE HONEY MAY PENETRATE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER  AND SERVE.
 Tor., Tac., Lan. musteos aphros; Vat. Ms., G.-V. afros; List. apios, i.e. celery, which is farthest from the mark. Goll. interprets this a “cider apple,” reminiscent, probably, of musteos, which is fresh, new, young, and which has here nothing to do with cider.
Aphros is not identified. Perhaps the term stood for Apricots (Old English: Aphricocks) or some other African fruit or plant; Lister’s celery is to be rejected on gastronomical grounds.
The above treatment would correspond to that which is given apricots and peaches today. They are peeled, immersed in cream and sweetened with sugar. Apicius’ heating of the fruit in milk is new to us; it sounds good, for it has a tendency to parboil any hard fruit, make it more digestible and reduce the fluid to a creamy consistency.
 The “pepper” again, as pointed out in several other places, here is some spice of agreeable taste as are used in desserts today.
BREAK [slice] FINE WHITE BREAD, CRUST REMOVED, INTO RATHER LARGE PIECES WHICH SOAK IN MILK [and beaten eggs] FRY IN OIL, COVER WITH HONEY AND SERVE .
 “French” Toast, indeed!—Sapienti sat!
IN A CHAFING-DISH PUT  HONEY, PURE WINE, RAISIN WINE, RUE, PINE NUTS, NUTS, COOKED SPELT, ADD CRUSHED AND TOASTED HAZELNUTS  AND SERVE.
 G.-V. Piperato mittis. Piperatum is a dish prepared with pepper, any spicy dish; the term may here be applied to the bowl in which the porridge is served. Tac. Dulcia piperata mittis.
 Dann. Almonds.
CRUSH PEPPER, NUTS, HONEY, RUE, AND RAISIN WINE WITH MILK, AND COOK THE MIXTURE  WITH A FEW EGGS WELL WORKED IN, COVER WITH HONEY, SPRINKLE WITH [crushed nuts, etc.] AND SERVE.
TAKE A PREPARATION SIMILAR  [to the above] AND IN THE HOT WATER [bath or double boiler] MAKE A VERY HARD PORRIDGE OF IT. THEREUPON SPREAD IT OUT ON A PAN AND WHEN COOL CUT IT INTO HANDY PIECES LIKE SMALL COOKIES. FRY THESE IN THE BEST OIL, TAKE THEM OUT, DIP INTO [hot] HONEY, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER  AND SERVE.
 This confirms the assumption that some flour or meal is used in ℞ No. 298 also without which this present preparation would not “stand up.”
 It is freely admitted that the word “pepper” not always stands for the spice that we know by this name. Cf. note 2 to ℞ No. 295 et al.
IS TO PREPARE THIS WITH MILK INSTEAD OF WATER.
ESTIMATE THE AMOUNT OF MILK NECESSARY FOR THIS DISH AND SWEETEN IT WITH HONEY TO TASTE; TO A PINT  OF FLUID TAKE 5 EGGS; FOR HALF A PINT  DISSOLVE 3 EGGS IN MILK AND BEAT WELL TO INCORPORATE THOROUGHLY, STRAIN THROUGH A COLANDER INTO AN EARTHEN DISH AND COOK ON A SLOW FIRE [in  hot water bath in oven]. WHEN CONGEALED SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE .
 ad heminam.
 Dann. calls this a cheese cake, which is a far-fetched conclusion, although standard dictionaries say that the tyropatina is a kind of cheese cake. It must be borne in mind, however, that the ancient definition of “custard” is “egg cheese,” probably because of the similarity in appearance and texture.
FOUR EGGS IN HALF A PINT OF MILK AND AN OUNCE OF OIL WELL BEATEN, TO MAKE A FLUFFY MIXTURE; IN A PAN PUT A LITTLE OIL, AND CAREFULLY ADD THE EGG PREPARATION, WITHOUT LETTING IT BOIL  HOWEVER. [Place it in the oven to let it rise] AND WHEN ONE SIDE IS DONE, TURN IT OUT INTO A SERVICE PLATTER [fold it] POUR OVER HONEY, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER  AND SERVE .
 Dann. misled by the title, interprets this dish as “Floating Island”; he, the chef, has completely misunderstood the ancient formula.
 Tor. sinas bullire—which is correct. List. facies ut bulliat—which is monstrous.
 Tor. continues without interruption.
PREPARE [cottage] CHEESE EITHER WITH HONEY AND BROTH [brine] OR WITH SALT, OIL AND [chopped] CORIANDER .
 G.-V. Melca ... stum; List. mel castum, refined honey; Tac. Mel caseum; Tor. mel, caseum. Cf. ℞ No. 294.
 To season cottage (fresh curd) cheese today we use salt, pepper, cream, carraway or chopped chives; sometimes a little sugar.
SERVE WITH OIL, BROTH AND VINEGAR, WITH A LITTLE CUMIN SPRINKLED OVER.
 Onions, roots of tulips, narcissus. Served raw sliced, with the above dressing, or cooked. Cf. notes to ℞ No. 307.
SOAK  THE BULBS AND PARBOIL THEM IN WATER; THEREUPON FRY THEM IN OIL. THE DRESSING MAKE THUS: TAKE THYME, FLEA-BANE, PEPPER, ORIGANY, HONEY, VINEGAR, REDUCED WINE, DATE WINE, IF YOU LIKE  BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Tor. tundes; probably a typographical error, as this should read fundis, i.e. infundis. Wanting in the other texts.
COOK THE BULBS INTO A THICK PURÉE  AND SEASON WITH THYME, ORIGANY, HONEY, VINEGAR, REDUCED WINE, DATE WINE, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL.
 Tundes, i.e. mash. Practically a correction of ℞ No. 305, repeated by Tor.
COOKED IN WATER THEY ARE CONDUCIVE TO LOVE  AND ARE THEREFORE ALSO SERVED AT WEDDING FEASTS, BUT ALSO SEASONED WITH PIGNOLIA NUT OR WITH THE JUICE OF COLEWORT, OR MUSTARD, AND PEPPER.
 The first instance in Apicius where the monotony and business-like recital of recipes is broken by some interesting quotation or remark.
Brandt is of the opinion that this remark was added by a posterior reader.
 The texts: qui Veneris ostium quærunt—“seek the mouth of Venus.”
This favorite superstition of the ancients leads many writers, as might be expected, into fanciful speculations. Humelberg, quoting Martial, says: Veneram mirè stimulant, unde et salaces à Martiali vocantur. 1. XIII, Ep. 34:
We fail to find this quotation from Varro in his works, M. Teren. Varronis De Re Rustica, Lugduni, 1541, but we read in Columella and Pliny that the buds or shoots of reeds were called by some “bulbs,” by others “eyes,” and, remembering that these shoots make very desirable vegetables when properly cooked, we feel inclined to include these among the term “bulbs.” Platina also adds the squill or sea onion to this category. Nonnus, p. 84, Diæteticon, Antwerp, 1645, quotes Columella as saying: Jam Magaris veniant genitalia semina Bulbi.
ARE SERVED WITH WINE SAUCE [Oenogarum].
MUSHROOMS OR MORELS  FUNGI FARNEI VEL BOLETI
MORELS ARE COOKED QUICKLY IN GARUM AND PEPPER, TAKEN OUT, ALLOWED TO DRIP; ALSO BROTH WITH CRUSHED PEPPER MAY BE USED [to cook the mushrooms in].
PEPPER, REDUCED WINE, VINEGAR AND OIL.
IN SALT WATER, WITH OIL, PURE WINE, AND SERVE WITH CHOPPED CORIANDER.
FRESH MUSHROOMS ARE STEWED  IN REDUCED WINE WITH A BUNCH OF GREEN CORIANDER, WHICH REMOVE BEFORE SERVING.
MUSHROOM STEMS [or buds, very small mushrooms] ARE COOKED IN BROTH. SERVE SPRINKLED WITH SALT.
 Tor. Boletorum coliculi; G.-V. calyculos.
SLICE THE MUSHROOM STEMS  [stew them as directed above] AND FINISH BY COVERING THEM WITH EGGS  ADDING PEPPER, LOVAGE, A LITTLE HONEY, BROTH AND OIL TO TASTE.
  G.-V. in patellam novam; nothing said about eggs. Tor. concisos in patellam; ovaque perfundes; Tac. ova perfundis.
A mushroom omelette.
SCRAPE [brush] THE TRUFFLES, PARBOIL, SPRINKLE WITH SALT, PUT SEVERAL OF THEM ON A SKEWER, HALF FRY THEM; THEN PLACE THEM IN A SAUCE PAN WITH OIL, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, WINE, PEPPER, AND HONEY. WHEN DONE [retire the truffles] BIND [the liquor] WITH ROUX, DECORATE THE TRUFFLES NICELY AND SERVE .
 This formula clearly shows up the master Apicius. Truffles, among all earthly things, are the most delicate and most subtle in flavor. Only a master cook is privileged to handle them and to do them justice.
Today, whenever we are fortunate enough to obtain the best fresh truffles, we are pursuing almost the same methods of preparation as described by Apicius.
The commercially canned truffles bear not even a resemblance of their former selves.
[Par]BOIL THE TRUFFLES, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND FASTEN THEM ON SKEWERS, HALF FRY THEM AND THEN PLACE THEM IN A SAUCE PAN WITH BROTH, VIRGIN OIL, REDUCED WINE, A LITTLE PURE WINE  CRUSHED PEPPER AND A LITTLE HONEY; ALLOW THEM TO FINISH [gently and well covered] WHEN DONE, BIND THE LIQUOR WITH ROUX, PRICK THE TRUFFLES SO THEY MAY BECOME SATURATED WITH THE JUICE, DRESS THEM NICELY, AND WHEN REAL HOT, SERVE.
 Preferably Sherry or Madeira.
IF YOU WISH YOU MAY ALSO WRAP THE TRUFFLES IN CAUL OF PORK, BRAISE AND SO SERVE THEM.
STEW THE TRUFFLES IN WINE SAUCE, WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, RUE, BROTH, HONEY, WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL.
BRAISE THE TRUFFLES WITH PEPPER, MINT, RUE, HONEY, OIL, AND A LITTLE WINE. HEAT AND SERVE.
PEPPER, CUMIN, SILPHIUM, MINT, CELERY, RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, OR WINE, SALT OR BROTH, A LITTLE OIL.
 Wanting in G.-V.
COOK THE TRUFFLES WITH LEEKS, SALT, PEPPER, CHOPPED CORIANDER, THE VERY BEST WINE AND A LITTLE OIL.
 Wanting in Tor.
TARO, DASHEEN IN COLOCASIO
FOR THE COLOCASIUM (WHICH IS REALLY THE COLOCASIA PLANT, ALSO CALLED “EGYPTIAN BEAN”) USE  PEPPER, CUMIN, RUE, HONEY, OR BROTH, AND A LITTLE OIL; WHEN DONE BIND WITH ROUX  COLOCASIUM IS THE ROOT OF THE EGYPTIAN BEAN WHICH IS USED EXCLUSIVELY .
 Tor. who is trying hard to explain the colocasium. His name, “Egyptian Bean” may be due to the mealiness and bean-like texture of the colocasium tuber; otherwise there is no resemblance to a bean, except, perhaps, the seed pod which is not used for food. This simile has led other commentators to believe that the colocasium in reality was a bean.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has in recent years imported various specimens of that taro species (belonging to the colocasia), and the plants are now successfully being farmed in the southern parts of the United States, with fair  prospects of becoming an important article of daily diet. The Department has favored us repeatedly with samples of the taro, or dasheen, (Colocasium Antiquorum) and we have made many different experiments with this agreeable, delightful and important “new” vegetable. It can be prepared in every way like a potato, and possesses advantages over the potato as far as value of nutrition, flavor, culture and keeping qualities are concerned. As a commercial article, it is not any more expensive than any good kind of potato. It grows where the potato will not thrive, and vice versa. It thus saves much in freight to parts where the potato does not grow.
The ancient colocasium is no doubt a close relative of the modern dasheen or taro. The Apician colocasium was perhaps very similar to the ordinary Elephant-Ear, colocasium Antiquorum Schott, often called caladium esculentum, or tanyah, more recently called the “Dasheen” which is a corruption of the French “de Chine”—from China—indicating the supposed origin of this variety of taro. The dasheen is a broad-leaved member of the arum family. The name dasheen originated in the West Indies whence it was imported into the United States around 1910, and the name is now officially adopted.
Mark Catesby, in his Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, London, 1781, describes briefly under the name of arum maximum Aegypticum a plant which was doubtless one of the tanyahs or taros. He says: “This was a welcome improvement among the negroes and was esteemed a blessing; they being delighted with all their African food, particularly this, which a great part of Africa subsists much on.”
Torinus, groping for the right name, calls it variously colosium, coledium, coloesium, till he finally gets it right, colocasium.
 The root or tubers of this plant was used by the ancients as a vegetable. They probably boiled and then peeled and sliced the tubers, seasoning the pieces with the above ingredients, heated them in bouillon stock and thickened the gravy in the usual way. Since the tuber is very starchy, little roux is required for binding.
 Afterthought by Tor. printed in italics on the margin of his book.
TAKE SNAILS AND SPONGE THEM; PULL THEM OUT OF THE SHELLS BY THE MEMBRANE AND PLACE THEM FOR A DAY IN A VESSEL WITH MILK AND SALT  RENEW THE MILK DAILY. HOURLY  CLEAN THE SNAILS OF ALL REFUSE, AND WHEN THEY ARE SO FAT THAT THEY CAN NO LONGER RETIRE [to their shells] FRY THEM IN OIL AND SERVE  THEM WITH WINE SAUCE. IN A SIMILAR WAY THEY MAY BE FED ON A MILK PORRIDGE .
 Just enough so they do not drown.
 Wanting in Tor.
 The Romans raised snails for the table in special places called cochlearia. Fluvius Hirpinus is credited with having popularized the snail in Rome a little before the civil wars between Cæsar and Pompey. If we could believe Varro, snails grew to enormous proportions. A supper of the younger Pliny consisted of a head of lettuce, three snails, two eggs, a barley cake, sweet wine, refrigerated in snow.
Snails as a food are not sufficiently appreciated by the Germanic races who do not hesitate to eat similar animals and are very fond of such food as oysters, clams, mussels, cocles, etc., much of which they even eat in the raw state.
THE SNAILS ARE FRIED WITH PURE SALT AND OIL AND [a sauce of] LASER, BROTH, PEPPER AND OIL IS UNDERLAID; OR THE FRIED SNAILS ARE FULLY COVERED WITH BROTH, PEPPER AND CUMIN.
Tor. divides this into three articles.
THE LIVE SNAILS ARE SPRINKLED WITH MILK MIXED WITH THE FINEST WHEAT FLOUR, WHEN FAT AND NICE AND PLUMP THEY ARE COOKED.
FRIED EGGS ARE FINISHED IN WINE SAUCE.
ARE SEASONED WITH BROTH, OIL, PURE WINE, OR ARE SERVED WITH BROTH, PEPPER AND LASER.
SERVE PEPPER, LOVAGE, SOAKED NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH.
END OF BOOK VII
EXPLICIT APICII POLYTELES: LIBER SEPTIMUS [Tac.]
Combination broiler and stove; charcoal fuel. The sliding rods are adjustable to the size of food to be cooked thereon. Pans of various sizes would rest on these rods. In the rear two openings to hold the caccabus, or stewpot, of which we have four different illustrations. The craticula usually rested on top of a stationary brick oven or range. The apparatus, being moveable, is very ingenious. The roughness of the surface of this specimen is caused by corrosion and lava adhering to its metal frame. Found in Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 121321; Field M., 26145.
A stewpot, marmite, kettle. The cover, rising from the circumference to the center in a succession of steps, fits inside the mouth of the kettle. Ntl. Mus., Naples 72766; Field M., 24178.
Lib. VIII. Tetrapus
|CHAP.||V.||BEEF AND VEAL.|
|CHAP.||VI.||KID AND LAMB.|
IT IS CLEANED; SPRINKLED WITH SALT AND CRUSHED CUMIN AND THUS LEFT. THE NEXT DAY IT IS PUT INTO THE OVEN; WHEN DONE SEASON WITH CRUSHED PEPPER. A SAUCE FOR BOAR: HONEY  BROTH, REDUCED WINE, RAISIN WINE.
 Lan., Tor. vel instead of mel.
YOU BOIL THE BOAR IN SEA WATER WITH SPRIGS OF LAUREL; WHEN DONE NICE AND SOFT, REMOVE THE SKIN, SERVE WITH SALT, MUSTARD, VINEGAR.
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, SEEDLESS MYRTLE BERRIES, CORIANDER, ONIONS; ADD HONEY, WINE, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL; HEAT AND TIE WITH ROUX. THE BOAR ROASTED IN THE OVEN, IS MASKED WITH THIS SAUCE, WHICH YOU MAY USE FOR ANY KIND OF ROAST GAME .
 Tor. continues without interruption.
CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, MINT, THYME, SATURY, SAFFRON, TOASTED NUTS, OR TOASTED ALMONDS, HONEY, WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR AND A LITTLE OIL.
 Tor. In aprum uerò assum, indicating, perhaps, that ordinary pork also was prepared “boar style.” Cf. ℞ No. 362.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, MINT, THYME, TOASTED NUTS, WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND A LITTLE OIL. WHEN THE SIMPLE BROTH  IS BOILING INCORPORATE THE CRUSHED THINGS AND STIR WITH AN AROMATIC BOUQUET OF ONIONS AND RUE. IF YOU DESIRE TO MAKE THIS A RICHER SAUCE, TIE IT WITH WHITES OF EGG, STIRRING THE LIQUID EGG IN GENTLY. SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Presumably the broth or stock in which the meat was roasted or braised.
REAL SAUCE FOR BOILED BOAR IS COMPOSED IN THIS MANNER  PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, SILPHIUM, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, MUSTARD, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
PEPPER, CUMIN, LOVAGE, CRUSHED CORIANDER SEED,  DILL SEED, CELERY SEED, THYME, ORIGANY, LITTLE ONION, HONEY, VINEGAR, MUSTARD, BROTH AND OIL.
 ℞ No. 336 precedes this formula in Tor.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DILL SEED, THYME, ORIGANY, LITTLE SILPHIUM, RATHER MORE MUSTARD SEED, ADD PURE WINE, SOME GREEN HERBS, A LITTLE ONION, CRUSHED NUTS FROM THE PONTUS, OR ALMONDS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, SOME MORE PURE WINE, COLOR WITH REDUCED MUST [and add] BROTH AND OIL .
 Strongly resembling our vinaigrette.
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, CUMIN, FENNEL SEED, RUE, BROTH, WINE, RAISIN WINE; HEAT, WHEN DONE TIE WITH ROUX; COVER THE MEAT WITH THIS SAUCE SO AS TO PENETRATE THE MEAT AND SERVE.
LOOSEN THE MEAT FROM THE BONES BY MEANS OF A WOODEN STICK IN ORDER TO FILL THE CAVITY LEFT BY THE BONES WITH DRESSING WHICH IS INTRODUCED THROUGH A FUNNEL. [The dressing season with] CRUSHED PEPPER, LAUREL BERRIES AND RUE; IF YOU LIKE, ADD LASER, THE BEST KIND OF BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND SPRINKLE WITH FRESH OIL. WHEN THE FILLING IS DONE, TIE THE PARTS THUS STUFFED IN LINEN, PLACE THEM IN THE STOCK POT IN WHICH THEY ARE TO BE COOKED AND BOIL THEM IN SEA WATER, WITH A SPRIG OF LAUREL AND DILL .
 G.-V. Terentina, referring to a place in the Campus Martius, where the ludi seculares were celebrated. Tor. recentia, fresh.
 The dressing consisted principally of pork or veal pounded fine, seasoned as directed above, and tied with eggs, as is often prescribed by Apicius.
To verify how little high class cookery methods have changed consult one of the foremost of modern authorities, Auguste Escoffier, of the Carlton and Ritz  hotels, London and Paris, who in his “Guide Culinaire” presents this dish under its ancient Italian name of Zampino.
VENISON [Stag] IN CERVO
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY  ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, FENNEL SEED, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE  RAISIN WINE AND A LITTLE OIL. WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX; THE COOKED MEAT IMMERSE IN THIS SAUCE [braise] TO PENETRATE AND TO SOFTEN, AND SERVE. FOR BROAD HORN DEER AS WELL AS FOR OTHER VENISON FOLLOW SIMILAR METHODS AND USE THE SAME CONDIMENTS.
 Tor. carenum; Hum. legendum: careum.
 Wanting in Tor.
PARBOIL AND BRAISE THE VENISON. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL; HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX AND POUR OVER THE ROAST.
 Tor. Another little sauce for venison.
MIX PEPPER, LOVAGE, ONION, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY, BROTH, MUSTARD, VINEGAR, OIL .
 Resembling a vinaigrette, except for the nuts and dates.
PEPPER, CUMIN, CONDIMENTS, PARSLEY, ONION, RUE, HONEY, BROTH, MINT, RAISIN WINE, REDUCED WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL; BIND WITH ROUX WHEN BOILING.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, CUMIN, TOASTED NUTS OR ALMONDS, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, A LITTLE OIL; ADD BROTH AND STIR WELL.
PEPPER, NARD LEAVES, CELERY SEED, DRY ONIONS, GREEN RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, ADD DATES, RAISINS AND OIL.
 Tor. Intinctus, same; a marinade, a pickle or sauce in which to preserve or to flavor raw meat or fish.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, STEWED DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL; STIR WITH A FAGOT OF LEEKS AND SATURY .
 A fagot of herbs; regarding this method of flavoring. Cf. notes to ℞ No. 277 seq.
A sauce resembling our Cumberland, very popular with venison which is sweetened with currant jelly instead of the above prunes.
CHAMOIS, GAZELLE IN CAPREA
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CUMIN, PARSLEY, RUE SEED, HONEY, MUSTARD, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.
PEPPER, HERBS, RUE, ONION, HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE, A LITTLE OIL, BIND WITH ROUX.
AS ABOVE IS MADE WITH PARSLEY AND MARJORAM .
 Wanting in G.-V.
PEPPER, SPICES, PARSLEY, A LITTLE ORIGANY, RUE, BROTH, HONEY, RAISIN WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL; BIND WITH ROUX .
 Wanting in Tor.
WILD SHEEP IN OVIFERO (HOC EST OVIS SILVATICA) 
[THAT IS, (ROAST) THE MEAT, PREPARE A SAUCE OF]  PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DRY MINT , THYME, SILPHIUM, MOISTEN WITH WINE, ADD STEWED DAMASCUS PRUNES, HONEY, WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR, RAISIN WINE,—ENOUGH TO COLOR—AND STIR WITH A WHIP OF ORIGANY AND DRY MINT .
 G.-V., List. in ovi fero; Dann. “wild eggs,” i.e., the eggs of game birds, and he comes to the conclusion that game birds themselves are meant to be used in this formula, as no reference to “eggs” is made.
There can be no doubt but what this formula deals with the preparation of sheep; Torinus says expressly: oviferum, hoc est, carnem ovis sylvestris—the meat of sheep from the woods, mountain sheep. Ferum is “wild,” “game,” but it also means “pregnant.” For this double sense the formula may be interpreted as dealing with either wild sheep, or with pregnant sheep, or, more probably, with unborn baby lamb, which in antiquity as today is often killed principally for its skin.
 Mint is still associated with lamb; the above sauce appears to be merely an elaborate Roman ancestor of our modern mint sauce, served with lamb, the chief ingredients of which are mint, vinegar and sugar, served both hot and cold.
8 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, RUE, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, JUNIPER, THYME, DRY MINT, 6 SCRUPLES IN WEIGHT [each] 3 SCRUPLES OF FLEA-BANE; REDUCE ALL THIS TO THE FINEST POWDER, PUT IT TOGETHER IN A VESSEL WITH SUFFICIENT HONEY AND USE IT WITH VINEGAR AND GARUM.
 Tor. Jusculum omni venationi competens.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, CUMIN, CRUSHED TOASTED  NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND OIL; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER.
 List. omni fero; which Dann. interprets, “All kind of game.” Cf. note 1 to ℞ No. 348.
BEEF OR VEAL BUBULA SIVE VITELLINA
[FOR A SAUCE WITH FRIED BEEF OR VEAL TAKE]  PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, CUMIN, ORIGANY, DRY ONION, RAISINS, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH, OIL, AND REDUCED MUST.
 Evidently a beef or veal steak sauté. Beef did not figure very heavily on the dietary of the ancients in contrasts to present modes which make beef the most important meat, culinarily speaking. The above sauce, save for the raisins and the honey, resembles the modern Bordelaise, often served with beef steaks sauté, in contrast to the grilled steaks which are served with maître d’hôtel butter.
[or] WITH QUINCES  OR WITH ONIONS, OR WITH DASHEENS  [use] BROTH, PEPPER, LASER AND A LITTLE OIL.
 G.-V. same as vitellinam.
 Tor. cydoniis; List. succidaneis.
 Cf. ℞ No. 332 et al.
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL; HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX AND COVER THE MEAT.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, FENNEL SEED, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD AND OIL.
KID OR LAMB IN HÆDO VEL AGNO
COOK WITH PEPPER AND BROTH, ALSO WITH VARIOUS  ORDINARY BEANS  BROTH, PEPPER AND LASER, CUMIN, DUMPLINGS  AND A LITTLE OIL .
 cum faseolis, green string beans.
 Tor. imbrato; G.-V. inbracto, broken bread, regular dumplings.
 Lamb and beans is a favorite combination, as in the French haricot, made with white beans, or boiled lamb with fresh string beans, quite a modern dish. Torinus omits the cumin, which is quite characteristic.
PUT [pieces of] KID OR LAMB IN THE STEW POT WITH CHOPPED ONION AND CORIANDER. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, AND COOK WITH BROTH OIL AND WINE. PUT IN A DISH AND TIE WITH ROUX .
 It appears that the binding should be done before the stew is dished out; but this sentence illustrates the consummate art of Apicius. The good cook carefully separates the meat (as it is cooked) from the sauce, eliminates impurities, binds and strains it and puts the meat back into the finished sauce. This is the ideal way of making a stew which evidently was known to Apicius.
ADD TO THE PARBOILED MEAT THE RAW HERBS THAT HAVE BEEN CRUSHED IN THE MORTAR AND COOK IT. GOAT MEAT IS COOKED LIKEWISE.
KID AFTER BEING COOKED IN BROTH AND OIL IS SLICED AND MARINATED  WITH CRUSHED PEPPER, LASER, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL. IT IS THEN GRILLED ON THE BROILER AND SERVED WITH GRAVY. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE UP.
 The marinade is used to make the gravy.
[LET US ROAST THE KID OR LAMB, ADDING]  HALF AN OUNCE OF PEPPER, 6 SCRUPLES OF FOALBIT  A LITTLE  GINGER, 6 SCRUPLES OF PARSLEY, A LITTLE LASER, A PINT OF BEST BROTH AND A SPOONFUL OIL .
 Asarum; Tor. aseros; List. asareos—the herb foalbit, foalfoot, wild spikenard.
 Tor. continues without interruption.
MILK-FED  KID OR LAMB IS CAREFULLY BONED THROUGH THE THROAT SO AS TO CREATE A PAUNCH OR BAG; THE INTESTINES ARE PRESERVED WHOLE IN A MANNER THAT ONE CAN BLOW OR INFLATE THEM AT THE HEAD IN ORDER TO EXPEL THE EXCREMENTS AT THE OTHER END; THE BODY IS WASHED CAREFULLY AND IS FILLED WITH A LIQUID DRESSING. THEREUPON TIE IT CAREFULLY AT THE SHOULDERS, PUT IT INTO THE ROASTING PAN, BASTE WELL. WHEN DONE, BOIL THE GRAVY WITH MILK AND PEPPER, PREVIOUSLY CRUSHED, AND BROTH, REDUCED WINE, A LITTLE REDUCED MUST AND ALSO OIL; AND TO THE BOILING GRAVY ADD ROUX. TO PLAY SAFE PUT THE ROAST IN A NETTING, BAG OR LITTLE BASKET AND CAREFULLY TIE TOGETHER, ADD A LITTLE SALT TO THE BOILING GRAVY. AFTER THIS HAS BOILED WELL THREE TIMES, TAKE THE MEAT OUT, BOIL THE BROTH OVER AGAIN [to reduce it] INCORPORATE WITH THE ABOVE DESCRIBED LIQUOR, ADDING THE NECESSARY SEASONING.
 “Hollowed out like a pipe.”
 G.-V. syringiatus (id est mammotestus). Tor. mammocestis. We are guessing.
 We would call this a galantine of lamb if such a dish were made of lamb today.
This article, like the following appears to be a contraction of two different formulæ.
KID OR LAMB IS THUS PREPARED AND SEASONED: TAKE  1 PINT MILK, 4 OUNCES HONEY, 1 OUNCE PEPPER, A LITTLE SALT, A LITTLE LASER, GRAVY [of the lamb] 8 OUNCES CRUSHED DATES, A SPOONFUL OIL, A LITTLE BROTH, A  SPOONFUL HONEY  A PINT OF GOOD WINE AND A LITTLE ROUX.
IS RUBBED WITH OIL AND PEPPER AND SPRINKLED WITH PLENTY OF CLEAN SALT AND CORIANDER SEED, PLACED IN THE OVEN, SERVED ROAST.
 It is quite evident that this sentence belongs to the preceding formula; but all the texts make a distinct separation.
BEFORE COOKING THE LAMB TRUSS IT PROPERLY AND [marinate it in] PEPPER, RUE, SATURY, ONIONS, AND A LITTLE THYME AND BROTH. PLACE THE ROAST IN A PAN WITH OIL, BASTE WELL WHILE IN THE OVEN, WHEN COOKED THOROUGHLY, FILL THE PAN WITH CRUSHED SATURY, ONIONS, RUE, DATES, BROTH, WINE, REDUCED WINE, AND OIL; WHEN THIS GRAVY IS WELL COOKED [strain] PUT IT UP IN A DISH, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Tor. Tatarpeianum. Tarpeius, family name of Romans. Humelberg thinks this dish is named for the people who dwelled on Mount Tarpeius. This was the Tarpeian Rock from which malefactors were thrown.
PUT [the roast] IN THE OVEN; CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, ONION, SATURY, STONED DAMASCUS PLUMS, A LITTLE LASER, WINE, BROTH AND OIL. HOT WINE IS SERVED ON THE SIDE AND TAKEN WITH VINEGAR.
[The kid] DRESS AND PREPARE, BONE, REMOVE THE INTESTINES WITH THE RENNET AND WASH. PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, LASER ROOT, 2 LAUREL BERRIES, A LITTLE CHAMOMILE AND 2 OR 3 BRAINS, ALL OF WHICH CRUSH. MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND SEASON  WITH SALT. OVER THIS MIXTURE STRAIN 2 PINTS  OF MILK, 2 LITTLE SPOONS OF HONEY. WITH THIS FORCEMEAT STUFF THE INTESTINES AND WRAP THEM AROUND THE KID. COVER THE ROAST WITH CAUL AND PARCHMENT PAPER TIGHTENED WITH SKEWERS, AND PLACE IT IN THE ROASTING PAN, ADDING BROTH, OIL AND WINE. WHEN HALF DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTEN WITH THE ROAST’S OWN GRAVY AND A LITTLE REDUCED MUST; PUT THIS BACK INTO THE PAN AND WHEN THE ROAST IS DONE COMPLETELY GARNISH IT AND BIND [the gravy] WITH ROUX AND SERVE.
 Dann. thinks laureatus stands for the best, the prize-winning meat, but the laurel may refer to the flavor used.
List. remarks that cow’s milk was very scarce in Italy; likewise was goat’s and sheep’s milk; hence it is possible that the kid was cooked with its mother’s own milk.
PIG IN PORCELLO
PREPARE, REMOVE THE ENTRAILS BY THE THROAT BEFORE THE CARCASS HARDENS [immediately after killing]. MAKE AN OPENING UNDER THE EAR, FILL AN OX BLADDER WITH TARENTINE  SAUSAGE MEAT AND ATTACH A TUBE SUCH AS THE BIRD KEEPER USES TO THE NECK OF THE BLADDER AND SQUEEZE THE DRESSING INTO THE EAR AS MUCH AS IT WILL TAKE TO FILL THE BODY. THEN SEAL THE OPENING WITH PARCHMENT, CLOSE SECURELY [with skewers] AND PREPARE [the roast for the oven].
 Tor. impensam Tarentinam; G.-V. Terentinam.
The birdkeeper’s tube may be an instrument for the cramming of fowl.
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, LASER ROOT, MOISTEN WITH A LITTLE BROTH, ADD COOKED BRAINS, RAW EGGS, COOKED SPELT, GRAVY OF THE PIG, SMALL BIRDS (IF ANY) NUTS, WHOLE PEPPER, AND SEASON WITH BROTH. STUFF THE PIG, CLOSE THE OPENING WITH PARCHMENT AND SKEWERS AND PUT IT IN THE OVEN. WHEN DONE,  DRESS AND GARNISH VERY NICELY, GLAZE THE BODY AND SERVE.
SALT, CUMIN, LASER; ADD SAUSAGE MEAT. DILUTE WITH BROTH  REMOVE THE WOMB OF THE PIG SO THAT NO PART OF IT REMAINS INSIDE. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD WINE  BRAINS, MIX IN 2 EGGS, FILL THE [previously] PARBOILED PIG WITH THIS FORCEMEAT, CLOSE TIGHT, PLACE IN A BASKET AND IMMERSE IN THE BOILING STOCK POT. WHEN DONE REMOVE THE SKEWERS BUT IN A MANNER THAT THE GRAVY REMAINS INSIDE. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER, SERVE.
 G.-V. treats the following as a separate article under the heading of porcellum liquaminatum.
 G.-V. unum (one brain) instead of uinum.
REMOVE THE WOMB OF THE PIG. PARBOIL. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH. ADD COOKED BRAINS, AS MUCH AS IS NEEDED  LIKEWISE DISSOLVE EGGS, [add] BROTH TO TASTE, MAKE A SAUSAGE [of this forcemeat] FILL THE PIG WHICH HAS BEEN PARBOILED AND RINSED WITH BROTH. TIE THE PIG SECURELY IN A BASKET, IMMERSE IN THE BOILING STOCK POT. REMOVE WHEN DONE, WIPE CLEAN CAREFULLY, SERVE WITHOUT PEPPER.
 To have a forcemeat of the right consistency.
EMPTY THE PIG BY THE NECK, CLEAN AND DRY, CRUSH ONE OUNCE PEPPER, HONEY AND WINE, PLACE [this in a sauce pan and] HEAT; NEXT BREAK DRY TOAST  AND MIX WITH THE THINGS IN THE SAUCE PAN; STIR WITH A WHIP OF FRESH LAUREL TWIGS  SO THAT THE PASTE IS NICE AND SMOOTH UNTIL SUFFICIENTLY COOKED. THIS DRESSING FILL INTO THE PIG, WRAP IN PARCHMENT, PLACE IN THE OVEN [roast slowly, when done, glaze with honey] GARNISH NICELY AND SERVE.
 treated with honey.
  Tor. tactam siccatam for tractam.
SERVE BOILED MILK-FED PIG EITHER HOT OR COLD WITH THIS SAUCE  IN A MORTAR, PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER SEED, MINT, RUE, AND CRUSH IT. MOISTEN WITH BROTH. ADD HONEY, WINE AND BROTH. THE BOILED PIG IS WIPED OFF HOT WITH A CLEAN TOWEL, [cooled off] COVERED WITH THE SAUCE AND SERVED .
 This sentence wanting in Tor.
SUCKLING PIG CALLED VITELLIAN STYLE IS PREPARED THUS  GARNISH THE PIG LIKE WILD BOAR  SPRINKLE WITH SALT, ROAST IN OVEN. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, PUT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING VERY LITTLE OIL, HEAT; THE ROASTING PIG BASTE WITH THIS IN A MANNER SO THAT [the aroma] WILL PENETRATE THE SKIN.
 Named for Vitellius, Roman emperor.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 i.e. marinated with raw vegetables, wine, spices, etc. Cf. ℞ Nos. 329-30.
THE PIG IS GARNISHED LIKE WILD BOAR  SPRINKLE WITH SALT, PLACE IN THE OVEN. WHILE BEING DONE PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, GREEN RUE, AND CRUSH IT, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, PUT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING A LITTLE OIL, HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX. THE ROAST PIG, FREE FROM BONES, SPRINKLE WITH POWDERED CELERY SEED AND SERVE.
 List. named for Flaccus Hordeonius, (puto). Flaccus was a rather common Roman family name.
THE PIG IS BONED AND GARNISHED WITH A LITTLE WINE SAUCE  PARBOIL WITH GREEN LAUREL IN THE CENTER  AND PLACE IT IN THE OVEN TO BE ROASTED SUFFICIENTLY. MEANWHILE PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, AND LAUREL BERRIES, CRUSH THEM, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE. [Put this in a sauce pan and heat] BIND [with roux; untie the pig] REMOVE THE LAUREL LEAVES; INCORPORATE THE JUICE OF THE BONES [from which a gravy has been made in the meantime] AND SERVE.
 marinate in the ordinary way with œnogarum as the dominant flavor.
 It is presumed that the boned pig is rolled and tied, with the leaves in the center.
BONE THE PIG, PARBOIL, GARNISH; IN A SAUCE PAN. ADD BROTH, WINE, BIND. WHEN HALF DONE, ADD A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND DILL, SOME REDUCED MUST. WHEN COOKED WIPE THE PIG CLEAN, LET IT DRIP OFF; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER, SERVE.
 List. Probably named for Julius Fronto, prætor urbanus under Vitellius. Cornelius Fronto was an orator and author at the time of emperor Hadrian. Cf. ℞ No. 246. G.-V. Frontinianus.
SCALD [parboil] THE PIG [and] MARINATE  PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN [with] OIL, BROTH, WINE AND WATER, TIE A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER; [cook (in the oven)] WHEN HALF DONE COLOR WITH REDUCED MUST. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT AND CRUSH THEM, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD THE PIG’S OWN GRAVY AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE. ADD THIS [to the meat in the sauce pan] AND  LET IT BOIL. WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX. THE PIG, PLACED ON A PLATTER, MASK [with the sauce] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Tor. vino elixatus; G.-V. œnococtum.
 It is presumed that the pig is prepared for coction as in the foregoing, namely cleaned, washed, boned, etc. This also applies to the succeeding recipes of pig.
PREPARE [as above] INJECT [the following dressing made of] PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, SATURY, THE PIG’S OWN GRAVY [and] EGGS THROUGH THE EAR  AND OF PEPPER, BROTH AND A LITTLE WINE [make a sauce which is served] IN THE SAUCE BOAT ; AND ENJOY IT.
 Tor. Cæsianus; Tac. cesinianum; G.-V. Celsinianum. Lister goes far out of his way to prove that the man for whom this dish was named was Celsinus. He cites a very amusing bit of ancient humor by Petrus Lambecius, given below.
 Really a dressing in a liquid state when raw, a custard syringed into the carcass, which congeals during coction. Eggs must be in proper proportion to the other liquids. The pig thus filled is either steamed, roasted or baked, well protected by buttered or oiled paper—all of which the ancient author failed to state, as a matter of course.
“The Porker’s Last Will and Testament”
by Petrus Lambecius
(V. Barnab. Brissonium de Formulis lib. VII, p. 677)
[ex Lister, 1705, p. 196; Lister, 1709, p. 236].
“I, M. Grunter Corocotta Porker, do hereby make my last will and testament. Incapable of writing in my own hand, I have dictated what is to be set down:
“The Chief Cook sayeth: ‘Come here, you—who has upset this house, you nuissance, you porker! I’ll deprive you of your life this day!’
“Corocotta Porker sayeth: ‘What, perchance, have I done? In what way, please, have I sinned? Have I with my feet perhaps smashed your crockery? I beg of you, Mr. Cook, I entreat you, if such be the case, kindly grant the supplicant a reprieve.’
“The Chief Cook sayeth: ‘Go over there, boy! Fetch me from the kitchen that slaughtering-knife. I’m just itching to give this porker a blood-bath!’
“Mr. Porker, realizing that this is the season when cabbage sprouts are abundant, and visualizing himself potted and peppered, and furthermore seeing that death is inevitable, asks for time and begs of the cook whether it was possible to make a will. This granted, he calls out with a loud voice to his parents to save for them the food that was to have been his own in the future, to wit:
 “To my father, Mr. Genuine Bacon-Fat, appointed by me in my last will I give and bequeath: thirty measures of acorns; and to my mother, Mrs. Old-Timer Sow, appointed by me in my last will, I give and bequeath: forty measures of Spartan wheat; and to my sister, Cry-Baby, appointed by me in my last will, whose wedding, alas! I cannot attend, I give and bequeath: thirty measures of barley; and of my nobler parts and property I give and bequeath, to the cobbler: my bristles; to the brawlers, my jaw-bones; to the deaf, my ears; to the shyster lawyers, my tongue; to the cow-herds, my intestines; to the sausage makers, my thighs; to the ladies, my tenderloins; to the boys, my bladder; to the girls, my little pig’s tail; to the dancers, my muscles; to the runners and hunters, my knuckles; to the hired man, my hoofs; and to the cook—though not to be named—I give and bequeath and transmit my belly and appendage which I have dragged with me from the rotten oak bottoms to the pig’s sty, for him to tie around his neck and to hang himself with.
“I wish to erect a monument to myself, inscribed with golden letters: ‘M. Grunter Corocotta Porker lived nine-hundred-and-ninety-nine years, and had he lived another half year, a thousand years would have been nearly completed.’
“I ask of you who love me best, you who live like me, I ask you: will not my name remain to be eulogized in all eternity? if you only will prepare my body properly and flavor it well with good condiments, nuts, pepper and honey!
“My master and my relatives, all of you who have witnessed this execution of my last will and testament, you are requested to sign.
“(Signed) Hard Sausage
Thus far the story by Petrus Lambecius. The fifth of the signatories of the Porker’s Testament is Celsinus; and since the other names are fictitious it is quite possible that Lambecius had a special purpose in pointing out the man for whom the dish, Porcellus Celsinianus,—Suckling Pig à la Celsinus—was named.
Celsinus was counsellor for Aurelianus, the emperor.
CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, SATURY, ONIONS, HARD YOLKS OF EGG, BROTH, WINE, OIL, SPICES; BOIL THESE INGREDIENTS, POUR OVER THE [roast] PIG IN THE SAUCE PAN AND SERVE.
THE PIG IS BONED THROUGH THE THROAT AND FILLED WITH QUENELLES OF CHICKEN FORCEMEAT, FINELY CUT  [roast] THRUSHES, FIG-PECKERS, LITTLE SAUSAGE CAKES, MADE OF THE PIG’S MEAT, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, STONED DATES, EDIBLE BULBS [glazed onions] SNAILS TAKEN OUT OF THE SHELL [and poached] MALLOWS, LEEKS, BEETS, CELERY, COOKED SPROUTS, CORIANDER, WHOLE PEPPER, NUTS, 15 EGGS POURED OVER, BROTH, WHICH IS SPICED WITH PEPPER, AND DILUTED WITH 3 EGGS; THEREUPON SEW IT TIGHT, STIFFEN, AND ROAST IN THE OVEN. WHEN DONE, OPEN THE BACK [of the pig] AND POUR OVER THE FOLLOWING SAUCE: CRUSHED PEPPER, RUE, BROTH, RAISIN WINE, HONEY AND A LITTLE OIL, WHICH WHEN BOILING IS TIED WITH ROUX .
 Tor. Hortulanus; Gardener’s style, the French equivalent Jardinière, a very common name for all dishes containing young vegetables. However, in the above rich formula there is very little to remind us of the gardener’s style, excepting the last part of the formula, enumerating a number of fresh vegetables. It is unthinkable for any gourmet to incorporate these with the rich dressing. The vegetables should be used as a garnish for the finished roast. This leads us to believe that the above is really two distinct formulæ, or that the vegetables were intended for garniture.
 This extraordinary and rich dressing, perfectly feasible and admirable when compared with our own “Toulouse,” “Financière,” “Chipolata,” can be palatable only when each component part is cooked separately before being put into the pig. The eggs must be whipped and diluted with broth and poured over the filling to serve as binder. The pig must be parboiled before filling, and the final cooking or roasting must be done very slowly and carefully—procedure not stated by the original which it takes for granted.
CRUSH PEPPER, CARRAWAY, DILL, LITTLE ORIGANY, PINE NUTS, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, BROTH , DATE WINE, HONEY, PREPARED MUSTARD; SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE OIL, PEPPER, AND SERVE.
 Tor. only; porrò indicating that the sauce may also be served with the foregoing. Wanting in List. et al.
 Wanting in Tor.
MAKE THUS: BONE THE PIG, TREAT IT AS FOR STEWING  IN WINE [℞ No. 375, i.e. marinate for some time in spices, herbs and wine] THEREUPON HANG IT IN THE SMOKE HOUSE  NEXT BOIL IT IN SALT WATER AND SERVE THUS  ON A LARGE PLATTER .
 Tor. and Tac. traganum.
 ad fumum suspendes; G.-V. et adpendeas, et quantum adpendeas, tantum salis in ollam mittes—passage wanting in other texts, meaning, probably, that the more pigs are used for smoking the more salt must be used for pickling which is a matter of course, or, the heavier the pig, ...
 Tor. atque ita in lance efferes; Tac. & sic eum ...; G.-V. et siccum in lance inferes.
 Hum. salso recente, with fresh salt pork. Tor. cum salsamento istoc recenti and Tor. continues without interruption, indicating, perhaps, that the following formula is to be served, or treated (boiled) like the above.
ONE OUNCE OF PEPPER, A PINT OF WINE, A RATHER LARGE GLASS OF THE BEST OIL, A GLASS OF BROTH , AND RATHER LESS THAN A GLASS OF VINEGAR .
 G.-V. lactans, suckling, milk-fed; other texts: lactente: Dann. wild boar.
 wanting in Tac. and Tor.
 a variant of the foregoing, a mild pickling solution for extremely young suckling pigs, prior to their smoking or boiling, or both, which the original does not state.
Schuch and his disciple Danneil, have inserted here seven more pork formulæ (Sch. p. 179, ℞ Nos. 388-394) taken from the Excerpts of Vinidarius, found at the conclusion of the Apicius formulæ.
IS PARBOILED A LITTLE IN WATER, THEREUPON PLACE IT ON A ROASTING PAN WITH OIL, TO BE ROASTED IN THE OVEN. AND WHEN PROPERLY DONE, WITH A CHANGE OF OIL, IMMERSE IT IN THE FOLLOWING GRAVY: CRUSH PEPPER, SATURY, ONION, RUE, CELERY SEED; MOISTEN WITH BROTH, LASER, WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL. WHILE THE ROASTING [of the hare] IS BEING COMPLETED IT IS SEVERAL TIMES BASTED WITH THE GRAVY.
Wanting in Goll.
A difference in the literary style from the foregoing is quite noticeable.
[The hare] MUST BE PROPERLY KEPT [i.e. aged for a few days after killing]. CRUSH PEPPER, DATES, LASER, RAISINS, REDUCED WINE, BROTH AND OIL; DEPOSIT [the hare in this preparation to be cooked] WHEN DONE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
Wanting in Goll. Tor. continuing without interruption.
WHOLE [pine] NUTS, ALMONDS, CHOPPED NUTS OR BEECHNUTS, WHOLE PEPPER ARE MIXED WITH THE [force] MEAT OF HARE THICKENED WITH EGGS AND WRAPPED IN PIG’S CAUL TO BE ROASTED IN THE OVEN . ANOTHER FORCEMEAT IS MADE WITH RUE, PLENTY OF PEPPER, ONION, SATURY, DATES, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, OR SPICED WINE. THIS IS REDUCED TO THE PROPER CONSISTENCY AND IS LAID UNDER; BUT THE HARE REMAINS IN THE BROTH FLAVORED WITH LASER.
 Reminding of the popular meat loaf, made of remnants: Falscher Hase, “Imitation Hare,” as it is known on the Continent.
The ancients probably used the trimmings of hare and other meat for this forcemeat, or meat loaf, either to stuff the hare with, or to make a meal of the preparation itself, as indicated above.
We also recall that the ancients had ingenious baking moulds of metal in the shape of hares and other animals. These moulds, no doubt, were used for baking or the serving of preparations of this sort. The absence of table forks and cutlery as is used today made such preparations very appropriate and convenient in leisurely dining.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, HARD BOILED YOLKS, PROPERLY POUNDED, MADE INTO A PASTE. IN A SAUCE PAN BOIL BROTH, WINE, OIL, A LITTLE VINEGAR AND CHOPPED ONIONS. WHILE BOILING ADD THE PASTE OF SPICES, STIRRING WITH A FAGOT OF ORIGANY OR SATURY  AND WHEN THE WORK IS DONE, BIND IT WITH ROUX.
 Fagots, or whips made of different herbs and brushes are often employed by Apicius, a very subtle device to impart faint flavors to sauces. The custom  has been in use for ages. With the return of mixed drinks in America it was revived by the use of cinnamon sticks with which to stir the drinks.
The above hare formulæ are wanting in Goll.
A FINE HASH OF HARE’S BLOOD, LIVER AND LUNGS. PUT INTO A SAUCE PAN BROTH AND OIL, AND LET IT BOIL WITH FINELY CHOPPED LEEKS AND CORIANDER; NOW ADD THE LIVERS AND LUNGS, AND, WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT, MINT, RUE, FLEA-BANE, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR .
 Wanting in Goll.
 Tor. Condimentum ex visceribus leporinis.
 The various texts combine the above and the following formula; but we are of the opinion that they are two distinct preparations.
TO THE HARE’S LIVER ADD THE BLOOD AND POUND IT WITH HONEY AND SOME OF THE HARE’S OWN GRAVY; ADD VINEGAR TO TASTE AND PUT IN A SAUCE PAN, ADD THE LUNGS CHOPPED FINE, MAKE IT BOIL: WHEN DONE BIND WITH ROUX, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
This and the preceding formula resemble closely our purées or forcemeats of livers of game and fowl, which are spread on croutons to accompany the roast.
PREPARE THE HARE, BONE IT, GARNISH  PUT IT IN A STEW POT  AND WHEN HALF DONE ADD A SMALL BUNCH OF LEEKS, CORIANDER, DILL; WHILE THIS IS BEING DONE, PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, DRY ONION, MINT, RUE, CELERY SEED; CRUSH, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD HONEY, THE HARE’S OWN GRAVY, REDUCED MUST AND VINEGAR TO TASTE; LET IT BOIL, TIE WITH ROUX, DRESS, GARNISH THE ROAST ON A PLATTER, UNDERLAY THE SAUCE, SPRINKLE AND SERVE.
 Cf. Goll. ℞ No. 381.
 with vegetables for braising, possibly larding.
 braisière, for this is plainly a “potroast” of hare. The boned carcass should  be tied; this is perhaps meant by or is included in ornas—garnish, i.e. getting ready for braising.
THE HARE IS DRESSED, BONED, THE BODY SPREAD OUT  GARNISHED [with pickling herbs and spices] AND HUNG INTO THE SMOKE STACK  WHEN IT HAS TAKEN ON COLOR, COOK IT HALF DONE, WASH IT, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND IMMERSE IT IN WINE SAUCE. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, AND CRUSH: MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND A LITTLE OIL, HEAT; WHEN BOILING, BIND WITH ROUX. NOW DETACH THE SADDLE OF THE ROAST HARE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 This personage, Passenius, or Passenianus, is not identified.
 To bone the carcass, it usually is opened in the back, flattened out and all the bones are easily removed. In that state it is easily pickled and thoroughly smoked.
 Lan., Tac., and Tor. suspendes ad furnum; Hum., List., and G.-V. ... ad fumum. We accept the latter reading, “in the smoke,” assuming that furnum is a typographical error in Lan. and his successors, Tac. and Tor. Still, roasts have for ages been “hung on chains close to or above the open fire”; Torinus may not be wrong, after all, in this essential direction. However, a boned and flattened-out hare would be better broiled on the grill than hung up over the open fire.
THE HARE IS COOKED AND FLAVORED IN THE SAME [above] MANNER; SMALL BITS OF MEAT ARE MIXED WITH SOAKED NUTS; THIS [salpicon]  IS WRAPPED IN CAUL OR PARCHMENT, THE ENDS BEING CLOSED BY MEANS OF SKEWERS [and fried].
 We call this preparation a salpicon because it closely resembles to our modern salpicons—a fine mince of meats, mushrooms, etc., although the ancient formula fails to state the binder of this mince—either eggs or a thickened sauce, or both.
DRESS THE HARE [as usual] GARNISH [marinate] IT, PLACE IN A SQUARE PAN . IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD CHICKEN LIVERS [sauté] COOKED BRAINS, FINELY CUT MEAT  3  RAW EGGS, BROTH TO TASTE. WRAP IT IN CAUL OR PARCHMENT, FASTEN WITH SKEWERS. HALF ROAST ON A SLOW FIRE. [Meanwhile] PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE: CRUSH AND MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE, SEASON, MAKE IT HOT, WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX; THE HALF-DONE HARE IMMERSE [finish its cooking in this broth] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Quadratum imponis, which is plain enough. The hare is to be roast therein. Dann. Cut in dice; Goll. Spread it out. Cf. illustration of square roast pan.
 Presumably the trimmings of the hare or of pork. This forcemeat is supposed to be used for the stuffing of the hare; it, being boned, is rolled up, the forcemeat inside, the outside covered with caul or paper, fastened with skewers. Danneil’s interpretation suggests the thought that the raw hare’s meat is cut into squares which are filled with forcemeat, rolled, wrapped, and roast—a roulade of hare in the regular term.
DRESS THE HARE; [boil it]. IN A FLAT SAUCE PAN POUR OIL, BROTH, VINEGAR, RAISIN WINE, SLICED ONION, GREEN RUE AND CHOPPED THYME [a sauce which is served on the side] AND SO SERVE IT.
Tor. continuing without interruption.
CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, THE HARE’S LIVER, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, RAISIN WINE, A LITTLE OIL; BIND WITH RUE WHEN BOILING.
DRESS THE HARE AS FOR KID À LA TARPEIUS [℞ No. 363]. BEFORE COOKING DECORATE IT NICELY . SEASON WITH PEPPER, RUE, SATURY, ONION, LITTLE THYME, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ROAST IN THE OVEN; AND ALL OVER SPRINKLE HALF AN OUNCE OF PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, SATURY, 4 DATES, AND RAISINS. THE GRAVY IS GIVEN PLENTY OF COLOR OVER THE OPEN FIRE, AND IS SEASONED WITH WINE, OIL, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, FREQUENTLY STIRRING IT [basting the hare] SO THAT IT MAY ABSORB ALL THE  FLAVOR. AFTER THAT SERVE IT IN A ROUND DISH WITH DRY PEPPER.
 Tac., Tor. succo sparsum.
 We have no proof that the ancients used the larding needle as we do (or did) in our days. “Decorate” may, therefore, also mean “garnish,” i.e. marinate the meat in a generous variety of spices, herbs, roots and wine. It is noteworthy that this term, “garnish,” used here and in the preceding formulæ has survived in the terminology of the kitchen to this day, in that very sense.
[The well-prepared hare] COOK IN WINE, BROTH, WATER, WITH A LITTLE MUSTARD [seed], DILL AND LEEKS WITH THE ROOTS. WHEN ALL IS DONE, SEASON WITH PEPPER, SATURY, ROUND ONIONS, DAMASCUS PLUMS, WINE, BROTH, REDUCED WINE AND A LITTLE OIL; TIE WITH ROUX, LET BOIL A LITTLE LONGER [baste] SO THAT THE HARE IS PENETRATED BY THE FLAVOR, AND SERVE IT ON A PLATTER MASKED WITH SAUCE.
IS STUFFED WITH A FORCEMEAT OF PORK AND SMALL PIECES OF DORMOUSE MEAT TRIMMINGS, ALL POUNDED WITH PEPPER, NUTS, LASER, BROTH. PUT THE DORMOUSE THUS STUFFED IN AN EARTHEN CASSEROLE, ROAST IT IN THE OVEN, OR BOIL IT IN THE STOCK POT.
 Glis, dormouse, a special favorite of the ancients, has nothing to do with mice. The fat dormouse of the South of Europe is the size of a rat, arboreal rodent, living in trees.
Galen, III, de Alim.; Plinius, VIII, 57/82; Varro, III, describing the glirarium, place where the dormouse was raised for the table.
Petronius, Cap. 31, describes another way of preparing dormouse. Nonnus, Diæteticon, p. 194/5, says that Fluvius Hirpinus was the first man to raise dormouse in the glirarium.
Dormouse, as an article of diet, should not astonish Americans who relish squirrel, opossum, muskrat, “coon,” etc.
END OF BOOK VIII
EXPLICIT APICII TETRAPUS LIBER OCTAUUS [Tac.]
Schola Apitiana, Antwerp, 1535
WINE PITCHER, ELABORATELY DECORATED
“Egg and bead” pattern on the rim. The upper end of handle takes the form of a goddess—Scylla, or Diana with two hounds—ending in acanthus leaves below the waist. On the curved back of handle is a long leaf; the lower attachment is in the form of a mask, ivy-crowned maenad (?). Ntl. Mus., Naples, 69171; Field M., 24048.
Stewpot, marmite, without a base, to fit into a hole of stove. The flat lid fits into the mouth of the pot. Found in Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 74806; Field M., 24171.
Lib. IX. Thalassa
|CHAP.||VII.||ALL KINDS OF BIVALVES.|
|CHAP.||XII.||BAIAN SEAFOOD STEW.|
SHELLFISH IN LOCUSTA
CHOPPED SCALLIONS FRIED LIGHTLY, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CUMIN, FIGDATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED MUST; WHILE BOILING ADD MUSTARD.
 locusta, spiny lobster; Fr. langouste; G.-V. capparus; not clear, (cammarus, a crab); List. carabus—long-tailed lobster or crab, the cancer cursor of Linnæus, according to Beckmann; mentioned by Plinius.
MAKES THUS: IF BROILED, THEY SHOULD APPEAR IN THEIR SHELL; [which is opened by splitting the live lobster in two] SEASON WITH PEPPER SAUCE AND CORIANDER SAUCE [moisten with oil] AND BROIL THEM ON THE GRILL. WHEN THEY ARE DRY  KEEP ON BASTING THEM MORE AND MORE [with oil or butter] UNTIL THEY ARE PROPERLY BROILED .
 i.e. when the soft jelly-like meat has congealed.
 Same procedure as today.
REAL BOILED LOBSTER IS COOKED WITH CUMIN SAUCE [essence] AND, BY RIGHT, THROW IN SOME [whole]  PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, A LITTLE MORE WHOLE CUMIN, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND, IF YOU LIKE, ADD SOME [bay] LEAVES AND MALOBATHRON .
 Cumin, mustard and other spices similar to the above are used for cooking crawfish today.
 Sentence ex Tor. wanting in other texts.
 Malabathrum, aromatic leaves of an Indian tree; according to Plinius the laurus cassia—wild cinnamon.
HAVE LEAVES READY [in which to wrap the mince croquettes] BOIL [the lobster] TAKE THE CLUSTER OF SPAWN [from under the female’s tail, and the coral of the male] THEREUPON CUT FINE THE [boiled] MEAT OF THE TAIL, AND WITH BROTH AND PEPPER AND THE EGGS MAKE THE CROQUETTES [and fry].
It is understood that hen eggs are added to bind the mince.
PEPPER, CUMIN, RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.
FOR LOBSTER LET US PROPERLY EMPLOY  PEPPER, LOVAGE,  CUMIN, MINT, RUE, NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND WINE.
 Tor. rectè adhibemus, sentence not in the other texts.
RAY, SKATE IN TORPEDINE 
CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, SHALLOTS, [adding] HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE, A LITTLE WINE, ALSO A FEW DROPS OF OIL; WHEN IT COMMENCES TO BOIL, BIND WITH ROUX.
 torpedo; the raia torpedo of Linnæus; a ray or skate.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, MINT, ORIGANY, YOLKS OF EGG, HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE. WINE, AND OIL. IF YOU WISH, ADD MUSTARD AND VINEGAR, OR, IF DESIRED RICHER, ADD RAISINS.
This appears to be a sauce to be poured over the boiled ray.
Today the ray is boiled in water seasoned strongly and with similar ingredients. When done, the fish is allowed to cool in this water; the edible parts are then removed, the water drained from the meat, which is tossed in sizzling brown butter with lemon juice, vinegar and capers. This is raie au beurre noir, much esteemed on the French seaboards.
CALAMARY IN LOLIGINE 
CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, A LITTLE HONEY, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, AND OIL TO TASTE. WHEN COMMENCING TO BOIL, BIND WITH ROUX.
 Calamary, ink-fish, cuttlefish. Cf. Chap. IV. G.-V. Lolligine.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, CELERY SEED, YOLKS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, OIL, AND BIND .
 Ex List., Sch., and G.-V. Evidently a sauce or dressing. The formula for the forcemeat of the fish is not given here but is found in ℞ No. 406—stuffed Sepia, a fish akin to the calamary.
SEPIA, CUTTLEFISH IN SEPIIS
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, CARRAWAY, HONEY, BROTH, WINE, BASIC CONDIMENTS  HEAT [in water] THROW IN THE CUTTLEFISH; [when done] SPLIT, THEN STUFF THE CUTTLEFISH  WITH [the following forcemeat] BOILED BRAINS, THE STRINGS AND SKIN REMOVED, POUND WITH PEPPER, MIX IN RAW EGGS UNTIL IT IS PLENTY. WHOLE PEPPER [to be added]. TIE [the filled dish] INTO LITTLE BUNDLES [of linen] AND IMMERSE IN THE BOILING STOCK POT UNTIL THE FORCEMEAT IS PROPERLY COOKED.
 Condimenta coctiva—salt, herbs, roots.
 G.-V. treat this as a separate formula.
ARE PLACED IN A COPPER KETTLE WITH COLD [WATER] AND PEPPER, LASER, BROTH, NUTS, EGGS, AND [any other] SEASONING YOU MAY WISH.
 List. connects this article with the foregoing.
 Tor. aheno for copper kettle; List. amylo.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, GREEN CORIANDER, DRY MINT, YOLKS, HONEY, BROTH, WINE, VINEGAR, AND A LITTLE OIL. WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX.
POLYPUS  IN POLYPO
[cook with] PEPPER, LOVAGE, BROTH, LASER, GINGER  AND SERVE.
 The polypus, or eight-armed sepia, has been described by Plinius, Galen, Cicero, Diocles, Athenæus and other ancient writers. The ancients praise it as a food and attribute to the polypus the power of restoring lost vitality: molli carne pisces, & suaves gustu sunt, & ad venerem conferunt—Diocles.
Wanting in the Vat. Ms.
 Wanting in List. and G.-V. Ex Tor. p. 100.
OYSTERS IN OSTREIS
TO OYSTERS WHICH WANT TO BE WELL SEASONED ADD  PEPPER, LOVAGE, YOLKS, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, AND WINE; IF YOU WISH ALSO ADD HONEY .
 Wanting in the Vat. Ms.
 Tor. sentence wanting in the other texts.
 Cf. No. 14 for the keeping of oysters. It is not likely that the oysters brought from Great Britain to Rome were in a condition to be enjoyed from the shell—raw.
The above formula appears to be a sort of oyster stew.
FOR ALL KINDS OF SHELLFISH USE PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, A LITTLE MORE OF CUMIN, HONEY, AND BROTH; IF YOU WISH, ADD [bay] LEAVES AND MALOBATHRON .
 Wanting in the Vat. Ms.
 Cf. note to ℞ No. 399.
The shellfish is cooked or steamed with the above ingredients.
SEA URCHINS IN ECHINO
TO PREPARE SEA URCHIN TAKE A NEW EARTHEN POT, A LITTLE OIL, BROTH, SWEET WINE, GROUND PEPPER, AND SET IT TO HEAT; WHEN BOILING PUT THE URCHINS IN SINGLY. SHAKE THEM WELL, LET THEM STEW, AND WHEN DONE SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
Plinius states that only a few small parts of the sea urchin are edible.
PEPPER, A LITTLE COSTMARY, DRY MINT, MEAD, BROTH, INDIAN SPIKENARD, AND [bay or nard] LEAVES.
PUT THE SEA URCHINS SINGLY IN BOILING WATER, COOK, RETIRE, AND PLACE ON A PLATTER.
[To the meat of sea urchins, cooked as above, add a sauce made of bay] LEAVES, PEPPER, HONEY, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL, BIND WITH EGGS IN THE HOT WATER BATH  SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 This formula is combined with the preceding in the original.
 Thermospodium; in this respect resembling seafood à la Newburgh. The thermospodium is an elaborate food and drink heater, used both in the kitchen and in the dining room. Our drawing illustrates an elaborate specimen which was used to prepare dishes such as this one in front of the guests.
[The cooked meat of] SALT SEA URCHIN IS SERVED UP WITH THE BEST [fish] BROTH, REDUCED WINE AND PEPPER TO TASTE.
Undoubtedly a commercial article like crabmeat today. The sea urchins were cooked at the fisheries, picked, shells, refuse discarded, the meat salted and marketed. The fish was also salted in the shell as seen in the following:
TAKE SALT SEA URCHINS, ADD THE BEST BROTH AND TREAT THEM IN A MANNER AS TO LOOK LIKE FRESH THAT HAVE JUST COME OUT OF THE WATER.
MUSSELS IN MITULIS 
BEST  BROTH, FINELY CUT LEEKS, CUMIN, RAISIN WINE, MUST  AND ADD WATER TO MAKE A MIXTURE IN WHICH TO COOK THE MUSSELS.
 Variously spelled mytilus, mitylus, mutulus, an edible mussel.
Tor. and List. merula, merling, whiting, Fr. merlan. Merula also is a blackbird, which is out of place here. The Vat. Ms. reads in metulis.
 Tor. vinum mustum; List. v. mixtum.
SARDINES, BABY TUNNY, MULLET IN SARDA  CORDULA  MUGILE 
PROPERLY, OUGHT TO BE TREATED IN THIS MANNER: THE SARDINE IS BONED AND FILLED WITH CRUSHED FLEA-BANE, SEVERAL GRAINS OF PEPPER, MINT, NUTS, DILUTED WITH HONEY, TIED OR SEWED, WRAPPED IN PARCHMENT AND PLACED IN A FLAT DISH ABOVE THE STEAM RISING FROM THE STOVE; SEASON WITH OIL, REDUCED MUST AND ORIGANY .
 The freshly caught sardine.
 Cordyla, cordilla, the young or the fry of tunny.
 Mugil, sea-mullet.
 Tor. origany; List. alece, with brine.
COOK AND BONE THE SARDINES; FILL WITH CRUSHED PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, ORIGANY, RUE, MOISTENED WITH DATE WINE, HONEY; PLACE ON A DISH, GARNISH WITH CUT HARD EGGS. POUR OVER A LITTLE WINE, VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST, AND VIRGIN OIL.
PEPPER, ORIGANY, MINT, ONIONS, A LITTLE VINEGAR, AND OIL.
Resembling our vinaigrette.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, DRY MINT  COOKED, ONION [chopped], HONEY, VINEGAR, DILUTE WITH OIL, SPRINKLE WITH CHOPPED HARD EGGS.
 Another Vinaigrette.
 Tac. and Tor. mentam aridam coctam, dry mint cooked, which is reasonable, to soften it. Hum., G.-V. dry mint, cooked onion; there is no necessity to cook the onion. As a matter of fact, it should be chopped raw in this dressing. The onion is wanting in Tac. and Tor.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, MINT, RUE, FIGDATE [or its wine] HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE. ALSO SUITABLE FOR SARDINES.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, ONION, MINT, RUE, SAGE , DATE WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, MUSTARD AND OIL.
 Tor. calva; G.-V. calvam. Does not exist. Hum. calva legendum puto salvia.
PEPPER, ORIGANY, ROCKET, MINT, RUE, SAGE , DATE WINE, HONEY, OIL, VINEGAR AND MUSTARD.
 Same as above.
TO MAKE THEM MORE TASTY USE  PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, ONIONS, MINT, RUE, SAGE  DATE WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, MUSTARD AND OIL.
 The twelve chapters of Book IX, as shown in the beginning of the text are here increased to fourteen by G.-V., to wit, XII, IUS IN MULLO TARICHO and XIII, SALSUM SINE SALSO, but these are more properly included in the above chapter XI, as does Tor. All of the above fish were salt, and probably were important commercial articles. The silurus, for instance, is best in the river Danube in the Balkans, while the red mullet, as seen in ℞ No. 427 came from the sea of Galilee. Cf. ℞ Nos. 144, 149.
 Silurus, probably the sly silurus, or sheatfish, in the U. S. called horn-pout—a large catfish.
 Pelamis, a tunny before it is a year old.
 Tunny, Tunafish.
 Tor. wanting in the others.
 Cf. note 1 to ℞ No. 424.
IF IN NEED OF CONDIMENTS USE  PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, DATES, GROUND MUSTARD; MIX ALL WITH [flaked meat of] SEA URCHINS, MOISTEN WITH OIL, AND POUR OVER THE FISH WHICH IS EITHER FRIED OR BROILED, OMITTING SALT .
 Tor. mulo, the red sur-mullet—a very esteemed fish.
 Tarichea, town of Galilee, on the sea of Galilee. Salt mullet as prepared at Tarichea was known as Tarichus. This became finally a generic name for all kinds of salt fish, whether coming from Tarichea or from elsewhere. We have an interesting analogy in “Finnan Haddie,” smoked Haddock from Findon, Scotland, corrupted into “Finnan,” and now used for any kind of smoked Haddock. Cf. ℞ Nos. 144, 149.
 Tor. Quite correctly, he questions the need of condiments for salt fish.
 List. uses this last sentence as the title for the next formula, implying that more salt be added to the salt fish; Tor. is explicit in saying that no salt be added which of course, is correct.
ANOTHER WAY, WITHOUT SALT [PORK?] ALITER, SINE SALSO 
COOK THE LIVER [of the mullet] CRUSH  AND ADD PEPPER, EITHER BROTH OR SALT  ADD OIL, LIVER OF HARE, OR OF LAMB  OR OF CHICKEN, AND, IF YOU LIKE, PRESS INTO A FISH MOULD  [unmould, after baking] SPRINKLE WITH VIRGIN OIL .
 G.-V. plainly, a contradiction. The possible meaning may be, “Salt Fish, without salt pork” as salt fish is frequently served with bacon.
 Dann. Crush the liver, which is probably correct. A paste or forcemeat of the livers and fish were made.
 The addition of salt would be superfluous if the liver of salt meat is used, excepting if the liver of hare, etc., predominated.
 G.-V. or liver of kid, wanting in Tor.
 Such fish-shape moulds existed, made of bronze, artistically finished, same as we possess them today; such moulds were made in various styles and shapes. Cf. ℞ No. 384.
  This is an attempt to make a “fish” of livers, not so much with the intention to deceive as to utilize the livers in an attractive way. A very nutritious dish and a most ingenious device, requiring much skill.
This is another good example of Roman cookery, far from being extravagant as it is reputed to be, it is economical and clever, and shows ingenuity in the utilization of good things which are often discarded as worthless.
CUMIN, PEPPER, BROTH, WHICH CRUSH, ADDING A LITTLE RAISIN WINE, OR REDUCED WINE, AND A QUANTITY OF CRUSHED NUTS. MIX EVERYTHING WELL, INCORPORATE WITH THE SALT  [fish]; MIX IN A LITTLE OIL AND SERVE.
 G.-V. Alter vice salsi.
 Tor. & salibus imbue; List. & salsa redde. There is no sense to Lister’s version, nor can we accept G.-V. who have et salari defundes.
TAKE AS MUCH CUMIN AS YOUR FIVE FINGERS WILL HOLD; CRUSH HALF OF THAT QUANTITY OF PEPPER AND ONE PIECE OF PEELED GARLIC, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND MIX IN A LITTLE OIL. THIS WILL CORRECT AND BENEFIT A SOUR STOMACH AND PROMOTE DIGESTION .
 Tor., G.-V. sine.
 The title has reference to salt fish or salt pork; but the formula obviously is of a medicinal character and has no place here.
MINCED [poached] OYSTERS, MUSSELS  [or scallops] AND SEA NETTLES PUT IN A SAUCE PAN WITH TOASTED NUTS, RUE, CELERY, PEPPER, CORIANDER, CUMIN, RAISIN WINE, BROTH, REDUCED WINE AND OIL.
 List. emphractum—a caudle, a stew. Seafood stews of this sort are very popular in the South of Europe, the most famous among them being the Bouillabaisse of Marseilles.
 Baiæ, a very popular seaside resort of the ancients located in the bay of Naples. The stew was named after the place. Horace liked the place but Seneca warned against it.
  Tor. spondylos; List. sphondylos—scallops. Both terms, if used in connection with the shellfish are correct. Lister in several places confuses this term with spongiolus—mushroom. This instance is the final vindication of Torinus, whose correctness was maintained in ℞ Nos. 41, 47, 115, seq.; 120, 121, 183, 309, seq.
END OF BOOK IX 
EXPLICIT APICII THALASSA LIBER NONUS 
 It appears to us that Book IX and the following, Book X, judging from its recipes, phraseology and from other appearances is by a different author than the preceding books. (Long after having made this observation, we learn from Vollmer, Studien, that Books IX and X were missing in the Archetypus Fuldensis.)
The indenture is corrugated to receive the juices of the roast. Hildesheim Treas.
TITLE PAGE, TORINUS EDITION, BASEL, 1541
Inscribed with comments by Lappius, contemporary scholar. The fly-leaf bears the autograph of M. Tydeman, 1806, and references to the above Lappius. There are further inscriptions by ancient hands in Latin and French, referring to the Barnhold [sic] Apicius, to The Diaitetike, to Aulus Cornelius, Celsus, Hippocrates and Galen. Also complaints about the difficulties to decipher the Apician text.
SHALLOW SAUCE PAN
The plain bowl is molded, the fluted handle ends in a head of the young Hercules in a lion’s skin, with the paws tied under the neck. This corresponds somewhat to our modern chafing dish pan both in size and in utility. This pan was used in connection with the plain thermospodium for the service of hot foods in the dining room. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 73438; Field M., 24032.
Stewpot, kettle, marmite. The cover fits over the mouth. The rings in which the bail plays are attached by rivets to a sort of collar encircling the neck of the pot. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 74775; Field M., 24173.
Lib. X. Halieus
|CHAP.||I.||DIFFERENT KINDS OF FISH.|
The numbers of the chapters differ in the various texts.
USE ANY KIND OF FISH. PREPARE [clean, salt, turn in flour] SALT  AND FRY IT. CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, ORIGANY, AND RUE, ALL CRUSHED FINE, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, DATE WINE, HONEY, REDUCED MUST, OIL AND BROTH. POUR IN A SAUCE PAN, PLACE ON FIRE, WHEN SIMMERING POUR OVER THE FRIED FISH, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 This chapter principally deals with fish sauces. Apparently it is by a different author than Books I-VIII, which have many formulæ for fish. While we have no direct proof, we are inclined to believe that Book X is a Roman version of a Greek treatise on fish sauces, a monograph, of which there existed many, according to Athenæus, which specialized on the various departments of cookery.
 Tor. Diabotom (in Greek characters); Greek, relating to herbs.
 Tor. G.-V. in.
 G.-V. salsas.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, SMALL ONIONS, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD, A LITTLE OIL; HEAT THIS SAUCE, AND IF YOU WISH [it to be richer, add] RAISINS.
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, SATURY, ONION, [hard] BOILED YOLKS, RAISIN WINE, VINEGAR, OIL AND BROTH.
 Tor. frixo—fried fish, although his heading reads elixo.
PREPARE THE FISH CAREFULLY; IN THE MORTAR PUT SALT, CORIANDER SEED, CRUSH AND MIX WELL; TURN THE FISH THEREIN, PUT IT IN A PAN, COVER IT AND SEAL IT WITH PLASTER  COOK IT IN THE OVEN. WHEN DONE RETIRE [the fish from the pan] SPRINKLE WITH STRONG VINEGAR AND SERVE.
 Remarkable culinary ingenuity, resembling in principle the North American Indian method of cooking whitefish wrapped in clay. Today we use flour and water made into a stiff paste to seal a pan hermetically if no “pressure cooker” is available.
This formula cannot be classified under “Sauce for Boiled Fish.”
WHEN THE FISH IS PREPARED, PUT THE SAME IN A FLAT PAN WITH CORIANDER SEED, WATER AND GREEN DILL; WHEN COOKED SPRINKLE WITH VINEGAR AND SERVE .
 Another fair example of the incompleteness, on the one hand, of the directions, and of the superfluity, on the other hand, of words such as the initial and the closing words, which characterizes so many of the formulæ. This is characteristic of ever so many culinary authors of all ages, who, lacking literary training, assume that the reader is thoroughly versed with the methods indicated. A versatile modern author would have said: “Poach the filleted fish in small water seasoned with coriander seed and green dill; sprinkle with vinegar before serving.” He mentioned neither the salt nor the oil which he undoubtedly used.
PEPPER, DRY ONIONS [shallots] LOVAGE, CUMIN, ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES [pounded in the mortar] FILLED UP  WITH VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, AND OIL, AND COOK IT.
 Alexandria, Egyptian city, at the mouth of the river Nile, third of the three great cities of antiquity excepting Carthage during Apicius’ time a rival of Rome and Athens in splendor and commerce. Most important as a Mediterranean port, where fishing and fish eating was (and still is) good.
 G.-V. mulsum, mead.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, SEEDLESS RAISINS, WINE, RAISIN WINE, BROTH, OIL, COOKED TOGETHER.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, ONIONS, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES, RAISIN WINE, BROTH, OIL AND VINEGAR, AND COOK.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CRUSHED CUMIN, ORIGANY, DRY ONIONS, HARD YOLKS, WINE, MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, AND COOK.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, ONIONS, SEEDLESS RAISINS, WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; AND COOK IT 
 Cornuta, cornutus—“horned,” “having horns”—an unidentified sea fish.
 Goll. collects all succeeding formulæ for sauces into one.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, RUE, HONEY, NUTS, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL; HEAT AND POUR OVER .
 List. is of the opinion that this is fresh mullet, while salt mullet was treated in the preceding formulæ.
RUE, MINT, CORIANDER, FENNEL,—ALL OF THEM GREEN—PEPPER, LOVAGE, HONEY, BROTH, AND A LITTLE OIL.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, GREEN CORIANDER, ONION, SEEDLESS RAISINS , RAISIN WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, OIL, AND COOK.
 Wanting in Tor.
THIS SAUCE IS ALSO SUITABLE FOR BOILED [tunny]; IF DESIRED ADD HONEY.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CRUSHED CUMIN, ONIONS, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE, MEAD, VINEGAR, OIL, REDUCED MUST; COOK IT.
 Perca, perch—sea perch or sea bass.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, WILD THYME, CELERY SEED, DRY ONIONS, WINE, RAISIN WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL; BIND WITH ROUX.
 Rubellio—a “reddish” fish; perhaps a species of the red-mullet or red-snapper. Hum. says the Latins called the fish rubelliones, rubellos and rubros; the Greeks erythrinos or erythricos, because of their reddish color. A fish, according to Athenæus similar to the pager or pagrus, phager or phagrus, also called pagur, which is not quite identified.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, SATURY, SAFFRON , ONIONS, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE, MEAD, VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND OIL; COOK IT .
 V. doubting that this is broiled.
 Tor. Crocomagma; List. crocum magnum, still used today in some fish preparations, particularly in the Bouillabaisse.
 The laconic style in which all these fish preparations are given, is very confusing to the uninitiated. We assume that most of these ingredients were used to season the water in which to boil fish; or, to make a court-bouillon, a fish-essence of the bones and the trimmings of the fish, in which to poach the sliced fish. The liquor thus gained was reduced and in the moment of serving was bound with roux or with yolks, and the fish was masked with this sauce. The exceptions from this rule are, of course, in cases where the fish was broiled or fried.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, [stoned] DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE, MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, OIL; COOK IT.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CATMINT  CORIANDER SEED, ONIONS, PINE NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; COOK IT.
 Nepeta montana—nep.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, DILL, CELERY SEED, CORIANDER, DRY MINT, PINE NUTS, RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE  BROTH, A LITTLE OIL, HEAT AND BIND WITH ROUX.
 Ex Tac. and Tor.; wanting in List. and G.-V.
 Tac.; wanting in Tor.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED  CORIANDER,  FIGDATES, MUSTARD, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED WINE.
 List., Sch., Dann. add here which is wanting in Tor. rhus Syriacum—Syrian Sumach.
The originals are considerably confused on the above and the following formulæ.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, VINEGAR, CELERY SEED, SYRIAN SUMACH  FIGDATE WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, MUSTARD, AND REDUCED MUST. SERVE .
 See note to ℞ No. 452.
 Ex Tor. It appears that this formula is a correction of ℞ No. 452, as this is wanting in the other editions. Tor. also lacks the following formula.
In Tac. the above formula follows the next.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, ORIGANY, DRY ONIONS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, A LITTLE OIL, WHEN BOILING, TIE WITH ROUX AND SERVE IN A SMALL SAUCE BOAT .
 in lance; lanx may also mean a large oblong platter on which fish would be served. Cf. illustration Oval Dish with Handles.
Horace II Sat. 8—in patina porrecta—a special dish to hold the cooked murena and to display it to advantage.
Such special dishes are found in any good table service, to serve special purposes. Not so long ago special forks and knives were used for fish service which have been gradually discarded.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, GREEN RUE, ONIONS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL; WHEN BOILING TIE WITH ROUX .
 Lacertus, an unidentified sea fish.
 Cf. note 3 to ℞ No. 448.
In G.-V. this formula precedes the above.
A SAUCE FOR [this] BROILED FISH MAKE THUS  PEPPER,  LOVAGE, THYME, GREEN CORIANDER, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, OIL, REDUCED MUST; HEAT AND STIR WELL WITH A WHIP OF RUE BRANCHES, AND TIE WITH ROUX.
 Tor. wanting in others.
TUNNY, BY MEANS OF THIS SAUCE WILL BE MORE PALATABLE:  PEPPER, CUMIN, THYME, CORIANDER, ONIONS, RAISINS, VINEGAR, HONEY, WINE, AND OIL; HEAT, TIE WITH ROUX, AND SERVE FOR DINNER .
 and  first and last sentences from Tor., wanting in others.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, CRUSHED HERBS , ONIONS, FIG DATES [or fig wine] HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, MUSTARD AND TIE .
 Condimenta mortaria—herbs crushed in the “mortar”; also pulverized spices.
 “and tie” wanting in List. Leave it out, and you have an acceptable vinaigrette—a cold sauce for cold fish.
SAUCE FOR BROILED TOOTH  FISH IS MADE THUS  PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, MINT, DRY RUE, COOKED QUINCES , HONEY, WINE, BROTH, OIL; HEAT AND TIE WITH ROUX.
 Dentex; Hum. dentex forma auratæ similis, verum major—the tooth-fish is similar to the dory in shape, though larger.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 Malum Cydonicum.
PEPPER, DILL, CUMIN, THYME, MINT, GREEN RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, A LITTLE OIL, HEAT AND TIE WITH ROUX.
 Ex List.; wanting in Tor.
A SEASONING FOR DORY IS MADE THUS  PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, ORIGANY, RUE BERRIES, MINT, MYRTLE  BERRIES, YOLKS OF EGG, HONEY, VINEGAR, OIL, WINE, BROTH; HEAT AND USE IT SO.
 Aurata—the “golden” dory. Very esteemed fish. Martial, III, Ep. 90:
 Tor. wanting in other texts.
A SAUCE WHICH WILL MAKE BROILED DORY MORE TASTY CONSISTS OF  PEPPER, CORIANDER, DRY MINT, CELERY SEED, ONIONS, RAISINS, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH AND OIL.
PEPPER, CARRAWAY, PARSLEY, FIGDATE WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD, OIL AND REDUCED WINE.
 Sea scorpion, boiled like shellfish, with the above ingredients; the cold meat is separated from the shell and is eaten with vinaigrette sauce.
CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, AND HONEY; MIX IN RAISIN WINE, BROTH, REDUCED WINE; HEAT ON A VERY SLOW FIRE.
THE ABOVE, WHEN BOILING, MAY BE TIED WITH ROUX.
EEL WILL BE MADE MORE PALATABLE BY A SAUCE WHICH HAS  PEPPER, CELERY SEED, LOVAGE , ANISE, SYRIAN SUMACH , FIGDATE WINE , HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, MUSTARD, REDUCED MUST.
 Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.
 Note the position of lovage in this formula. Usually it follows pepper. We have finally accounted for this peculiarity. Torinus, throughout the original, treats “pepper” and “lovage” as one spice, whereas we have kept the two separate. He believed it to be a certain kind of pepper—piper Ligusticum. Piper, as a  matter of fact, stands for pepper, and Ligusticum is the herb, Lovage, an umbelliferous plant, also called Levisticum. The fact that the two words are here separated plainly shows that Torinus has been in the dark about this matter almost to the end.
One wonders why he did not change or correct this error in the preceding books. His marginal errata prove that his work was being printed as he wrote it, or furnished copy therefor—namely in installments. Since the printer’s type was limited, each sheet was printed in the complete edition, and the type was then used over again for the next sheet.
 Tor. thun.
 Wanting in Tor.
PEPPER, LOVAGE, SYRIAN SUMACH, DRY MINT, RUE BERRIES, HARD YOLKS, MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; COOK IT.
END OF BOOK X THE LAST OF THE BOOKS OF APICIUS
CELII APITII HALIEUS LIBER DECIMUS & ULTIMUS. EXPLICIT [Tac.]
CANTHARUS, WINE BOWL OR CUP
With elaborate ornamentation: Over a sacred fountain the walls of a theatre, with emblems of a theatrical nature and garlands of flowers and fruits, wine skins, tyrsus, torches, masks and musical instruments. Hildesheim Treasure.
OPENING CHAPTER, BOOK I, VENICE, 1503
From the Lancilotus edition, printed by Tacuinus in Venice in 1503. Identical with the two previous editions except for very minor variants. The rubrication is not completed here. Fine initials were painted in the vacant spaces by hand; the small letter in the center of the square being the cue for the rubricator. This practice, a remnant from the manuscript books, was very soon abandoned after the printing of books became commercialized.
Manuscript of the 8th Century. From the Codex Salmasianus, Excerpts from Apicius by Vinidarius.
Stewpot, marmite, or kettle. With a ring base. The cover fits over the mouth. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 74813; Field M., 24172.
Apici Excerpta A Vinidario Viro Inlustri
Vinidarius, a Goth, of noble birth or a scientist, living in Italy. Vinithaharjis is the native name. Of his time and life very little is known. It appears that he was a student of Apicius and that he made certain excerpts from that book which are preserved in the uncial codex of Salmasius, sæc. VIII, Paris, lat. 10318.
Vollmer in his Apicius commentary says that Salmasius and his predecessors have accepted them as genuine. Schuch incorporated these recipes in the Apicius text of his editions, in appropriate places, as he thought. This course cannot be recommended, although the recipes should form an integral part of any Apicius edition.
M. Ihm, who faithfully reprinted the excerpta in the Archiv f. lat. Lex. XV, 64, ff. says distinctly: “These excerpts have nothing to do with the ten books of Apicius, even if some recipes resemble each other ...” and other researchers have expressed the same opinion. Vollmer, however, does not share this view.
If I may be permitted to concur with Vollmer, I would say that the excerpts are quite Apician in character, and that in a sense they fill certain gaps in the Apicius text, although the language is strongly vulgarized which may be readily expected to be the case in the age of Vinidarius.
The recipes of Anthimus, written around A.D. 511 also confirm the close relation existing between Vinidarius and Apicius. Anthimus was the Greek physician to Theodoric I, (The Great), Frankish king living in Italy. He was not acquainted with Apicius.
SUMMARY OF SPICES BREVIS PIMENTORUM 
WHICH SHOULD BE IN THE HOUSE ON HAND SO THAT THERE MAY BE NOTHING WANTING [in the line of condiments]: SAFFRON, PEPPER, GINGER, LASER, LEAVES [laurel-bay-nard], MYRTLE BERRIES, COSTMARY, CHERVIL , INDIAN SPIKENARD, ADDENA , CARDAMOM, SPIKENARD.
 Pigmentorum—specierum—spices. The old pigmentum is really any coloring matter; the word, corrupted to pimento and pimiento is now used for sweet red pepper and also for allspice.
 Cariofilu—cærefolium—Chærephyllon; Fr. Cerfeuille; Ger. Kerbel. This should be among the herbs.
 Not identified.
OF SEEDS [to be on hand] DE SEMINIBUS HOC
POPPY SEED, RUE SEED, RUE BERRIES, LAUREL BERRIES, ANISE SEED, CELERY SEED, FENNEL SEED, LOVAGE SEED, ROCKET SEED, CORIANDER SEED, CUMIN, DILL, PARSLEY SEED, CARRAWAY SEED, SESAM.
OF DRIED [herbs, etc., to be on hand] DE SICCIS HOC
LASER ROOT, MINT, CATNIP, SAGE, CYPRESS, ORIGANY, JUNIPER, SHALLOTS, BACAS TIMMI , CORIANDER, SPANISH CAMOMILE, CITRON, PARSNIPS, ASCALONIAN SHALLOTS, BULL RUSH ROOTS, DILL, FLEABANE, CYPRIAN RUSH, GARLIC, LEGUMES , MARJORAM , INNULA  SILPHIUM, CARDAMOM.
 Not identified. Perhaps the seed of thyme, though the word bacas would be out of place there.
 Ospera, i.e., Osperios.
 Samsucu, i.e., sampsuchum Elderberries?
 Not identified; perhaps laurus innubus, dried virgin laurel leaves.
OF LIQUIDS [to be on hand] DE LIQUORIBUS HOC
HONEY, REDUCED MUST, REDUCED WINE, APIPERIU  RAISIN WINE.
 Not identified. We take it to be honey mead, or some other honey preparation, maybe, piperatum, pepper sauce.
OF NUTS [to be on hand] DE NUCLEIS HOC
LARGER NUTS, PINE NUTS, ALMONDS  HAZELNUTS [filberts] .
 Acmidula, i.e., amygdala.
 Aballana—abellana—abellinæ—avellana; Fr. avelline.
OF DRIED FRUITS [to be on hand] DE POMIS SICCIS HOC
DAMASCUS PRUNES, DATES, RAISINS, POMEGRANATES.
ALL OF THESE THINGS STORE IN A DRY PLACE SO THAT THEY MAY LOSE NEITHER FLAVOR NOR [other] VIRTUES.
|I.||CASSEROLE OF VEGETABLES AND CHICKEN||CACCABINA MINORE|
|II.||STUFFED CHARTREUSE||CACCABINA FUSILE|
|III.||BRAISED CUTLETS||OFELLAS GARATAS|
|IV.||ROAST MEAT BALLS||OFELLAS ASSAS|
|V.||GLAZED CUTLETS||ALITER OFELLAS|
|VI.||MEAT BALLS WITH LASER||OFELLAS GRATON|
|VII.||SEA SCORPION WITH TURNIPS||PISCES SCORPIONES RAPULATAS|
|VIII.||ANY KIND OF FISH, FRIED||PISCES FRIXOS CUIUSCUMQUE GENERIS|
|IX.||FRIED FISH||ITEM PISCES FRIXOS|
|X.||ROAST [Grilled] FISH||PISCES ASSOS|
|XI.||FRIED FISH AND WINE SAUCE||PISCES INOTOGONON|
|XII.||SARDINES, BABY TUNNY, WHITING||SARDAS|
|XIII.||FISH STEWED IN WINE||ITEM PISCES INOTOGONON|
|XIV.||STEWED MULLET WITH DILL||MULLOS ANETATOS|
|XV.||MULLET, DIFFERENT STYLE||ALITER MULLOS|
|XVI.||MURENA AND EEL||MURENAS ET ANGUILLAS|
|XVII.||SPINY LOBSTER AND SQUILL||LUCUSTAS ET ISQUILLAS|
|XVIII.||BOILED FISH||PISCES ELIXOS|
|XIX.||A DISH OF SOLE AND EGGS||PATINAS OBORUM|
|XX.||SUCKLING PIG, CORIANDER SAUCE||PORCELLO CORIANDRATU|
|XXI.||SUCKLING PIG, WINE SAUCE||PORCELLO IN OCCUCTU|
|XXII.||PORK, PAN GRAVY||PORCELLO EO IURE|
|XXIII.||PORK SPRINKLED WITH THYME||PORCELLO TYMMO CRAPSU|
|XXIV.||PICKLED PORK||PORCELLU EXOZOME|
|XXV.||LASER [sauce for] PORK||PORCELLU LASARATU|
|XXVI.||SAUCE FOR PORK||PORCELLU IUSCELLU|
|XXVII.||PLAIN LAMB||AGNU SIMPLICE|
|XXVIII.||KID AND LASER||HEDU LASARATU|
|XXIX.||THRUSH, HEALTH STYLE||TURDOS APONTOMENUS|
|XXXI.||SAUCE FOR PARTRIDGE||IUS IN PERDICES|
 Brevis cyboru could be nicely and appropriately rendered with “Menu,”—something minute, short,—but this list is not a menu in our modern sense. It is an enumeration of recipe names, a summary of dishes contained in the excerpts.
There is considerable variation in the spelling of the names here and in the following. Syllables ending with “u” are invariably abbreviations of “um.”
ARRANGE DIFFERENT KINDS OF COOKED VEGETABLES IN A CASSEROLE WITH [cooked] CHICKEN INTERSPERSED, IF YOU LIKE; SEASON WITH BROTH AND OIL, SET TO BOIL. NEXT CRUSH A LITTLE PEPPER AND LEAVES, AND MIX AN EGG IN WITH THE DRESSING [add this to the vegetables] PRESS [into the casserole, eliminating the juice] .
 The dish resembles a chartreuse.
 Juice should be extracted before the addition of the egg, if the dish is to be unmoulded.
CRUSH WHATEVER QUANTITY OF LEAVES IS REQUIRED WITH CHERVIL AND ONE AND A QUARTER PART OF LAUREL BERRIES, A MEDIUM-SIZED BOILED CABBAGE, CORIANDER LEAVES, DISSOLVE WITH ITS OWN JUICE, STEAM IN THE HOT ASHES, BUT FIRST PLACE IN A MOULD [when stiff unmould on a platter] DECORATE, POUR UNDER A WELL-SEASONED SAUCE, AND SO SERVE .
 Either the vegetables and chicken of ℞ No. 468 are combined with this dressing or a purée of the above cabbage, etc., is made, which will make this an integral dish. The instructions are vague enough to leave room for this choice;  but there can be no doubt but what we have here a formula for a vegetable purée or a pudding, a genuine “Chartreuse,” such as were prepared in the fancy moulds so popular in old Rome. The “Chartreuse,” then, is not original with the vegetarian monks of the monastery by that name, the Carthusians.
[Take cooked] MALLOWS, LEEKS, BEETS, OR COOKED CABBAGE SPROUTS [shoots or tender strunks] THRUSHES [roast] AND QUENELLES OF CHICKEN, TIDBITS OF PORK OR SQUAB CHICKEN AND OTHER SIMILAR SHREDS OF FINE MEATS THAT MAY BE AVAILABLE; ARRANGE EVERYTHING ALTERNATELY IN LAYERS [in a mould or in a casserole]. CRUSH PEPPER AND LOVAGE WITH 2 PARTS OF OLD WINE, 1 PART BROTH, 1 PART HONEY AND A LITTLE OIL. TASTE IT; AND WHEN WELL MIXED AND IN DUE PROPORTIONS PUT IN A SAUCE PAN AND ALLOW TO HEAT MODERATELY; WHEN BOILING ADD A PINT OF MILK IN WHICH [about eight] EGGS HAVE BEEN DISSOLVED; [next] POUR [this spiced custard] OVER [the layers of vegetables and meats, heat slowly without allowing to boil] AND WHEN CONGEALED SERVE [either in the casserole, or carefully unmould the dish on a service platter] .
 It is interesting to note how the generic terms, salacaccabia and caccabina have degenerated here. In these formulas the terms have lost all resemblance to the former meaning, the original “salt meat boiled in a pot.” Such changes are very often observed in the terminology of our modern kitchens, in every language. They make the definition of terms and the classification of subjects extremely difficult. They add much to the confusion among cooks and guests in public dining places and create misunderstandings that only an expert can explain.
 This dish affords an opportunity for a decorative scheme by the arrangement of the various vegetables and meats in a pleasing and artistic manner, utilizing the various colors and shapes of the bits of food as one would use pieces of stone in a mosaic. Of course, such a design can be appreciated only if the chartreuse is served unmoulded, i.e. if the cook succeeds in unmoulding it without damaging the structure.
PLACE THE MEAT IN A STEW PAN, ADD ONE POUND   OF BROTH, A LIKE QUANTITY OF OIL, A TRIFLE OF HONEY, AND THUS BRAISE .
 Derived from garum or œnogarum, the wine sauce. These are supposed to be meat balls or cutlets prepared with garum, but the garum is not mentioned in the formula. This also illustrates the interesting etymology of the word. It is not recognized in every-day ancient language because it is a typical technical term, the much complained-of lingua culinaria. We find, therefore, that—at least in this instance—garum no longer stands for a sauce made from the fish, garus, but that garum has become a generic term for certain kinds of sauces. Danneil renders garatus with lasaratus, which is clearly out of place.
 In this instance, and in several others, and also according to Sueton. Cæs. fluids were weighed. What idea could be more practical, useful and more “modern” than this? Sheer commercial greed, stubbornness, indolence have thus far made futile all efforts towards more progressive methods in handling food stuffs, particularly in the weighing of them and in selling them by their weight. Present market methods are very chaotic, and are kept purposely so to the detriment of the buyer.
 The original: et sic frigis.—Frigo is equivalent to frying, drying, parching; the word here has taken on a broader meaning, because the “frying” process is clearly out of question here. It appears that the terminology of frigo and that of asso in the next formula, has not been clearly defined. As a matter of fact, not many modern cooks today are able to give a clear definition of such terms as frying, broiling, roasting, braising, baking, which are thus subject to various interpretations.
MEATBALLS [previously sauté], CAREFULLY PREPARED, ARRANGE IN A SHALLOW STEW PAN AND BRAISE THEM IN WINE SAUCE; AFTERWARDS SERVE THEM IN THE SAME SAUCE OR GRAVY, SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER.
THE MEAT PIECES ARE BRAISED  IN BROTH AND ARE GLAZED  WITH HOT HONEY  AND THUS SERVED.
 Cf. note 3 to Excerpta III.
 Dann. oil; G.-V. melle—honey. It is quite common to use honey for glazing foods. Today we sprinkle meats (ham) with sugar, exposing it to the open heat to melt it; the sugar thus forms a glaze or crust.
LASER, GINGER, CARDAMOM, AND A DASH OF BROTH; CRUSH THIS ALL, MIX WELL, AND COOK THE MEAT BALL THEREIN .
 Dann. adds cumin, due perhaps to the faulty reading of the sentence, misces cum his omnibus tritis, etc.
COOK [the fish] IN BROTH AND OIL, RETIRE WHEN HALF DONE: SOAK BOILED TURNIPS, CHOP VERY FINE AND SQUEEZE THEM IN YOUR HANDS SO THAT THEY HAVE NO MORE MOISTURE IN THEM; THEN COMBINE THEM WITH THE FISH AND LET THEM SIMMER WITH PLENTY OF OIL: AND WHILE THIS COOKS, CRUSH CUMIN, HALF OF THAT AMOUNT OF LAUREL BERRIES, AND, BECAUSE OF THE COLOR, ADD SAFFRON; BIND WITH RICE FLOUR TO GIVE IT THE RIGHT CONSISTENCY. ADD A DASH OF VINEGAR AND SERVE.
 rapa, rapum: white turnip, rape; “turniped.”
CRUSH PEPPER, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, ORIGANY, RUE, FIGDATES, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, OIL, BROTH, ADDING REDUCED MUST, ALL THIS PREPARE AND MIX CAREFULLY, PLACE IN SMALL CASSEROLE TO HEAT. WHEN THOROUGHLY HEATED, POUR OVER THE FRIED FISH, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE , LAUREL BERRIES, CORIANDER, AND MOISTEN WITH HONEY, BROTH , WINE, RAISIN  WINE, OR REDUCED SPICED WINE; COOK THIS ON A SLOW FIRE, BIND WITH RICE FLOUR AND SERVE.
 Sch. ligisticum.
 Wanting in Sch.
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, SATURY, DRY ONIONS, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD FIGDATES, DILL, YOLKS OF EGG, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED MUST; ALL THIS MIX THOROUGHLY AND UNDERLAY [the fish with it].
 The fish was probably broiled on the craticula (see our illustration).
The nature of this sauce is not quite clear. If properly handled, it might turn out to be a highly seasoned mayonnaise, or a vinaigrette, depending on the mode of manipulation; either would be suitable for fried or broiled fish.
FRY THE FISH; CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, RUE, GREEN HERBS, DRY ONIONS, ADD OIL [wine] BROTH AND SERVE.
 Ihm and G.-V. œnoteganon; inotogono and in the Summary of Dishes inotogonon; Sch. eleogaro. Rather an obscure term, owing to the diversity of spelling. We would call it a dish stewed in or prepared with wine, although wine is absent in the present formula. However, it is given in XIII, which bears the same name.
Dann. is obviously mistaken in styling this preparation “oil broth.”
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE SEED, ORIGANY, DRY ONIONS, HARD BOILED YOLKS, VINEGAR, OIL; THIS MUST BE COMBINED INTO ONE  AND UNDERLAID.
 A kind of small tunny, which, like our herring, used to be pickled or salt, corresponding to the anchovy. A “sardine,” from the island of Sardinia; Sardus, the inhabitant of Sardinia.
 The absence of detailed instructions as to the manipulation of the yolks, oil and vinegar is regrettable; upon them depends the certainty or uncertainty of whether the ancients had our modern mayonnaise.
RAW FISH ANY KIND YOU PREFER, WASH [prepare, cut into handy size] ARRANGE IN A SAUCE PAN; ADD OIL, BROTH, VINEGAR, A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND [fresh] CORIANDER, AND COOK: [Meanwhile] CRUSH PEPPER, ORIGANY, LOVAGE WITH THE BUNCHES OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER WHICH YOU HAVE COOKED [with the fish] AND POUR [this preparation] INTO THE SAUCE PAN. [When the fish is done, retire it and arrange the pieces in the serving dish, casserole, bowl or platter] BRING THE RESIDUE IN THE SAUCE PAN TO A BOILING POINT, ALLOW IT TO REDUCE SLOWLY TO THE RIGHT CONSISTENCY [Strain the sauce of the fish] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 Cf. note to XI. This œnoteganon resembles the Bouillabaisse, the famous Marseilles fish chowder. In addition to the above manner it is flavored with saffron. An excellent dish, especially with the judicious addition of onions, parsley, a suspicion of garlic and small sippets of toasted bread.
PREPARE THE FISH [clean, wash, trim, cut into pieces] AND PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING OIL, BROTH, WINE, BUNCHES OF LEEKS, [fresh] CORIANDER, [fresh dill]; PLACE ON FIRE TO COOK. [Meanwhile] PUT PEPPER IN THE MORTAR, POUND IT, ADD OIL, AND ONE PART OF VINEGAR AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE. [This preparation] TRANSFER INTO A SAUCE PAN, PLACE ON THE FIRE TO HEAT, TIE WITH ROUX, ADD TO THE FISH IN THE SAUCE PAN. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 From anethus—dill—which is omitted in formula. Sch. anecatos, i.e. submersos, because the original fails to state the dill in the formula. Such conjecture is not justified.
SCRAPE, WASH, PLACE [the fish] IN A SAUCE PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH, WINE AND A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND [fresh] CORIANDER TO THE MESS, SET ON THE FIRE TO COOK. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH SOME OF THE  FISH’S OWN LIQUOR [from the sauce pan] ADD RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, PUT IT INTO A POT AND ON THE FIRE TO HEAT; TIE WITH ROUX AND PRESENTLY ADD IT TO THE CONTENTS IN THE SAUCE PAN  SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.
 It appears that the patina mentioned in this and in the foregoing formula is either a finely wrought metal sauce pan or chafing dish, or a plainer cumana, an earthenware casserole; either of which may be used for service at the table.
It may be noticed how this manner of preparing fish has a tendency to preserve all the savory flavors and juices of the fish, a process in this respect both rational and economical.
CLEAN THE FISH AND CAREFULLY PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MINT, DRY ONIONS, CRUSH, MOISTEN WITH A SMALL GLASS OF WINE, HALF OF THAT OF BROTH, AND OF HONEY ONE THIRD PART, AND A MODERATE AMOUNT OF REDUCED MUST, SAY A SPOONFUL. IT IS NECESSARY THAT THE FISH BE ENTIRELY COVERED BY THIS LIQUOR SO THAT THERE MAY BE SUFFICIENT JUICE DURING THE COOKING.
 The ancients considered the murena one of the finest of fish; the best were brought from the straits of Sicily. Rich Romans kept them alive in their fish ponds, often large and elaborate marble basins called, piscina, fattened the fish, kept it ready for use. Pollio fattened murenas on human flesh, killing a slave on the slightest provocation and throwing the body into the fish pond; he would eat only the liver of such murenas. This is the only case of such cruelty on record, and it has often been cited and exaggerated.
 Perhaps the sea-eel, or conger, according to Dann. Also very much esteemed. The witty Plautus names a cook in one of his comedies “Congrio,” because the fellow was “slippery.”
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, POUR IN VINEGAR, BROTH, YOLKS OF [hard boiled] EGGS, MIX WELL  TOGETHER  AND DRESS [the boiled shellfish meat with it] AND SERVE.
 Cf. Summary of Dishes.
 Another of Apicii hasty and laconic formulæ. No indication as to how to use the ingredients named. According to our notion of eating, there is only one way: The shellfish is boiled in aromatic water, allowed to cool off; the meat is then taken out of the shells; the above named ingredients are combined in a manner of a mayonnaise or a vinaigrette, although the necessary oil is not mentioned here. The dressing is poured over the shellfish meat, and the result is a sort of salad or “cocktail” as we have today.
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, ORIGANY WHICH MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR; ADD PINE NUTS, FIGDATES  IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD, MIX AND COMBINE PROPERLY AND BRING FORTH.
 Dann. is undecided as to whether this is dates or date wine; Goll. thinks it is mustard seed, which is not so bad gastronomically; but the original leaves no room for any doubt.
SCALE [skin] CLEAN [the soles], PLACE IN A [shallow] SAUCE PAN, ADD BROTH, OIL [white] WINE, A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER SEED, PLACE ON FIRE TO COOK, GRIND A LITTLE PEPPER, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH THE FISH LIQUOR [from the sauce pan]. TAKE 10 RAW EGGS, BEAT THEM AND MIX WITH THE REMAINING LIQUOR; PUT IT ALL BACK OVER THE FISH, AND ON A SLOW FIRE ALLOW TO HEAT [without boiling] AND THICKEN TO THE RIGHT CONSISTENCY; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER .
 Very similar to Sole au vin blanc. Cf. ℞ No. 155.
ROAST THE PIG CAREFULLY; MAKE THUS A MORTAR MIXTURE: POUND PEPPER, DILL, ORIGANY, GREEN  CORIANDER, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, WINE, BROTH, OIL, VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST. ALL OF THIS WHEN HOT POUR OVER [the roast] SPRINKLE RAISINS, PINE NUTS AND CHOPPED ONIONS OVER AND SO SERVE.
TAKE THE PIG, GARNISH [with a marinade of herbs, etc.] COOK [roast] IT WITH OIL AND BROTH. WHEN DONE, PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, RUE, LAUREL BERRIES, BROTH, RAISIN WINE OR REDUCED WINE, OLD WINE, CRUSH ALL, MIX AND PREPARE TO A POINT; DRESS THE PIG ON A SHOWY SERVICE  PLATTER AND SERVE.
 i.e. œnococtum, cooked or prepared in wine sauce.
 Dann. is of the opinion that the pig is cooked in a copper vessel, because the instructions are to serve it in patinam aheneam.
ROAST THE PIG IN ITS OWN JUICE; [when done] RETIRE; BIND THE GRAVY WITH ROUX; [strain] PUT IN A SAUCE BOAT AND SERVE.
MILK-FED PIG, KILLED ON THE PREVIOUS DAY, BOIL WITH SALT AND DILL; TRANSFER IT INTO COLD WATER, CAREFULLY KEEPING IT SUBMERGED, TO PRESERVE ITS WHITENESS. THEREUPON [make a cold dressing of the following] GREEN SAVORY HERBS, [fresh] THYME, A LITTLE FLEABANE, HARD BOILED EGGS, ONIONS, [everything] CHOPPED FINE, SPRINKLE EVERYTHING [over the pig which has been taken out of the water and allowed to drip off] AND SEASON WITH A PINT OF BROTH, ONE MEASURE OF OIL, ONE OF RAISIN WINE, AND SO PRESENT IT .
 We would first mix the liquid components of this dressing with the chopped ingredients and then spread the finished dressing over the pig. Our author, no doubt, had this very process in mind.
GARNISH [prepare and marinate] THE PIG CORRECTLY AND PLACE IT IN A LIQUOR PREPARED AS FOLLOWS: PUT IN THE MORTAR 50 GRAINS OF PEPPER, AS MUCH HONEY  AS IS REQUIRED, 3 DRY ONIONS, A LITTLE GREEN OR DRY CORIANDER, A PINT OF BROTH, 1 SEXTARIUS OF OIL, 1 PINT OF WATER; [all this] PUT IN A STEW PAN [braisière] PLACE THE PIG IN IT; WHEN IT COMMENCES TO BOIL, STIR THE GRAVY QUITE FREQUENTLY  SO AS TO THICKEN IT. SHOULD THE BROTH THUS BE REDUCED [by evaporation] ADD ANOTHER PINT OF WATER. IN THIS MANNER COOK [braise] THE PIG TO PERFECTION AND SERVE IT.
 exodionum, and in the Summary of Dishes, exozome, i.e. oxyzomum. It is curious to note the various spellings and meanings of oxyzomum. This is supposed to be a sour sauce or an acid preparation of some kind, yet this recipe does not mention acids. In fact, the presence of honey would make it a sweet preparation. We take it, the “garnish” contains the necessary vinegar or other acids such as lemon juice, wine, etc. Oxyzomum is properly rendered “pickle.”
 Dann. oil, occurring twice in his version.
 sæpius; Dann. confusing sæpe with cæpa, renders this “onions sauce.” The same occurs to him in XXVII.
IN THE MORTAR POUND PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, A LITTLE CUMIN, LIVE LASER, LASER ROOT, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD PINE NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, PREPARED MUSTARD, FINISH WITH OIL TO TASTE, AND POUR OVER [the roast pig].
IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, OR ANISE, CORIANDER, RUE, A LAUREL BERRY, POUND [all], MOISTENING WITH BROTH, [add] LEEKS, RAISIN WINE, OR A LITTLE HONEY, A LITTLE WINE, AND A LIKE AMOUNT OF OIL. WHEN THIS HAS BEEN COOKED TIE WITH ROUX.
OF THE SKINNED LAMB MAKE SMALL CUTLETS WHICH WASH CAREFULLY AND ARRANGE IN A SAUCE PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH, WINE, LEEKS, CORIANDER CUT WITH THE KNIFE; WHEN IT COMMENCES TO BOIL, STIR VERY FREQUENTLY  AND SERVE.
 Unquestionably the ancient equivalent for “Irish Stew.”
THE WELL-CLEANED GUTS OF A KID FILL WITH [a preparation of] PEPPER, BROTH, LASER, OIL , AND PUT THEM BACK INTO THE CARCASS WHICH SEW TIGHTLY AND THUS COOK [roast] THE KID [whole]. WHEN DONE PUT IN THE MORTAR RUE, LAUREL BERRIES, AND THEN SERVE THE KID WHICH MEANWHILE HAS BEEN RETIRED FROM THE POT WITH ITS OWN DRIPPINGS OR GRAVY.
 There being only liquids for this filling of the guts, a more solid substance, such as pork forcemeat, eggs, or cereals would be required to make an acceptable filling for the casings of the kid. Furthermore sausage, for such is this in fact, must be thoroughly cooked before it can be used for the filling of the carcass, as not sufficient heat would penetrate the interior during the roasting to cook any raw dressing.
CRUSH PEPPER, LASER, LAUREL BERRY, MIX IN CUMIN  GARUM AND STUFF THE THRUSH [with this preparation, ] THROUGH THE THROAT , TYING THEM WITH A STRING. THEREUPON MAKE THIS PREPARATION IN WHICH THEY ARE COOKED: CONSISTING OF OIL, SALT, WATER , DILL AND HEADS OF LEEKS.
 Cf. Summary of Dishes; term not identified, derived from the Greek, meaning to drive away all stomach ills.
 We use juniper berries today instead of cumin.
  Thrush and other game birds of such small size are not emptied in the usual way: they are cooked with the entrails, or, the intestines are taken out, seasoned, sauté, and are either put back into the carcasses, or are served separately on bread croutons. In this instance, the necessary seasoning is introduced through the throat, a most ingenious idea that can only occur to Apicius.
 In other instances we have pointed out where a small amount of water was used to clarify the oil used for frying foods. The presence here of water leads us to believe that the thrush were not “cooked,” i.e. “boiled” but that they were fried in a generous amount of oil; this would make the ancient process remarkably similar to the present European way of preparing thrush or fieldfare, or similar game birds.
For water used to clarify oil see note 3 to ℞ No. 250.
OPEN THEM, PREPARE [marinate] CAREFULLY; CRUSH PEPPER, LASER, A LITTLE BROTH, IMMERSE THE DOVES IN THIS PREPARATION SO THAT IT WILL BE ABSORBED BY THEM, AND THUS ROAST THEM.
CRUSH IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, CELERY, MINT, AND RUE; MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD FIGDATE [wine], HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; LET IT BOIL LIKEWISE AND SERVE.
 This formula evidently is a fragment.
END OF THE SUMMARY OF DISHES [of the Excerpts of Vinidarius]
EXPLI [cit] BREUIS CIBORUM
[END OF THE RECIPES OF APICIUS]
TITLE PAGE, LISTER EDITION, AMSTERDAM, 1709
Lister’s second edition was printed at Amsterdam, 1709, by very able printers, the Jansson-Wæsbergs. It is a very worthy book in every respect which, as M. Græsse says in Trésor des livres rares et précieux, may be included in the collection of the Variorum.
of Apicius Manuscripts and Printed Editions, showing relation to each other and indicating the sources of the present translation.
INCIPIT CONDITUM PARADOXUM
Opening recipe No. 1, Book 1, Apicius. From the manuscript of the 9th century in the Library of the Vatican at Rome.
A Bibliography of Apician Manuscripts and Printed Editions
|Location||No. of Ms. Books|
|New York, I||1|
|Rome, II, IV and XVII||3|
|Paris, III and V||2|
|Florence, VI, VII, VIII and IX||4|
|Oxford, X and XI||2|
|Not accounted for, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI||4|
|Total of manuscript books||18|
|(Doubtful as to present location, the Codex Humelbergii, cf. XI, Oxford)|
New York, Library of the Academy of Medicine, until 1930 in Cheltenham, Gloucester, Biblioth. Phillipps, 275, in the library of Sir Thomas Phillipps, a  codex ca. Ninth century, 4to, parchment, 275 pp., originally bound up with Phill. 386, which is said to have come from the Benedictine Abbey of St. Ghislain, founded at the end of the 7th century in the diocese of Cambrai; partly in Continental, but mostly in Anglo-Saxon minuscle of the 9th century, not unlike the Anglo-Saxon minuscle of Fulda.
Title missing. Cf. Vollmer, Studien, pp. 5-6.
The writer who has hastily inspected the manuscript in 1931 is of the opinion that three different hands wrote this book. Part of the index is gone, too. The book commences with lib. VII of the index. Bound in an 18th century French full leather binding. It was brought to America by Dr. Margaret B. Wilson and presented to the library of the A. of M. in 1931.
Rome, Vatican Library. Vat. Vrbinas, lat. 1146, Ninth century. 58 sheets, 2 blanks in the beginning and 2 at the end. Size 23.75 × 18.75 cm., heavy parchment, 20-21 lines to the page, not numbered. Sheet 1 R, illuminated by square panel in purple and gold letters (capit. quadr.) INCP || API || CÆ ||—Nothing else. Sheet 1 V—3 R the title, EPIM e || LES LI || BER I, and the titles of Book I, illuminated with columns, flowers and birds. Sheet 3 R between the foot of the columns EXPLICIVNT CAPITVLA. Sheet 3 V a panel in purple similar to sheet 1 R with inscription, INCP || CONDITV || PARADOXV. Sheet 4 R commences the text with the title, I, Conditum Paradoxum. Captions, marginal figures and initials in red. The captions are written in good uncials throughout, the first text words usually in half uncials, continuing in an even and beautiful minuscle. The Explicits and Incipits invariably in capitalis rustica. Sheet 58 V end of text with EXPLICIT LIBER X.
Traube, Vollmer and others believe that this manuscript was written in or in the vicinity of Tours in the 9th century.
Paris, lat. 10318. 8th century. Codex Salmasianus, pp. 196-203, Apici excerpta a Vinidario vir. inl. (See illustration.)
Rome, Vatican Library, Vat. Vrbinas, lat. 1145, parchment, 15th century. 51 sheets, 20 lines to the page, title, Apicius.
Paris, lat. 8209, paper, 15th century. 131 sheets, 30 lines to the page.
Florence, Laur. 73, 20. 15th century. 84 sheets, 26 lines to the page.
Florence, Laur. Strozz. 67, 15th century. 50 sheets, 23 lines to the page. Title, Apicius.
Florence, Riccardianus, 141 (L III 29), paper, 179 sheets, irregular number of lines, pp. 123-179, Apicius. 15th century.
Florence, Riccardianus, 662 (M I 26), finished April 4th, 1462, paper, 79 sheets, 26 lines to the page. Pp. 41-79 Apicius, written by Pascutius Sabinus, Bologna, 1462.
Oxford, Bodl. Canon, lat. 168 4to min. 78 pp. dated May 28th, 1490. (In fine) scriptum per me Petrum Antonium Salandum Reginensem die xxviii Maii MCCCCLXXXX.
Oxford, Bodl. Add. B 110, 15th century, Italian, cf. H. Schenkl, Bibl. Britann. I. p. 79 n. 384 and F. Madan, A Summary Catalogue of Western Mss. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 1905, p. 660. Vollmer says that this Ms. belonged to a son of Humelbergius, as proven by P. Lehmann.
Cesena, bibl. municip., 14th century.
A manuscript in the library of the Sforza brothers at Pesaro which burned in 1514, known only from the catalogue. Cf. A. Vernarecci, La Libreria di Gio. Sforza in Archivio storico per le Marche e l’Umbria, III, 1886, 518, 790.
A manuscript used by Bonifaz Amerbach and Joh. Sichardus. Cf. P. Lehman, Joh. Sichardus, Quellen und Untersuchungen, IV, 1, p. 204.
The two manuscripts mentioned by Albanus Torinus, in his edition of Apicius, Basel, 1541. In 1529 Torinus found an Apicius “codex” on the island of Megalona (Maguellone) which he used for his edition of Apicius. It is almost certain that this was not a very ancient manuscript. The way Torinus speaks of it and of the (first) Venetian printed edition in his epistola dedicatoria leaves even doubt as to whether his authority was handwritten or printed. A first edition, printed ca. 1483, may have well been a dilapidated copy such as Torinus describes in 1529. Torinus admits taking some liberties with the text and failed to understand some phrases of it. Despite this fact, his text, from a culinary point  of view seems to be more authentic than the Humelbergius and Lister versions.
The other codex according to Torinus, was found in Transsylvania by Io. Honterus of Coronea. This codex may have served as authority for the first edition printed ca. 1483 by Bernardinus, of Venice. No other mention is made of this codex anywhere, which according to Torinus, was sent to Venice from Transsylvania. The text of the Editio Princeps, by the way, is thoroughly unreliable.
Ms. Rome, Vatican Library, lat. 6803, 15th Century.
Munich, lat. 756. Ex bibl. Petri Victorii 49. 15th century. This codex is particularly valuable and important for the identification of the Apicius text. Cf. Vollmer, Studien, pp. 10 seq.
|No.||Year of Publication||Place of Publication||Language|
|1||ca. A.D. 1483(?)||Venice, Italy||Latin|
|2||A.D. 1490(?)||Milan, Italy (doubtful)||Latin|
|3||A.D. 1498||Milan, Italy||Latin|
|4||A.D. 1503||Venice, Italy||Latin|
|5||A.D. 1541||Basel, Switzerland||Latin|
|6||A.D. 1541||Lyons, France||Latin|
|7||A.D. 1542||Zürich, Switzerland||Latin|
|8||A.D. 1705||London, England||Latin|
|9||A.D. 1709||Amsterdam, Holland||Latin|
|10||A.D. 1787||Marktbreit, Germany||Latin|
|11||A.D. 1791||Lübeck, Germany||Latin|
|12||A.D. 1800||Ansbach, Germany||Latin|
|13||A.D. 1852||Venice, Italy||Italian|
|14||A.D. 1867||Heidelberg, Germany||Latin|
|15||A.D. 1874||Heidelberg, Germany||Latin|
|16||A.D. 1909||Leipzig, Germany||German|
|17||A.D. 1911||Leipzig, Germany||German|
|18||A.D. 1922||Leipzig, Germany||Latin|
|19||A.D. 1933||Paris, France||French|
|20||A.D. 1936||Chicago, U. S. A.||English|
|No.||Year of Publication||Place of Publication||Language|
|21||A.D. 1531*||Frankfurt, Germany||Latin|
|22||A.D. 1534*||Frankfurt, Germany||Latin|
|23||A.D. 1535*||Antwerp, Belgium||Latin|
|24||A.D. 1831||Heidelberg, Germany||German|
|25||A.D. 1868||London, England||English|
|26||A.D. 1912||Naples, Italy||Italian|
|27||A.D. 1920||Munich, Germany||German|
|28||A.D. 1921||Rome, Italy||Latin-Italian|
|29||A.D. 1927||Leipzig, Germany||German|
|* Excerpts and adaptations have little relation to Apicius.|
|Total of Printed Editions, in Latin||15|
|Total of Printed Editions, in Italian||1|
|Total of Printed Editions, in German||2|
|Total of Printed Editions, in French||1|
|Total of Printed Editions, in English||1|
|Total of Commentaries in all Languages||9|
|Editions and Commentaries published in America||1|
|Editions and Commentaries published in Belgium||1|
|Editions and Commentaries published in England||2|
|Editions and Commentaries published in France||2|
|Editions and Commentaries published in Germany||13|
|Editions and Commentaries published in Holland||1|
|Editions and Commentaries published in Italy||7|
|Editions and Commentaries published in Switzerland||2|
A. Vernarecci describes Mss. XIII.
F. Vollmer describes Mss. I-XVIII.
Dr. Margaret B. Wilson describes Ms. I.
Fabricius describes edition No. 2.
These summaries and descriptions of the known manuscript books and printed editions of Apicius are presented with a desire to afford the students a survey of the field treated in this volume, to illustrate the interest that has existed throughout the past centuries in our ancient book.
Copies of any Apicius edition and commentaries are scarce; famous collectors  pride themselves in owning one or several of them. Of the well-known collections of cookery books the most outstanding perhaps is that of Theodor Drexel, of Frankfurt on the Main, who owned nine different editions of Apicius. The Drexel catalogue forms the basis of a bibliography—Verzeichnis der Litteratur über Speise und Trank bis zum Jahre 1887, bearbeitet von Carl Georg, Hannover, 1888, describing some 1700 works.
The Drexel collection, combined with that of Dr. Freund, is now in the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin and is undoubtedly the finest collection of its kind.
Another famous collection of cookery books is described in My Cookery Books, by Elizabeth Robins Pennell, Boston, 1903, listing three of the Apicii.
The Pennell collection was destroyed by a flood in London while being stored away in a warehouse during the world war.
The most important bibliography, well-known to bibliophiles, is the Bibliographie gastronomique par Georges Vicaire, Paris, 1890. Vicaire mentions eleven Apicius editions.
The Baron Pichon and the Georges Vicaire collections are both dispersed.
Despite ardent efforts over a period of many years the writer has been unable to secure either an Apicius manuscript or the editions No. 1 and 2. The existence of No. 2 on our list is doubtful. Therefore, we do not pretend having inspected or read each and every edition described herein, but by combining the efforts of the authorities here cited we have gathered the following titles and descriptions in order to present a complete survey of the Apician literature.
Apitii Celii de re coquinaria libri decem || Suetonius Trāquillus De Claris Grāmaticis. || Suetonius Trāquillus De Claris Rhetoribus || Coquinariæ capita Græca ab Apitio posita hæc sunt || Epimeles, (etc. In Fine) Impressum Venetiis per Bernardinum Venetum.
No date, but attributed to ca. 1483-6. Given as the earliest edition by most authorities. 4to, old vellum, 30 sheets, the pages not numbered. Georg-Drexel, No. 13; Pennell, p. 111; Vicaire, col. 29.
Apicius Culinaris (sic) (cura Blasii Lanciloti In fine) Impressum Mediolani per Magistrum Guilierum de Signerre Rothomagensem. Anno Domini M CCCC LXXXX die VIII mensis Januarii.
Large 8vo. Edition disputed by bibliographers.
Ex Bernhold, præfatio, p. IX, who (we are translating from his Latin text) says, “Here is the exterior of the book as extant in the Nuremberg library, most accurately and neatly described by the very famous and most worthy physician of that illustrious republic, Dr. Preus, a friend of mine for thirty years; whose integrity, of course, is above reproach; these are his own words—The book is made in the size called large octavo. It must be mentioned that the sheets are  indeed large, so that the size might be styled an ordinary quarto. Fabricius, in his Bibliotheca, the newest edition, quotes a copy under this name. The entire book consists of five parts [sheets, folded into eight leaves—sixteen printed pages—stitched together] and two leaves. These five parts contain the text proper; these two sheets preceding them, are occupied by the title page, the dedication and a kind of poetic address. The text itself commences with p. 5, I should say, though there is no regular pagination. However, there are nevertheless in the lower ends of the leaves, called the limp parts, some conspicuous letters on the first four leaves of the sheets, while the remaining four leaves though belonging to the respective parts, are blank. For instance aI., aII., aIII., aIIII. Then follows the next sheet or part, signed, bI., II., III., IIII. in the same manner, with the four following leaves blank. And thus in the same manner follows sheet c, d, e. The two leaves preceding the five parts which comprise the text proper, contain the title of the book, Apicius Culinaris [sic] nowhere, to be sure, appears a note of the place or the date where and when the book was made, and on this whole first page, aside from the words already noted, there is nothing else in evidence than the picture of an angel, in the center of which there is the sign, IHS, and around the circle the following words are read, ‘Joannes de Lagniano M.’ At the feet of the angel spaces may be seen that are inscribed with the letters, I.O.L. The next page, or the verso of the title page, exhibits the dedication of Blasius Lancilotus, extending to the upper part of the third page. On this very same page occurs the poem by Ludovicus Vopiscus, addressed to Joannes Antonius Riscius, comprising five very beautiful distichs. The remaining part of the third page is finished off with the word, ‘Finis,’ while the fourth page is entirely blank. The text of Apicius commences with the fifth, as mentioned above, and from now on the leaves are numbered by letters, as previously described. At the end of the text, on the last page of the book, a poem is conspicuous, entitled, ‘Antonius Mota to the Public,’ consisting of four neat distichs, followed by another composition, containing five distichs by Joannes Salandus. And conclusion of the entire work is made with these words, ‘Printed at Milan by Master Guiliermus de Signerre Rothomagensis, in the year of the Lord 1490, on the 8th day of the month of January.’
“From this edition, the oldest as well as the rarest—with no other known earlier edition—all the variants given herewith have been collected by Goezius.” Thus far Bernhold.
The existence of this edition is doubted by Brunet, according to Vicaire. This ancient description corresponds substantially to that of Vicaire of the following edition of 1498 which Vicaire proclaims to be the first dated Apicius edition. It is interesting to note, however, what Bernhold has to say of this 1498 edition.
“Without a doubt a repetition of the preceding edition,” says he; and he goes on quoting the Bibliotheca Latina Fabricio-Ernestina (Jo. Alberti Fabricii Bibliothec. Latin. edit ab Ernesti 1708) to the effect that two editions were printed at Milan, one of 1490 by Blasius Lancilotus and one of 1498 by Guiliermus de Signerre Rothomagensis.
 Our inquiry at the Municipal library of Nürnberg has revealed the fact that this copy of 1490 is no longer in the possession of the library there.
Apicius Culinarius (in fine) Impressum Mediolani per Magistrum Guilerum Signerre Rothomagensem, Anno dni Mcccclxxxxviii, die xx, mensis Ianuarii.
(Ex Pennell, p. 111) First dated edition, 4to, 40 sheets, pages not numbered.
COLOPHON, MILAN EDITION, 1498
From the Lancilotus edition of Apicius, printed by Signerre, Milan, 1498, the first dated edition. The poems by Mota and Salandus are identical with the colophon of the 1503 Venice edition.
Note the date of this colophon and observe how easily it can be read for “the 8th day of January, 1490” which date is attributed to our Apiciana No. 2. This edition, as is noted, is doubtful, although several bibliographers speak about it.
 This copy has on the fly leaf the book plate of “Georgius Klotz, M.D. Francofurti ad Mœnum” and the autograph of John S. Blackie, 1862.
Bernhold, p. XI. Not in Georg-Drexel. Vicaire, 28; he reads Appicius [sic] Culinarius. Pennell and Vicaire read Guilerum, Bernhold Guilierum.
Vicaire’s description of this edition tallies with that of Bernhold’s and his collaborator’s account of the preceding edition. There are certain copies of this edition, bearing the following titles, Apicius de re coquinaria and Apicivs in re qvoqvinaria. Cf. Vicaire, 28-29.
Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke, Leipzig, 1926, II, p. 510, places as the first printed edition Apicius in re quoquinaria [sic] printed by William de Signerre at Milan, on the 20th day of January, 1498. The second place is given Apicius de re coquinaria printed by Bernardinus de Vitalibus at Venice, no date, circa 1500 (our No. 1). This classification follows that of Brunet in 1840. Neither the Gesamtkatalog nor Brunet make any mention whatsoever of the doubtful 1490 Milan edition (our No. 2).
Vicaire, col. 33, mentioning this edition citing Bernhold, quotes Brunet as doubting the existence of this 1490 edition, but we fail to notice this expression of doubt since our Brunet is altogether silent on the subject, same as the other bibliographers.
Vicaire, col. 28-29, quotes Brunet as saying that the undated Apicius (our No. 1) despite its sub-titles of Suetonius, contains only the Apicius text, a statement confirmed by Pennell.
A search of all the available works of Joh. Alb. Fabricius—Bibliotheca Latina [Classics], Hamburg, 1722, Bibliographia Antiquaria, ib. 1760 and the Bibliotheca Latina mediæ et infimæ [middle ages], ib. 1735, has failed to reveal a trace of the 1490 Apicius, displayed by Bernhold, as described by Fabricius and as seen by Preus in the Nürnberg Municipal Library.
Our facsimile of the 1498 colophon shows how easily its date can be mistaken for “the 8th day of January, 1490,” Bernhold’s very date! Evidently an error of this kind made victims of Preus, Bernhold and Fabricius (if, indeed, he quoted it) and caused us some ardent searching among dusty tomes. We have therefore come to the conclusion that either this 1490 edition disappeared between the year 1787 and our time or else that it never existed.
Apitii Celii de re Coquinaria libri decem. || Coquinariæ capita Græca ab Apitio posita hæc sunt. || Epimeles: Artoptus: Cepurica: Pandecter: Osprion || Trophetes: Polyteles: Tetrapus: Thalassa: Halieus || Hanc Plato adulatricem medicinæ appellat || [in fine] Impressum uenetiis p Iohannem de Cereto de Tridino alias Tacuinum. M.CCCCC.III. die tertio mensis Augusti.
4to, 32 sheets, 30 lines to the page, pages not numbered, signed a-h, by 4.
TITLE PAGE, VENICE EDITION, 1503
From the Blasius Lancilotus edition, printed by Johannes de Cereto de Tridino alias Tacuinus, Venice, 1503. This is the second dated edition of Apicius, resembling very closely the undated edition and also the Milan edition, printed by Signerre 1498, the first to bear a date. Same size as the original. This is a first timid attempt at giving a book a title page. Most books printed before this date have no title pages.
On the last page of our copy are the two poems mentioned in the 1490 Milan edition (No. 2) “Antonius mota ad uulgus” (4 distichs) and “Iohannes salandi Lectori” (5 distichs). The verso of this page is blank. The dedication, on the verso of title page, is likewise by Blasius Lancilotus. It appears that this edition is closely related to No. 2.
Vicaire, 30; unknown to Georg-Drexel and Pennell.
In the collection of the author.
Cælii Apitii || svmmi advlatricis medi || cinæ artificis De Re Cvlinaria Libri X. re || cens è tenebris eruti & à mendis uindicati, || typisque svmma diligentia || excusi. || Præterea, || P. Platinæ Cremo || nensis viri undecvnqve do || ctissimi, De tuenda ualetudine, Natura rerum, & Popinæ || scientia Libri x. ad imitationem C. Api || tii ad unguem facti. || Ad hæc, || Pavli Æginetæ De || Facvltatibus Alimentorvm Tra || ctatvs, Albano Torino || Interprete. || Cum indice copiosissimo. || Basileæ || M.D.XLI. [in fine] Basileæ, Mense Martio, Anno M D X L I.
4to, old calf, 16 pp., containing title, dedication and index, not numbered but signed in Greek letters. The body of the work commences with p. 1, finishing with p. 366, the sheets are signed first in small Roman letters a-z and numbers 1-3 and then in capital letters A-Z, likewise numbered 1-3. The titles of the books or chapters, on verso of the title page, under the heading of “Katalogos et Epigraphè Decem Voluminum De Re Popinali C. Apitii” are both in Greek and Roman characters. German names and quotations are in Gothic type (black letter). The book is well printed, in the style of the Froschauer or Oporinus press, but bears no printer’s name or device.
The Apicius treatise is concluded on p. 110, and is followed by “Appendicvla De Conditvris Variis ex Ioanne Damasceno, Albano Torino Paraphraste,” not mentioned on the title. This treatise extends from p. 110 to p. 117, comprising fourteen recipes for “condimenta” and “conditvræ”; these are followed on the same page by “De Facvltatibvs Alimentorvm Ex Pavlo Ægineta, Albano Torino Interprete” which book is concluded on p. 139; but with hardly any interruption nor  with any very conspicuous title on this page there follows the work of Platina: “P. [sic] Platinæ Cremonensis, viri vndecvnqve doctissimi, De tuenda ualetudine Natura rerum, & Popinæ scientia, ad amplissimum D.D.B. Rouerellam S. Clementis presbyterum, Cardinalem, Liber I.” The ten books of Platina are concluded on p. 366; the type gracefully tapering down with the words: “P. [sic]  Platinæ libri decimi et vltimi Finis” and the date, as mentioned. The last page blank.
TITLE PAGE, LYONS, 1541
This edition, printed in Lyons, France, in 1541, by Sebastian Gryphius is said to have been pirated from the Torinus edition given at Basel in the same year. Early printers stole copiously from one another, frequently reproduced books with hundreds of illustrations with startling speed. Gryphius corrected Torinus’ spelling of “P” [Bartholomæus] Platina, but note the spelling of “Lvg[v]dvni” (Lyons). Inscription by a contemporary reader over the griffin: “This [book] amuses me! Why make fun of me?”
Strange enough, there is another edition of this work, bearing the same editor’s name, printed at Lyons, France, in the same year. This edition, printed by Gryphius, bears the abbreviated title as follows:
Cælii || Apitii Svm || mi Advlatricis || Medicinæ Artificis, || De re Culinaria libri || Decem || B. Platinæ Cremonen || sis De Tuenda ualetudine, Natura rerum & Popinæ || scientia Libri X, || Pauli Æginetæ De Facultatibus Alimentorum Tractatus, || Albano Torino Inter || prete.
The lower center of the title page is occupied by the Gryphius printer’s device, a griffin standing on a box-like pedestal, supported by a winged globe. On the left of the device: “virtute duci,” on the right: “comite fortuna”; directly underneath: “Apvd Seb. Gryphivm, Lvgvdvni [sic], 1541.” Sm. 8vo. Pages numbered, commencing with verso of title from 2-314. Sheets lettered same as Basel edition; on verso of title “Katalogos” etc. exactly like Basel. Page 3 commences with the same epistola dedicatoria. This dedication and the entire corpus of the book is printed in an awkward Italic type, except the captions which are in 6 pt. and 8 pt. Roman. The book is quite an unpleasant contrast with the fine Antiqua type and the generous margins of the Basel edition. Some woodcut initials but of small interest. The index, contrary to Basel, is in the back. The last page shows another printer’s device, differing from that on the title, another griffin.
This edition, though bearing Platina’s correct initial, B., has the fictitious title given to his work by Torinus, who probably possessed one of the earliest editions of Platina’s De honesta Voluptate, printed without a title page.
Altogether, this Lyons edition looks very much like a hurried job, and we would not be surprised to learn that it was pirated from the Basel edition.
The epistola dedicatoria, in which Torinus expresses fear of pirates and asks his patron’s protection, is concluded with the date, Basileæ, v. Idus Martias, Anno M. D. XLI., while the copy described by Vicaire appears to be without this date. Vicaire also says that the sheets of his copy are not numbered. He also reads on the title “Lvgdvni, 1541” which is spelled correctly, but not in accordance with the original. Of these two editions Vicaire says:
“Ces deux éditions portent la même date de 1541, mais celle qui a été publiée à Bâle a paru avant celle donnée à Lyon par Seb. Gryphe. Cette dernière, en effet, contient la dédicace datée.” The title page of our copy is inscribed by three different old hands, one the characteristic remark: “Mulcens me, gannis?” This copy is bound in the original vellum. Vicaire, 31, G.-Drexel, No. 12.
The work of Torinus has been subjected to a searching analysis, as will be shown throughout the book. An appreciation of Platina will be found in Platina, mæstro nell’arte culinaria Un’interessante studio di Joseph D. Vehling, by Agostino Cavalcabò, Cremona, 1935.
TITLE PAGE, HUMELBERGIUS EDITION, ZÜRICH, 1542
The Gabriel Humelbergius edition is printed by Froschauer, one of the great printers of the Renaissance. Showing the autograph of Johannes Baptista Bassus. The best of the early Apicius editions.
In Hoc Opere Contenta. || Apicii Cælii || De Opsoniis et Condimentis, || Sive Arte Coqvina || ria, Libri X. || Item, || Gabrielis Humelbergij Medici, Physici || Isnensis in Apicij Cælij libros X. || Annotationes. || Tigvri in Officina || Froschouiana. Anno, || M.D. XLII.
4to, 123 sheets, pagination commences with title, not numbered. On verso of title a poem by Ioachim Egell, extolling Humelberg. Sheet 2 the dedication, dated “Isnæ Algoiæ, mense Maio, Anno à Christo nato, M.D.XLII.” Sheet 3-4 have the preface; on verso of 4 the names of the books of Apicius. On recto of sheet 5 the chapters of Book I; on verso commences the corpus of the work with Apicii Cælii Epimeles Liber I.
The Apicius text is printed in bold Roman, the copious notes by the editor in elegant Italics follow each book. Very instructive notes, fine margins, splendid printing. Altogether preferable to Torinus. Our copy is bound in the original vellum. Inscribed in old hand by Johannes Baptista Bassus on the title.
G.-Drexel, No. 14; Vicaire, 31; not in Pennell.
Apicii Cœlii || De || Opsoniis || Et || Condimentis, || Sive || Arte Coquinaria, || Libri Decem. || Cum Annotationibus Martini Lister, || è Medicis domesticis serenissimæ Ma || jestatis Reginæ Annæ || Et || Notis selectioribus, variisque lectionibus integris, || Humelbergii, Caspari Barthii, || & Variorum. || Londini: || Typis Gulielmi Bowyer. MDCCV.
The first edition by Lister, limited to 120 copies.
8vo. The title in red and black. Original full calf, gilt. Pp. XIV + 231. Index 11 leaves, unnumbered. This scarce book is described by Vicaire, 32, but unknown to the collectors Drexel and Pennell. Our copy has on the inside front cover the label of the Dunnichen library. Above the same in an old hand: “Liber rarissimus Hujus editionis 120 tantum exemplaria impressa sunt.” On the fly leaf, in a different old hand a six line note in Latin, quoting the medieval scholar, G. J. Vossius, Aristarch. 1.13. p. 1336, on the authorship of Cœlius. Directly below in still another old hand, the following note, a rather pleasing passage, full of sentiment and affection for our subject, that deserves to be quoted in full: “Alas! that time is wanting to visit the island of Magellone [Megalona-Torinus] where formerly flourished a large town, of which there are now no other remains but the cathedral church, where, according to tradition, the beautiful Magellone lies buried by her husband Peter of Province.* Matthison’s letters, etc. pag. 269.
“‘* Jt was in the island of Magellone that Apicius’s ten books on cookery were rediscovered.’ Ibid.—Vide Fabric. Biblioth: Lat: edit. ab Ernesti. vol. 2; p. 365.”
On the verso of the title page there is the printed note in Latin to the effect that 120 copies of this edition have been printed at the expense of eighteen  entlemen whose names are given, among them “Isaac Newton, Esq.” and other famous men.
TITLE PAGE, LISTER EDITION, LONDON, 1705
The first Apicius edition by Martin Lister, Court Physician to Queen Anne. Printed in London in 1705 by the famous printer, William Bowyer. This is one of the rarest of the Apician books, the edition being limited to 120 copies. It has been said that the second edition (Amsterdam, 1709) was limited to 100 copies, but there is no evidence to that effect.
Lister’s preface to the reader occupies pp. I-XIV; the same appears in the 1709 (2nd) edition. The ten books of Apicius occupy pp. 1-231; the index comprises 11 unnumbered leaves; on the verso of the 11th leaf, the errata. One leaf for the “Catalogus” (not mentioned by Vicaire) a bibliography of the editor’s extensive writings, and works used in this edition principally upon nature and medical subjects. This list was ridiculed by Dr. King. Cf. Introduction by Frederick Starr to this present work. The last leaf blank. Our copy is in the original binding, and perfect in every respect.
VERSO OF TITLE PAGE
of the first Lister edition, London, 1705, giving evidence of the edition being limited to 120 copies. This edition was done at the expense of the men named in this list. Note particularly “Isaac Newton, Esq.,” Sir Christopher Wren and a few more names famous to this day.}
Apicii Cœlii || De || Opsoniis || Et || Condimentis, || Sive || Arte Coquinaria, || Libri Decem. || Cum Annotationibus || Martini Lister, || è Medicis domesticis Serenissimæ Maje || statis Reginæ Annæ, || et || Notis selectioribus, variisque lectionibus integris, || Humelbergii, Barthii, Reinesii, || A. van Der Linden, & Aliorum, || ut & Variarum Lectionum Libello. || Editio Secunda. || Longe auctior atque emendatior. || Amstelodami, || Apud Janssonio-Wæsbergios. || M D C C I X.
Small 8vo. Title in red and black. Dedication addressed to Martinus Lister by Theod. Jans. [sonius] of Almeloveen; the preface, M. Lister to the Reader, and the “Judicia et Testimonia de Apicio” by Olaus Borrichius and Albertus Fabricius occupy seventeen leaves. The ten books of Apicius, with the many notes by Lister, Humelberg and others, commence with page 1 and finish on page 277. Variæ Lectiones, 9 leaves; Index, 12 leaves, none numbered.
Vicaire, 32; Pennell, p. 112; G.-Drexel, No. 164. “Edition assez estimée. On peut l’annexer à la collection des Variorum d’après M. Græsse, Trésor des Livres  rares et précieux.”—Vicaire. Our copy is in the original full calf gold stamped binding, with the ex libris of James Maidment.
The notes by Lister are more copious in this edition, which is very esteemed and is said to have been printed in 100 copies only, but there is no proof of this.
Typographically an excellent piece of work that would have done justice the Elzevirs.
Cælii Apicii || de || Opsoniis || et || Condimentis || sive || Arte Coquinaria || Libri X || cum || Lectionibus Variis || Atque Indice || editit || Joannes Michæl Bernhold || Comes Palatinatus Cæsareus, Phil. et || Med. D. Serenissimo Marchioni Bran || denburgico-Onoldino-Culbacensi || A Consiliis Aulæ, Physicus Suprema || rum Præfecturarum Vffenhemensis || et Creglingensis, Academiæ Imperiali || Naturæ Scrutatorum Adscriptus.
The first edition. The title page has a conspicuously blank space for the date etc. of the publication, but this is found at the foot of p. 81, where one reads: Marcobraitæ, Excudebat Joan. Val. Knenlein, M. D. CC. LXXXVII. 8vo. Fine large copy, bound in yellow calf, gilt, with dentelles on edges and inside, by J. Clarke, the binding stamped on back, 1800. Dedication and preface, pp. XIV. The ten books of Apicius commence with p. 1 and finish on p. 81, with the date, as above. Index capitulum, pp. 82-85; Lectiones Variantes collectæ ex Editione Blasii Lanciloti, pp. 86-108, at the end of same: “Sedulo hæ Variantes ex Blasii Lanciloti editione sunt excerpta ab Andrea Gözio Scholæ Sebaldinæ Norimbergiensis Collega.” Variantes Lectiones, Lib. I. Epimeles, pp. 109-112, with a note at the head of the same that these variants occur in the Vatican MS. These four pages are repeated in the next chapter, pp. 113-130, “Variæ Lectiones Manuscripti Vaticani,” headed by the same note, the text of which is herewith given in full. Bernhold states that these Variæ Lectiones have been taken from the second Lister edition (No. 8) where they are found following p. 277. The first Lister edition does not contain these Variæ, nor does Lister have the Variantes ex Blasii Lanciloti. The following note to the Vatican variants appears in the second Lister edition also:
“Apicii collatio cum antiquissimo codice, literis fere iisdem, quibus Pandectæ Florentinæ, scripto; qui seruatur hodie Romæ in Bibliotheca Vaticana, inter libros MSS., qui fuere Ducis Vrbinatium, sed, nostris temporibus extincta illa familia Ducali, quæ Ducatum istum a Romanis Pontificibus in feudum tenuerat, Vrbino Romam translati, et separato loco in bibliotheca Vaticana respositi sunt. Contulit Henricus Volkmarus [Lister: Volkmas] Scherzerus, Lipsiensis. E bibliotheca Marquardii Gudii ad I. A. Fabricium, et, ex huius dono, ad Theodorum Ianssonium ab Almeloueen transmigrauere; qui illas suæ, Amstelodami 1709 8vo in lucem prolatæ; Apicii editioni inseri curauit.”
On pp. 131-154 are found the Lectiones Variantes Humelbergianæ, and on  pp. 155-156 the Lectiones differentes etc. On pp. 157-228 the Index Vocabulorum ac Rerum notabiliorum etc.; on pp. 229-30 the Notandum adhuc. One blank leaf.
Described by Vicaire, 33, who has only seen the 1791 edition; G.-Drexel, No. 165; Brunet I. 343. Neither Vicaire nor Georg-Drexel have the date and place of publication, which in our copy is hidden on p. 81.
Georg reads Apicii Cœlii instead of the above. On the fly leaf the autograph of G. L. Fournier, Bayreuth, 1791.
Bernhold has based his edition upon Lister and on the edition by Blasius Lancilotus, Milan, 1490, (our No. 2, which see.) Aside from the preface in which Bernhold names this and other Apicius editions, unknown to the bibliographers, the editor has not added any of his own observations. Being under the influence of Lister, he joins the English editor in the condemnation of Torinus. His work is valuable because of the above mentioned variants.
[Same as above] The Second Edition. Vicaire, 33. not in G.-Drexel nor Pennell.
Apitius Cœlius de re culinaria. Ed. Bernhold. 8vo. Ansbachii, 1800.
Ex Georg, No. 1076; not in Vicaire nor in Pennell. Though listed by Georg, it is not in the Drexel collection.
Apitius Cælius Delle vivande e condimenti ovvero dell’ arte de la cucina. Volgarizzamento con annotationi di G. Baseggio.
8vo, pp. 238. With the original Latin text. Venezia, 1852, Antonelli.
Ex Georg-Drexel, No. 1077.
Apici Cæli || De || Re Coquinaria Libri Decem. || Novem codicum ope adiutus, auxit, resti || tuit, emendavit, et correxit, variarum || lectionum parte potissima ornavit, stric || tim et interim explanavit || Chr. Theophil. Schuch. || Heidelbergæ, 1867.
8vo. pp. 202.
Ex Vicaire, 33; Not in G.-Drexel, not in Pennell.
[The same] Editio Secunda Heidelbergæ, 1874, [Winter].
Although G.-Drexel, No. 1075, reads Apitius Cœlius, our copy agrees with the reading of Vicaire, col. 889, appendix. Not in Pennell. Brandt (Untersuchungen [No. 29] p. 6) calls Schuch Wunderlicher Querkopf. He is correct. The Schuch editions are eccentric, worthless.
Das Apicius-Kochbuch aus der altrömischen Kaiserzeit. Ins Deutsche übersetzt und bearbeitet von Richard Gollmer. Mit Nachbildungen alter Kunstblätter, Kopfleisten und Schlusstücke. Breslau und Leipzig bei Alfred Langewort, 1909. 8vo. pp. 154.
Apicius Cælius: Altrömische Kochkunst in zehn Büchern. Bearbeitet und ins Deutsche übersetzt von Eduard Danneil, Herzoglich Altenburgischer Hoftraiteur. Leipzig: 1911: Herausgabe und Verlag: Kurt Däweritz, Herzoglich Altenburgischer Hoftraiteur Obermeister der Innung der Köche zu Leipzig und Umgebung. 8vo, pp. XV + 127.
Apicii || Librorvm X qvi Dicvntvr || De Re Coqvinaria || Qvæ Extant || Edidervnt || C. Giarratano et Fr. Vollmer || Lipsiæ in Ædibvs B. G. Tevbneri MCMXXII.
Les dix livres de cuisine d’Apicius traduits du latin pour la Première fois et commentés par Bertrand Guégan. Paris René Bonnel Éditeur rue Blanche, No. 8.
No date (in fine October 16th, 1933). Three blank leaves, false title; on verso, facing the title page (!) “du mème auteur”—a full-page advertisement of the author’s many-sided publications, past and future. Title page, verso blank. On p. ix Introduction, a lengthy discourse on dining in ancient times, including a mention of Apician manuscripts and editions. This commences on p. Li with Les Manuscrits d’Apicius. The Introduction finishes on p. Lxxviii. On p. 1 Les Dix Livres d’Apicius, on p. 2 a facsimile in black of the incipit of the Vatican manuscript, Apiciana II. On p. 3 commences the translation into French of the Apician text, finishing on p. 308. Table Analytique (index) pp. 309-322. Follow three unnumbered sheets, on the first page of which is the Justification du tirage, with the date of printing and the printer’s name, Durand of Chartres. The copies printed are numbered from 1 to 679. The copy before us is No. 2; copies 1 to 4 are printed on Montval vellum, 5 to 29 on Dutch Pannekoek vellum, the rest, 30 to 679 on Vidalon vellum paper.
Unfortunately, the present work did not reach us until after ours had gone to press. The text of this edition, the first to appear in the French language, could not be considered in our work, for this reason.
However, a few casual remarks about it may be in order here.
A hasty perusal reveals the disconcerting fact that the editor has been influenced by and has followed the example of Schuch by the adoption of his system of numbering the recipes. We do not approve of his inclusion of the excerpts of Vinidarius in the Apician text.
The observations presented in this edition are rich and varied. The material,  comprising the Introduction and also the explanatory notes to the recipes are interesting, copious and well-authenticated. The editor reveals himself to be a better scholar, well-read in the classics, than a practical cook, well-versed in kitchen practice. Frequently, for instance, he confounds liquamen with garum, the age-old shortcoming of the Apician scholars.
The advertisement facing the title page of this work is misplaced, disturbing.
Nevertheless, we welcome this French version which merits a thorough study; this we hope to publish at some future date. Any serious and new information on Apicius is welcome and much needed to clear up the mysteries. The advent of a few additional cooks on the scene doesn’t matter. Let them give lie to the old proverb that too many cooks spoil the broth. Apicius has been so thoroughly scrambled during the sixteen-hundred years preceding his first printing which started the scholars after him. So far, with the exception of a few minor instances, they have done remarkably well. The complete unscrambling can be done only by many new cooks, willing to devote much pain and unremunerative, careful, patient work in discovering new evidence and adding it to what there is already, to arrive at the truth of the matter.
Apicius, J. D. Vehling, the present edition.
De Re Coquinaria. Von Speisen. Natürlichen und Kreuterwein, aller Verstandt. Vber den Zusatz viler bewerter Künst, insonders fleissig gebessert und corrigirt aus Apitio, Platina, Varrone, Bapt. Fiera cet.’; Francofurti, apud Egenolfum, 1531, 4to.
Ex Bernhold, p. XIV, unknown to the bibliographers. The above is related to the following two works. Apparently, all three have little bearing on Apicius.
Polyonymi Syngraphei Schola Apiciana. Ibid. 1534, 4to.
Ex Bernhold, p. XIV., unknown to the bibliographers. Copy in the Baron Pichon collection, No. 569.
Schola || Apitiana, Ex Op || timis Qvibvs || dam authoribus diligen || ter ac nouiter constru || cta, authore Polyo || nimo Syngra || pheo. || A C Gessere Dia || logi aliquot D. Erasmi Ro || terodami, & alia quædam || lectu iucundissima. || Væneunt Antuerpiæ in ædi || bus Ioannis Steelsij. || I. G. 1535. Small 8vo. Title in beautiful woodcut border. [in fine] Typis Ioan. Graphei. M.D.XXXV.
Pagination A-I 4, on verso of I 4, device of Io. Steels, Concordia, with doves  on square and astronomical globe. On verso of title, In Scholam Apitianam Præfatio. Sheet A3 Mensam Amititiæ Sacram esse, etc. On sheet A6 The dialogue by Erasmus of Rotterdam between Apitivs and Spvdvs to verso of sheet A8; follows: Conviviarvm qvis nvmervs esse debeat [etc.] ex Aulo Gellio; Præcepta Cœnarvm by Horace; De Ciborvm Ratione by Michæle Savonarola [Grandfather of the great Girolamo S.]; on sheet C5 De Cibis Secvndæ Mensæ, by Paulus Aegineta; and a number of other quotations from ancient and medieval authors, partly very amusing. The Apician matter seems to be entirely fictitious.
In the collection of the author. Vicaire, 701, who also describes in detail the 1534 edition printed by Egenolph but which is not the same as the above in text.
Flora Apiciana. Dierbach, J. H. Ein Beitrag zur näheren Kenntniss der Nahrungsmittel der alten Römer. Heidelberg, 1831, Groos. 8vo.
H. C. Coote: The Cuisine Bourgeoise of Ancient Rome. Archæologia, vol. XLI.
Ex Bibliotheca A. Shircliffe.
Cesare Giarratano: I Codici dei Libri de re coquinaria di Celio. Naples, 1912, Detken & Rocholl.
Friedrich Vollmer: Studien zu dem römischen Kochbuche von Apicius. Vorgetragen am 7. Februar 1920. Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch-philologische und historische Klasse Jahrgang, 1920, 6. Abhandlung. München, 1920. Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kommission des G. Franzschen Verlags (J. Roth).
G. Sternajolo: Codices Vrbinati Latini.
Untersuchungen zum römischen Kochbuche Versuch einer Lösung der Apicius-Frage von Edward Brandt, Leipzig, Dietrich’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1927. Philologus, Supplementband XIX, Heft III. 164 pp.
Dr. Edward Brandt, the philologist of Munich, is the latest of the Apician commentators. His researches are quite exhaustive. While not conclusive (as some of the problems will perhaps never be solved) he has shed much new light on the vexatious questions of the origin and the authors of our old Roman cookery book.
CANTHARUS, WINE CUP WITH HANDLES
Elaborate decoration of Bacchic motifs: wine leaves and masks of satyrs. Hildesheim Treasure.
Abalana, Abellana, hazelnut, see Avellana
Abbreviations, explanation of, p. xv
ABDOMEN, sow’s udder, belly, fat of lower part of belly, figur. Gluttony, intemperance
ABROTANUM, —ONUM, —ONUS the herb lad’s love; or, according to most Southernwood. ABROTONUM is also a town in Africa
Absinth. ABSINTHIUM, the herb wormwood. The Romans used A. from several parts of the world. ℞ 3, also APSINTHIUM
ABSINTHIATUS, —UM, flavored with wormwood, ℞ 3
ABSINTHITES, wine tempered or mixed with wormwood; modern absinth or Vermouth, cf. ℞ 3
ABSINTHIUM ROMANUM, ℞ 3
ACETABULUM, a “vinegar” cruet: a small measure, equivalent to 15 Attic drachms; see Measures
—— MULSUM, mead
ACIDUM, sour; same as ACER
ACINATICIUS, a costly raisin wine
ACINOSUS, full of kernels or stones
ACINUS, —UM, a grain, or grape raisin berry or kernel
ACOR, —UM, sourness, tartness; the herb sweetcane, gardenflag, galangale
ACRIMONIA, acidity, tartness, sourness; harshness of taste
ACUS, same as ACICULA
Adjustable Table, illustration, p. 138
ADULTERAM, “tempting” dish, ℞ 192
Advertising cooked ham, ℞ 287
Advertising ancient hotels, p. 6
Aegineta, Paulus, writer on medicine and cookery, see Apiciana, No. 5-6
AENEUM, a “metal” cooking utensil, a CACCABUS, which see; AENEUM VAS, a mixing bowl; AENEA PATELLA, a pewter, bronze or silver service platter. Aeno Coctus, braised, sometimes confused with oenococtum, stewed in wine
Aethiopian Cumin ℞ 35
AGITARE (OVA), to stir, to beat (eggs)
AGONIA, cattle sacrificed at the festivals: only little of the victims was wasted at religious ceremonies. The priests, after predicting the future from the intestines, burned them but sold the carcass to the innkeeper and cooks of the POPINA, hence the name. These eating places of a low order did a thriving business with cheaply bought meats which, however, usually were of the best quality. In Pompeii such steaks were exhibited in windows behind magnifying glasses to attract the rural customer
Albino, writer, p. 10
ALBUM, ALBUMEN, white; —— OVORUM, the “whites” of egg; —— PIPER, white pepper, etc.
ALEX, (ALEC, HALEC), salt water, pickle, brine, fish brine. Finally, the fish itself when cured in A. cf. MURIA
Alexandria, the city founded by Alexander the Great, important Mediterranean harbor. A. was a rival of Rome and Athens in Antiquity, famous for its luxury
ALICA, spelt. ℞ 200
ALICATUM, any food treated with ALEX, which see
ALLIATUM, a garlic sauce, consisting of a purée of pounded garlic whipped up with oil into a paste of a consistency of mayonnaise, a preparation still popular in the Provence today; finally, anything flavored with garlic or leeks
ALLIUM, garlic; also leek. Fr. AILLE
Almonds, AMYGDALA, peeling and bleaching of A. ℞ 57
 AMACARUS, sweet-marjoram, feverfew
AMBIGA, a small vessel in the shape of a pyramid
Amerbach Manuscript, Apiciana XIV
AMMI, (AMMIUM, AMI, AMIUM), cumin
AMURCA (AMUREA), the lees of oil
AMYGDALA (—UM) Almonds, ℞ 57; OLEUM AMYGDALIUM, almond oil
AMYLARE (AMULARE), to thicken with flour. AMYLATUM (AMULATUM) that which is thickened with flour. Wheat or rice flour and fats or oil usually were used for this purpose, corresponding to our present roux. However, the term was also extended to the use of eggs for the purpose of thickening fluids, thus becoming equivalent to the present liaison, used for soups and sauces. Hence AMYLUM and AMULUM, which is also a sort of frumenty
ANET(H)ATUM, flavored with dill; ANET(H)UM, dill, also anise
ANGULARUS, a “square” dish or pan
ANISUM, anise, pimpinella
ANTIPASTO, “Before the Meal,” modern Italian appetizer; the prepared article usually comes in cans or glasses, consisting of tunny, artichokes, olives, etc., preserved in oil
APER, see APRUS
APEXABO, a blood sausage; cf. LONGANO
Aphricocks, ℞ 295
APHROS, ℞ 295
APHYA, see APUA
Apician Cheesecakes, p. 9
—— cookery, influence, p. 16, 23
—— Archetypus, p. 19
—— manuscripts, p. 19, p. 253, seq.
—— Terminology, p. 22
—— dishes, compared with modern dishes, p. 23
—— sauces, p. 24
—— Style of writing, p. 26
—— research, p. 34 seq.
Apiciana, Diagram of, p. 252
Apicius, pp. 7, 9
—— The man, p. 9
—— Athenaeus on, p. 9
—— and Platina, p. 9
—— Expedition to find crawfish, p. 9
—— ships oysters, p. 10
—— school, p. 10
—— death, pp. 10, 11
—— reflecting Roman conditions, pp. 14, 15
—— authenticity of, pp. 18, 19
—— writer, p. 26, ℞ 176, 436
—— confirmed by modern science, p. 33
—— editors as cooks, p. 34 seq.
Apion, writer, quoted by Athenaeus, p. 9
APIUM, celery, smallage, parsley. ℞ 104
APPARATUS, preparation; —— MENSAE, getting dinner ready
Appert, François, ℞ 24, father of the modern canning methods
AQUA, water; —— CALIDA, hot w.; —— CISTERNINA, well w.; —— MARINA, sea w.; —— NITRATA, soda w. for the cooking of vegetables; —— RECENS; fresh, i.e., not stale w.; —— PLUVIALE, rain w.
AQUALICUS lower part of belly, paunch, ventricle, stomach, maw
Archetypus Fuldensis, manuscript, see Apiciana Diagram
ARCHIMAGIRUS, principal cook, chef, cf. Cooks’ names
ARIDA (—US, —UM) dry; —— MENTHA, dry mint
ARTEMISIA, the herb mugwort, motherwort, tarragon
ARTOCREAS, meat pie
ARTOPTES, Torinus’ title of Book II; better: SARCOPTES, minces, minced meats
ARTYMA, spice; cf. CONDIMENTUM
ASARUM, the Herb foalbit, foalfoot, coltsfoot, wild spikenard
ASCALONICA CEPA, “scallion,” young onion
ASSATURA, a roast, also the process of roasting. ℞ 266-270
ASTACUS, a crab or lobster
Athene, Dish illustration, p. 158
ATRIPLEX, the herb orage, or orach
ATRIUM, living room in a Roman residence, formerly  used for kitchen purposes, hence the name, “black room,” because of the smoky walls. Like all simple things then and now, the Atrium often developed into a magnificently decorated court, with fountains and marble statues, and became a sort of parlor to receive the guests of the house
ATTAGENA (ATAGENA), heath cock, a game bird. ℞ 218, seq.
AVENA, a species of bearded grass, haver-grass, oats, wild oats
AVICULARIUS, bird keeper, poulterer
BACCA, berry, seed. —— MYRTHEA, myrtle berry; —— RUTAE, rue berry; —— LAUREA, laurel berry, etc.
Bakery in Pompeii, illustration, p. 2
Bantam Chicken, ℞ 237
Barracuda, a fish, ℞ 158
BARRICA, ℞ 173
Barthélemy, J. J., writer, translator of Anacharsis, p. 8
Bavarian Cabbage, ℞ 87
Beauvilliers, A., French cook; cf. Styrio
Bernardinus, of Venice, printer, p. 258
BETA, beet, which see BETACEOS VARRONES, ℞ 70
Bibliographers of Apicius, see Apiciana
BLITUM, a pot herb, the arrack or orage, also spinach, according to some interpreters
Boiled Dinners, ℞ 125
BOLETAR, a dish for mushrooms, ℞ 183
BOLETUS, mushroom, ℞ 309-14
Bordelaise, ℞ 351
Borrichius, Olaus, p. 268
Bouquet garni, ℞ 138
BOVES, Beef cattle; cf. BUBULA
BRASSICA, cabbage, kale; —— CAMPESTRA, turnip; —— OLERACEA, cabbage and kale; —— MARINA, sea kale (?)
Bread, Alexandrine, ℞ 126; Picentian ——, ℞ 125. The methods of grinding flour and baking is illustrated with our illustrations of the Casa di Forno of Pompeii and the Slaves grinding flour, which see, pp. 142, 149. Apicius has no directions for baking, an art that was as highly developed in his days as was cookery
BREVIS PIMENTORUM, facsimile, p. 234
Brissonius, writer, quoting Lambecius, ℞ 376
Broiler and Stove, illustration, p. 182
BUBULUS CASEUS, cow’s cheese
BUCCA, BUCCEA, mouth, cheek; also a bite, a morsel, a mouth-full; Fr. BOUCHÉE; BUCELLA (dim.) a small bite, a dainty bit, delicate morsel; hence probably, Ger. “Buss’l” a little kiss and “busseln,” to spoon, to kiss, in the Southern German dialect
BUCCELLATUM, a biscuit, Zwieback, soldier’s bread, hard tack
BULBI FRICTI, ℞ 308
BULLIRE, to boil; Fr. BOUILLIR
 BUTYRUM, butter. Was little used in ancient households, except for cosmetics. Cows were expensive, climate and sanitary conditions interfered with its use in the Southern kitchen. The Latin butyrum is said to derive from the German Butter
CAELIUS, see Coelius
CALAMENTHUM, cress, watercress
CAMERINUM, town in Umbria, ℞ 3, where Vermouth was made
CAMMARUS MARINUS, a kind of crab-fish, ℞ 43
CANABINUM, CANNABINUM, hemp, hempen
Canning, ℞ 23-24
CAPPARA, purslane, portulaca
CAPPARUS, CARABUS, ℞ 397
CAPRA, she-goat, also mountain goat, chamois; Ger. GEMSE; ℞ 346-8
CARDAMOMUM, cardamom, aromatic seed
CARDAMUM, nasturtium, cress
Cardoons, ℞ 112-4
CARDUS, CARDUUS, cardoon, edible thistle, ℞ 112-3
CARENUM, CAROENUM, wine or must boiled down one third of its volume to keep it. ℞ 35
CAREUM, CARUM, Carraway
CARICA (—— FICUS) a dried fig from Caria, a reduction made of the fig wine was used for coloring sauce, similar to our caramel color, which see
CARIOTA, CARYOTA, a kind of large date, figdate; also a wine, a date wine; ℞ 35
CARO, flesh of animals, ℞ 10; —— SALSA, pickled meat
CAROTA, CAROETA, carrot; ℞ 121-3
CARTILAGO, gristle, tendon, cartilage
Casa di Forno, Pompeii, “House of the Oven,” illustration, p. 2
CASTANEA, chestnut, ℞ 183 seq.
Catesby, writer, ℞ 322
Catfish, ℞ 426
CATTABIA, see Salacaccabia
Caul Sausage, Kromeski, ℞ 45
CAULICULOS, ℞ 87-92; also Col— cul— and coliclus
Cauliflower, ℞ 87
Caviare, see STYRIO
Celery, ℞ 104
Celsinus, a Roman, ℞ 376-7
CENA, COENA, a meal, a repast; CENULA, a light luncheon; —— RECTA, a “regular” meal, a formal dinner, usually consisting of GUSTUS, appetizers and light ENTRÉES, the CENA proper which is the PIÈCE DE RESISTANCE and the MENSÆ SECUNDAE, or desserts. The main dish was the CAPUT CENAE; the desserts were also called BELLARIA or MENSAE POMORUM, because they usually finished with fruit. Hence Horace’s saying “AB OVO USQUE AD MALA” which freely translated and modernized means, “Everything from soup to nuts.”
—— AUGURALIS, —— PONTIFICALIS, —— CAPITOLINA, —— PERSICA, ——SYBARITICA, —— CAMPANAE, —— CEREALIS, —— SALIARIS, ——TRIUMPHALIS, —— POLINCTURA are all names for state dinners, official banquets, refined private parties each with its special significance which is hard to render properly into our language except by making a long story of it
—— PHILOSOPHICA, —— PLATONICA, —— LACONICA, —— RUSTICA, ——CYNICA are all more or less skimpy affairs, while the —— ICCI is that of a downright miser. —— HECATES is a hectic meal, ——TERRESTRIS a vegetarian dinner, —— DEUM, a home-cooked meal, and a —— SATURNIA is one without imported dishes or delicacies, a national dinner
—— NOVENDIALIS is the feast given on the ninth day after the burial of a dead man when his ashes were scattered while yet warm and fresh. —— DUBIA, ℞ 139, is the “doubtful meal”  which causes the conscientious physician Lister so much worry
The CENA, to be sure, was an evening meal, the PRANDIUM, a noon-day meal, a luncheon, any kind of meal; the JENTACULUM, a breakfast, an early luncheon; the MERENDA was a snack in the afternoon between the meals for those who had “earned” a bite
There are further CENAE, such as —— DAPSILIS, —— PELLOCIBILIS, —— UNCTA, —— EPULARIS, —— REGALIS, all more or less generous affairs, and our list of classical and sonorous dinner names is by no means exhausted herewith. The variety of these names is the best proof of how seriously a meal was considered by the ancients, how much thought was devoted to its character and arrangements
CEPA, same as CAEPA, onion
CEPAEA, purslane, sea-purslane, portulaca
CEPUROS, Gr., gardener; title of Book III
CEREBRUM, CEREBELLUM, brains, ℞ 46
CEREFOLIUM, CAEREFOLIUM, chervil, Ger. KERBEL, Fr. CERFEUILLE
Cereto de Tridino, printer, see Tacuinus
CERVUS, stag, venison, ℞ 339-45
Cesena, a town in Italy where there is an Apicius Ms.; Apiciana XII
Chamois, ℞ 346 seq.
Charcoal used for filtering, ℞ 1
“Chasseur,” ℞ 263
Cheltenham codex, Apiciana I
Chestnuts, ℞ 183-84a
—— forcemeat, ℞ 50; —— broth, 51; —— fricassé, 56; —— boiled, 235, 236, 242; —— and dasheens, 244; —— creamed, with paste, 247; —— stuffed, 248, 199, 213-17, 235; —— in cream, 250; —— disjointed, 139, note 1; —— Bantam, 237; —— cold, in its own gravy, 237; —— fried or sauté, 236; —— Guinea hen, 239; —— Fricassé Varius, 245; —— à la Fronto, 246; —— Parthian style, 237; —— and leeks, 238; —— with laser, 240; —— roast, 241; —— and pumpkin, 243; —— galantine, 249; —— fried with cream sauce, 250; —— Maryland, Wiener Backhähndl, 250
Chimneys on pies, ℞ 141
Chipolata garniture, ℞ 378
CHOENIX, a measure,—2 SEXTARII, ℞ 52
Chops, ℞ 261
CHOUX DE BRUXELLES AUX MARRONS, ℞ 92
Christina, Queen of Sweden, eating Apician dishes, pp. 37, 38
CHRYSOMELUM, CHRYSOMALUM, a sort of quince
CIBARIA, victuals, provisions, food; same as CIBUS. Hence CIBARIAE LEGES, sumptuary laws; CIBARIUM VAS, a vessel or container for food; CIBARIUS, relating to food; also CIBATIO, victualling, feeding, meal, repast
CIBARIUM ALBUM, white repast, white dish, blancmange. Fr. BLANC MANGER, “white eating.” A very old dish. Platina gives a fine recipe for it; in Apicius it is not yet developed. The body of this dish is ground almonds and milk, thickened with meat jelly. Modern cornstarch puddings have no longer a resemblance to it; to speak of “chocolate” blancmange as we do, is a barbarism. Platina is proud of his C.A. He prefers it to any Apician dessert. We agree with him; the incomplete Apicius in Platina’s and in our days has no desserts worth mentioning. A German recipe of the 13th century (in “Ein Buch von guter Spise”) calls C.A. “Blamansier,” plainly a corruption of the French. By the translation of C.A. into the French, the origin of the dish was obliterated, a quite frequent occurrence in French kitchen terminology
CIBORIUM, a drinking vessel
CICER, chick-pea, small pulse, ℞ 207-209
Cicero, famous Roman, ℞ 409
CICONIA, stork. Although there is no direct mention of the C. as an article of diet it has undoubtedly been eaten same as crane, egrets, flamingo and similar birds
CINARA, CYNARA, artichoke
CIRCELLOS ISICATOS, a sausage, ℞ 65
CITREA MALA, citron; see CITRUM
CITREUS, citron tree
CITRUM, CITRIUM, the fruit of the CITREUS, citron, citrus, ℞ 23, 81, 168. The citron tree is also MALUS MEDICA. “MALUS QUAE CITRIA VOCANTUR”; CONDITURA MALORUM MEDICORUM, Ap. Book I.; Lister thinks this is a cucumber
CITRUS, orange or lemon tree and their fruits. It is remarkable that Apicius does not speak of lemons, one of the most indispensable fruits in modern cookery which grow so profusely in Italy today. These were imported into Italy probably later. The ancients called a number of other trees CITRUS also, including the cedar, the very name of which is a corruption of CITRUS
Classic Cookery, pp. 16-17
CLIBANUS, portable oven; also a broad vessel for bread-making, a dough trough
CNECON, ℞ 16
CNICOS, CNICUS, CNECUS, bastard saffron; also the blessed thistle
CNISSA, smoke or steam arising from fat or meat while roasting
COCHLEAE, snails, also sea-snails, “cockles,” periwinkles,  ℞ 323-25. —— LACTE PASTAE, milk-fed snails. COCHLEARIUM, a snail “farm,” place where snails were raised and fattened for the table. Also a “spoonful,” a measure of the capacity of a small shell, more properly, however, COCHLEAR, a spoon, a spoon-full, ¼ cyathus, the capacity of a small shell, also, properly, a spoon for drawing snails out of the shells. COCHLEOLA, a small snail
COCOLOBIS, basil, basilica
COCTIO, the act of cooking or boiling
COCTIVA CONDIMENTA, easy of digestion, not edible without cooking. COCTIVUS, soon boiled or roasted
COCULA, same as COQUA, a female cook
COCULUM, a cooking vessel
COCUS, COQUUS, cook, which see
Coelius, name of a person, erroneously attached to that of Apicius; also Caelius, p. 13
COLADIUM, —EDIUM, —ESIUM, —OESIUM, variations of COLOCASIUM, which see
Colander, illustration of a, p. 58
COLICULUS, CAULICULUS, a tender shoot, a small stalk or stem, ℞ 87-92
COLO, to strain, to filter, cf. ℞ 73
COLOCASIA, COLOCASIUM, the dasheen, or taro, or tanyah tuber, of which there are many varieties; the root of a plant known to the ancients as Egyptian Bean. Descriptions in the notes to the ℞ 74, 154, 172, 200, 244 and 322
COLUM NIVARIUM, a strainer or colander for wine and other liquids. See illustration, p. 58
COLUMBA, female pigeon; COLUMBUS, the male; COLUMBULUS, —A, squab, ℞ 220. Also used as an endearing term
COLYMBADES (OLIVAE), olives “swimming” in the brine; from COLYMBUS, swimming pool
Combination of dishes, ℞ 46
Commentaries on Apicius, p. 272
Commodus, a Roman, ℞ 197
Compôte of early fruit, ℞ 177
CONCHA, shellfish muscle, cockle scallop, pearl oyster; also the pearl itself, or mother-of-pearl; also any hollow vessel resembling a mussel shell (cf. illustration, p. 125) hence CONCHA SALIS PURI, a salt cellar. Hence also CONCHIS, beans or peas cooked “in the shell” or in the pod; and diminutives and variations: CONCHICLA FABA, (bean in the pod) for CONCHICULA, which is the same as CONCHIS and CONCICLA; ℞ 194-98, 411. —— APICIANA, ℞ 195; —— DE PISA, ℞ 196; —— COMMODIANA, ℞ 197; —— FARSILIS, ℞ 199
CONCHICLATUS, ℞ 199
CONCRESCO, grow together, run together, thicken, congeal, also curdle, etc., same as CONCRETIO, CONCRETUM
CONDITIO, laying up, preserving. CONDITIVUS, that which is laid up or preserved, same as CONDITUM
CONDITOR, one who spices. Ger. Konditor, a pastry maker
CONDIMENTARIUS, spice merchant, grocer
CONDIMENTUM, condiment, sauce, dressing, seasoning, pickle, anything used for flavoring, seasoning, pickling —— VIRIDE green herbs, pot herbs; cf. CONDITURA. —— PRO PELAMIDE, ℞ 445; —— PRO THYNNO, ℞ 446; —— IN PERCAM, ℞ 447; —— IN RUBELLIONEM, ℞ 448; —— RATIO CONDIENDI MURENAS, ℞ 449; —— LACERTOS, ℞ 456; —— PRO LACERTO ASSO, ℞ 457; —— THYNNUM ET DENTICEM, ℞ 458; —— DENTICIS, ℞ 460; —— IN DENTICE ELIXO, ℞ 461; —— AURATA, ℞ 462; —— IN AURATAM ASSAM, ℞ 463; —— SCORPIONES, ℞ 464; —— ANGUILLAM, ℞ 466; —— ALIUD —— ANGUILLAE, ℞ 467
CONDITURA, a pickle, a preserve, sauce, seasoning,
marinade; the three terms, C., CONDITUM
and CONDIMENTUM are much the same in
meaning, and are used indiscriminately. They
also designate sweet dishes and desserts of different
kinds, including many articles known to us
as confections. Hence the German, KONDITOR,
for confectioner, pastry cook. Nevertheless, a
general outline of the specific meanings of these
terms may be gathered from observing the nature
of the several preparations listed under these
headings, particularly as follows: —— ROSATUM,
℞ 4; (cf. No. 5) ——
MELLIS, ℞ 17; —— UVARUM,
℞ 20; —— MALORUM PUNICORUM,
℞ 21; —— COTONIORUM, ℞ 19;
—— FICUUM, PRUNORUM, PIRORUM, ℞ 20; —— MALORUM
MEDICORUM, ℞ 21; —— MORORUM,
℞ 25; —— OLERUM, ℞ 26;
—— RUMICIS, ℞ 27; —— LAPAE, ℞
27; —— DURACINORUM, ℞ 29; ——
PRUNORUM, etc., ℞ 30
—in most of these instances corresponds to our modern “preserving”
CONGER, CONGRIO, CONGRUS, sea-eel, conger. CONGRUM QUEM ANTIATES BRUNCHUM APPELLANT,—Platina, cf. ANGUILLA. Plautus uses this fish name to characterize a very cunning person, a “slippery” fellow. A cook is thus called CONGRIO in one of his plays
CONYZA, the viscous elecampane
Cook, COCUS, COQUUS is the most frequent form used, COCTOR, infrequent. COQUA, COCULA, female cook; though female cooks were few. The word is derived from COQUERE, to cook, which seems to be an imitation of the sound, produced by a bubbling mess
The cook’s work place (formerly ATRIUM, the “black” smoky room) was the CULINA, the kitchen, hence in the modern Romance tongues CUISINE, CUCINA, COCINA. Those who work there are CUISINIERS, COCINEROS, the female a CUISINIÈRE, and so forth
The German and Swedish for “kitchen” are KÜCHE and KÖKET, but the words “cook” and “KOCH” are directly related to COQUUS
A self-respecting Roman cook, especially a master of the art, having charge of a crew, would assume the title of MAGIRUS, or ARCHIMAGIRUS, chief cook. This Greek—“MAGEIROS”—plainly shows the high regard in which Greek cookery stood in Rome. No American CHEF would think of calling himself “chief cook,” although CHEF means just that. The foreign word sounds ever so much better both in old Rome and in new New York. MAGEIROS is derived from the Greek equivalent of the verb “to knead,” which leads us to the art of baking. Titles and distinctions were plentiful in the ancient bakeshops, which plainly indicates departmentisation and division of labor
The PISTOR was the baker of loaves, the DULCIARIUS the cake baker, using honey for sweetening. Martial says of the PISTOR DULCIARIUS, “that hand will construct for you a thousand sweet figures of art; for it the frugal bee principally labors.” The PANCHESTRARIUS, mentioned in Arnobius, is another confectioner. The LIBARIUS still another of the sweet craft. The CRUSTULARIUS and BOTULARIUS were a cookie baker and a sausage maker respectively
The LACTARIUS is the milkman; the PLACENTARIUS he who makes the PLACENTA, a certain pancake, also a kind of cheese cake, often presented during the Saturnalia. The SCRIBLITARIUS belongs here, too: in our modern parlance we would perhaps call these two “ENTREMETIERS.” The SCRIBLITA must have been a sort of hot cake, perhaps an omelet, a pancake, a dessert of some kind, served hot; maybe just a griddle cake, baked on a hot stone, a TORTILLA—what’s the use of guessing! but SCRIBLITAE were good, for Plautus, in one of his plays, Poenulus, shouts, “Now, then, the SCRIBLITAE are piping hot! Come hither, fellows!” Not all of them did eat, however, all the time, for Posidippus derides a cook, saying, CUM SIS COQUUS, PROFECTUS EXTRA LIMEN ES, CUM NON PRIUS COENAVERIS, “What? Thou art a cook, and hast gone, without dinner, over the threshold?”
From the FOCARIUS, the scullion, the FORNACARIUS, the fireman, or furnace tender, and the CULINARIUS, the general kitchen helper to the OBSONATOR, the steward, the FARTOR to the PRINCEPS COQUORUM, the “maître d’hôtel” of the establishment we see an organization very much similar to our own in any well-conducted kitchen
The Roman cooks, formerly slaves in the frugal days of the nation, rose to great heights of civic importance with the spread of civilization and the advance of luxury in the empire. Cf. “The Rôle of the Mageiroi in the Life of the Ancient Greeks” by E. M. Rankin, Chic., 1907, and “Roman Cooks” by C. G. Harcum, Baltimore, 1914, two monographs on this subject
Cookery, Apician, as well as modern c., discussed
in the critical review of the Apicius book
—— examples of deceptive c. in Apicius, ℞ 6, 7, 9, 17, 229, 230, 384, 429
—— of flavoring and spicing, ℞ 15, 277, 281, 369
—— deserving special mention for ingenuity and excellence, ℞ 15, 21, 22, 72, 88, 177, 186, 212, 213, 214, 250, 287, 315, 428
—— modern Jewish, resembling Apicius, ℞ 204 seq.
—— examples of attempts to remove disagreeable odors, ℞ 212-14, 229, 230, 292
—— removing sinews from fowl, ℞ 213
—— utensils, p. 15
COPA, a woman employed in eating places and taverns, a bar maid, a waitress, an entertainer, may be all that in one person. One of the caricatures drawn on a tavern wall in Pompeii depicts a COPA energetically demanding payment for a drink from a reluctant customer, p. 7
Copper in Vegetable Cookery, ℞ 66
Copyists and their work, p. 14
COQUINA, cooking, kitchen. COQUINARIS, —IUS, relating to the kitchen. COQUO, —IS, COXI, COCTUM, COQUERE, to cook, to dress food, to function in the kitchen, to prepare food for the table. See cook
CORIANDRUM, the herb coriander; CORIANDRATUM, flavored with c.; LIQUAMEN EX CORIANDRO, coriander essence or extract
Corn, green, ℞ 99
CORNUTUS, horn-fish, ℞ 442
CORRUDA, the herb wild sparrage, or wild asparagus
COTANA, see COCTANA
COTICULA (CAUDA?), minor cuts of pork, either spareribs, pork chops, or pig’s tails
COTONEA, a herb of the CUNILA family, wallwort, comfrey or black bryony
COTONEUM, COTONEUS, COTONIUS, CYDONIUS, quince-apple, ℞ 163
COTULA, COTYLA, a small measure, ½ sextarius
COSTUM, COSTUS, costmary; fragrant Indian shrub, the root of burning taste but excellent flavor
Court-bouillon, ℞ 37, 138
COXA, ℞ 288
CRATER, CRATERA, a bowl or vessel to mix wine and water; also a mixing bowl and oil container—see illustrations, p. 140
CRATICULA, grill, gridiron; illustration, p. 182
CREMORE, DE—, ℞ 172
CRETICUM HYSOPUM, ℞ 29, Cretan hyssop
CROCUS, —OS, —ON, —UM, saffron; hence CROCEUS, saffron-flavored, saffron sauce or saffron essence. CROCIS, a certain herb or flavor, perhaps saffron
Croquettes, ℞ 42, seq.
Cucumber, CUCUMIS, ℞ 82-84
CULINA, kitchen; CULINARIUS, man employed in the kitchen; pertaining to the kitchen
CULTER, a knife for carving or killing; the blade from 9 to 13 inches long
CUMANA, earthen pot or dish; casserole, ℞ 237
Cumberland sauce, ℞ 345
CUNICULUS, rabbit, cony
CUNILAGO, a species of origany, flea-bane, wild marjoram, basilica
CUPELLUM, CUPELLA, dim., of CUPA, a small cask or tun. Ger. KUFE; a “cooper” is a man who makes them
CURCUMA ZEODARIA, turmeric
CYATHUS, a measure, for both things liquid and things dry, which according to Pliny 21.109, amounted to 10 drachms, and, according to Rhem. Fann. 80., was the 12th part of a SEXTARIUS, roughly one twelfth pint. Also a goblet, and a vessel for mixing wine, ℞ 131
CYMA, young sprout, of colewort or any other herb; also cauliflower, ℞ 87-9-92
CYPERUS, CYPIRUS, a sort of rush with roots like ginger, see MEDIUM
DACTYLIS, long, “finger-like” grape or raisin; —US, long date, fruit of a date tree, ℞ 30
DAMA, a doe, deer, also a gazelle, antilope (DORCAS). In some places the chamois of the Alps is called DAMA
DAMASCENA [PRUNA], plum or prune from Damascus, ℞ 30. Either fresh or dried
Dates, stuffed, ℞ 294
DAUCUM, —US, —ON, a carrot
DE CHINE, see Dasheen
“Decline of the West,” p. 17
DECOQUO, to boil down
DEFRUTARIUS, one who boils wine; CELLA DEFRUTARIA, a cellar where this is done, or where such wine is kept
DEFRUTUM, DEFRICTUM, DEFRITUM, new wine boiled down to one half of its volume with sweet herbs and spices to make it keep. Used to flavor sauces, etc., see also Caramel color
Desserts, absent, p. 43
DIABOTANON PRO PISCE FRIXO, ℞ 432
Diagram of Apician editions, p. 252
Didius Julianus, ℞ 178
Dierbach, H. J., commentator, p. 273
Diocles, writer, ℞ 409
Dionysos Cup, illustration, p. 141
Dipper, illustrated, p. 3
 DISCUS, round dish, plate or platter
Disguising foods, ℞ 133, pp. 33-4
Distillation, see Vinum
Dormouse, ℞ 396
Doves, p. 265
Drexel, Theodor, collector, pp. 257-8
Dubois, Urbain, chef, p. 16
Dumas, Alexandre, cooking, p. 24
DURACINUS, hard-skinned, rough-skinned fruit; —— PERSICA, the best sort of peach, according to some, nectarines, ℞ 28
Early fruit, stewed, ℞ 177
ECHINUS, sea-urchin, ℞ 412-17
Economical methods: flavoring, ℞ 15
EDO, to eat; great eater, gormandizer, glutton
Eel, ℞ 466-7
Egg Dish, illustration, p. 93
Eglantine, ℞ 171
ELAEOGARUM, ℞ 33
Elderberry custard, ℞ 135
ELIXO, to boil, boil down, reduce. —US, —UM, boiled down, sodden, reduced. According to Platina an ELIXUM simply is a meat bouillon as it is made today. ELIXATIO, a court-bouillon, liquid boiled down; ELIXATURA, a reduction
EMBRACTUM, EMPHRACTUM, a dish “covered over”; a casserole of some kind. E. BAIANUM, ℞ 431
Endives, ℞ 109
Enoche of Ascoli, medieval scholar, cf. Apiciana
EPIMELES, careful, accurate; choice things. Title of Book I
Erasmus of Rotterdam, Dialogue, p. 273
ERUCA, the herb rocket, a colewort, a salad plant, a mustard plant
ERVUM, a kind of pulse like vetches or tares
ESCA, meat, food, victuals; ESCO, to eat
Escoffier, A. modern chef, writer, ℞ 338
ESCULENTES, things good to eat
EXCERPTA A VINIDARIO, p. 235
EXCOQUO, to boil out, to melt, to render (fats)
“Fakers” of manuscripts, p. 13
FALSCHER HASE, ℞ 384
FAR, corn or grain of any kind, also spelt; also a sort of coarse meal
Farce, forcemeat, ℞ 131
FARCIMEN, sausage, ℞ 62-64
FARCIO, to fill, to stuff; also to feed by force, cram, fatten
FARINA, meal, flour, ℞ 173; —OSUS, mealy
FARNEI FUNGI, ℞ 309
FARRICA, ℞ 173
FASEOLUS, PHASEOLUS, a bean; Ger.: Fisole, ℞ 207
FARSILIS, FARTILIS, a rich dish, something crammed or fattened, ℞ 131
FENICULUM, FOENI—, fennel
FENUM GRAECUM, FOEN—; the herb fenugreek, also SILICIA, ℞ 206
FERCULUM, a frame or tray on which several dishes were brought in at once, hence a course of dishes
FERULA, a rod or branch, fennel-giant; —— ASA FOETIDA, same as LASERPITIUM
FICATUM, fed or stuffed with figs, ℞ 259-60
FICEDULA, small bird, figpecker, ℞ 132
FICUS, fig, fig tree, FICULA, small fig
Fieldfare, a bird, ℞ 497
Figpecker, a bird, ℞ 132
Figs, to preserve, ℞ 22
Filets Mignons, ℞ 262
Filtering liquors, ℞ 1
Fine ragout of brains and bacon, ℞ 147
Fine spiced wine, ℞ 1
Fish cookery, “The Fisherman,” title of Book X; —— boiled, ℞ 432, 4, 5, 6, 455; —— fried, herb  sauce, ℞ 433; —— to preserve fried fish, ℞ 13; —— with cold dressing, ℞ 486; —— baked, ℞ 476-7; —— balls in wine sauce, ℞ 145, 164; —— fond, ℞ 155; a dish of any kind of ——, ℞ 149, 150, 156; —— au gratin, ℞ 143; —— loaf, ℞ 429; —— liver pudding, ℞ 429; —— pickled, spiced, marinated, ℞ 480; —— oysters and eggs, ℞ 157; —— salt, any style, ℞ 430, 431; stew, ℞ 153, 432; —— sauce, acid, ℞ 38-9
Flaccus, a Roman, ℞ 372
FLORES SAMBUCI, elder blossoms
FOCUS, hearth, range; unusually built of brick, on which the CRATICULA stood. Cf. illustrations, p. 182
French Dressing, ℞ 112
French Toast, ℞ 296
FRICTORIUM, FRIXORIUM, same as FRETALE, frying pan
FRISILIS, FRICTILIS, FUSILIS, ℞ 131
FRITTO MISTO (It.), ℞ 46
Friture, (Fr.) frying fat, ℞ 42, seq.
FRIXUS, roast, fried, also dried or parched, term which causes some confusion in the several editions
Frontispice, 2nd Lister Edition, illustration, p. 156
FRUGES, farinaceous dishes
FRUMENTUM, grain, wheat or barley
Frying, ℞ 42, seq.
Fulda Ms., cf. Apiciana
FURCA, a two-pronged fork; —ULA, —ILLA (dim.) a small fork. FUSCINA, —ULA, a three-pronged fork. Cf. “Forks and Fingerbowls as Milestones in Human Progress,” by the author, Hotel Bulletin and The Nation’s Chefs, Chicago, Aug., 1933, pp. 84-87
FURNUS, oven, bake oven. See illustration, p. 2
GALLINA, hen; —ULA, little hen; —ARIUS, poulterer
GANONAS CRUDAS, fish, ℞ 153
GARATUM, prepared with GARUM, which see
Mackerel is the oiliest fish, and plentiful, very well suited for the making of G.
G. was also a pickle made of the blood and the gills of the tunny and of the intestines of mackerel and other fish. The intestines were exposed to the sun and fermented. This has stirred up controversies; the ancients have been denounced for the “vile concoctions,” but garum has been vindicated by modern science as to its rational preparation and nutritive qualities. Codfish oil, for instance, has long been known for its medicinal properties, principally Vitamin D; this is being increased today by exposure to ultraviolet rays (just what the ancients did). The intestines are the most nutritious portions of fish
G. still remains a sort of mystery. Its exact mode of preparation is not known. It was very popular and expensive, therefore was subject to a great number of variations in quality and in price, and to adulteration. For all these reasons GARUM has been the subject of much speculation. It appears that the original meaning of G. became entirely lost in the subsequent variations
In 1933 Dr. Margaret B. Wilson sent the author a bottle of GARUM ROMANUM which she had compounded according to the formulae at her disposal. This was a syrupy brown liquid, smelled like glue and had to be dissolved in water or wine, a few drops of the G. to a glass of liquid, of which, in turn, only a few drops were used to flavor a fish sauce, etc.
—— SOCIORUM, the best kind of G.; ALEXGARI  VITIUM, the cheap kind of G., cf. ALEX, HALEC. OENOGARUM, G. mixed with wine; HYDROGARUM, G. mixed with water; OLEOGARUM, G. mixed with oil; OXYGARUM, G. mixed with vinegar
GARUS, small fish from which the real GARUM was made
GELO, cause to freeze, to congeal; GELU, jelly
GELU IN PATINA, gelatine: “QUOD VULGO GELATINAM VOCAMUS”—Platina
Georg, Carl, Bibliographer, p. 257
Gesamt-Katalog, bibliography, p. 261
GETHYUM, —ON, same as PALLACANA, an onion
GINGIBER, ginger; also ZINGIBER, faulty reading of the “G” by medieval scribes
GINGIDON, —IUM, a plant of Syria; according to Spengel the French carrot. Paulus Aegineta says: “BISACUTUM (SIC ENIM ROMANI GINGIDION APPELLANT) OLUS EST SCANDICI NON ABSIMILE,” hence a chervil root, or parsnip, or oysterplant
GLANDES, any kernel fruit, a date, a nut, etc.
Glasse, Mrs. Hannah, writer, ℞ 127
GLIS, pl. GLIRES, dormouse, a small rodent, very much esteemed as food. GLIRARIUM, cage or place where they were kept or raised, ℞ 396
Gluttons, p. 11
GONG for slaves, illustration, p. 151
Grapes, to keep, ℞ 19
Greek monographs, p. 43
Greens, green vegetables, ℞ 99
Guégan, Bertrand, editor, p. 271, seq.
Guinea Hen, ℞ 239, cf. “Turkey Origin,” by the author, Hotel Bulletin and The Nation’s Chefs, for February and March, 1935, Chicago
Habs, R., writer, p. 18
HALEC, see ALEC
HAND-MILL, operated by Slaves, illustration, p. 60
HAPANTAMYNOS, ℞ 497
Harcum, C. G., writer, see COQUUS
Hard-skinned peaches, to keep, ℞ 28
Hare, B. VIII, ℞ 382, seq. —— imitation, ℞ 384; —— braised, ℞ 382-3; —— different dressings, ℞ 383; —— Stuffed, ℞ 384, 91; —— white sauce for, ℞ 385; —— lights of, ℞ 386-7; —— liver, ℞ 170; —— in its own broth, ℞ 388; —— smoked Passenianus, ℞ 389; —— tidbits, kromeskis, ℞ 390; —— boiled, ℞ 393; —— spiced sauce, ℞ 393; —— sumptuous style, ℞ 394; —— spiced, ℞ 395
Haricot of lamb, ℞ 355
HARPAGO, a meat hook for taking boiled meat out of the pot, with five or more prongs; hence “harpoon.” Cf. FURCA
“Haut-goût” in birds, to overcome it, ℞ 229-30
Headcheese, ℞ 125
Heathcock, ℞ 218, seq.
HELENIUM, plant similar to thyme(?); the herb elecampane or starwort
Heliogabalus, emperor, p. 11
Henry VIII, of England, edict on kitchens, p. 156
HERBAE RUSTICAE, ℞ 107
Herbs, pot herbs, to keep, ℞ 25
Hildesheim Treasure, found in 1868, a great collection of Roman silverware, now in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin, our illustrations show a number of these pieces, p. 43
Hip, dog-briar, ℞ 171
HIRCOSIS AVIBUS, DE, ℞ 229-30
HISPANUM, see Oleum
HOEDUS, see HAEDUS
HOLUS, OLUS, kitchen vegetables, particularly cabbage, ℞ 99
Home-made sweets, ℞ 294
Honey cakes, ℞ 16
Horned fish, ℞ 442
HORTULANUS, gardener, Hortolanus, pork, ℞ 378
House of the Oven in Pompeii, illustration, p. 2
Hunter style, ℞ 263
HYDROMELI, rain water and honey boiled down one third
HYPOTRIMA, —IMMA, a liquid dish, soup, sauce, ragout, composed of many spiced things, ℞ 35
HYSITIUM, ISICIUM, a mince, a hash, a sausage, forcemeat, croquette, ℞ 41-56. The term “croquette” used by Gollmer does not fully cover H.; some indeed, resemble modern croquettes and kromeskis very closely. The ancients, having no table forks and only a few knives (which were for the servants’ use in carving) were fond of such preparations as could be partaken of without table ware. The reclining position at table made it almost necessary for them to eat H.; such dishes gave the cooks an opportunity for the display of their skill, inventive ability, their decorative and artistic sense. As “predigested” food, such dishes are decided preferable to the “grosses-pièces,” which besides energetic mastication require skillful manipulation of fork and knife; such exercise was unwelcome on the Roman couches. Modern nations, featuring “grosses-pièces” do this at the expense of high-class cookery. The word, H., is probably a medieval graecification of INSICIUM. Cf. ISICIA
HYSSOPUS, the herb hyssop; H. CRETICUS, marjoram. Also Hysopum creticum, hyssop from the island of Creta, ℞ 29
IECUR, JECUR, liver; ℞ 291-3. IECUSCULUM, small (poultry, etc.) liver
Ihm, Max, writer, p. 19
Indian peas, ℞ 187
Ink-fish, ℞ 405
INTUBUS, INTYBUS, —UM, chicory, succory, endive, ℞ 109
INULA HELENIUM, the herb elecampane or starwort
ISICIA, see HYSITIA, ℞ 41-54, 145
—— AMULATA AB AHENO, ℞ 54; —— DE CAMMARIS, ℞ 43; —— DE CEREBELLIS, ℞ 45; —— DE LOLLIGINE, ℞ 42; —— DE SPONDYLIS, ℞ 46; —— DE PULLO, ℞ 50; —— DE SCILLIS, ℞ 43; —— HYDROGARATA, ℞ 49; —— PLENA, ℞ 48; —— SIMPLEX, ℞ 52; —— DE TURSIONE, ℞ 145
Italian Salad, ℞ 123
IUS, JUS, any juice or liquid, or liquor derived
from food, a broth, soup, sauce. IUSCELLUM,
more frequently and affectionately, IUSCULUM,
the diminutive of I.
—— DE SUO SIBI, pan-gravy; such latinity as this proves the genuineness of the Apicius text, ℞ 153; —— IN DIVERSIS AVIBUS, ℞ 210-228; —— IN ELIXAM, ℞ 271-7; —— IN VENATIONIBUS, ℞ 349, seq. —— DIABOTANON, ℞ 432; —— IN PISCE ELIXO, ℞ 433-6; —— ALEXANDRINUM, ℞ 437-9; —— CONGRO, ℞ 440; —— IN CORNUTAM, ℞ 441; —— IN MULLOS, ℞ 442-3; —— PELAMYDE, ℞ 444; —— IN PERCAM, ℞ 446; —— IN MURENA, ℞ 448, 449-52; —— IN PISCE ELIXO, ℞ 454; —— IN LACERTOS ELIXOS, ℞ 455; —— PISCE ASSO, ℞ 456; —— THYNNO, ℞ 457; —— ELIXO, ℞ 458; —— IN DENTICE ASSO, ℞ 459-60; —— IN PISCE AURATA, ℞ 461-2; —— IN SCORPIONE, ℞ 463; —— PISCE OENOGARUM, ℞ 464-5; —— ANGUILLAM, ℞ 466-7
Jardinière, ℞ 378
JECINORA, ℞ 291
Jewish Cookery, compared with Apician, ℞ 205
Johannes de Cereto de Tridino, Venetian printer, p. 261
John of Damascus, see Torinus edition of 1541, Basel
Julian Meal Mush, ℞ 178
Keeping meat and fish, ℞ 10-14, seq.
Kettner, writer, p. 38
Kidney beans, ℞ 207-8
Kyrene, Cyrene, City of Northern Africa, see Laser
LAC, milk; —— FISSILE, cottage cheese
LACTARIS, having milk, made of milk; —IUS, dairyman
LACTES, small guts, chitterlings
 LAGANUM, a certain farinaceous dish; small cake made of flour and oil, a pan cake
LAGENA, —ONA, —OENA, —UNA, flask, bottle
Lambecius, Petrus, writer, on “The Porker’s Last Will,” ℞ 376
Langoust, ℞ 485
LANX, broad platter, dish, charger, ℞ 455
Larding, ℞ 394
LASER, LASERPITIUM, —ICIUM, the juice or distillate of the herb by that name, also known as SILPHIUM, SYLPHIUM, Greek, SYLPHION. Some agree that this is our present asa foetida, while other authorities deny this. Some claim its home is in Persia, while others say the best LASER came from Cyrene (Kyrene), Northern Africa. The center picture of the so-called Arkesilas-Bowl of Vulci at Paris, Cab. d. Méd. 189, represents a picture as seen by the artist in Kyrene how King Arkesilas (VI. saec.) watches the weighing and the stowing away in the hold of a sailing vessel of a costly cargo of sylphium. It was an expensive and very much esteemed flavoring agent, and, for that reason, the plant which grew only in the wild state, was probably exterminated
There is much speculation, but its true nature will not be revealed without additional information
Method of flavoring with laser-impregnated nuts, ℞ 15
LASERATUS, LASARATUS, prepared or seasoned with LASER, or SILPHIUM
Latin title of Vehling translation, opposite title page
LAURUS CINNAMOMUM, cinnamon; —— NOBILIS, laurel leaf, bay leaf
La Varenne, French cook, p. 16
LEGUMEN, leguminous plants; all kinds of pulse-peas, beans lentils, etc., Book V
LENS, LENTICULA, lentils, ℞ 183-4
LEPIDIUM SATIVUM, watercress
LEPUS, hare; LEPUSCULUM, young hare; LEPORARIUM, a place for keeping hare; LEPORINUM MINUTAL, minced hare, Hasenpfeffer, ℞ 382-395
LEUCOZOMUS, “creamed,” prepared with milk, ℞ 250
Lex Fannia, ℞ 166
LIBELLI, little ribs, spare ribs, also loin of pork, ℞ 251
LIBRA, weight, 1 pound (abb. “lb.” still in use); LIBRAE, balances, scales
LIBURNICUM, see oil, oleum
LIGUSTICUM, lovage (from Liguria) also LEVISTICUM; identical with garden lovage, savory, basilica, satury, etc.
LIQUORIBUS, DE, p. 370
LIQUAMEN, any kind of culinary liquid, depending upon the occasion. It may be interpreted as brine, stock, gravy, jus, sauce, drippings, marinade, natural juice; it must be interpreted in the broadest sense, as the particular instance requires. This much disputed term has been illustrated also in page 22. Also see ℞ 9, 42
Lister, Dr. Martinus, editor, edition of 1705, title
page, ditto, verso of, ditto of 1709, p. 38; frontispice
—— quoted in many foot notes, ℞ 8, seq.
—— assailing Torinus, p. 13, ℞ 15, 26, 100, 205
—— edition, 1709, facsimile, p. 250
LOLIUM, LOLA, darnel, rye-grass, ray-grass, meal. The seeds of this grass were milled, the flour or meal believed to possess some narcotic properties, as stated by Ovid and Plautus, but recent researches have cast some doubt upon its reported deleterious qualities. Apicius, ℞ 50, reads LOLAE FLORIS
LONGANO, a blood sausage, ℞ 61. The LONGANONES PORCINOS EX IURE TARENTINO in ℞ 140 is a part of the PATINA EX LACTE; a pork sausage made in Tarent of the straight gut, the rectum. Lister says they are cooked in Tarentinian sauce and are not unlike the sausage  called APEXABO and HILLA. These sausages were in vogue before the Italians learned to make them; it was in Epirus, Greece, that they were highly developed. Their importation into Rome caused quite a stir, politically. Lister, ℞ 50, p. 119, describes the sausage and calls the inhabitants of Tarent “most voluptuous, soft and delicate” because Juvenal, Sat. VI, v. 297, takes a shot at Tarent
This part of Italy, and especially Sicily, because in close contact with Greece was for many years much farther advanced in art of cookery than the North
LUCIUS FLUVIALIS, a river fish, perch, or pike, according to some; Platina also calls it LICIUS. Cf. MERULA
Lucretian Dish, ℞ 151
Lucullus, Roman general, proverbial glutton, has a place here because of his importation into Rome of the cherry, which he discovered in Asia Minor. He cannot be expected to be represented in the Apicius book because he died 57 B.C.
LUCUSTA, see LOCUSTA
Lung, ℞ 291-2
LUPUS, fish, ℞ 158
MACELLARIUS, MACELLINUS, market man, butcher
MACERO, to soak, soften, steep in liquor, macerate; MACERATUM, food thus treated
MACTRA, trough for kneading dough
MAGIRUS, MAGEIROS, cook, see COQUUS
Mallows, ℞ 86
It is remarkable that Apicius does not specifically speak of lemons and oranges, fruits that must have grown in Italy at his time, that are so indispensable to modern cookery
MALUM PUNICUM, ℞ 20, 21; —— CYDONIUM, ℞ 21; —— GRANATUM, ℞ 20; —— MEDICUM, ℞ 24; —— ROSEUM, ℞ 178, 171. This name, which according to Schuch simply stands for a rose-colored apple, has led to the belief that the ancients made pies, etc., of roses. Today a certain red-colored apple is known as “Roman Beauty.” We concur in Schuch’s opinion, remembering, however, that the fruit of the rose tree, namely the hip, dog-briar, or eglantine, is made into dainty confections on the Continent today. It is therefore quite possible that MALUM ROSEUM stands for the fruit of the rose
MANDUCO, to chew, to munch, to enjoy food by munching; a glutton
Each banquet guest brought with him from his own home such a napkin or cloth which he used during the banquet to wipe his mouth and hands. The ancients, evidently, were conscious of the danger of infection through the common use of napkins and table ware. Sometimes they used their napkins to wrap up part of the meal and to give it to their slaves to carry home in. Horace, Martial, Petronius attest to this fact. The banquet guests also employed their own slaves to wait on them at their Host’s party. This custom and the individual napkin habit have survived until after the French revolution. Grimod de la Reynière, in his Almanach des Gourmands, Paris, 1803, seq., describes how guests furnished their own napkins and servants for their own use at parties to which they were invited
This rather sensible custom relieved the host of much responsibility and greatly assisted him in defraying the expenses of the dinner. On the other hand it reveals the restrictions placed upon any host by the general shortage of table ware, table linen, laundering facilities in the days prior to the mechanical age
Marcellus, a Roman physician, ℞ 29
Marinade, pickle; a composition of spices, vegetables, herbs, and liquids, such as vinegar, wine, to preserve meats for several days and to impart to it a special flavor, ℞ 11, 236, 244, 394; cf. EMBAMMA
MARRUBIUM, the plant horehound
Martino, Maestro, p. 3, cf. Vehling: Martino and Platina, Exponents of Renaissance Cookery, Hotel Bulletin and The Nation’s Chefs, Chicago, October, 1932, and Platina, Maestro nell’arte culinaria Un’interessante studio di Joseph D. Vehling, Cremona, 1935
Mason, Mrs., a writer, ℞ 126
MASTIX, MASTICE, MASTICHE, the sweet-scented gum of the mastiche-tree; hence MASTICATUS, MASTICINUS for foods treated with M.
Matius, a writer, was a friend of Julius Caesar. His work is lost, ℞ 167; apples named after him, ibid.
Measures, liquid. The following list is confined to
terms used in Apicius
PARTES XV equal 1 CONGIUS
CONGIUS I equal 6 SEXTARII (1 S. equals about 1½ pt. English)
SEXTARII II equal 1 CHOENIX
SEXTARIUS I equal 2 HEMINAS
HEMINA I equal 4 ACETABULA
ACETABULUM I equal 12 CYATHI (15 Attic drachms)
CYATHUS I equal 1/12 SEXTARIUS (a cup)
COCHLEAR I equal ¼ CYATHUS (a spoonful)
COTULA, COTYLA, same as HEMINA, same as ½ SEXTARIUS
QUARTARIUS I equal ¼ pint
Meat ball, ℞ 261, seq. —— with laser, ℞ 472-3; meat, boiled, stewed, ℞ 271; keeping of, ℞ 10, 13; how to make pickled meat sweet, ℞ 12; to decorate or garnish, ℞ 394, (see marinade); meat pudding, ℞ 42; —— loaf, ℞ 384, 172
Meat supply, ancient and modern, p. 31
Megalone, place where Torinus found the Apicius codex, p. 266
MELIRHOMUM, MELIZOMUM, ℞ 2
Melon, ℞ 85
MENSA, repast, see CENA
Merling, see MERULA
MERULA, MERLUCIUS, cf. LUCIUS, a fish called merling, whiting, also smelt; Fr. MERLAN; also blackbird. Platina discussed MERULA, the blackbird, the eating of which he disapproves. “There is little food value in the meat of blackbirds and it increases melancholia,” says he. Perhaps because the bird is “black,” ℞ 419
MERUS, MERUM, pure, unmixed, “mere,” “merely”; hence MERUM VINUM, —— OLEUM, pure wine, oil, etc.
Milan edition, Colophon, p. 260
Milk Toast, ℞ 171
Mill operated by slaves, illustration, p. 60
Minced dishes, Book II
MINUTAL, a “small” dish, a “minutely” cut mince; —— MARINUM, ℞ 164; —— TARENTINUM, ℞ 165; —— APICIANUM, ℞ 166; —— MATIANUM, ℞ 167; —— DULCE, ℞ 168; —— EX PRAECOQUIS, ℞ 169; —— LEPORINUM, ℞ 170; —— EX ROSIS, ℞ 171; —— of large fruits, ℞ 169
MITULIS, IN, ℞ 418
Mixing bowls, see Crater
Monk’s Rhubarb, ℞ 26
“Monkey,” ℞ 55
Moralists, ancient, see Review
MORETUM, salad, salad dressing of oil, vinegar, garlic, parsley, etc., cf. ℞ 38
MORUS, mulberry; —— ALBA, white m. —— NIGRA, black m. Platina, DE MORIS, has a very pretty simile, comparing the various stages of ripening and colors of the mulberry to the blushing of Thysbes, the Egyptian girl, ℞ 24
Mulberries, ℞ 24
MULSUM, mead, honey-wine; —— ACETUM, honey-vinegar
Munich Ms. XVIII Apiciana
MUREX, shellfish, purple-fish
Mush, ℞ 178
Muskrat, ℞ 396
Mussels, ℞ 418
MUSTEIS PETASONEM, ℞ 289
MUSTEOS AFROS, ℞ 295
MUSTUM, fresh, young, new; —— VINUM, must, new wine; —— OLEI, new oil
MYRRHIS ODORATA, myrrh, used for flavoring wine
MYRTUS, myrtle berry, often called “pepper” and so used instead of pepper
MYRTUS PIMENTA, allspice
NAPKINS, individual, see MAPPA
NASTURTIUM, the herb cress
NECHON, ℞ 16
Neck, roast, ℞ 270
NEPATA, cat-mint; —— MONTANA, mountain mint; see MENTHA
Nero, emperor, p. 11
Nettles, ℞ 108
New York codex, No. I, Apiciana
NITRIUM, ℞ 66
NOVENDIALES, see CENA
NUCLEUS, nut, kernel, ℞ 92
NUCULA, dim. of NUX, small nut; also a certain muscular piece of meat from the hind leg of animals, Fr. NOIX DE VEAU, as of veal, Ger. KALBSNUSS, and a certain small part of the loin of animals, Fr. NOISETTE
NUMIDICUS, PULLUS, guinea hen, which see
Nuts, Summary of, p. 236
NUX, p. 236, a nut, both hazel nut and walnut; —— JUGLANDIS, walnut; —— PINEIS, —— PINEA, pine nuts, pignolia; —— MUSCATA, nutmeg
OBSONARE, to provide, to buy for the table; to prepare or to give a dinner; from the Greek, OPSON
OBSONIUM, OP—, a dish, a meal, anything eaten with bread
OCIMUM, —YMUM, —UMUM, OCINUM, basil, basilica; also a sort of clover
OENOMELI, wine and honey
OENOPOLIUM, wine shop; a wine dealer’s place, who, however, did a retail business. The TABERNA VINARIA seems to have been the regular wine restaurant, while the THERMOPOLIUM specialized in hot spiced wines. Like today in our complicated civilization, there were in antiquity a number of different refreshment places, each with its specialties and an appropriate name for the establishment
OFFA, OFFELLA, OFELLA, a lump or ball of meat, a “Hamburger Steak,” a meat dumpling, any bit of meat, a morsel, chop, small steak, collop, also various other “dainty” dishes, consisting principally of meat
“INTER OS ET OFFAM MULTA INTERVENIUNT”—Cato; the ancient equivalent for our “’twixt cup and lip there is many a slip”
OLLA, a cook pot, a terra-cotta bowl; see also CACCABUS. OLLULA, a small O., a casserole, or cassolette. Sp. OLLA PODRIDA, “rotten pot”
OLUS, OLUSATRUM, OLUSTRUM, OLUSCULUM,
OLERA, OLISERA, OLIFERA, OLISATRA,
any herb, kitchen greens, pot herbs, sometimes
cabbage, from OLITOR, the truck farmer,
℞ 25, 67, 99, 103
OLUS ET CAULUS, cabbage and cale, ℞
OLUSATRUM, see OLUS
Onions, ℞ 304-8
OPERCULUM, a cover, lid, or dish with a cover
Opossum, ℞ 396
ORIGANUM MARJORANA, marjoram; —— origany; —— VINUM, wine flavored with O.
ORYZA, rice, rice flour; see RISUM
OSPREON, OSPREOS, OSPRION, legumes, Title of Book V
Ostia, town, harbor of Rome; the OFFELLAE OSTIENSIS, ℞ 261, are the ancient “Hamburgers”; this seems to confirm the assumption that the population of sea-port towns have a preference for meat balls
Ostrich, ℞ 210-11
Oval pan, illustration, p. 159
Oval service dish, p. 43
Oven, ancient bakery in Pompeii, illustration, p. 2
OVIS SYLVATICA, OVIFERO, wild sheep, ℞ 348-50
OVUM, egg; OVA SPHONGIA EX LACTE, ℞ 302
OXALME, acid pickle, vinegar and brine
 OXYCOMIUM, pickled olive
OXYGALA, curdled with curds
OXYPORUS, easily digested, ℞ 34
OXYZOMUM, seasoned with acid, vinegar, lemon, etc.
Oyster sauce, CUMINATUM, ℞ 41
PALLACANA CEPA, shallot, young onion; cf. CEPA
Pallas Athene Dish, The Great, illustration, p. 158
PALMA, PALMITA, palm shoots
PALUMBA, wood pigeon, ℞ 220
Pan with decorated handle, p. 73
Panada, ℞ 127
PANDECTES, —ER, a book on all sorts of subjects; Title of Book IV
PANIS, bread, PICENTINUS, ℞ 126
PAPAVER, poppy-seed; —— FICI, fig-seed
PARADOXON, CONDITUM, ℞ 1
Parboiling, ℞ 119
Parrot, ℞ 231-2
Parsnips, ℞ 121-3
Passenius, —anus, an unidentified Roman, ℞ 389
PASSUM, raisin wine
PASTINACA, —CEA, parsnip, carrot, ℞ 121-3; also a fish, the sting-ray
Pastry, absent, p. 43
PATELLA, a platter or dish on which food was
cooked and served, corresponding to our gratin
dishes; a dish in general. In this sense it is often
confused with PATINA, which see, so that it has
become difficult to distinguish between the two terms
—— THIROTARICA, ℞ 144; —— ARIDA, ℞ 145; —— EX OLISATRO, ℞ 145a; —— SICCA, ℞ 145
PATELLARIUS, pertaining to a PATELLA; also one who makes or sells dishes, and, in the kitchen, also a dishwasher; cf. PATINARIUS
PATINARIUS, a glutton, gormandizer, also a pile of dishes, also the craftsman who makes and the merchant who sells dishes as well as the scullion who washes them
PATINA APICIANA, ℞ 141; —— APUA, ℞ 138-9, 146; —— DE ASPARAGIS, ℞ 132-33; —— DE CYDONIIS, ℞ 163; —— EX LACTE, ℞ 140; —— EX LARIDIS ET CEREBELLIS, ℞ 147; —— FRISILIS, ℞ 131; —— EX RUSTICIS, ℞ 134; —— DE ROSIS, ℞ 136; —— DE LACERTIS, ℞ 152; —— DE LUPO, ℞ 158; —— DE PERSICIS, ℞ 160; —— EX URTICA, ℞ 162; —— EX SOLEIS, ℞ 154; —— EX PISCIBUS, ℞ 155-7, 486; —— MULLIS, ℞ 148; —— QUIBUSLIBET, ℞ 149; —— ALIA PISCIUM, ℞ 150; —— SOLEARUM EX OVIS, ℞ 487; —— QUOTIDIANA, ℞ 122, 142; —— VERSATILIS, ℞ 129, 143; —— ZOMORE, ℞ 153; —— DE PIRIS, ℞ 161; —— DE SORBIS, ℞ 159; —— DE SAMBUCO, ℞ 135; —— DE CUCURBITIS, ℞ 137
PAVO, peacock, ℞ 54
Peaches, a dish of, ℞ 160
Peas, p. 247, ℞ 185-6, 190-2; —— a tempting dish of, ℞ 192; —— Indian, ℞ 187; —— purée of peas, cold, ℞ 188; —— or beans à la Vitellius, ℞ 189, 193; —— in the pod, Apician style, ℞ 194-6; —— in the pod à la Commodus, ℞ 197; purée of peas with brains and chicken, ℞ 198
PECTINE, scallop, ℞ 52
Peeling young vegetables, ℞ 69
PEPON, a kind of gourd, melon or pumpkin, ℞ 85
PERCA, perch, ℞ 446
Perch, ℞ 446
PERDICE, IN, ℞ 218
PETASO, fresh ham, hind leg of pork, ℞ 289
Petits pois à la française, ℞ 185
PHARIAM, UVAM PASSAM, ℞ 197
PHASEOLUS, FASEOLUS, green string beans, kidney bean, young bean and pod, both green and wax bean varieties. Ger. FISOLE and FASOLE, ℞ 207
Phillipps, bibl. Apiciana I
Picentinian bread, ℞ 126
Picking birds, ℞ 233
Pie chimneys, ℞ 141
Pig, see PORCELLUM
PIPERITIS, pepperwort, Indian pepper, capsicum
PIRUM, pear, ℞ 160-1
PISCINA, fish pond, fish tank, which was found in every large Roman household to keep a supply of fresh fish on hand
PISCIS, fish; PISCES FRIXOS, ℞ 476-7; —— SCORPIONES RAPULATOS, ℞ 475; —— ASSOS, ℞ 478; —— OENOTEGANON, ℞ 479, 81; —— IN PISCIBUS ELIXIS, ℞ 486; —— IN PISCE ELIXO, ℞ 433, 434, 435, 436, 454; —— AURATA, ℞ 461; —— ASSA, ℞ 462; —— OENOGARUM, ℞ 464-5
PISTACIUM, —EUM, pistache
PISTOR, baker, pastry cook, confectioner, see COQUUS
Pitch, for sealing of vessels, ℞ 25
PLACENTA, a certain cake, a cheese cake
Platina, Bartolomeo, humanist, writer, pp. 8, 9, 19, Apiciana No. 6, and often quoted in this index. Author of first printed Cookery book. Cf. Martino and Platina Exponents of Renaissance Cookery, by J. D. Vehling. Cf. Cibarium, Cornum, Corvus, Frictella, Merula, Morus, Passer, Ranae, Risum, Sturnus, Styrio, Thinca, Thymus, Zanzerella
Plato, writer, p. 12
Plumage of birds as a decoration, ℞ 213
Plums, ℞ 22
Poggio, medieval scholar, at Fulda, p. 20
POLEI, POLEGIUM, PULEIUM, penny-royal, flea-bane, flea-wort
POLENTA, peeled or pearled barley, ℞ 178
Pollio, Roman, feeding human flesh to fish, ℞ 484
POLYPODIUM, the herb fern or polypody
POLYPUS, the fish polypus, ℞ 410
POLYTELES, POLI—, fine dishes, trimmed, set off; “Recherché” food; Title of Book VII
Pomegranates, to keep, ℞ 20
PONTUS, Black Sea Region
PORCA, PORCUS, female and male swine; PORCELLUS, PORCELLINUS, young s., pig, ℞ 336-81, 488-94; —— PORCELLUM FARSILEM, ℞ 366, 367; —— ASSUM, ℞ 369; —— ELIXUM, ℞ 368; —— APICIANUM, ℞ 370; —— VITELLIANUM, ℞ 371; —— LAUREATUM, ℞ 373; —— FRONTINIANUM, ℞ 374; —— CELSINIANUM, ℞ 376, 377; —— HORTULANUM, ℞ 378; —— ELIXUM IUS FRIGIDUM, ℞ 379; —— TRAIANUM, ℞ 380; —— CORIANDRATUM, ℞ 488; —— FLACCIANUM, ℞ 372; —— OENOCOCTUM, ℞ 489; —— EO IURE, ℞ 490; —— THYMO SPARSUM, ℞ 491; OXYZOMUM, ℞ 492; —— LASARATUM, ℞ 493; —— IUSCELLATUM, ℞ 494; —— ASSUM TRACTOMELINUM, ℞ 369; —— LACTE PASTUM, ℞ 370; —— IN PORCELLO LACTANTE, ℞ 381
Pork, p. 285; —— and onions à la Lucretius, ℞ 151; —— skin, cracklings, ℞ 251-55; —— udder, ℞ 251; —— tenderloin, ℞ 251-255; —— tails and feet, ℞ 251; —— fig-fed, ℞ 259; —— cutlets, Hunter Style, ℞ 263; —— paunch, ℞ 285; —— loin and kidneys, ℞ 286; —— shoulder, ℞ 287-88; —— fresh ham, ℞ 289; —— bacon, ℞ 290; —— Salt —— ℞ 290; —— forcemeat, ℞ 366
Porker, The ——’s Last Will and Testament, ℞ 376
PORTULACA, PORCILACA, purslane
POSCA, originally water and vinegar or lemon juice. It became an acid drink of several variations, made with wine, fruit juice, eggs and water
Pot Roast, ℞ 270
Potted Entrées, ℞ 54
PRAECOQUO, —OCTUS, —OCIA, “cooked beforehand,” also ripened too early, but the present kitchen term is “blanching,” or “parboiling.” Cf. PRAEDURO
PRAEDURO, to harden by boiling, to blanch, ℞ 119
Preserving (keeping of) meats, ℞ 10-12; —— fried fish, ℞ 13; —— fruit, figs, prunes, pears, etc., ℞ 19-24, 28, 29, 30; —— grapes, ℞ 19; —— honey cakes, ℞ 16; —— mulberries, ℞ 24; —— oysters, ℞ 14; —— pomegranates, ℞ 20; —— pot herbs, ℞ 25; —— quinces, ℞ 21; —— sorrel, sour dock, ℞ 26; —— citron, ℞ 23; —— truffles, ℞ 27; —— vegetable purée, ℞ 106
Press, wine illustration, p. 92
Processing, ℞ 19-24
PRUNA, live, burning coal
PRUNUM, plum; —— DAMASCENUM, p. from Damascus, ℞ 22; this variety came dried, resembling our large prunes. —— SILVESTRIS, sloe berry, which by culture and pruning has become the ancestor of plums, etc.
Pudding, ℞ 60
PULLUM PARTHICUM, ℞ 237; OXYZOMUM, ℞ 238; —— NUMIDICUM, ℞ 239; —— LASERATUM, ℞ 240; —— ELIXUM, ℞ 242; —— CUM CUCURBITIS, ℞ 243; —— CUM COLOCASIIS, ℞ 244; —— VARDANUM, ℞ 245; —— FRONTONIANUM, ℞ 246; —— TRACTOGALATUM, ℞ 247; —— FARSILIS, ℞ 248; LEUCOZOMUM, ℞ 250
PULMENTARIUM, any food eaten with vegetables, pulse or bread, or a dish composed of these ingredients, ℞ 67-71
PULMO, lung, ℞ 29
PULTARIUS, a bowl, a “cereal” dish, ℞ 104
Purée of lettuce, ℞ 130
PYRETHRUM, —ON, Spanish camomile, pellitory
QUARTARIUS, a measure (which see), ¼ pint
Quenelles, ℞ 131
Rabbit, ℞ 54
Radishes, ℞ 102
Raisins, ℞ 30
RANAE, frogs, have been an article of diet for ages. Platina gives fine directions for their preparation. He recommends only frogs living in the water. RUBETAS ET SUB TERRA VIVENTES, UT NOXIAS REJICIO! AQUATILAS HAE SUNT DE QUIBUS LOQUOR
Platina skins the frogs, turns them in flour and fries them in oil; he adds fennel flower garnish and SALSA VIRIDA (green sauce, our ravigote or remoulade) on the side. No modern chef could do different or improve upon it. The fennel blossom garnish is a startling stroke of genius
Rankin, E. M., writer, see COQUUS
RAPHANUS SATIVUS, Horseradish, ℞ 102
Ray, fish, ℞ 403-4
RECOQUO, RECOCTUM, re-heated, warmed-up
Redsnapper, ℞ 448
Relishes, ℞ 174-5
RENES, ℞ 286
RHOMBUS, fish, turbot
RHUS, a shrub called SUMACH, seed of which is used instead of salt
RISUM, rice, also ORYZA. The word RISUM is used by Platina who says: “RISUM, QUOD EGO ANTIQUO VOCABULO ORIZAM APPELLATUM PUTO.” This is one of the many philologically interesting instances found in Platina and Aegineta of the evolution of a term from the antique to the medieval Latin and finally emerging into modern Italian. What better proof, if necessary, could be desired than this etymology for the authenticity of the Apicius book? Its age could be proven by a philologist if no other proof were at hand
Roman Vermouth, ℞ 3
Rose wine, ℞ 4-6
RUBELLIO, fish, ℞ 447
RUBRA TESTA, red earthen pot
RUMEX, sorrel, sour dock, monk’s rhubarb, ℞ 24
Rumpolt, Marx, cook, cf. Styrio
RUTA, rue; —— HORTENSIS, garden r.; —— SYLVESTRIS, wild r.; —— RUTATUS, prepared with r. Rue was very much esteemed because of its stimulating properties
Rye, ℞ 99
SABUCO, see SAMBUCO
SACCARUM, SACCHARUM, sugar; distillate from the joints of the bamboo or sugar cane, coming from India, hence called “Indian Salt.” It was very scarce in ancient cookery. Honey was generally used in place of sugar. Only occasionally a shipment of sugar would arrive in Rome from India, supposed to have been cane sugar; otherwise cane and beet sugar was unknown in ancient times. Any kind of sweets, therefore, was considered a luxury
SAL, salt. Laxative salt, ℞ 29; “For many ills,” ibid.
Sala, George Augustus, writer, p. 38
Salcisse, ℞ 41
SALINUM, salt cellar
Salmasius, Codex of ——, see Apiciana, III
SALPA, a sea-fish like stock-fish
SALSAMENTUM IN PORCELLO, ℞ 381
Salsicium, ℞ 41
SALVIA, SALVUS, sage
SAMBUCUS, elder-tree, or e.-berry; ℞ 135
Sanitary measures, see MAPPA
SAPA, new wine boiled down
SAPOR, taste, savor, relish; —— ROSELLINUS, rose extract, prepared rose flavor
SARCOPTES, title of Book II
Sarinus, Pompeiian innkeeper, p. 7
SARTAGO, frying pan, flat and round or oblong, of bronze or of iron; some were equipped with hinged handles, to facilitate packing or storing away in small places, in soldiers’ knapsack, or to save space in the pantry. This, as well as the extension handle of some ancient dippers are ingenious features of ancient kitchen utensils. See also FRICTORIUM, and the illustrations of pans, pp. 155, 159
SATUREIA, savory, satury