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MISS PARLOA'S NEW COOK BOOK,

A GUIDE TO MARKETING AND COOKING.


BY MARIA PARLOA,

PRINCIPAL OF THE SCHOOL OF COOKING IN BOSTON



ILLUSTRATED.



PREFACE.



When the author wrote the Appledore Cook Book, nine years ago, she had
seen so many failures and so much consequent mortification and
dissatisfaction as to determine her to give those minute directions
which were so often wanting in cook-books, and without which success
in preparing dishes was for many a person unattainable. It seemed then
unwise to leave much to the cook's judgment; and experience in
lecturing and in teaching in her school since that time has satisfied
the author that what was given in her first literary work was what was
needed. In this book an endeavor has been made to again supply what is
desired: to have the directions and descriptions clear, complete and
concise. Especially has this been the case in the chapter on
Marketing. Much more of interest might have been written, but the hope
which led to brevity was that the few pages devoted to remarks on that
important household duty, and which contain about all that the average
cook or housekeeper cares and needs to know, will be carefully read.
It is believed that there is much in them of considerable value to
those whose knowledge of meats, fish and vegetables is not extensive;
much that would help to an intelligent selection of the best
provisions.

Of the hundreds of recipes in the volume only a few were not prepared
especially for it, and nearly all of these were taken by the author
from her other books. Many in the chapters on Preserving and Pickling
were contributed by Mrs. E. C. Daniell of Dedham, Mass., whose
understanding of the lines of cookery mentioned is thorough. While
each subject has received the attention it seemed to deserve, Soups,
Salads, Entrées and Dessert have been treated at unusual length,
because with a good acquaintance with the first three, one can set a
table more healthfully, economically and elegantly than with meats or
fish served in the common ways; and the light desserts could well take
the place of the pies and heavy puddings of which many people are so
fond. Many ladies will not undertake the making of a dish that
requires hours for cooking, and often for the poor reason only that
they do not so read a recipe as to see that the work will not be hard.
If they would but forget cake and pastry long enough to learn
something of food that is more satisfying!

After much consideration it was decided to be right to call particular
attention in different parts of the book to certain manufactured
articles. Lest her motive should be misconstrued, or unfair criticisms
be made, the author would state that there is not a word of praise
which is not merited, and that every line of commendation appears
utterly without the solicitation, suggestion or _knowledge_ of
anybody likely to receive pecuniary benefit therefrom.





NOTE.

The following is a table of measures and weights which will be found
useful in connection with the recipes:

 One quart of flour                                one pound.
 Two cupfuls of butter                             one pound.
 One generous pint of liquid                       one pound.
 Two cupfuls of granulated sugar                   one pound.
 Two heaping cupfuls of powdered sugar             one pound.
 One pint of finely-chopped meat, packed solidly   one pound.

The cup used is the common kitchen cup, holding half a pint.




CONTENTS.

Marketing
Groceries
Care of Food
Kitchen Furnishing
Soups
Fish
Meats
Poultry and Game
Entrées
Salads
Meat and Fish Sauces
Force-Meat and Garnishes
Vegetables
Pies and Puddings
Dessert
Cake
Preserving
Pickles and Ketchup
Potting
Breakfast and Tea
Economical Dishes
Bread
Drinks
How to do Various Things
Bills of Fare



THE PUBLISHERS' COMPLIMENTS TO THE READER.

Dear Madame:

In the preparation of this book the author and publishers have
expended much time and money, with the hope that it may lessen your
cares, by enabling you to provide your household with appetizing and
healthful food, at a reasonable outlay of expense and skill. Should
they not be disappointed in this hope, and you find yourself made
happier by the fond approval of those who enjoy the food which you set
before them as a result of your use of this book, we trust you will
recommend its purchase by your friends, to the end that they may also
be benefited by it, and that both author and publisher may be
recompensed for its preparation.




MISS PARLOA'S NEW COOK BOOK.




MARKETING.


Upon the amount of practical knowledge of marketing that the
housekeeper has, the comfort and expense of the family are in a great
measure dependent; therefore, every head of a household should acquire
as much of this knowledge as is practicable, and the best way is to go
into the market. Then such information as is gained by reading becomes
of real value. Many think the market not a pleasant or proper place
for ladies. The idea is erroneous. My experience has been that there
are as many gentlemen among marketmen as are to be found engaged in
any other business. One should have a regular place at which to trade,
as time is saved and disappointment obviated. If not a judge of meat,
it is advisable, when purchasing, to tell the dealer so, and rely upon
him to do well by you. He will probably give you a nicer piece than
you could have chosen. If a housekeeper makes a practice of going to
the market herself, she is able to supply her table with a better
variety than she is by ordering at the door or by note, for she sees
many good and fresh articles that would not have been thought of at
home. In a book like this it is possible to treat at length only of
such things as meat, fish and vegetables, which always form a large
item of expense.


BEEF.

Beef is one of the most nutritious, and, in the end, the most
economical, kinds of meat, for there is not a scrap of it which a good
housekeeper will not utilize for food.


As to Choosing It.

Good steer or heifer beef has a fine grain, a yellowish-white fat, and
is firm. When first cut it will be of a dark red color, which changes
to a bright red after a few minutes' exposure to the air. It will also
have a juicy appearance; the suet will be dry, crumble easily and be
nearly free from fibre. The flesh and fat of the ox and cow will be
darker, and will appear dry and rather coarse. The quantity of meat
should be large for the size of the bones. Quarters of beef should be
kept as long as possible before cutting. The time depends upon climate
and conveniences, but in the North should be two or three weeks. A
side of beef is first divided into two parts called the fore and hind
quarters. These are then cut into variously-shaped and sized pieces.
Different localities have different names for some of these cuts. The
diagrams represent the pieces as they are sold in the Boston market,
and the tables give the New York and Philadelphia names for the same
pieces. In these latter two cities, when the side of beef is divided
into halves, they cut farther back on the hind quarter than they do in
Boston, taking in all the ribs--thirteen and sometimes fourteen. This
gives one more rib roast. They do not have what in Boston is called
the tip of the sirloin.


The Hind Quarter.

In Philadelphia they cut meat more as is done in Boston than they do
in New York. The following diagram shows a hind quarter as it appears
in Boston. In the other two cities the parts 1 and 13f are included in
the _fore_ quarter. The dotted lines show wherein the New York
cutting differs from the Boston:

[ILLUSTRATION: Diagram No. 1. Hind Quarter of Beef.]


EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM NO. 1.

BOSTON.

1. Tip end of sirloin.
2. Second cut of sirloin.
3. First cut of sirloin.
4. Back of rump.
5. Middle of rump.
6. Face of rump.
7. Aichbone.
8. Best of round steak.
9. Poorer round steak.
10. Best part of vein.
11. Poorer part of vein.
12. Shank of round.
13. Flank.


PHILADELPHIA.

1. First cut of ribs.
2. Sirloin roast or steak.
3. Sirloin roast or steak.
4. Hip roast; also rump steak.
5. Middle of rump.
6. Face of rump.
7. Tail of rump.
8. Best of round steak.
9. Poorer round steak.
10. Best part of vein.
11. Poorer part of vein.
12. Leg.
13. (e) Flank.


NEW YORK.

1. First cut of ribs.
2. Porter-house steak or sirloin roast
3. Flat-boned sirloin steak or roast.
4,5,6. /(a) Large sirloin (a) steaks or roasts
7. Aichbone.
8. (and 4b and 5b) Rump steak.
9. (and 13e) Round steak.
10. Best part of vein
11. Poorer part of vein.
12. (d) Leg of beef.
13. (e) Flank.


The hind quarter consists of the loin, rump, round, tenderloin or
fillet of beef, leg and flank. The loin is usually cut into roasts and
steaks; the roasts are called sirloin roasts and the steaks sirloin or
porter-house steaks. In the loin is found the tenderloin; and a small
piece of it (about two and a half pounds in a large animal) runs back
into the rump. In Boston this is often sold under the name of the
short fillet, but the New York and Philadelphia marketmen do not cut
it. Plate No. 2 shows the fillet.

[Illustration: PLATE NO. 2. SHORT FILLET.]

Next the loin comes the rump, from which are cut steaks, roasts and
pieces for stewing, braising, a la mode and soups. Next the rump comes
the round, from which are cut steaks, pieces for a la mode, stewing,
braising and soups. The flank is cut from the loin, and used for
corning, stewing and as a roll of beef.

Plate No. 4 represents a loin as cut in Boston and Philadelphia, and
it and No. 3 represent one as cut in New York, if the two parts be
imagined joined at the point A. No. 4 also shows the inside of the
loin, where the tenderloin lies.

The sirloin is cut in all sizes, from eight to twenty pounds, to suit
the purchaser. The end next the ribs gives the smallest pieces, which
are best for a small family. The tenderloin in this cut is not as
large as in the first and second. In cutting sirloin steaks or roasts,
dealers vary as to the amount of flank they leave on. There should be
little, if any, as that is not a part for roasting or broiling. When
it is all cut off the price of the sirloin is of course very much more
than when a part is left on, but though the cost is increased eight or
ten cents a pound, it is economy to pay this rather than take what you
do not want.

[Illustration: PLATE NO. 3. RUMP, SHOWING END WHICH JOINS ROUND.]

[Illustration: PLATE NO. 4. LOIN. THE LOWER END JOINS RIBS.]


Porter-House Steaks.

Every part of the sirloin, and a part of the rump, is named porter-
house steak in various localities. In New York the second cut of the
sirloin is considered the choice one for these steaks. The rump steak,
when cut with the tenderloin in it, is also called porter-house steak.
The original porter-house steaks came from the small end of the loin.


Sirloin Steaks.

Sirloin steaks are cut from all parts of the loin, beginning with the
small end and finishing with the rump. In New York the rump steaks are
also known as sirloin. In some places they do not cut tenderloin with
sirloin. One slice of sirloin from a good-sized animal will weigh
about two and a half pounds. If the flank, bone and fat were removed,
there would remain about a pound of clear, tender, juicy meat There
being, therefore, considerable waste to this steak, it will always be
expensive as compared with one from a rump or round. But many persons
care only for this kind, as it has a flavor peculiar to itself; and
they will buy it regardless of economy. Plate No. 5 shows a second cut
of the sirloin, with the shape of a sirloin or small porter-house
steak. The only part that is really eatable as a steak is from the
base to the point A, the remainder being flank.

[Illustration: Plate No. 5. SIRLOIN ROAST--SECOND CUT.]

[Illustration: Plate No. 7. SHORT RUMP STEAK.]

[Illustration: Plate No. 6. LONG RUMP STEAK.]


Rump Steak.

What in Boston and Philadelphia is called rump steak is in New York
named sirloin. There are three methods of cutting a rump steak; two of
these give a very fine steak, the third almost the poorest kind. The
first two are to cut across the grain of the meat, and thus obtain,
when the beeve is a good one, really the best steaks in the animal.

Plates Nos. 6 and 7 represent these steaks. No. 6 is a long rump
steak, very fine; and No. 7 a short rump, also excellent. In both of
these there is a piece of tenderloin. In New York, No. 6 is sirloin
without bone, and No. 7 sirloin. There is yet another slice of rump
that is of a superior quality. It is cut from the back of the rump,
and there is no tenderloin in it. Plate No. 8 shows a rump steak cut
with the grain of the meat; that is, cut lengthwise. It comes much
cheaper than the others, but is so poor that it should never be
bought. It will curl up when broiled, and will be tough and dry.

[Illustration; Plate No. 8. RUMP STEAK WITH THE GRAIN.]

[Illustration: Plate No. 9. BACK OF THE RUMP.]

[Illustration: PLATE NO. 10. AITCHBONE.]

[Illustration: PLATE NO. 11. ROUND OF BEEF.]

Some marketmen will not cut rump steak by the first two methods,
because it spoils the rump for cutting into roasts, and also leaves a
great deal of bone and some tough meat on hand. The price per pound
for a rump steak cut with the grain is ten cents less than for that
cut across, and yet dealers do not find it profitable to sell steak
cut the latter way. Plate No. 9 shows the back of the rump, which is
used for steaks and to roast. The steaks are juicy and tender, but do
not contain any tenderloin.


Round Steaks.

Plate No. 11 shows the round of beef with the aitch bone taken off; a,
a, a, a, is the top of the round, b, b, b, b, the under part, where
the aitchbone has been cut off, and c, c, c, c, the vein. Plate No. 10
is this aitchbone, which is first cut from the round, and then the
steaks are taken off.

The best steak begins with the third slice. The top and under part of
the round are often cut in one slice. The top is tender and the under
part tough. When both are together the steak sells for fifteen or
sixteen cents per pound; when separate, the top is twenty or more and
the under part from ten to twelve. If it is all to be used as a steak,
the better way is to buy the top alone; but if you wish to make a stew
one day and have a steak another, it is cheaper to buy both parts
together. Round steak is not, of course, as tender as tenderloin,
sirloin or rump, but it has a far richer and higher flavor than any of
the others. It should be cut thick, and be cooked rare over a quick
fire. Steaks are cut from the vein in the round and from the shoulder
in the fore quarter. They are of about the same quality as those from
the round.


Tenderloin Steak.

This is cut from the tenderloin, and costs from twenty-five cents to a
dollar per pound. It is very soft and tender, but has hardly any
flavor, and is not half as nutritious as one from a round or rump.


Quality and Cost.

We will now consider the various kinds of steak, as to their cost and
nutritive qualities. The prices given are not those of all sections of
the country, but they will be helpful to the purchaser, as showing the
ratio which each bears to the other.

Top of the round, the most nutritious, 18 to 25 cents.

Rump cut across the grain, next in nutritive qualities, 28 to 30 cents

Rump cut with the grain, 22 to 25 cents

Sirloin, 25 to 30 cents

Porter-house, 30 cents

Tenderloin, 25 cts. to $1.00

The tenderloin, rump and round steaks are all clear meat; therefore,
there is no waste, and of course one will not buy as many pounds of
these pieces to provide for a given number of persons as if one were
purchasing a sirloin or porter-house steak, because with the latter-
named the weight of bone and of the flank, if this be left on, must
always be taken into consideration.

After the aitchbone and steaks have been taken from the round there
remain nice pieces for stewing and braising; and still lower the meat
and bones are good for soups and jellies. The price decreases as you
go down to the shank, until for the shank itself you pay only from
three to four cents per pound.


Sirloin.

It will be remembered that plate No. 4 represents a loin of beef,
showing the end which joined the ribs, also the kidney suet. No. 12
represents the same loin, showing the end which joined the rump. There
are about thirty pounds in a sirloin that has been cut from a large
beeve. This makes about three roasting pieces for a moderately large
family. The piece next the rump has the largest tenderloin and is,
therefore, by many considered the choicest. Steaks cut from it are now
served in the principal hotels as porter-house.


The Rump.

In plate No. 3 was shown that part of the ramp which joins the round.
Plate No. 13 represents the end which joins the sirloin.

[Illustration: PLATE NO. 13. RUMP.]

[Illustration: PLATE NO. 12. LOIN.]


Ribs.

Plate No. 14 represents the first five ribs cut from the back half
where it joins the tip of the sirloin, and shows the end that joined.
This cut is considered the best of the rib-roasts. For family use it
is generally divided into two roasts, the three ribs next the sirloin
being the first cut of the ribs and the others the second cut.

[Illustration: PLATE NO. 14. FIRST FIVE RIBS.]

[Illustration: PLATE NO. 15. CHUCK RIBS.]

Plate No. 15 represents the chuck ribs, the first chuck, or sixth rib,
being seen at the end. There are ten ribs in the back half as cut in
Boston, five prime and five chuck; We must remember that in New York
and Philadelphia there are thirteen ribs, eight of which are prime.
The first two chuck ribs make a very good roast or steak, being one of
the most nutritious cuts in the animal, and the next three are good
for stewing and braising. Many people roast them. The flavor is fine
when they are cooked in this manner, but the meat is rather tough. A
chuck rib contains part of the shoulder-blade, while the prime ribs do
not. In New York and Philadelphia the ribs are cut much longer than in
Boston; hence the price per pound is less there. But the cost to the
purchaser is as great as in Boston, because he has to pay for a great
deal of the rattle-ran or rack. It is always best to have the
ribroasts cut short, and even pay a higher price for them, as there
will then be no waste.


Fore Quarter.

The fore quarter is first cut into two parts, the back half and the
rattle-ran, and these are then cut into smaller pieces for the
different modes of cooking. Diagram No. 16 represents a fore quarter.
The back half only is numbered, for the rattle-ran is given in diagram
No 17.

[Illustration: FACE OF THE RUMP.]

[Illustration: DIAGRAM NO. 16. THE FORE QUARTER.]


EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM NO. 16.

BOSTON.

1. First cut of ribs.
2. Second cut of ribs.
3. Third cut of ribs.
 4 and 5. Best chuck ribs.
6 and 7. Poorer chuck ribs.
8. Neck piece.


NEW YORK.

1. First cut of ribs, with tip of sirloin.
2. Second cut of ribs.
3. Third cut of ribs.
4 and 5. Best chuck ribs.
6 and 7. Poorer chuck ribs.
8. Neck piece.

PHILADELPHIA.

1. First cut of ribs, with tip of sirloin.
2. Second cut of ribs.
3. Third cut of ribs.
4 and 5. Best chuck ribs.
6 and 7. Poorer chuck ribs.
8. Neck chuck.


The Rattle-Ran.

The whole of lower half of the fore quarter is often called the
rattle-ran. Diagram No. 17 shows this, and the table following gives
the name of the separate cuts:

[Illustration: DIAGRAM NO. 17. THE RATTLE-RAN.]


EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM NO. 17.

BOSTON.

1. Rattle-ran.
2. Shoulder of mutton.
3. Sticking piece.
4. Shin, thick end of brisket, part of sticking piece.
5 and 6. Brisket piece.
7. Middle cut or rib plate.
8. Navel end of brisket.


NEW YORK.

1. Plate piece.
2 and 3. Shoulder of mutton.
4. Shin and thick end of brisket.
5 and 6. Brisket piece.
7 and 8. Navel end of brisket.


PHILADELPHIA.

1. Plate piece.
2. Shoulder of mutton or boler piece.
3. Sticking piece.
4. Shin and thick end of brisket.
5 and 6. Brisket piece.
7 and 8. Navel end of brisket.

The rattle-ran or plate piece is generally corned, and is considered
one of the best cuts for pressed beef. The shoulder of mutton is used
for stews, beef _à la mode_, roasts and steaks, and is also
corned. The sticking piece, commonly called the back of the shoulder,
but which is really the front, is used for stews, soups, pie meat and
for corning. The shin is used for soups, and the brisket and ribs for
corning and for stews and soups. One of the best pieces for corning is
the navel end of the brisket. The middle cut of the rattle-ran is also
corned.


MUTTON.

Mutton is very nutritious and easily digested. The best quality will
have clear, hard, white fat, and a good deal of it; the lean part will
be juicy, firm and of a rather dark red color. When there is but
little fat, and that is soft and yellow and the meat is coarse and
stringy, you may be sure that the quality is poor. Mutton is much
improved by being hung in a cool place for a week or more. At the
North a leg will keep quite well for two or three weeks in winter, if
hung in a cold, dry shed or cellar. Mutton, like beef, is first split
through the back, and then the sides are divided, giving two fore and
two hind quarters. Diagram No. 18 is of a whole carcass of mutton, and
half of it is numbered to show the pieces into which the animal is cut
for use.

[Illustration: DIAGRAM NO. 18.]

EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM NO. 18.

1, 2, 4. Hind quarter.

3, 5, 5. Fore quarter

1. Leg.
2. Loin.
3. Shoulder.
4. Flank.
5,5. Breast.


Hind Quarter of Mutton.

This consists of the leg and loin, and is the choicest cut. It makes a
fine roast for a large family, but for a moderate-sized or small one
either the leg or loin alone is better. A hind quarter taken from a
prime animal will weigh from twenty to thirty pounds.


Leg of Mutton.

This joint is nearly always used for roasting and boiling. It has but
little bone, as compared with the other parts of the animal, and is,
therefore, an economical piece to select, though the price per pound
be greater than that of any other cut. It is not common to find a good
leg weighing under ten or twelve pounds. A leg is shown in plate No.
19.

[Illustration: PLATE NO. 19.]


Loin of Mutton.

In a loin, as cut in Boston, there are seven ribs, which make a good
roast for a small family. This cut is particularly nice in hot
weather. It is not as large as a leg, and the meat is, besides, of a
lighter quality and more delicate flavor. The cost when the flank is
taken off will be about seven cents more a pound than if the loin be
sold with it on; but, unless you wish to use the flank for a soup,
stew or haricot, it is the better economy to buy a trimmed piece and
pay the higher price. When the two loins are joined they are called a
saddle. Plate No. 20 shows a saddle and two French chops.

[Illustration: PLATE NO 20. SADDLE OF MUTTON AND FRENCH CHOPS.]


Fore Quarter of Mutton.

In this is included the shoulder and breast. When the shoulder-blade
is taken out the quarter makes a good roast for a large family. The
shoulder is separated from the breast by running a sharp knife between
the two, starting at the curved dotted lines near the neck (shown in
diagram No. 18), and cutting round to the end of the line. The
shoulder is nice for roasting or boiling. The breast can be used for a
roast, for broths, braising, stewing or cotelettes. Rib chops are also
cut from the breast, which is, by the way, the cheapest part of the
mutton.


Chops and Cutlets.

Chops are cut from the loin. They are called long when the flank is
cut on them and short if without it. When part of the bone of the
short chop is scraped clean it is called a French chop. The rolled
chops sold by provision dealers are the long chops with the bone
removed. One often sees them selling at a low price. They are then the
poor parts of the mutton, like the flank, and will be found very
expensive no matter how little is asked.


Prices.

The price of mutton varies with the seasons, but a table giving the
average price may help the purchaser to an estimate of the comparative
cost of each cut:

 Hind Quarter,          15 cents.
 Leg,                   17 cents.
 Loin, with flank,      13 cents.
 Loin, without flank,   20 cents.
 Fore Quarter,           8 cents.
 Trimmed Chops,         20 cents.
 Untrimmed Chops,       12 cents.

When one has a large family it brings all kinds of meat considerably
cheaper to buy large pieces untrimmed, as the trimmings can be used
for soups, stews, etc.; but for a small family, it is much better to
purchase only the part you want for immediate use. Although mutton
costs less per pound than beef, it is no cheaper in the end, because
to be good it must be fat, and mutton fat, unlike beef fat, cannot be
employed for cooking purposes, as it gives a strong flavor to any
article with which it is used.


LAMB.

Lamb is cut and sold like mutton. Being much smaller, however, a hind
or fore quarter is not too large for a good-sized family. Lamb will
not keep as long as mutton, for, being juicy, it taints more readily.
It is of a delicate flavor until nearly a year old, when it begins to
taste like mutton and is not so tender. The bones of a young lamb will
be red, and the fat hard and white. This meat is in season from May to
September.


VEAL.

The calf being so much larger than the sheep, the fore and hind
quarters are not cooked together, and for an ordinary family both are
not purchased. The animal is, however, cut into the same parts as
mutton. The loin, breast and shoulder are used for roasting. Chops are
cut from the loin and neck, those from the neck being called rib chops
or cotelettes. The neck itself is used for stews, pies, fricassees,
etc. The leg is used for cutlets, fricandeaux, stews and roasts, and
for braising. The fillet of veal is a solid piece cut from the leg--
not like the tenderloin in beef, but used in much the same way. The
lower part of the leg is called a knuckle, and is particularly nice
for soups and sauces. Good veal will have white, firm fat, and the
lean part a pinkish tinge. When extremely white it indicates that the
calf has been bled before being killed, which is a great cruelty to
the animal, besides greatly impoverishing the meat. When veal is too
young it will be soft and of a bluish tinge. The calf should not be
killed until at least six weeks old. Veal is in the market all the
year, but the season is really from April to September, when the price
is low. The leg costs more than any other joint, because it is almost
wholly solid meat. The fillet costs from 20 to 25 cents; cutlets from
the leg, 30 cents; chops from loin, 20 cents; loin for roast, 15
cents; breast, 10 to 12 cents. Veal is not nutritious nor easily
digested. Many people cannot eat it in any form, but such a number of
nice dishes can be made from it, and when in season the price is so
low, that it will always be used for made dishes and soups.


PORK.

Pork, although not so much used in the fresh state as beef, mutton,
lamb, etc., is extensively employed in the preparation of food. It is
cut somewhat like mutton, but into more parts. Fresh young pork should
be firm; the fat white, the lean a pale reddish color and the skin
white and clear. When the fat is yellow and soft the pork is not of
the best quality. After pork has been salted, if it is corn-fed, the
fat will be of a delicate pinkish shade. When hogs weighing three and
four hundred pounds are killed, the fat will not be very firm,
particularly if they are not fed on corn. The amount of salt pork
purchased at a time depends upon the mode of cooking in each family.
If bought in small quantities it should be kept in a small jar or tub,
half filled with brine, and a plate, smaller round than the tub,
should be placed on top of the meat to press it under the brine.

The parts into which the hog is cut are called leg, loin, rib piece,
shoulder, neck, flank, brisket, head and feet. The legs and shoulders
are usually salted and smoked. The loin of a large hog has about two
or three inches of the fat cut with the rind. This is used for
salting, and the loin fresh for roasting. When, however, the hog is
small, the loin is simply scored and roasted. The ribs are treated the
same as the loin, and when the rind and fat are cut off are called
spare-ribs. This piece makes a sweet roast. Having much more bone and
less meat than the loin, it is not really any cheaper, although sold
for less. The loin and ribs are both used for chops and steaks. The
flank and brisket are corned. The head is sold while fresh for head-
cheese, or is divided into two or four parts and corned, and is a
favorite dish with many people. The feet are sometimes sold while
fresh, but are more frequently first pickled. The fat taken from the
inside of the hog and also all the trimmings are cooked slowly until
dissolved. This, when strained and cooled, is termed lard. Many
housekeepers buy the leaf or clear fat and try it out themselves. This
is the best way, as one is then sure of a pure article.


Sausages.

These should be made wholly of pork, but there is often a large
portion of beef in them. They should be firm, and rather dry on the
outside.


Liver.

Calves' liver is the best in the market, and always brings the highest
price. In some markets they will not cut it. A single liver costs
about fifty cents, and when properly cooked, several delicious dishes
can be made from it.

Beef liver is much larger and darker than the calves', has a stronger
flavor and is not so tender. It is sold in small or large pieces at a
low price.

Pigs' liver is not nearly as good as the calves' or beeves', and comes
very much cheaper.


Hearts.

Both the calves' and beeves' hearts are used for roasting and
braising. The calves' are rather small, but tenderer than the beeves'.
The price of one is usually not more than fifteen cents. The heart is
nutritious, but not easily digested.


Kidneys.

The kidneys of beef, veal, mutton, lamb and pork are all used for
stews, broils, _sautés_, curries and fricassees. Veal are the
best.

Tongues.

These are very delicate. Beef tongue is the most used. It should be
thick and firm, with a good deal of fat on the under side. When fresh,
it it used for bouilli, mince pies and to serve cold or in jelly.
Salted and smoked, it is boiled and served cold. Lambs' tongues are
sold both fresh and pickled.

POULTRY AND GAME.

Chickens.

All fowl less than a year old come under this head. The lower end of
the breast-bone in a chicken is soft, and can be bent easily. The
breast should be full, the lean meat white, and the fat a pale straw
color. Chickens are best in last of the summer and the fell and
winter. The largest and juciest come from Philadelphia.

Spring Chickens.

These are generally used for broiling. They vary in size, weighing
from half a pound to two and a half pounds. The small, plump ones,
weighing about one and a half or two pounds, are the best. There is
little fat on spring chickens.

Fowl.

These may be anywhere from one to five or six years old. When over two
years the meat is apt to be tough, dry and stringy. They should be
fat, and the breast full and soft. The meat of fowl is richer than
that of chickens, and is, therefore, better for boiling and to use for
salads and made dishes. The weight of bone is not much greater than in
a chicken, while there is a great deal more meat. Another point to be
remembered is that the price per pound is also generally a few cents
less.


Turkeys.

The lower end of the breast-bone should be soft, and bend easily, the
breast be plump and short, the meat firm and the fat white. When the
bird is very large and fat the flavor is sometimes a little strong.
Eight or ten pounds is a good size for a small family.


Geese.

It is more difficult to judge of the age and quality of a goose than
of any other bird. If the wind pipe is brittle and breaks easily under
pressure of the finger and thumb, the bird is young, but if it rolls
the bird is old. Geese live to a great age--thirty or more years. They
are not good when more than three years old. Indeed, to be perfect,
they should be not more than one year old. They are in season in the
fall and winter.


Green Geese.

The young geese are very well fed, and when from two to four months
old are killed for sale. They bring a high price, and are delicious.
They are sometimes in the market in winter, but the season is the
summer and fall.


Ducks.

The same tests that are applied to chickens and geese to ascertain age
and quality are made with ducks. Besides the tame bird, there are at
least twenty different kinds that come under the head of game. The
canvas-back is the finest in the list; the mallard and red-head come
next. The domestic duck is in season nearly all the year, but the wild
ones only through the fall and winter. The price varies with the
season and supply. A pair of canvas-backs will at one time cost a
dollar and a half and at another five dollars.


Pigeons.

There are two kinds of pigeons found in the market, the tame and the
wild, which are used for potting, stewing, &c. Except when "stall-fed"
they are dry and tough, and require great care in preparation. The
wild birds are the cheapest. They are shipped from the West, packed in
barrels, through the latter part of the winter and the early spring.
Stall-fed pigeons are the tame ones cooped for a few weeks and well
fed. They are then quite fat and tender, and come into market about
the first of October.


Squabs.

These are the young of the tame pigeon. Their flesh is very delicate,
and they are used for roasting and broiling.


Grouse, or Prairie Chicken.

These birds comes from the West, and are much like the partridge of
the Eastern States and Canada. The flesh is dark, but exceedingly
tender. Grouse should be plump and heavy. The breast is all that is
good to serve when roasted, and being so dry, it should always be
larded. The season is from September to January, but it is often
continued into April.


Venison.

There should be a good deal of fat on this meat. The lean should be
dark red and the fat white. Venison is in season all the year, but is
most used in cold weather. In summer it should have been killed at
least ten days before cooking; in winter three weeks is better. The
cuts are the leg, saddle, loin, fore quarter and steaks. The supply
regulates the price.


Partridge.

This bird is so like the grouse that the same rules apply to both.
What is known as quail at the North is called partridge at the South.


Quail.

These birds are found in the market all through the fall and winter.
They are quite small (about the size of a squab), are nearly always
tender and juicy, and not very expensive. They come from the West.


Woodcock.

Woodcock is in season from July to November. It is a small bird,
weighing about half a pound. It has a fine, delicate flavor, and is
very high-priced.


Other Game.

There are numerous large and small birds which are used for food, but
there is not space to treat of them all. In selecting game it must be
remembered that the birds will have a gamey smell, which is wholly
different from that of tainted meat.


FISH.

To fully describe all the kinds of fish found in our markets would
require too much space and is unnecessary, but a list of those of
which there is usually a supply is given, that housekeepers may know
what it is best to select in a certain season and have some idea of
the prices.


To Select Fish.

When fresh, the skin and scales will be bright, the eyes full and
clear, the fins stiff and the body firm. If there is a bad odor, or,
if the fish is soft and darker than is usual for that kind, and has
dim, sunken eyes, it is not fit to use.


Codfish.

This is good all the year, but best in the fall and winter. When
cooked, it breaks into large white flakes. It is not as nutritious as
the darker kinds of fish, but is more easily digested. The price
remains about the same through all seasons.


Haddock.

This is a firmer and smaller-flaked fish than the cod, but varies
little in flavor from it. The cod has a light stripe running down the
sides; the haddock a dark one.


Cusk.

This also belongs to the cod family, and is a firm, white fish. It is
best in winter.


Pollock.

This is used mostly for salting. It is much like the cod, only firmer
grained and drier.


Halibut.

This fine fish is always good. It varies in weight from two pounds to
three hundred. The flesh is a pearly white in a perfectly fresh fish.
That cut from one weighing from fifty to seventy-five pounds is the
best, the flesh of any larger being coarse and dry. The small fish are
called chicken halibut.


Flounders.

These are thin, flat fish, often sold under the name of sole. Good at
all times of the year.


Turbot.

This is a flat fish, weighing from two to twenty pounds. The flesh is
soft, white and delicate. Turbot is not common in our market.


Salmon.

Salmon is in season from April to July, but is in its prime in June.
It is often found in the market as early as January, when it brings a
high price. Being very rich, a much smaller quantity should be
provided for a given number of people than of the lighter kinds of
fish.


Shad.

This is in season in the Eastern and Middle States from March to
April, and in the Southern States from November to February. The flesh
is sweet, but full of small bones. Shad is much prized for the roe.


Blue-fish.

This is a rich, dark fish, weighing from two to eight pounds' and in
season in June, July and August. It is particularly nice broiled and
baked.


Black-fish, or Tautog.

Good all the year, but best in the spring. It is not a large fish,
weighing only from one to five pounds.


White-fish, or Lake Shad.

This delicious fish is found in the great lakes, and in the locality
where caught it is always in season. At the South and in the East the
market is supplied only in winter, when the price is about eighteen
cents a pound. The average weight is between two and three pounds.


Sea-Bass.

This fish, weighing from half a pound to six or seven, pounds, is very
fine, and is in season nearly all the year. It is best in March, April
and May.


Rock-Bass.

The weight of rock-bass generally ranges from half a pound to thirty
or forty pounds, but sometimes reaches eighty or a hundred. The small
fish are the best. The very small ones (under one pound) are fried;
the larger broiled, baked and boiled. The bass are in season all the
year, but best in the fall.


Sword Fish.

This is very large, with dark, firm flesh. It is nutritious, but not
as delicate as other kinds of fish: It is cut and sold like halibut,
and in season in July and August.


Sturgeon.

This fish, like the halibut and sword fish, is large. The flesh is of
a light red color and the fat of a pale yellow. There is a rather
strong flavor. A fish weighing under a hundred pounds will taste
better than a larger one. The season is from April to September.


Weak-Fish.

Weak-fish is found in the New York and Philadelphia markets from May
to October. In the Eastern States it is not so well known. It is a
delicate fish, and grows soft very quickly. It is good boiled or
fried.


Small, or "Pan"-Fish.

The small fish that are usually fried, have the general name of "pan"-
fish. There is a great variety, each kind found in the market being
nearly always local, as it does not pay to pack and ship them. A
greater part have the heads and skin taken off before being sold.


Smelts.

These are good at any time, but best in the winter, when they are both
plenty and cheap.


Mullet.

There are several varieties of this fish, which is much prized in some
sections of the country. It is a small fish, weighing from a quarter
of a pound to two or three pounds. It often has a slightly muddy
flavor, owing to living a large part of the time in the mud of the
rivers.


Mackerel.

This fish is nutritious and cheap. It is in the market through the
spring and summer, and averages in weight between one and two pounds.


Spanish Mackerel.

These are larger than the common mackerel, and have rows of yellow
spots, instead of the dark lines on the sides. They are in season from
June to October, and generally bring a high price.


Eels.

These are sold skinned; are always in season, but best from April to
November.


Lobsters.

This shell-fish is in the market all the year, but is best in May and
June. If the tail, when straightened, springs back into position, it
indicates that the fish is fresh. The time of boiling live lobsters
depends upon the size. If boiled too much they will be tough and dry.
They are generally boiled by the fishermen. This is certainly the best
plan, as these people know from practice, just how long to cook them.
Besides, as the lobsters must be alive when put into the pot, they are
ugly things to handle. The medium-sized are the tenderest and
sweetest. A good one will be heavy for its size. In the parts of the
country where fresh lobsters cannot be obtained, the canned will be
found convenient for making salads, soups, stews, etc.


Hard-Shell Crabs.

These are in the market all the year. They are sold alive and, also,
like the lobster, boiled. Near the coast of the Southern and Middle
States they are plenty and cheap, but in the interior and in the
Eastern States they are quite expensive. They are not used as much as
the lobster, because it is a great deal of trouble to take the meat
from the shell.


Soft-Shell Crabs.

As the crab grows, a new, soft shell forms, and the old, hard one is
shed. Thus comes the soft-shelled crab. In about three days the shell
begins to harden again. In Maryland there are ponds for raising these
crabs, so that now the supply is surer than in former years. Crabs are
a great luxury, and very expensive. In the Eastern States they are
found only in warm weather. They must always be cooked while alive.
Frying and broiling are the modes of preparing.


Shrimp.

These are found on the Southern coasts; are much the shape of a
lobster, but very small. They are used mostly for sauces to serve with
fish. Their season is through the spring, summer and fall. There is a
larger kind called big shrimp or prawns, sold boiled in the Southern
markets. These are good for sauces or stews, and, in fact, can be
used, in most cases, the same as lobster. But few shrimp are found in
the Eastern or Western markets. The canned goods are, however,
convenient and nice for sauces.


Terrapin.

This shell-fish comes from the South, Baltimore being the great
terrapin market. It belongs to the turtle family. It is always sold
alive, and is a very expensive fish, the diamond backs costing from
one to two dollars apiece. Three varieties are found in the market,
the diamond backs, little bulls and red fenders. The first named are
considered marketable when they measure six inches across the back.
They are then about three years old. The little bulls, or male fish,
hardly ever measure more than five inches across the back. They are
cheaper than diamond backs, but not so well flavored. The red fenders
grow larger than the others, and are much cheaper, but their meat is
coarse and of an inferior flavor. Terrapin are in the market all the
year, but the best time to buy them is from November to February.


Oysters.

No other shell-fish is as highly prized as this. The oyster usually
takes the name of the place where it is grown, because the quality and
flavor depend very much upon the feeding grounds. The Blue-point, a
small, round oyster from Long Island, is considered the finest in the
market, and it costs about twice as much as the common oyster. Next
comes the Wareham, thought by many quite equal to the Blue-point. It
is a salt water oyster, and is, therefore, particularly good for
serving raw. The Providence River oyster is large and well flavored,
yet costs only about half as much as the Blue-point. The very large
ones, however, sell at the same price. Oysters are found all along;
the coast from Massachusetts to the Gulf of Mexico. Those taken from
the cool Northern waters are the best. The sooner this shell-fish is
used after being opened, the better. In the months of May, June, July
and August, the oyster becomes soft and milky. It is not then very
healthful or well flavored. The common-sized oysters are good for all
purposes of cooking except broiling and frying, when the large are
preferable. The very large ones are not served as frequently on the
half shell as in former years, the Blue-point, or the small Wareham,
having supplanted them.


Clams.

There are two kinds of this shell-fish, the common thin-shelled clam
and the quahaug. The first is the most abundant. It is sold by the
peck or bushel in the shell, or by the quart when shelled. Clams are
in season all the year, but in summer a black substance is found in
the body, which must be pressed from it before using. The shell of the
quahaug is thick and round.


Scollops.

This shell-fish is used about the same as the clam, but is not so
popular, owing to a peculiarly sweet flavor. It is in season from
September to March, and is sold shelled, as only the muscular part of
the fish is used.


VEGETABLES.

Every good housekeeper will supply her table with a variety of
vegetables all the year round. One can hardly think of a vegetable,
either fresh or canned, that cannot be had in our markets at any
season. The railroads and steamers connect the climes so closely that
one hardly knows whether he is eating fruits and vegetables in or out
of season. The provider, however, realizes that it takes a long purse
to buy fresh produce at the North while the ground is yet frozen.
Still, there are so many winter vegetables that keep well in the
cellar through cold weather that if we did not have the new ones from
the South, there would be, nevertheless, a variety from which to
choose. It is late in the spring, when the old vegetables begin to
shrink and grow rank, that we appreciate what comes from the South.


Buying Vegetables.

If one has a good, dry cellar, it is economy to procure in the fall
vegetables enough for all winter, but if the cellar is too warm the
vegetables will sprout and decay before half the cold months have
passed. Those to be bought are onions, squashes, turnips, beets,
carrots, parsnips, cabbages, potatoes and Jerusalem artichokes, all of
which, except the first two, should be bedded in sand and in a cool
place, yet where they will not freeze. Squashes and onions should be
kept in a very dry room. The price of all depends upon the supply.


WHEN IN SEASON.

Bermuda sends new potatoes into Northern markets about the last of
March or first of April. Florida soon follows, and one Southern State
after another continues the supply until June, when the Northern and
Eastern districts begin. It is only the rich, however, who can afford
new potatoes before July; but the old are good up to that time, if
they have been well kept and are properly cooked. Cabbage is in season
all the year. Beets, carrots, turnips and onions are received from the
South in April and May, so that we have them young and fresh for at
least five months. After this period they are not particularly tender,
and require much cooking. Squashes come from the South until about
May, and we then have the summer squash till the last of August, when
the winter squash is first used. This is not as delicate as the summer
squash, but is generally liked better. Green peas are found in the
market in February, though they are very expensive up to the time of
the home supply, which is the middle of June, in an ordinary season,
in the Eastern States. They last until the latter part of August, but
begin to grow poor before that time. There is a great variety, some
being quite large, others very small. The smaller are the more
desirable, being much like French peas. When peas are not really in
season it is more satisfactory to use French canned peas, costing
forty cents a can. One can is enough for six persons. When buying
peas, see that the pods are green, dry and cool. If they have turned
light they have been picked either a long time or when old.


SPINACH.

Spinach is always in season, but is valued most during the winter and
spring, as it is one of the few green vegetables that we get then, and
is not expensive. It should be green and crisp.


Asparagus.

Asparagus, from hot houses and the South, begins to come into the
market in March and April. It is then costly, but in May and June is
abundant and quite cheap. About the last of June it grows poor, and no
matter how low the price, it will be an expensive article to buy as it
has then become very "woody." The heads should be full and green; if
light and not full, the asparagus will not spend well.


Dandelions.

The cultivated dandelion is found in the market in March, April and a
part of May. It is larger, tenderer and less bitter than the wild
plant, which begins to get into the market--in April. By the last of
May the dandelion is too rank and tough to make a good dish.


Cauliflower.

This vegetable is generally quite expensive. It is found in the market
a greater part of the year, being now grown in hot houses in winter.
It is in perfection from the first of May to November or December. The
leaves should be green and fresh and the heads a creamy white. When
the leaves are wilted, or when there are dark spots on the head, the
cauliflower is not good.


Tomatoes.

The fresh tomato comes to the market from the South in April and
sometimes in March. On account of the high price it is then used only
where the canned tomato will not answer. In July, August and September
it is cheap. It comes next to the potato in the variety of forms in
which it may be served. By most physicians it is considered a very
healthful vegetable. The time to buy ripe tomatoes for canning is
about the last of August, when they are abundant and cheap. About the
middle or last of September green ones should be secured for pickling,
etc. As the vines still bear a great many that cannot ripen before the
frost comes, these are sold for this purpose.


Beans.

There are two kinds of green beans in the market, the string or snap
bean and the shell bean. String beans come from the South about the
first of April. They are picked in Northern gardens about the first of
June, and they last until about the middle of July. They should be
green, the beans just beginning to form, and should snap crisply. If
wilted or yellow they have been picked too long.


Shell Beans.

Shell beans come in May, but are not picked at the North before June.
They are good until the last of September. There is a great variety of
shell beans, but the Lima is considered the best When fresh, shell
beans are dry and smooth; but if old, they look dull and sticky.


Celery.

Celery is found in the market from August to April, but is in its
prime and is cheapest from November to the first of March. Before the
frost comes it is slightly bitter, and after the first of March it
grows tough and stringy. Unless one has a good cellar in which to bury
celery, it is best to purchase as one has need from time to time.
Celery is a delicious salad. It is also considered one of the best
vegetables that a nervous, rheumatic or neuralgic person can take. The
heads should be close and white, and the stalks should break off
crisply. Save the trimmings for soups.


Lettuce.

Lettuce is found in the market all the year round, being now raised in
hot houses in winter. It then costs two and three times as much as in
summer; still, it is not an expensive salad. There are a number of
varieties having much the same general appearance. That which comes in
round heads, with leaves like a shell, is the most popular in this
country, because it can be served so handsome. There is another kind,
high in favor in Paris and in some localities in this country for its
tenderness and delicate flavor, but not liked by marketmen, because it
will not bear rough handling. The tune will come, however, when there
will be such a demand for this species that all first-class provision
dealers will keep it. The French call it Romaine, and in this country
it is sometimes called Roman lettuce. It does not head. The leaves are
long and not handsome whole; but one who uses the lettuce never wishes
for any other. Lettuce should be crisp and green, and be kept until
used in a very cold place--in an ice chest if possible.

Mushrooms.

Mushrooms are in the market at all seasons. In summer, when they are
found in pastures, they are comparatively (fifty or seventy-five cents
a pound), but in winter they are high priced. Being, however, very
light, a pound goes a great way. The French canned mushrooms are safe,
convenient and cheap. One can, costing forty cents, is enough for a
sauce for at least ten people. There is nothing else among vegetables
which gives such a peculiarly delicious flavor to meat sauces.
Mushrooms are used also as a relish for breakfast and tea, or as an
entrée. In gathering from the fields one should exercise great care
not to collect poisonous toadstools, which are in appearance much like
mushrooms, and are often mistaken for these by people whose knowledge
of vegetables has been gained solely by reading. The confusion of the
two things has sometimes resulted fatally. There can hardly be danger
if purchases are made of reliable provision dealers.


Green Corn.

Green corn is sent from the South about the last of May or the first
of June, and then costs much. It comes from the Middle States about
the middle of July and from the Eastern in August, and it lasts into
October in the North Eastern States. It should be tender and milky,
and have well-filled ears. If too old it will be hard, and the grains
straw colored, and no amount of boiling wilt make it tender. Corn is
boiled simply in clear water, is made into chowders, fritters,
puddings, succotash, etc.

Artichokes.

There are two kinds of artichokes, the one best known in this country,
the Jerusalem artichoke, being a tuber something like the potato. It
is used as a salad, is boiled and served as a vegetable, and is also
pickled. This artichoke comes into the market about July, and can be
preserved in sand for winter use.

The Globe Artichoke.

A thick, fleshy-petaled flower grows on a plant that strongly
resembles the thistle; this flower is the part that is eaten. It is
boiled and served with a white sauce, and is also eaten as a salad. It
is much used in France, but we have so many vegetables with so much
more to recommend them, that this will probably never be common in
this country.


Cucumbers.

Cucumbers are in the market all the year round. In winter they are
raised in green houses and command a high price. They begin to come
from the South about the first of April, and by the last of May the
price is reasonable. They last through the summer, but are not very
nice after August They are mostly used as a salad and for pickles, but
are often cooked. They should be perfectly green and firm for a salad,
and when to be pickled, they must be small. If for cooking, it does no
harm to have them a little large and slightly turned yellow.


Radishes.

There are two forms of the radish commonly found in the market, the
long radish and the small round one. They are in the market in all
seasons, and in early spring and summer the price is low. Radishes are
used mostly as a relish.


Chicory or Endive.

The roots and leaves of this plant are both used, but the leaves only
are found in the market (the roots are used in coffee), and these come
in heads like the lettuce. Chicory comes into the market later than
lettuce, and is used in all respects like it. Sometimes it is cooked.


Sweet Herbs.

The housekeeper in large cities has no difficulty in finding all the
herbs she may want, but this is not so in small towns and villages.
The very fact, however, that one lives in a country place suggests a
remedy. Why not have a little bed of herbs in your own garden, and
before they go to seed, dry what you will need for the winter and
spring? Thus, in summer you could always have the fresh herbs, and in
whiter have your supply of dried.

It is essential to have green parsley throughout the winter, and this
can be managed very easily by having two or three pots planted with
healthy roots in the fall. Or, a still better way is to have large
holes bored in the sides of a large tub or keg; then fill up to the
first row of holes with rich soil; put the roots of the plants through
the holes, having the leaves on the outside; fill up again with soil
and continue this until the tub is nearly full; then plant the top
with roots. Keep in a sunny window and you will have not only a useful
herb, but a thing of beauty through the winter.

For soups, sauces, stews and braising, one wants sweet marjoram,
summer savory, thyme, parsley, sage, tarragon and bay-leaf always on
hand. You can get bunches of savory, sage, marjoram and thyme for five
cents each at the vegetable market. Five cents' worth of bay-leaves
from the drug shop win complete the list (save tarragon, which is hard
to find), and you have for a quarter of a dollar herbs enough to last
a large family a year. Keep them tied together in a large paper bag or
a box, where they will be dry. Mint and parsley should be used green.
There is but little difficulty in regard to mint, as it is used only
in the spring and summer.




GROCERIES.

The manner in which a housekeeper buys her groceries must depend upon
where she lives and how large her family is. In a country place, where
the stores are few and not well supplied, it is best to buy in large
quantities all articles that will not deteriorate by keeping. If one
has a large family a great saving is made by purchasing the greater
portion of one's groceries at wholesale.


Flour.

There is now in use flour made by two different processes, by the old,
or St. Louis, and the new, or Haxall. The Haxall flour is used mostly
for bread and the old-process for pastry, cake, etc. By the new
process more starch and less of the outer coats, which contain much of
the phosphates, is retained; so that the flour makes a whiter and
moister bread. This flour packs closer than that made in the old way,
so that a pound of it will not measure as much as a pound of the old
kind. In using an old rule, one-eighth of this flour should be left
out. For instance, if in a recipe for bread you have four quarts (old-
process) of flour given, of the new-process you would take only three
and a half quarts. This flour does not make as good cake and pastry as
the old-process. It is, therefore, well, to have a barrel of each, if
you have space, for the pastry flour is the cheaper, and the longer
all kinds of flour are kept in a _dry_ place, the better they
are. Buying in small quantities is extremely extravagant. When you
have become accustomed to one brand, and it works to your
satisfaction, do not change for a new one. The _best_ flour is
the cheapest. There are a great many brands that are equally good.


Graham.

The best Graham is made by grinding good wheat and not sifting it.
Much that is sold is a poor quality of flour mixed with bran. This
will not, of course, make good, sweet bread. The "Arlington Whole
Wheat Meal" is manufactured from pure wheat, and makes delicious
bread. Graham, like flour, will keep in a cool, dry place for years.


Indian Meal.

In most families there is a large amount of this used, but the
quantity purchased at a time depends upon the kind of meal selected.
The common kind, which is made by grinding between two mill-stones,
retains a great deal of moisture, and, in hot weather, will soon grow
musty; but the granulated meal will keep for any length of time. The
corn for this meal is first dried; and it takes about two years for
this. Then the outer husks are removed, and the corn is ground by a
process that produces grains like granulated sugar. After once using
this meal one will not willingly go back to the old kind. Indian meal
is made from two kinds of corn, Northern and Southern. The former
gives the yellow meal, and is much richer than the Southern, of which
white meal is made.


Rye Meal.

This meal, like the old-process Indian, will grow musty in a short
time in hot weather, so that but a small quantity of it should be
bought at a time. The meal is much better than the flour for all kinds
of bread and muffins.


Oat Meal.

There are several kinds of oat meal--Scotch, Irish, Canadian and
American. The first two are sold in small packages, the Canadian and
American in any quantity. It seems as if the Canadian and American
should be the best because the freshest; but the fact is the others
are considered the choicest. Many people could not eat oat meal in
former years, owing to the husks irritating the lining of the stomach.
There is now what is called pearled meal. All the husks are removed,
and the oats are then cut. The coarse kind will keep longer than the
fine ground, but it is best to purchase often, and have the meal as
fresh as possible.


Cracked Wheat.

This is the whole wheat just crushed or cut like the coarse oat meal,
but unlike the meal. It will keep a long time. It is cooked the same
as oat meal. That which is cut makes a handsomer dish than the
crushed, but the latter cooks more quickly.


Hominy.

This is made from corn, and it comes in a number of sizes, beginning
with samp and ending with a grade nearly as fine as coarse-granulated
sugar. The finest grade is really the best, so many nice dishes can be
made with it which you cannot make with the coarse. Hominy will keep a
long time, and it can be bought in five-pound package or by the
barrel.


Sugar.

The fine-granulated sugar is the best and cheapest for general family
use. It is pure and dry; therefore, there is more in one pound of it
than in a damp, brown sugar, besides its sweetening power being
considerably greater. The price of sugar at wholesale is not much less
than at retail, but time and trouble are saved by purchasing by the
barrel.


Spice.

It is well to keep on hand all kinds of spice, both whole and ground.
They should not be in large quantities, as a good cook will use them
very sparingly, and a good house-keeper will have too much regard for
the health of her family and the delicacy of her food to have them
used lavishly. For soups and sauces the whole spice is best, as it
gives a delicate flavor, and does not color. A small wooden or tin box
should be partly filled with whole mace, cloves, allspice and
cinnamon, and a smaller paste-board box, full of pepper-corns, should
be placed in it. By this plan you will have all your spices together
when you season a soup or sauce.


English Currants.

These keep well, and if cleaned, washed and _well_ dried, will
improve in flavor by being kept.


Raisins.

In large families, if this fruit is much used, it is well to buy by
the box. Time does not improve raisins.


Soda, Cream of Tartar, Baking Powder.

There should not be so much of these articles used as to require that
they be purchased in large quantities. Cream of tartar is expensive,
soda cheap. If one prefers to use baking powders there will be no need
of cream of tartar, but the soda will still be required for
gingerbread and brown bread, and to use with sour milk, etc. The
advantage of baking powder is that it is prepared by chemists who know
just the proportion of soda to use with the acid (which should be
cream of tartar), and the result will be invariable if the cook is
exact in measuring the other ingredients. When an inexperienced cook
uses the soda and cream of tartar there is apt to be a little too much
of one or the other. Just now, with the failure of the grape crops in
France, from which a greater part of the crystals in use come, cream
of tarter is extremely high, and substitutes, such as phosphates, are
being used.


To be Always Kept on Hand.

Besides the things already mentioned, housekeepers should always have
a supply of rice, pearl barley, dried beans, split peas, tapioca,
macaroni, vermicilli, tea, coffee, chocolate, corn-starch, molasses,
vinegar, mustard, pepper, salt, capers, canned tomato, and any other
canned vegetables of which a quantity is used. Of the many kind of
molasses, Porto Rico is the best for cooking purposes. It is well to
have a few such condiments as curry powder (a small bottle will last
for years), Halford sauce, essence of anchovies and mushroom ketchup.
These give variety to the flavoring, and, if used carefully, will not
be an expensive addition, so little is needed for a dish.




CARE OF FOOD.

A great saving is made by the proper care and use of cooked and
uncooked food. The first and great consideration is perfect
cleanliness. The ice chest and cellar should be thoroughly cleaned
once a week; the jars in which bread is kept must be washed, scalded
and dried thoroughly at least twice a week. When cooked food is placed
in either the ice chest or cellar it should be perfectly cool; if not,
it will absorb an unpleasant flavor from the close atmosphere of
either place. Meat should not be put directly on the ice, as the water
draws out the juices. Always place it in a pan, and this may be set on
the ice. When you have a refrigerator where the meat can be hung, a
pan is not needed. In winter, too, when one has a cold room, it is
best to hang meats there. These remarks apply, of course, only to
joints and fowl. The habit which many people have of putting steaks,
chops, etc., in the wrapping paper on ice, is a very bad one. When
purchasing meat always have the trimmings sent home, as they help to
make soups and sauces. Every scrap of meat and bone left from roasts
and broils should be saved for the soup-pot. Trimmings from ham,
tongue, corned beef, etc., should all be saved for the many relishes
they will make. Cold fish can be used in salads and warmed up in many
palatable ways. In fact, nothing that comes on the table is enjoyed
more than the little dishes which an artistic cook will make from the
odds and ends left from a former meal. By artistic cook is meant not a
professional, but a woman who believes in cleanliness and hot dishes,
and that there is something in the appearance as well as in the taste
of the food, and who does not believe that a quantity of butter, or of
some kind of fat, is essential to the success of nearly every dish
cooked. The amount of food spoiled by butter, _good_ butter too,
is surprising.

One should have a number of plates for cold food, that each kind may
be kept by itself. The fat trimmings from beef, pork, veal, chickens
and fowl should be tried out while fresh, and then strained. The fowl
and chicken fat ought to be kept in a pot by itself for shortening and
delicate frying. Have a stone pot for it, holding about a quart, and
another, holding three or four quarts, for the other kinds. The fat
that has been skimmed from soups, boiled beef and fowl, should be
cooked rather slowly until the sediment falls to the bottom and there
is not the shadow of a bubble. It can then be strained into the jar
with the other fat; but if strained while bubbles remain, there is
water in it, and it will spoil quickly. The fat from sausages can also
be strained into the larger pot. Another pot, holding about three
quarts, should be kept for the fat in which articles of food have been
fried. When you have finished frying, set the kettle in a cool place
for about half an hour; then pour the fat into the pot through a fine
strainer, being careful to keep back the sediment, which scrape into
the soap-grease. In this way you can fry in the same fat a dozen
times, while if you are not careful to strain it each time, the crumbs
left will burn and blacken all the fat. Occasionally, when you have
finished frying, cut up two or three uncooked potatoes and put into
the boiling fat. Set on the back of the stove for ten or fifteen
minutes; then set in a cool place for fifteen minutes longer, and
strain. The potatoes clarify the fat. Many people use ham fat for
cooking purposes; and when there is no objection to the flavor, it is
nice for frying eggs, potatoes, etc. But it should not be mixed with
other kinds. The fat from mutton, lamb, geese, turkey or ducks will
give an unpleasant flavor to anything with which it is used, and the
best place for it is with the soap-grease. Every particle of soup and
gravy should be saved, as a small quantity of either adds a great deal
to many little dishes. The quicker food of all kinds cools the longer
it keeps. This should be particularly remembered with soups and bread.

Bread and cake must be thoroughly cooled before being put into box or
jar. If not, the steam will cause them to mold quickly. Crusts and
pieces of stale bread should be dried in a slow oven, rolled into fine
crumbs on a board, and put away for croquettes, cutlets or anything
that is breaded. Pieces of stale bread can be used for toast, griddle-
cakes and puddings and for dressing for poultry and other kinds of
meat. Stale cake can be made into puddings; The best tub butter will
keep perfectly well without a brine if kept in a cool, sweet room. It
is more healthful and satisfactory to buy the choicest tub butter and
use it for table and cooking purposes than to provide a fancy article
for the table and use an inferior one in the preparation of the food.
If, from any cause, butter becomes rancid, to each pint of it add one
table-spoonful of salt and one teaspoonful of soda, and mix well; then
add one pint of cold water, and set on the fire until it comes to the
boiling point Now set away to cool, and when cool and hard, take off
the butter in a cake. Wipe dry and put away for cooking purposes. It
will be perfectly sweet.

Milk, cream and butter all quickly absorb strong odors; therefore,
care must be taken to keep them in a cool, sweet room or in an ice
chest. Cheese should be wrapped in a piece of clean linen and kept in
a box. Berries must be kept in a cool place, and uncovered.




KITCHEN FURNISHING.


Stove, or Range?

The question often arises, even with old housekeepers, Which shall it
be--a stove or a range? There are strong points in favor of each. For
a small kitchen the range may be commended, because it occupies the
least space, and does not heat a room as intensely as a stove,
although it will heat water enough for kitchen and bath-room purposes
for a large family. That the range is popular is evident from the fact
that nearly every modern house is supplied with one; and thus the cost
of, and cartage for, stoves is generally saved to tenants in these
days.

There are these advantage of a stove over a set range: it requires
less than half as much fuel and is more easily managed--that is, the
fire can be more quickly started, and if it gets too low, more easily
replenished and put in working order; and the ovens can be more
quickly heated or cooled. But, although you can have a water-back and
boiler with most modern stoves or, as they are now called, portable
ranges, the supply of hot water will not be large. And you cannot
roast before the fire as with a range.

So near-perfection have the makers of ranges and stoves come that it
would be difficult to speak of possible improvements, especially in
stoves. This can be said not of a few, but of a great many
manufacturers, each having his special merit. And where the products
are so generally good, it is hard to mention one make in preference to
another. When purchasing, it is well to remember, that one of simple
construction is the most easily managed and does not soon get out of
order. No single piece of furniture contributes so much to the comfort
of a family as the range or stove, which should, therefore, be the
best of its kind.


Gas and Oil Stoves.

During the hot weather a gas or oil stove is a great comfort. The "Sun
Dial," manufactured by the Goodwin Gas Stove Co., Philadelphia, is a
"perfect gem," roasting, baking, broiling, etc., as well as a coal
stove or range. Indeed, meats roasted or broiled by it are jucier than
when cooked over or before coals. The peculiar advantage of oil and
gas stoves is that they can be coveniently used for a short time, say
for the preparation of a meal, at a trifling expense. The cost of
running a gas stove throughout the day is, however, much greater than
that of a coal stove, while an oil stove can be run cheaper than
either.

There are a great many manufacturers of oil stoves, and as a natural
consequence, where there is so much competition, the stoves are nearly
all good. One would not think of doing the cooking for a large family
with one or, indeed, two of them; but the amount of work that can be
accomplished with a single stove is remarkable. They are a great
comfort in hot weather, many small families doing their entire cooking
with them.


Refrigerators.

The trouble with most refrigerators is that the food kept in them is
apt to have a peculiar taste. This is owing in a great measure to the
wood used in the construction of the interior and for the shelves. On
the inside of the Eddy chest-shaped refrigerator there is not a
particle of wood, and the food kept in it is always sweet. It is
simply a chest, where the ice is placed on the bottom and slate
shelves put on top. With this style of refrigerator the waste of ice
is much greater than in those built with a separate compartment for
ice, but the food is more healthful.


Utensils.

The following is a list of utensils with which a kitchen should be
furnished. But the housekeeper will find that there is continually
something new to be bought. If there be much fancy cooking, there must
be an ice cream freezer, jelly and charlotte russe moulds and many
little pans and cutters. The right way is, of course, to get the
essential articles first, and then, from time to time, to add those
used in fancy cooking:

Two cast-iron pots, size depending upon range or stove (they come with
the stove).

One griddle.

One porcelain-lined preserving kettle.

One fish kettle.

Three porcelain-lined stew-pans, holding from one to six quarts.

One No. 4 deep Scotch frying kettle.

One waffle iron.

Three French polished frying-pans, Nos. 1, 3 and 6.

Four stamped tin or granite ware stewpans, holding from one pint to
four quarts.

One double boiler, holding three quarts.

One Dover egg-beater.

One common wire beater.

One meat rack.

One dish pan.

Two bread pans, holding six and eight quarts respectively.

Two milk pans.

Two Russian-iron baking pans--two sizes.

Four tin shallow baking-pans.

Four deep pans for loaves.

Two quart measures.

One deep, round pan of granite-ware, with cover, for braising.

One deep Russian-iron French roll pan.

Two stamped tin muffin pans.

One tea-pot.

One coffee-pot.

One coffee biggin.

One chocolate pot.

One colander.

One squash strainer.

One strainer that will fit on to one of the cast-iron pots.

One frying-basket.

One melon mould.

Two brown bread tins.

One round pudding mould.

Two vegetable cutters.

One tea canister.

One coffee canister.

One cake box.

One spice box.

One dredger for flour.

One for powdered sugar.

One smaller dredger for salt.

One, still smaller, for pepper.

One boning knife.

One French cook's knife.

One large fork.

Two case-knives and forks.

Two vegetable knives.

Four large mixing spoons.

Two table-spoons.

Six teaspoons.

One larding needle.

One trussing needle.

One set of steel skewers.

One wire dish cloth.

One whip churn.

One biscuit cutter.

One hand basin.

One jagging iron.

Three double broilers--one each for toast, fish and meat.

One long-handled dipper.

One large grater.

One apple corer.

One flour scoop.

One sugar scoop.

One lemon squeezer.

Chopping tray and knife.

Small wooden bowl to use in chopping.

Moulding board of good _hard_ wood.

Board for cutting-bread on.

One for cutting cold meats on.

Thick board, or block, on which to break bones, open lobsters, etc.

A rolling pin.

Wooden buckets for sugar, Graham, Indian and rye meal.

Wooden boxes for rice, tapioca, crackers, barley, soda, cream of
tartar, etc.

Covers for flour barrels.

Wire flour sieve--not too large.

A pail for cleaning purposes.

One vegetable masher.

Stone pot for bread, holding ten quarts.

One for butter, holding six quarts.

One for pork, holding three quarts.

One dust pan and brush.

One scrubbing brush.

One broom.

One blacking brush.

Four yellow earthen bowls, holding from six quarts down.

Four white, smooth-bottomed bowls, holding one quart each.

One bean pot.

One earthen pudding dish.


All the tin ware should be made from xx tin. It will then keep its
shape, and wear three times as long as if made of thin stuff. Scouring
with sand soon ruins tin, the coarse sand scratching it and causing it
to rust. Sapolio, a soap which comes for cleaning tins, wood-work and
paint, will be found of great value in the kitchen.

Granite ware, as now made, is perfectly safe to-use. It will not
become discolored by any kind of cooking, and is so perfectly smooth
that articles of food will not stick and bum in it as quickly as in
the porcelain-lined pans. Nearly every utensil used in the kitchen is
now made in granite ware. The mixing spoons are, however, not
desirable, as the coating of granite peels off when the spoon is bent.
Have no more heavy cast-iron articles than are really needed, for they
are not easily handled, and are, therefore, less likely to be kept as
clean, inside and out, as the lighter and smoother ware.


[Illustration: Scotch Kettle]

The Scotch Kettle is quite cheap, and will be found of great value for
every kind of frying, as it is so deep that enough fat can put into it
to immerse the article to be cooked.


[Illustration: French Frying-Pan.]

The French polished frying-pans are particularly nice, because they
can be used for any kind of frying and for cooking sauces and
omelets. The small size, No. 1, is just right for an omelet made with
two eggs.


[Illustration: Tin Kitchen.]

When possible, a tin kitchen should be used, as meat cooked before a bright
fire has a flavor much nicer than when baked in an oven.


[Illustration: Bird Roaster.]

The bird roaster will be found valuable.


[Illustration: Ice Cream Freezer.]

An ice cream freezer is a great luxury in a family, and will soon do
away with that unhealthy dish--pie. No matter how small the family,
nothing less than a gallon freezer should be bought, because you can
make a small quantity of the cream in this size, and when you have
friends in, there is no occasion to send to the confectioner's for
what can be prepared as well at home. With the freezer should be
purchased a mallet and canvas bag for pounding the ice fine, as much
time and ice can be saved.


[Illustration: Bain-Marie.]

[Illustration: Bain-Marie Pan.]

A bain-marie is a great convenience for keeping the various dishes hot
when serving large dinners. It is simply a large tin pan, which is
partially filled with boiling water and placed where this will keep at
a high temperature, but will not boil. The sauce-pans containing the
cooked food are placed in the water until the time for serving.



[Illustration: Carving Knife and Fork.]

The large knives for the kitchen, as well as those belonging in the
dining-room, should be kept very sharp. If used about the fire they
are soon spoiled.


[Illustration: French Cook's Knife.]

The French cook's knife is particularly good for carving, cutting
bread, etc. It. is rather expensive, but it pays to get one, if only
proper care can be taken of it. The butcher's knife should be used for
all heavy work. One should never try to break a bone with a knife.
That this is often attempted in both kitchen and dining room, the
nicked edges of the knives give proof, and show the greater hardness
of the bones.


[Illustration: Boning Knife.]

Where much boning is done a small boning knife, costing about seventy-
five cents, will be necessary; It should be used only for this
purpose.


[Illustration: French Vegetable Scoop.]

The French vegetable scoop, costs about seventy-five cents, will cut
potatoes and other vegetables in balls for frying or boiling. The
largest size is the best.


[Illustration: Garnishing Knife.]

The garnishing knife flutes vegetables, adding much to their
appearance when they are used as a garnish.


[Illustration: Long French Roll Pan.]

[Illustration: Short French Roll Pan--Made of Russian Iron.]

[Illustration: Muffin Pans]

The long French roll pan, made from Russian iron, is nice for baking
long loaves or rolls where a great deal of crust is liked There are
muffin pans of tin, Russian iron and granite ware. Those of iron
should be chosen last, on account of their weight. It is a good thing
to have pans of a number of different shapes, as a variety for the eye
is a matter of importance. The muffin rings of former years have done
their duty, and should be allowed to rest, the convenient cups, which
comes in sheets, more than filling their place.


[Illustration: Frying Basket.]

The frying basket should have fine meshes, as delicate articles, like
croquettes, need more support than a coarsely-woven basket gives.


[Illustration: Meat Rack.]

Where roasting is done in the oven there must be a rack to keep the
meat from coming in contact with the water in the bottom of the pan.


[Illustration: Larding and Trussing Needles.]

One medium-sized larding needle will answer for all kinds of meat that
are to be larded.


[Illustration: Potato Slicer.]

A potato slicer will be found useful for slicing potatoes, for frying,
or cabbage, for slaw. It cuts vegetables in very thin pieces.


[Illustration: Steamer for Pot. Steamer for Tea-Kettle.]

The steamers which fit into the cast-iron pot or the tea-kettle are
quite convenient. Both kinds will not, of course, be required.


[Illustration: Quart Measure]

The quart measure for milk is the best for common measuring. Being
divided into half pints, the one vessel answers for all quantities. A
kitchen should be furnished with two measures, one for dry material
and the other for liquids.


[Illustration: Bread Grater. Whip Churn.]

In the preparation of desserts the whip churn is essential. It is a
tin cylinder, perforated on the bottom and sides, in which a dasher of
tin, also perforated, can be easily moved tip and down. When this
churn is placed in a bowl of cream and the dasher is worked, air is
forced through the cream, causing it to froth.


[Illustration: Double Boiler.]

The double boiler is invaluable in the kitchen. It is a good plan to
have two of them where a great deal of cooking is done. The lower part
of the boiler is half filled with boiling water, and the inside kettle
is placed in this. By this means food is cooked without danger of
burning, and more rapidly than if the kettle were placed directly on
the stove, exposed to the cold air, because the boiling water in the
outside kettle reaches not only the bottom, but also the sides of that
in which the food is.


[Illustration: Double Broiler, with Back.]

[Illustration: Double Broiler.]

When broiling is done before the fire it is necessary to have a back
for the double broiler, for the tin reflects the heat, and the food is
cooked much sooner.


[Illustration: Colander.]

[Illustration: Squash Strainer.]

The colander is used for draining vegetables, straining soups, etc.,
and with the squash arid gravy strainers, it is all that is required
in the way of strainers.


[Illustration: Coffee Biggin. Coffee Pot.]

Under "Drinks" will be found a description of the French coffee
biggin.


[Illustration: Brown-Bread Tin.]

There should be two brown-bread tins, each holding three pints. They
answer also for steaming puddings.


[Illustration: Melon Mould. Round Pudding Mould. ]

The melon and round padding moulds are nice for frozen or steamed
puddings.


[Illustration: Stew-Pan.]

The stew-pans that are porcelain-lined are better than the tin-lined,
because the tin is liable to melt when frying is done, as, for
instance, when meat and vegetables are fried for a stew. Granite ware
stew-pans are made in the same shapes as the porcelain-lined.


[Illustration: Heavy Tin Sauce-Pan.]

The tin sauce-pans are nice for sauces and gravies. The porcelain-
lined come in the same shapes. Copper is a better conductor of heat
than either tin or iron, but when it is not kept perfectly clean,
oxide of copper, which is very poisonous, collects on it, and is
dissolved by oils and fats. Then when fruit, pickles, or any food
containing an acid is allowed to cool in the vessels, verdigris is
produced; and this is a deadly poison.


[Illustration: Bread or Dish Pan. Shallow Milk Pan.]

[Illustration: Dripping Pan. Bread Pan.]

The stamped tin-ware is made from a better quality of metal than the
soldered; therefore, it comes higher, but it is in the end cheaper,
and it is always safer. Bread, milk and dish pans should be made of
stamped tin. The pans for roasting meat should be made of Russian
iron.


[Illustration: Basting Spoon. Ladle. Dredging Box.]

The spoons for basting and mixing, and also the ladle, should be
strong and well tinned.


[Illustration: Lemon Squeezer.]

The plain wooden lemon squeezer is the most easily kept clean, and is,
therefore, the best. That made of iron, with a porcelain cup, is
stronger, but it needs more care.


[Illustration: Dover Egg Beater.]

The Dover egg beater is the best in the market. It will do in five
minutes the work that in former years required half an hour. There are
three sizes. The smallest is too delicate for a large number of eggs.
The second size, selling for $1.25, is the best for family use.


[Illustration: Apple Parer.]

An apple parer saves a great deal of time and fruit, and is not very
expensive.

[Illustration: Wooden Buckets.]

[Illustration: Wooden Boxes.]

[Illustration: Cake Box.]

Wooden buckets and boxes come in nests, or, they can be bought
separately. A good supply of them goes a great way toward keeping a
store-room or closet in order.

The Japanned ware is best for canisters for tea and coffee and for
spice and cake boxes. Cake boxes are made square and round. The square
boxes have shelves. The most convenient form is the upright. It is
higher-priced than the other makes.


[Illustration: Tea Caddy.]

[Illustration: Spice Box.]

The spice box is a large box filled with smaller ones for each kind of
ground spice. It is very convenient, and, besides, preserves the
strength of the contents.


[Illustration: Oblong Jelly Mould.]

[Illustration: Pointed Jelly Mould.]

[Illustration: Rice Mould.]

There are so many beautiful moulds for fancy dishes that there is no
longer any excuse for turning out jellies, blanc-mange, etc., in the
form of animals. There are two modes of making moulds. By one the tin
is pressed or stamped into shape, and by the other it is cut in pieces
and soldered together. Moulds made by the first method are quite
cheap, but not particularly handsome. Those made in the second way
come in a great variety of pretty forms, but as all are imported, they
are expensive.


[Illustration: Crown Moulds.]

The crown moulds are especially good for Bavarian creams, with which
is served whipped cream, heaped in the centre.


[Illustration: French Pie Mould.]

The French pie mould comes in a number of sizes, and can be opened to
remove the pie. Deep tin squash-pie plates, answer for custard, cream,
Washington and squash pies, and for corn cake.


[Illustration: Vegetable Cutter.]

Tin vegetable cutters, for cutting raw vegetables for soups, and the
cooked ones for garnishing, are nice to have, as is also a
confectioner's ornamenting tube for decorating cake, etc. Larger tubes
come for lady fingers and éclairs. Little pans also come for lady-
fingers, but they cost a great deal. The jagging iron will be found
useful for pastry and hard gingerbread.

[Illustration: Lady-Fingers Pan.]

[Illustration: Confectioner's Tube. Jagging Iron.]

The little tin, granite ware and silver-plated escaloped shells are
pretty and convenient for serving escaloped oysters, lobster, etc. The
price for the tin style is two dollars per dozen, for the granite
ware, four dollars, and for the silver-plated, from thirty to forty
dollars.

[Illustration: Escaloped Shell.]





SOUPS.

Remarks on Soup Stock.

There is a number of methods of making soup stocks, and no two will
give exactly the same results. One of the simplest and most
satisfactory is that of clear stock or bouillon. By this the best
flavor of the meat is obtained, for none passes off in steam, as when
the meat is boiled rapidly. The second mode is in boiling the stock a
great deal, to reduce it. This gives a very rich soup, with a marked
difference in the flavor from that made with clear meat kept in water
at the boiling point. The third way leaves a mixed stock, which will
not be clear unless whites of eggs are used. In following the first
methods we buy clear beef specially for the stock, and know from the
beginning just how much stock there will be when the work is
completed. By the second method we are not sure, because more or less
than we estimate may boil away. The third stock, being made from bones
and pieces of meat left from roasts, and from the trimmings of raw
meats, will always be changeable in color, quantity and quality. This
is, however, a very important stock, and it should always be kept on
hand. No household, even where only a moderate amount of meat is used,
should be without a stock-pot. It can be kept on the back of the range
or stove while cooking is going on. Two or three times a week it
should be put on with the trimmings and bones left from cooked and
uncooked meats. This practice will give a supply of stock at all
times, which will be of the greatest value in making sauces, side
dishes and soups. Meat if only slightly tainted will spoil a stock;
therefore great care must be taken that every particle is perfectly
sweet.

Vegetables make a stock sour very quickly, so if you wish to keep a
stock do not use them. Many rules advise putting vegetables into the
stock-pot with the meat and water and cooking from the very beginning.
When this is done they absorb the fine flavor of the meat and give the
soup a rank taste. They should cook not more than an hour--the last
hour--in the stock. A white stock is made with veal or poultry. The
water in which a leg of mutton or fowl have been boiled makes a good
stock for light soups and gravies. A soup stock must be cooled quickly
or it will not keep well. In winter any kind of stock ought to keep
good a week. That boiled down to a jelly will last the longest. In the
warm months three days will be the average time stock will keep.


Stock for Clear Soups.

Five pounds of clear beef, cut from the lower part of the round; five
quarts of cold water. Let come to a boil, slowly; skim carefully, and
set where it will keep just at the boiling point for eight or ten
hours. Strain, and set away to cool. In the morning skim off all the
fat and turn the soup into the kettle, being careful not to let the
sediment pass in. Into the soup put an onion, one stalk of celery, two
leaves of sage, two sprigs of parsley, two of thyme, two of summer
savory, two bay leaves, twelve pepper-corns and six whole cloves. Boil
gently from ten to twenty minutes; salt and pepper to taste. Strain
through an old napkin. This is now ready for serving as a simple clear
soup or for the foundation of all kinds of clear soups.


Mixed Stock.

Put the trimmings of your fresh meats and the bones and tough pieces
left from roasts or broils into the soup pot with one quart of water
to every two pounds of meat and bones. When it comes to a boil, skim
and set back where it will simmer six hours; then add a bouquet of
sweet herbs, one onion, six cloves and twelve pepper-corns to each
gallon of stock. Cook two hours longer; strain and set in a cool
place. In the morning skim off the fat. Keep in a very cool place.
This can be used for common soups, sauces, and where stock is used in
made dishes. It should always be kept on hand, as it really costs
nothing but the labor (which is very little), and enters so often into
the preparation of simple, yet toothsome, dishes.


Consommé.

Eight pounds of a shin of veal, eight pounds of the lower part of the
round of beef, half a cupful of butter, twelve quarts of cold water,
half a small carrot, two large onions, half a head of celery, thirty
pepper-corns, six whole cloves, a small piece each of mace and
cinnamon, four sprigs each of parsley, sweet marjoram, summer savory
and thyme, four leaves of sage, four bay leaves, about one ounce of
ham. Put half of the butter in the soup pot and then put in the meat,
which has been cut into very small pieces. Stir over a hot fire until
the meat begins to brown; then add one quart of the water, and cook
until there is a thick glaze on the bottom of the kettle (this will be
about an hour). Add the remainder of the water and let it come to a
boil. Skim carefully, and set back where it will simmer for six hours.
Fry the vegetables, which have been cut very small, in the remaining
butter for half an hour, being careful not to burn them. When done,
turn into the soup pot, and at the same time add the herbs and spice.
Cook one hour longer; salt to taste and strain. Set in a very cold
place until morning, when skim off all the fat. Turn the soup into the
pot, being careful not to turn in the sediment, and set on the fire.
Beat the whites and shells of two eggs with one cup of cold water.
Stir into the soup, and when it comes to a boil, set back where it
will simmer for twenty minutes. Strain through a napkin, and if not
ready to use, put away in a cold place. This will keep a week in
winter, but not more than three days in summer. It is a particularly
nicely-flavored soup, and is the foundation for any clear soup, the
soup taking the name of the solid used with it, as _Consommé au
Ris_, Consommé with Macaroni, etc.


Bouillon.

Bouillon, for Germans and other parties, is made the same as the clear
stock, using a pint of water to the pound of meat, and seasoning with
salt and pepper and with the spice, herbs and vegetables or not, as
you please. It should be remembered that the amount of seasoning in
the recipe referred to is for one gallon of stock.


White Stock.

Six pounds of a shin of veal, one fowl, three table-spoonfuls of
butter, four stalks of celery, two onions, one blade of mace, one
stick of cinnamon, eight quarts of cold water, salt, pepper. Wash and
cut the veal and fowl into small pieces. Put the butter in the bottom
of the soup pot and then put in the meat. Cover, and cook gently
(stirring often) half an hour, then add the water. Let it come to a
boil, then skim and set back where it will boil gently for six hours.
Add the vegetables and spice and boil one hour longer. Strain and cool
quickly. In the morning take off all the fat. Then turn the jelly
gently into a deep dish, and with a knife scrape off the sediment
which is on the bottom. Put the jelly into a stone pot and set in a
cold place. This will keep a week in cold weather and three days in
warm.


Consommé à la Royale.

Two eggs, two table-spoonfuls of milk, one-fourth of a tea-spoonful of
salt. Beat eggs with a spoon, and add milk and salt Turn into a
buttered cup, and place in a pan of warm water. Cook in a slow oven
until firm in the centre. Set away to cool. Cut into small and
prettily-shaped pieces; put into the tureen, and pour one quart of
boiling consomme or clear stock on it.


Cheese Soup.

One and a half cupfuls of flour, one pint of rich cream, four table-
spoonfuls of butter, four of grated Parmesan cheese, a speck of
cayenne, two eggs, three quarts of clear soup stock. Mix flour, cream,
butter, cheese and pepper together. Place the basin in another of hot
water and stir until the mixture becomes a smooth, firm paste. Break
into it the two eggs, and mix quickly and thoroughly. Cook two minutes
longer, and set away to cool. When cold, roll into little balls about
the size of an American walnut When the balls are all formed drop them
into boiling water and cook gently five minutes; then put them in the
soup tureen and pour the boiling stock on them. Pass a plate of finely
grated Parmesan cheese with the soup.


Thick Vegetable Soup.

One quart of the sediment which is left from the clear stock, one
quart of water, one-fourth of a cupful of pearl barley, one good-sized
white turnip, one carrot, half a head of celery, two onions, about two
pounds of cabbage, three potatoes, salt and pepper. Wash the barley
and put it on in the quart of water, and simmer gently for two hours.
Then add all the vegetables (except the potatoes), cut very fine, and
the quart of stock. Boil gently for one hour and a half, then add the
potatoes and the salt and pepper. Cook thirty minutes longer. When
there is no stock, take two pounds of beef and two quarts of water.
Cook beef, barley and water two hours, and add the vegetables as
before. The meat can be served with the soup or as a separate dish.


Mulligatawny Soup.

One chicken or fowl weighing three pounds, three pounds of veal, two
large onions, two large slices of carrot, four stalks of celery, three
large table-spoonfuls of butter, one table-spoonful of curry powder,
four of flour, salt, pepper, five quarts of water. Take two table-
spoonfuls of the fat from the opening in the chicken and put in the
soup pot As soon as melted, put in the vegetables, which have been cut
very fine. Let all cook together for twenty minutes, stirring
frequently, that it may not burn; then add the veal, cut into small
pieces. Cook fifteen minutes longer; then add the whole chicken and
the water. Cover, and let it come to a boil. Skim, and set back where
it will simmer for four hours (in the mean time taking out the chicken
when it is tender). Now put the butter into a small frying-pan, and
when hot, add the dry flour. Stir until a rich brown; then take from
the fire and add the curry powder. Stir this mixture into the soup,
and let it cook half an hour longer; then strain through a sieve,
rinse out the soup pot and return the strained soup to it. Add salt
and pepper and the chicken (which has been freed from the bones and
skin and cut into small pieces); simmer very gently thirty minutes.
Skim off any fat that may rise to the top, and serve. This soup is
served with plain boiled rice in a separate dish or with small squares
of fried or toasted bread. The rice can be served in the soup if you
choose.


Mulligatawny Soup, No. 2.

Chicken or turkey left from a former dinner, bones and scraps from
roast veal, lamb or mutton, four quarts of water, four stalks of
celery, four table-spoonfuls of butter, four of flour, one of curry,
two onions, two slices of carrot, salt, pepper, half a small cupful of
barley. Put on the bones of the poultry and meat with the water. Have
the vegetables cut very fine, and cook gently twenty minutes in the
butter; then skim them into the soup pot, being careful to press out
all the butter. Into the butter remaining in the pan put the flour,
and when that is brown, add the curry powder, and stir all into the
soup. Cook gently four hours; then season with salt and pepper, and
strain. Return to the pot and add bits of chicken or turkey, as the
case may be, and the barley, which has been simmering two hours and a
half in clear water to cover. Simmer half an hour and serve.


Green Turtle Soup.

One can of green turtle, such as is put up by the "Merriam Packing
Co." Separate the green fat from the other contents of the can, cut
into dice and set aside. Put one quart of water with the remainder of
the turtle; add twelve pepper-corns, six whole cloves, two small
sprigs each of parsley, summer savory, sweet marjoram and thyme, two
bay leaves, two leaves of sage. Have the herbs tied together. Put one
large onion, one slice of carrot, one of turnip, and a stalk of
celery, cut fine, into a pan, with two large table-spoonfuls of
butter. Fry fifteen minutes, being careful not to burn. Skim carefully
from the butter and put into the soup. Now, into the butter in which
the vegetables were fried, put two table-spoonfuls of dry flour, and
cook until brown. Stir into the soup; season with salt and pepper and
let simmer very gently one hour. Strain, skim off all the fat and
serve with thin slices of lemon, egg or force-meat balls, and the
green fat. The lemon should have a very thin rind; should be put into
the tureen and the soup poured over it Cooking the lemon in this or
any other soup often gives it a bitter taste. If the soup is wished
quite thick, add a table-spoonful of butter to that in which the
vegetables were cooked, and use three table-spoonfuls of flour instead
of two. Many people use wine in this soup, but it is delicious
without. In case you do use wine there should not be more than four
table-spoonfuls to this quantity. If you desire the soup extremely
rich, use a quart of rich soup stock. The green turtles are so very
large that it is only in great establishments that they are available,
and for this reason a rule for preparing the live turtle is not given.
Few housekeepers would ever see one. The cans contain not what is
commonly called turtle soup, but the meat of the turtle, boiled, and
the proper proportions of lean meat, yellow and green fat put
together. They cost fifty cents each, and a single can will make soup
enough for six persons.


Black Bean Soup.

A pint of black beans, soaked over night in three quarts of water. In
the morning pour off this water, and add three quarts of fresh. Boil
gently six hours. When done, there should be one quart. Add a quart of
stock, six whole cloves, six whole allspice, a small piece of mace, a
small piece of cinnamon, stalk of celery, a bouquet of sweet herbs,
also one good-sized onion and one small slice each of turnip and
carrot, all cut fine and fried in three table-spoonfuls of butter.
Into the butter remaining in the pan put a spoonful of flour, and cook
until brown. Add to soup, and simmer all together one hour. Season
with salt and pepper, and rub through a fine sieve. Serve with slices
of lemon and egg balls, the lemon to be put in the tureen with the
soup.


Scotch Broth.

Two pounds of the scraggy part of a neck of mutton. Cut the meat from
the bones, and cut off all the fat. Then cut meat into small pieces
and put into soup pot with one large slice of turnip, two of carrot,
one onion and a stalk of celery, all cut fine, half a cup of barley
and three pints of cold water. Simmer gently two hours. On to the
bones put one pint of water; simmer two hours, and strain upon the
soup. Cook a table-spoonful of flour and one of butter together until
perfectly smooth; stir into soup, and add a teaspoonful of chopped
parsley. Season with salt and pepper.


Meg Merrilies' Soup.

One hare, one grouse, four onions, one small carrot, four slices of
turnip, a bouquet of sweet herbs, three table-spoonfuls of rice flour,
four table-spoonfuls of butter, half a cupful of stale bread, half a
cupful of milk, one egg, six quarts of water. Wash the grouse and hare
and put to boil in the six quarts of cold water. When this comes to a
boil, skim, and set back where it will simmer for one hour. Then take
out the hare and grouse and cut all the meat from the bones. Return
the bones to the soup and simmer two hours longer. Cut the meat into
handsome pieces, roll in flour, and fry in the butter till a rich
brown. Set aside for the present. Slice the onions, and fry in the
butter in which the meat was fried; when brown, add to the soup. Make
force-meat balls of the livers of the hare and grouse (which have been
boiled one hour in the stock), the egg, bread and milk. Boil the bread
and milk together until a smooth paste. Mash the livers with a strong
spoon, then add bread and milk and the egg, unbeaten. Season well with
pepper and salt and, if you like, with a little lemon juice. Shape
into small balls and fry in either chicken fat or butter. Put these
into the soup twenty minutes before dishing. Have the turnip and
carrot cut into small pieces and cooked one hour in clear water. When
the bones and the onions have simmered two hours, strain and return to
the soup pot. Add the fried meat and vegetables. Mix the rice flour
with a cupful of cold water; add to the soup, season with salt and
pepper, simmer ten minutes. Add force-meat balls and simmer twenty
minutes longer.


Okra Soup.

One cold roast chicken, two quarts of stock (any kind), one of water,
quarter of a pound of salt pork, one quart of green okra, an onion,
salt, pepper, three table-spoonfuls of flour. Cut the okra pods into
small pieces. Slice the pork and onion. Fry the pork, and then add the
onion and okra. Cover closely, and fry half an hour. Cut all the meat
from the chicken. Put the bones on with the water. Add the okra and
onion, first being careful to press out all the pork fat possible.
Into the fat remaining put the flour, and stir until it becomes a rich
brown; add this to the other ingredients. Cover the pot, and simmer
three hours; then rub through a sieve, and add the stock, salt and
pepper and the meat of the chicken, cut into small pieces. Simmer
gently twenty minutes. Serve with a dish of boiled rice.


Okra Soup, No. 2.

One pint of green okra, one of green peas, one of green com, cut from
the cob, half a pint of shell beans, two onions, four stalks of
celery, two ripe tomatoes, one slice of carrot, one of turnip, two
pounds of veal, quarter of a pound of fat ham or bacon, two table-
spoonfuls of flour, four quarts of water, salt, pepper. Fry the ham or
bacon, being careful not to bum. Cut the veal into dice; roll these in
the flour and fry brown in the ham fat; then put them in the soup pot.
Fry the onion, carrot and turnip in the remaining fat. Add these to
the veal, and then add the okra, cut into small pieces, the shell
beans, celery and water. Simmer two hours, and then add the tomatoes,
corn, peas and salt and pepper. Simmer half an hour longer and serve
without straining. If dried okra be used for either soup, half the
quantity given in the recipes is sufficient Okra is often called
gumbo. The same kind of a soup is meant under both names.


Grouse Soup.

The bones of two roasted grouse and the breast of one, a quart of any
kind of stock, or pieces and bones of cold roasts; three quarts of
cold water, two slices of turnip, two of carrot, two large onions, two
cloves, two stalks of celery, a bouquet of sweet herbs, three table-
spoonfuls of butter, three of flour. Cook the grouse bones in three
quarts of water four hours. The last hour add the vegetables and the
cloves; then strain, and return to the lire with the quart of stock.
Cook the butter and the flour together until a rich brown, and then
turn into the stock. Cut the breast of the grouse into very small
pieces and add to the soup. Season with salt and pepper and simmer
gently half an hour. If there is any fat on the soup, skim it off.
Serve with fried bread. When bones and meat are used instead of the
stock, use one more quart of water, and cook them with the grouse
bones.


Spring Soup.

Half a pint of green peas, half a pint of cauliflower, one pint of
turnip, carrot, celery and string beans (all the four vegetables being
included in the pint), half a cupful of tomato, half a pint of
asparagus heads, two quarts of soup stock--any kind will do; three
table-spoonfuls of butter, three table-spoonfuls of flour, and salt
and pepper. Cook all the vegetables, except the peas and tomato, in
water to cover one hour. Cook butter and dry flour together until
smooth, but not brown; stir into the stock, which has been heated to
the boiling point. Now add the tomato and simmer gently fifteen
minutes; then strain. Add the peas and cooked vegetables to the
strained soup, and simmer again for thirty minutes. Serve small slices
of toasted bread in a separate dish.


Spring and Summer Soup Without Stock.

Quarter of a pound of salt pork, or three large table-spoonfuls of
butter; three large young onions, half a small head of cabbage, three
potatoes, half a small carrot, half a small white turnip, three table-
spoonfuls of flour, two quarts of water, six large slices of toasted
bread, salt, pepper, one small parsnip. Cut the pork into thin slices;
place these in the soup pot and let them fry out slowly. Have the
vegetables (except the potatoes), cut quite fine, and when the pork is
cooked, put the vegetables into the pot with it. Cover tightly, and
let cook very gently, on the back of the stove, one hour. Stir
frequently to prevent burning. Add the water, which should be boiling.
Let simmer gently for one hour, and then add the potatoes, cut into
slices, and the flour, which has been mixed with a little cold water.
Season with salt and pepper, and simmer gently an hour longer. Have
the toasted bread in the tureen. Turn the soup on it and serve. A pint
of green peas, cooked in the soup the last half, is a great addition.
When the butter is used, let it melt in the soup pot before adding the
vegetables.


Giblet Soup.

The giblets from two or three fowl or chickens, any kind of stock, or
if there are remains of the roast chickens, use these; one large
onion, two slices of carrot, one of turnip, two stalks of celery, two
quarts of water, one of stock, two large table-spoonfuls of butter,
two of flour, salt, pepper. Put the giblets on to boil in the two
quarts of water, and boil gently until reduced to one quart (it will
take about two hours); then take out the giblets. Cut all the hard,
tough parts from the gizzards, and put hearts, livers and gizzards
together and chop rather coarse. Return them to the liquor in which
they were boiled, and add the quart of stock. Have the vegetables cut
fine, and fry them in the butter until they are very tender (about
fifteen minutes), but be careful they do not burn; then add the dry
flour to them and stir until the flour browns. Turn this mixture into
the soup, and season with pepper and salt. Cook gently half an hour
and serve with toasted bread. If the chicken bones are used, put them
on to boil in three quarts of water, and boil the giblets with them.
When you take out the giblets, strain the stock through a sieve and
return to the pot; then proceed as before.


Potage à la Reine,

Boil a large fowl in three quarts of water until tender (the water
should never more than bubble). Skim off the fat, and add a teacupful
of rice, and, also, a slice of carrot, one of turnip, a small piece of
celery and an onion, which have been cooked slowly for fifteen minutes
in two large table-spoonfuls of butter. Skim this butter carefully
from the vegetables, and into the pan in which it is, stir a table-
spoonful of flour. Cook until smooth, but not brown. Add this, as well
as a small piece of cinnamon and of mace, and four whole cloves. Cook
all together slowly for two hours. Chop and pound the breast of the
fowl very fine. Rub the soup through a fine sieve; add the pounded
breast and again rub the whole through the sieve. Put back on the fire
and add one and a half table-spoonfuls of salt, a fourth of a
teaspoonful of pepper and a pint of cream, which has come just to a
boil. Boil up once and serve. This is a delicious soup.


Tomato Soup.

One quart can of tomato, two heaping table-spoonfuls of flour, one of
butter, one teaspoonful of salt, one of sugar, a pint of hot water.
Let tomato and water come to a boil Rub flour, butter and a table-
spoonful of tomato together. Stir into boiling mixture, add seasoning,
boil all together fifteen minutes, rub through a sieve, and serve with
toasted bread. This bread should first be cut in thin slices; should
be buttered, cut into little squares, placed in a pan, buttered side
up, and browned in a quick oven.


Mock Bisque Soup.

A quart can of tomato, three pints of milk, a large table-spoonful of
flour, butter the size of an egg, pepper and salt to taste, a scant
teaspoonful of soda. Put the tomato on to stew, and the milk in a
double kettle to boil, reserving however, half a cupful to mix with
flour. Mix the flour smoothly with this cold milk, stir into the
boiling milk, and cook ten minutes. To the tomato add the soda; stir
well, and rub through a strainer that is fine enough to keep back the
seeds. Add butter, salt and pepper to the milk, and then the tomato.
Serve immediately. If half the rule is made, stir the tomato well in
the can before dividing, as the liquid portion is the more acid.


Onion Soup.

One quart of milk, six large onions, yolks of four eggs, three table-
spoonfuls of butter, a large one of flour, one cupful of cream, salt,
pepper. Put the butter in a frying-pan. Cut the onions into thin
slices and drop in the butter. Stir until they begin to cook; then
cover tight and set back where they will simmer, but not burn, for
half an hour. Now put the milk on to boil, and then add the dry flour
to the onions, and stir constantly for three minutes over the fire.
Then turn the mixture into the milk and cook fifteen minutes. Rub the
soup through a strainer, return to the fire, season with salt and
pepper. Beat the yokes of the eggs well; add the cream to them and
stir into the soup. Cook three minutes, stirring constantly. If you
have no cream, use milk, in which case add a table-spoonful of butter
at the same time.


Potato Soup.

A quart of milk, six large potatoes, one stalk of celery, an onion and
a table-spoonful of butter. Put milk to boil with onion and celery.
Pare potatoes and boil thirty minutes. Turn off the water, and mash
fine and light. Add boiling milk and the butter, and pepper and salt
to taste. Rub through a strainer and serve immediately. A cupful of
whipped cream, added when in the tureen, is a great improvement. This
soup must not be allowed to stand, not even if kept hot. Served as
soon as ready, it is excellent.


Asparagus Soup.

Two bundles of asparagus, one quart of white stock or water, one pint
of milk, and one of cream, if stock is used, but if water, use all
cream; three table-spoonfuls of butter, three of flour, one onion,
salt and pepper. Cut the tops from one bunch of the asparagus and cook
them twenty minutes in salted water to cover. The remainder of the
asparagus cook twenty minutes in the quart of stock or water. Cut the
onion into thin slices and fry in the butter ten minutes, being
careful not to burn; then add the asparagus that has been boiled in
the stock. Cook five minutes, stirring constantly; then add flour, and
cook five minutes longer. Turn this mixture into the boiling stock and
boil gently twenty minutes. Rub through a sieve, add the milk and
cream, which has just come to a boil, and also the asparagus heads.
Season with salt and pepper, and serve. Dropped eggs can be served
with it if you choose, but they are rattier heavy for such a delicate
soup.


Green Pea Soup.

Cover a quart of green peas with hot water, and boil, with an onion,
until they will mash easily. (The time will depend on the age of the
peas, but will be from twenty to thirty minutes.) Mash, and add a pint
of stock or water. Cook together two table-spoonfuls of butter and one
of flour until smooth, but not brown. Add to the peas, and then add a
cupful of cream and one of milk. Season with salt and pepper, and let
boil up once. Strain and serve. A cupful of whipped cream added the
last moment is an improvement.


Pumpkin Soup.

Two pounds of pumpkin. Take out seeds and pare off the rind. Cut into
small pieces, and put into a stew-pan with half a pint of water.
Simmer slowly an hour and a half, then rub through a sieve and put
back on the fire with one and a half pints of boiling milk, butter the
size of an egg, one tea-spoonful of sugar, salt and pepper to taste,
and three slices of stale bread, cut into small squares. Stir
occasionally; and when it boils, serve.


Cream of Celery Soup.

A pint of milk, a table-spoonful of flour, one of butter, a head of
celery, a large slice of onion and small piece of mace. Boil celery in
a pint of water from thirty to forty-five minutes; boil mace, onion
and milk together. Mix flour with two table-spoonfuls of cold milk,
and add to boiling milk. Cook ten minutes. Mash celery in the water in
which it has been cooked, and stir into boiling milk. Add butter, and
season with salt and pepper to taste. Strain and serve immediately.
The flavor is improved by adding a cupful of whipped cream when the
soup is in the tureen.


Tapioca Cream Soup.

One quart of white stock, one pint of cream or milk, one onion, two
stalks of celery, one-third of a cupful of tapioca, two cupfuls of
cold water, one table-spoonful of butter, a small piece of mace, salt,
pepper. Wash the tapioca, and soak over night in cold water. Cook it
and the stock together, very gently, for one hour. Cut the onion and
celery into small pieces, and put on to cook for twenty minutes with
the milk and mace. Strain on the tapioca and stock. Season with salt
and pepper, add butter, and serve.


Cream of Rice Soup.

Two quarts of chicken stock (the water in which fowl have been boiled
will answer), one tea-cupful of rice, a quart of cream or milk, a
small onion, a stalk of celery and salt and pepper to taste. Wash rice
carefully, and add to chicken stock, onion and celery. Cook slowly two
hours (it should hardly bubble). Put through a sieve; add seasoning
and the milk or cream, which has been allowed to come just to a boil.
If milk, use also a table-spoonful of butter.


Cream of Barley Soup.

A tea-cupful of barley, well washed; three pints of chicken stock, an
onion and a small piece each of mace and cinnamon. Cook slowly
together five hours; then rub through a sieve, and add one and a half
pints of boiling cream or milk. If milk, add also two table-spoonfuls
of butter. Salt and pepper to taste. The yolks of four eggs, beaten
with four table-spoonfuls of milk, and cooked a minute in the boiling
milk or cream, makes the soup very much richer.


Duchess Soup.

One quart of milk, two large onions, three eggs, two table-spoonfuls
of butter, two of flour, salt, pepper, two table-spoonfuls of grated
cheese. Put milk on to boil. Fry the butter and onions together for
eight minutes; then add dry flour, and cook two minutes longer, being
careful not to burn. Stir into the milk, and cook ten minutes. Rub
through a strainer, and return to the fire. Now add the cheese. Beat
the eggs, with a speck of pepper and half a teaspoonful of salt.
Season the soup with salt and pepper. Hold the colander over the soup
and pour the eggs through, upon the butter, and set back for three
minutes where it will not boll. Then serve. The cheese may be omitted
if it is not liked.


Yacht Oyster Soup.

A quart of milk, one of oysters, a head of celery, a small onion, half
a cupful of butter, half a cupful of powdered cracker, one teaspoonful
of Worcestershire sauce, a speck of cayenne and salt and pepper to
taste. Chop onion and celery fine. Put on to boil with milk for twenty
minutes. Then strain, and add the butter, cracker, oyster liquor,
(which has been boiled and skimmed), and finally the seasoning and
oysters. Cook three minutes longer, and serve.


Lobster Soup with Milk.

Meat of a small lobster, chopped fine; three crackers, rolled fine,
butter--size of an egg, salt and pepper to taste and a speck of
cayenne. Mix all in the same pan, and add, gradually, a pint of
boiling milk, stirring all the while. Boil up once, and serve.


Lobster Soup with Stock.

One small lobster, three pints of water or stock, three large table-
spoonfuls of butter and three of flour, a speck of cayenne, white
pepper and salt to taste. Break up the body of the lobster, and cut
off the scraggy parts of the meat. Pour over these and the body the
water or stock. If there is "coral" in the lobster, pound it and use
also. Boil twenty minutes. Cook the butter and flour until smooth, but
not brown. Stir into the cooking mixture and add the seasoning. Boil
two minutes, and strain into a saucepan. Have the remainder of the
lobster meat--that found in the tail and claws--cut up very fine, and
add it to the soup. Boil up once, and serve.


Philadelphia Clam Soup.

Twenty-five small clams, one quart of milk, half a cupful of butter,
one table-spoonful of chopped parsley, three potatoes, two large
table-spoonfuls of flour, salt, pepper. The clams should be chopped
fine end put into a colander to drain. Pare the potatoes, and chop
rather fine. Put them on to boil with the milk, in a double kettle.
Rub the butter and flour together until perfectly creamy, and when the
milk and potatoes have been boiling fifteen minutes, stir this in, and
cook eight minutes more. Add the parsley, pepper and salt, and cook
three minutes longer. Now add the clams. Cook one minute longer, and
serve. This gives a very delicate soup, as the liquor from the clams
is not used.

Fish Chowder.

Five pounds of any kind of fish, (the light salt-water fish is the
best), half a pound of pork, two large onions, one quart of sliced
potatoes, one quart of water, one pint of milk, two table-spoonfuls of
flour, six crackers, salt, pepper. Skin the fish, and cut all the
flesh from the bones. Put the bones onto cook in the quart of water,
and simmer gently ten minutes. Fry the pork; then add the onions, cut
into slices. Cover, and cook five minutes; then add the flour, and
cook eight minutes longer, stirring often. Strain on this the water in
which the fish bones were cooked and boil gently for five minutes;
then strain all on the potatoes and fish. Season with salt and pepper,
and simmer fifteen minutes. Add the milk and the crackers, which were
first soaked for three minutes, in the milk. Let it boil up once, and
serve. The milk maybe omitted, and a pint of tomatoes used, if you
like.


Corn Chowder.

Cut enough green corn from the cob to make a quart; pare and slice one
quart of potatoes; pare and slice two onions. Cut half a pound of pork
in slices, and fry until brown then take up, and fry the onions in the
fat. Put the potatoes and corn into the kettle in layers, sprinkling
each layer with salt, pepper and flour. Use half a teaspoonful of
pepper, one and a half table-spoonfuls of salt and three of flour.
Place the gravy strainer on the vegetables, and turn the onions and
pork fat into it, and with a spoon press the juice through; then
slowly pour one and one-fourth quarts of boiling water through the
strainer, rubbing as much onion through as possible. Take out the
strainer, cover the kettle, and boil gently for twenty minutes. Mix
three table-spoonfuls of flour with a little milk, and when perfectly
smooth, add a pint and a half of rich milk. Stir this into the boiling
chowder. Taste to see if seasoned enough, and if it is not, add more
pepper and salt. Then add six crackers, split, and dipped for a minute
in cold water. Put on the cover, boil up once, and serve.


Corn Soup.

One pint of grated green com, one quart of milk, one pint of hot
water, one heaping table-spoonful of flour, two table-spoonfuls of
butter, one slice of onion, salt and pepper to taste. Cook the corn in
the water thirty minutes. Let the milk and onion come to a boil. Have
the flour and butter mixed together, and add a few table-spoonfuls of
the boiling milk. When perfectly smooth stir into the milk; and cook
eight minutes. Take out the onion and add the corn. Season to taste,
and serve.


Glaze.

Boil four quarts of consommé rapidly until reduced to one quart. Turn
into small jars, and cool quickly. This will keep for a month in a
cool, dry place. It is used for soups and sauces and for glazing
meats.


French Paste for Soups.

A preparation for flavoring and coloring soups and sauces comes in
small tin boxes. In each box there are twelve little squares, which
look very much like chocolate caramels. One of these will give two
quarts of soup the most delicious flavor and a rich color. The paste
should not be cooked with the soup, but put into the tureen, and the
soup poured over it; and as the soup is served, stir with the ladle.
If you let it boil with the clear soup the flavor will not be as fine
and the soup not as clear. It may be used with any dark or clear soup,
even when already seasoned. It is for sale in Boston by S.S. Pierce
and McDewell & Adams; New York: Park, Tilford & Co., retail, E.C.
Hayward & Co., 192-4 Chamber street, wholesale; Philadelphia: Githens
& Rexsame's; Chicago: Rockwood Bros., 102 North Clark street; St.
Louis: David Nicholson. The paste costs only twenty-five cents per
box.


Egg Balls.

Boil four eggs ten minutes. Drop into cold water, and when cool remove
the yolks. Pound these in a mortar until reduced to a paste, and then
beat them with a teaspoonful of salt, a speck of pepper and the white
of one raw egg. Form in balls about the size of a walnut. Roll in
flour, and fry brown in butter or chicken fat, being careful not to
burn.


Fried Bread for Soups.

Cut stale bread into dice, and fry in boiling fat until brown. It will
take about half a minute. The fat must be smoking in the centre when
the bread is put into it.




FISH.

A General Chapter on Fish.

It may seem as if a small number of recipes has been given, but the
aim has been to present under the heads of Baking, Boiling, Broiling,
Frying and Stewing such general directions that one cannot be at a
loss as to how to prepare any kind of fish. Once having mastered the
five primary methods, and learned also how to make sauces, the variety
of dishes within the cook's power is great All that is required is
confidence in the rules, which are perfectly reliable, and will always
bring about a satisfactory result if followed carefully. Fish, to be
eatable, should be perfectly fresh. Nothing else in the line of food
deteriorates so rapidly, especially the white fish-those that are
nearly free of oil, like cod, cusk, etc. Most of the oil in this class
centres in the liver. Salmon, mackerel, etc., have it distributed
throughout the body, which gives a higher and richer flavor, and at
the same time tends to preserve the fish. People who do not live near
the seashore do not get that delicious flavor which fish just caught
have. If the fish is kept on ice until used, it will retain much of
its freshness; let it once get heated and nothing will bring back the
delicate flavor. Fresh fish will be firm, and the skin and scales
bright. When fish looks dim and limp, do not buy it. Fish should be
washed quickly in only one _(cold)_ water, and should not be
allowed to stand in it. If it is cut up before cooking, wash while
whole, else much of the flavor will be lost. For frying, the fat
should be deep enough to cover the article, and yet have it float from
the bottom. Unless one cooks great quantities of fish in this way it
is not necessary to have a separate pot of fat for this kind of
frying. The same pot, with proper care, will answer for chops,
cutlets, muffins, potatoes, croquettes, etc. All the cold fish left
from any mode of cooking can be utilized in making delicious salads,
croquettes, and escallops.

Boiled Fish.

A general role for boiling fish, which will hold good for all kinds,
and thus save a great deal of time and space, is this: Any fresh fish
weighing between four and six pounds should be first washed in cold
water and then put into boiling water enough to cover it, and
containing one table-spoonful of salt. Simmer gently thirty minutes;
then take up. A fish kettle is a great convenience, and it can be used
also for boiling hams. When you do not have a fish kettle, keep a
piece of strong white cotton cloth in which pin the fish before
putting into the boiling water. This will hold it in shape. Hard
boiling will break the fish, and, of course, there will be great
waste, besides the dish's not looking so handsome and appetizing.
There should be a gentle bubbling of the water, and nothing more, all
the time the fish is in it, A fish weighing more than six pounds
should cook five minutes longer for every additional _two_
pounds. Boiled fish can be served with a great variety of sauces.
After you have learned to make them (which is a simple matter), if you
cannot get a variety of fish you will not miss it particularly, the
sauce and mode of serving doing much to change the whole character of
the dish. Many people put a table-spoonful of vinegar in the water in
which the fish is boiled. The fish flakes a little more readily for
it. Small fish, like trout, require from four to eight minutes to
cook. They are, however, much better baked, broiled or fried.


Court-Bouillon.

This preparation gives boiled fish a better flavor than cooking in
clear water does. Many cooks use wine in it, but there is no necessity
for it. Four quarts of water, one onion, one slice of carrot, two
cloves, two table-spoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper, one
table-spoonful of vinegar, the juice of half a lemon and a bouquet of
sweet herbs are used. Tie the onion, carrot, cloves and herbs in a
piece of muslin, and put in the water with the other ingredients.
Cover, and boil slowly for one hour. Then put in the fish and cook as
directed for plain boiling.


Boiled Cod with Lobster Sauce.

Boil the fish, as directed [see boiled fish], and, when done,
carefully remove the skin from one side; then turn the fish over on to
the dish on which it is to be served, skin side up. Remove the skin
from this side. Wipe the dish with a damp cloth. Pour a few spoonfuls
of the sauce over the fish, and the remainder around it; garnish with
parsley, and serve. This is a handsome dish.


Boiled Haddock with Lobster Sauce.

The same as cod. In fact, all kinds of fish can be served in the same
manner; but the lighter are the better, as the sauce is so rich that
it is not really the thing for salmon and blue fish. Many of the best
cooks and caterers, however, use the lobster sauce with salmon, but
salmon has too rich and delicate a flavor to be mixed with the
lobster.


Cold Boiled Fish, a la Vinaigrette.

If the fish is whole, take off the head and skin, and then place it in
the centre of a dish. Have two cold hard-boiled eggs, and cut fine
with a silver knife or spoon, (steel turns the egg black). Sprinkle
the fish with this, and garnish either with small lettuce leaves,
water-cresses, or cold boiled potatoes and beets, cut in slices. Place
tastefully around the dish, with here and there a sprig of parsley.
Serve the vinaigrette sauce in a separate dish. Help to the garnish
when the fish is served, and pour a spoonful of the sauce over the
fish as you serve it. This makes a nice dish for tea in summer, and
takes the place of a salad, as it is, in fact, a kind of salad.

If the fish is left from the dinner, and is broken, pick free from
skin and bones, heap it lightly in the centre of the dish, sprinkle
the sauce over it, and set away in a cool place until tea time. Then
add the garnish, and serve as before. Many people prefer the latter
method, as the fish is seasoned better and more easily served. The
cold fish remaining from a bake or broil can be served in the same
manner. This same dish can be served with a sauce piquante or Tartare
sauce, for a change.


Baked Fish.

As for the boiled fish, a general rule, that will cover all kinds of
baked fish, is herewith given: A fish weighing about five pounds;
three large, or five small, crackers, quarter of a pound of salt pork,
two table-spoonfuls of salt, quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper, half
a table-spoonful of chopped parsley, two table-spoonfuls of flour.

If the fish has not already been scraped free of scales, scrape, and
wash clean; then rub into it one table-spoonful of the salt. Roll the
crackers very fine, and add to them the parsley, one table-spoonful of
chopped pork, half the pepper, half a table-spoonful of salt, and cold
water to moisten well. Put this into the body of the fish, and fasten
together with a skewer. Butter a tin sheet and put it into a baking
pan. Cut gashes across the fish, about half an inch deep and two
inches long. Cut the remainder of the pork into strips, and put these
into the gashes. Now put the fish into the baking pan, and dredge well
with salt, pepper and flour. Cover the bottom of the pan with hot
water, and put into a rather hot oven. Bake one hour, basting often
with the gravy in the pan, and dredging each time with salt, pepper
and flour. The water in the pan must often be renewed, as the bottom
is simply to be covered with it each time. The fish should be basted
every fifteen minutes. When it is cooked, lift from the pan on to the
tin sheet, and slide it carefully into the centre of the dish on which
it is to be served. Pour around it Hollandaise sauce, tomato sauce, or
any kind you like. Garnish with parsley.


Broiled Fish.

Bluefish, young cod, mackerel, salmon, large trout, and all other
fish, when they weigh between half a pound and four pounds, are nice
for broiling. When smaller or larger they are not so good. Always use
a double broiler, which, before putting the fish into it, rub with
either butter or a piece of salt pork. This prevents sticking. The
thickness of the fish will have to be the guide in broiling. A
bluefish weighing four pounds will take from twenty minutes to half an
hour to cook. Many cooks brown the fish handsomely over the coals and
then put it into the oven to finish broiling. Where the fish is very
thick, this is a good plan. If the fish is taken from the broiler to
be put into the oven, it should be slipped on to a tin sheet, that it
may slide easily into the platter at serving time; for nothing so mars
a dish of fish as to have it come to the table broken. In broiling,
the inside should be exposed to the fire first, and then the skin.
Great care must be taken that the skin does not burn. Mackerel will
broil in from twelve to twenty minutes, young cod (also called scrod)
in from twenty to thirty minutes, bluefish in from twenty to thirty
minutes, salmon, in from twelve to twenty minutes, and whitefish,
bass, mullet, etc., in about eighteen minutes. All kinds of broiled
fish can be served with a seasoning of salt, pepper and butter, or
with any of the following sauces: _bearer noir, maître d' hôtel_,
Tartare, sharp, tomato and curry. Always, when possible, garnish with
parsley or something else green.


Broiled Halibut.

Season the slices with salt and pepper, and lay them in melted butter
for half an hour, having them well covered on both sides. Roll in
flour, and broil for twelve minutes over a clear fire. Serve on a hot
dish, garnishing with parsley and slices of lemon. The slices of
halibut should be about an inch thick, and for every pound there
should be three table-spoonfuls of butter.


Broiled Halibut, with Maître d' Hôtel Butter.

Butter both sides of the broiler. Season the slices of halibut with
salt and pepper, place them in the broiler and cook over clear coals
for twelve minutes, turning frequently. Place on a hot dish, and
spread on them the sauce, using one spoonful to each pound. Garnish
with parsley.


Stewed Fish.

Six pounds of any kind of fish, large or small; three large pints of
water, quarter of a pound of pork, or, half a cupful of butter; two
large onions, three table-spoonfuls of flour, salt and pepper to
taste. Cut the heads from the fish, and cut out all the bones. Put the
heads and bones on to boil in the three pints of water. Cook gently
half an hour. In the meanwhile cut the pork in slices, and fry brown.
Cut the onions in slices, and fry in the pork fat. Stir the dry flour
into the onion and fat, and cook three minutes, stirring all the time.
Now pour over this the water in which the bones have been cooking, and
simmer ten minutes. Have the fish cut in pieces about three inches
square. Season well with salt and pepper, and place in the stew-pan.
Season the sauce with salt and pepper, and strain on the fish. Cover
tight, and simmer twenty minutes. A bouquet of sweet herbs, simmered
with the bones, is an improvement. Taste to see if the sauce is
seasoned enough, and dish on a large platter. Garnish with potato
balls and parsley. The potato balls are cut from the raw potatoes with
a vegetable scoop, and boiled ten minutes in salted water. Put them in
little heaps around the dish.


Fried Fish.

All small fish, like brook trout, smelts, perch, etc., are best fried.
They are often called pan-fish for this reason. They should be
cleaned, washed and drained, then well salted, and rolled in flour and
Indian meal (half of each), which has been thoroughly mixed and
salted. For every four pounds of fish have half a pound of salt pork,
cut in thin slices, and fried a crisp brown. Take the pork from the
pan and put the fish in, having only enough to cover the bottom. Fry
brown on one side; turn, and fry the other side. Serve on a hot dish,
with the salt pork as a garnish. Great care must be taken that the
pork or fat does not burn, and yet to have it hot enough to brown
quickly. Cod, haddock, cusk and halibut are all cut in handsome slices
and fried in this manner; or, the slices can be well seasoned with
salt and pepper, dipped in beaten egg, rolled in bread or cracker
crumbs and fried in boiling fat enough to cover. This method gives the
handsomer dish, but the first the more savory. Where Indian meal is
not liked, all flour can be used. Serve very hot Any kind of fried
fish can be served with _beurre noir_, but this is particularly
nice for that which is fried without pork. When the cooked fish is
placed in the dish, pour the butter over it, garnish with parsley, and
serve.


To Cook Salt Codfish.

The fish should be thoroughly washed, and soaked in cold water over
night. In the morning change the water, and put on to cook. As soon as
the water comes to the boiling point set back where it will keep
_hot_, but will _not boil_. From four to six hours will cook
a very dry, hard fish, and there are kinds which will cook in half an
hour. The boneless codfish, put up at the Isles of Shoals, by Brown &
Seavey, will cook in from half an hour to an hour. Where a family uses
only a small quantity of salt fish at a time, this is a convenient and
economical way to buy it, as there is no waste with bone or skin. It
comes in five pound boxes, and costs sixty cents.


Dropped Fish Balls.

One pint bowlful of raw fish, two heaping bowlfuls of pared potatoes,
(let the potatoes be under medium size), two eggs, butter, the size of
an egg, and a little pepper. Pick the fish very fine, and measure it
lightly in the bowl. Put the potatoes into the boiler, and the fish on
top of them; then cover with boiling water, and boil half an hour.
Drain off all the water, and mash fish and potatoes together until
fine and light. Then add the butter and pepper, and the egg, well
beaten. Have a deep kettle of _boiling_ fat. Dip a table-spoon in
it, and then take up a spoonful of the mixture, having care to get it
into as good shape as possible. Drop into the boiling fat, and cook
until brown, which should be in two minutes. Be careful not to crowd
the balls, and, also, that the fat is hot enough. The spoon should be
dipped in the fat every time you take a spoonful of the mixture. These
balls are delicious.


Common Fish Balls.

One pint of finely-chopped cooked salt fish, six medium-sized
potatoes, one egg, one heaping table-spoonful of butter, pepper, two
table-spoonfuls of cream, or four of milk. Pare the potatoes, and put
on in _boiling_ water. Boil half an hour. Drain off all the
water, turn the potatoes into the tray with the fish, and mash light
and fine with a vegetable masher. Add the butter, pepper, milk and
eggs, and mix all very thoroughly. Taste to see if salt enough. Shape
into smooth balls, the size of an egg, and fry brown in boiling fat
enough to float them. They will cook in three minutes. If the potatoes
are very mealy it will take more milk or cream to moisten them, about
two spoonfuls more. If the fat is smoking in the centre, and the balls
are made _very_ smooth, they will not soak fat; but if the fat is
not hot enough, they certainly will. Putting too many balls into the
fat at one time cools it. Put in say four or five. Let the fat regain
its first temperature, then add more.


Salt Fish with Dropped Eggs.

One pint of cooked salt fish, one pint of milk or cream, two table-
spoonfuls of flour, one of butter, six eggs, pepper. Put milk on to
boil, keeping half a cupful of it to mix the flour. When it boils,
stir in the flour, which has been mixed smooth with the milk; then add
the fish, which has been flaked. Season, and cook ten minutes. Have
six slices of toasted bread on a platter. Drop six eggs into boiling
water, being careful to keep the shape. Turn the fish and cream on to
the toast. Lift the eggs carefully from the water, as soon as the
whites are set, and place very gently on the fish. Garnish the dish
with points of toast and parsley.


Salt Codfish, in Purée of Potatoes.

Six large potatoes, one pint and one cupful of milk, two table-
spoonfuls of butter, a small slice of onion (about the size of a
silver quarter), one pint of cooked salt codfish, salt, pepper, one
large table-spoonful of flour. Pare the potatoes and boil half an
hour; then drain off the water, and mash them light and fine. Add the
salt, pepper, one table-spoonful of butter, and the cupful of milk,
which has been allowed to come to a boil. Beat very thoroughly, and
spread a thin layer of the potatoes on the centre of a hot platter.
Heap the remainder around the edge, making a wall to keep in the cream
and fish, which should then be poured in. Garnish the border with
parsley, and serve.

To prepare the fish: Put the pint of milk on to boil with the onion.
Mix flour and butter together, and when well mixed, add two table-
spoonfuls of the hot milk. Stir all into the boiling milk, skim out
the onion, add the fish, and cook ten minutes. Season with pepper, and
if not salty enough, with salt. This is a nice dish for breakfast,
lunch or dinner.


Salt Fish Soufflé.

One pint of finely-chopped cooked salt fish, eight good-sized
potatoes, three-fourths of a cupful of milk or cream, four eggs, salt,
pepper, two generous table-spoonfuls of butter. Pare the potatoes and
boil thirty minutes. Drain the water from them, and mash very fine;
then mix thoroughly with the fish. Add butter, seasoning and the hot
milk. Have two of the eggs well beaten, which stir into the mixture,
and heap this in the dish in which it is to be served. Place in the
oven for ten minutes. Beat the whites of the two remaining eggs to a
stiff froth, and add a quarter of a teaspoonful of salt; then add
yolks. Spread this over the dish of fish; return to the oven to brown,
and serve.


Cusk, à la Crème.

A cusk, cod or haddock, weighing five or six pounds; one quart of
milk, two table-spoonfuls of flour, one of butter, one small slice of
onion, two sprigs of parsley, salt, pepper. Put the fish on in boiling
water enough to cover, and which contains one table-spoonful of salt.
Cook gently twenty minutes; then lift out of the water, but let it
remain on the tray. Now carefully remove all the skin and the head;
then turn the fish over into the dish in which it is to be served (it
should be stone china), and scrape off the skin from the other side.
Pick out all the small bones. You will find them the whole length of
the back, and a few in the lower part of the fish, near the tail. They
are in rows like pins in a paper, and if you start all right it will
take but a few minutes to remove them. Then take out the back-bone,
starting at the head and working gently down toward the tail. Great
care must be taken, that the fish may keep its shape. Cover with the
cream, and bake about ten minutes, just to brown it a little. Garnish
with parsley or little puff-paste cakes; or, you can cover it with the
whites of three eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, and then slightly
brown.

To prepare the cream: Put the milk, parsley and onion on to boil,
reserving half a cupful of milk to mix with the flour. When it boils,
stir in the flour, which has been mixed smoothly with the cold milk.
Cook eight minutes. Season highly with salt and pepper, add the
butter, strain on the fish, and proceed as directed.


Escaloped Fish.

One pint of milk, one pint of cream, four table-spoonfuls of flour,
one cupful of bread crumbs and between four and five pounds of any
kind of white fish--cusk, cod, haddock, etc., boiled twenty minutes in
water to cover and two table-spoonfuls of salt. Put fish on to boil,
then the cream and milk. Mix the flour with half a cupful of cold
milk, and stir into boiling cream and milk. Cook eight minutes and
season highly with salt and pepper. Remove skin and bones from fish,
and break it into flakes. Put a layer of sauce in a deep escalop dish,
and then a layer of fish, which dredge well with salt (a table-
spoonful) and pepper; then another layer of sauce, again fish, and
then sauce. Cover with the bread crumbs, and bake half an hour. This
quantity requires a dish holding a little over two quarts, or, two
smaller dishes will answer. If for the only solid dish for dinner,
this will answer for six persons; but if it is in a course for a
dinner party, it will serve twelve. Cold boiled fish can be used when
you have it. Great care must be taken to remove every bone when fish
is prepared with a sauce, (as when it is served _à la crème_,
escaloped, &c.), because one cannot look for bones then as when the
sauce is served separately.


Turbot à la Crème.

Boil five or six pounds of haddock. Take out all bones, and shred the
fish very fine. Let a quart of milk, a quarter of an onion and a piece
of parsley come to a boil; then stir in a scant cupful of flour, which
has been mixed with a cupful of cold milk, and the yolks of two eggs.
Season with half a teaspoonful of white pepper, the same quantity of
thyme, half a cupful of butter, and well with salt. Butter a pan, and
put in first a layer of sauce, then one of fish. Finish with sauce,
and over it sprinkle cracker crumbs and a light grating of cheese.
Bake for an hour in a moderate oven.


Matelote of Codfish.

Cut off the head of a codfish weighing five pounds. Remove bones from
the fish, and fill it with a dressing made of half a pint of oysters,
a scant pint of bread crumbs, a fourth of a teaspoonful of pepper, two
teaspoonfuls of salt, two table-spoonfuls of butter, half an onion, an
egg and half a table-spoonful of chopped parsley. Place five slices of
pork both under and over the fish. Boil the bones in a pint of water,
and pour this around the fish. Bake an hour, and baste often with
gravy and butter. Have a bouquet in the corner of the baking pan. Make
a gravy, and pour around the fish. Then garnish with fried smelts.


Smelts à la Tartare.

Clean the smelts by drawing them between the finger and thumb,
beginning at the tail. This will press out the insides at the opening
at the gills. Wash them, and drain in the colander; salt well, and dip
in beaten egg and bread or cracker crumbs (one egg and one cupful of
crumbs to twelve smelts, unless these are very large). Dip first in
the egg, and then roll in the crumbs. Fry in boiling fat deep enough
to float them. They should be a handsome brown in two minutes and a
half. Take them up, and place on a sheet of brown paper for a few
moments, to drain; then place on a hot dish. Garnish with parsley and
a few slices of lemon, and serve with Tartare sauce in a separate
dish; or, they may be served without the sauce.


Smelts as a Garnish,

Smelts are often fried, as for _à la Tartare_; or, rolled in meal
or flour, and then fried, they are used to garnish other kinds of
fish. With baked fish they are arranged around the dish in any form
that the taste of the cook may dictate; but in garnishing fish, or any
other dish, the arrangement should always be simple, so as not to make
the matter of serving any harder than if the dish were not garnished.
Smelts are also seasoned well with salt and pepper, dipped in butter
and afterwards in flour, and placed in a very hot oven for eight or
ten minutes to get a handsome brown. They are then served as a garnish
or on slices of buttered toast. When smelts are used as a garnish,
serve one on each plate with the other fish. If you wish to have the
smelts in rings, for a garnish, fasten the tails in the opening at the
gills, with little wooden tooth picks; then dip them in the beaten egg
and in the crumbs, place in the frying basket and plunge into the
boiling fat. When they are cooked take out the skewers, and they will
retain their shape.


Fish au Gratin.

Any kind of light fish--that is, cod, cusk, flounder, etc. Skin the
fish by starting at the head and drawing down towards the tail; then
take out the bones. Cut the fish into pieces about three inches
square, and salt and pepper well. Butter such a dish, as you would use
for escolloped oysters. Put in one layer of fish, then moisten well
with sauce; add more fish and sauce, and finally cover with fine bread
crumbs. Bake half an hour. The dish should be rather shallow, allowing
only two layers of fish.

Sauce for _au gratin_: One pint of stock, three table-spoonfuls
of butter, two of flour, juice of half a lemon, half a tablespoonful
of chopped parsley, a slice of onion, the size of half a dollar, and
about as thick--chopped very fine, (one table-spoonful of onion juice
is better); one table-spoonful of vinegar, salt, pepper. Heat the
butter in a small frying-pan, and when hot, add the dry flour. Stir
constantly until a rich brown; then add, gradually, the cold stock,
stirring all the time. As soon as it boils, season well with salt and
pepper, and then add the other seasoning. This quantity is enough for
three pounds of fish, weighed after being skinned and boned, and will
serve six persons if it is the only solid dish for dinner, or ten if
served in a course.

Another way to serve fish _au gratin_, is to skin it, cut off the
head, and take out the back-bone; and there are then two large pieces
of fish. Season the fish, and prepare the sauce as before. Butter a
tin sheet that will fit loosely into a large baking-pan. Lay the fish
on this, and moisten well with the sauce. Cover thickly with bread
crumbs, and cook twenty-five minutes in a rather quick oven. Then slip
on a hot dish, and serve with tomato, Tartare or Hollandaise sauce
poured around the fish.


Eels à la Tartare.

Cut the eels into pieces about four inches long. Cover them with
boiling water, in which let them stand five minutes, and then drain
them. Now dip in beaten egg, which has been well salted and peppered,
then in bread or cracker crumbs. Fry in boiling fat for five minutes.
Have Tartare sauce spread in the centre of a cold dish. Place the
fried eels in a circle on this, garnish with parsley, and serve.


Stewed Eels.

Cut two eels in pieces about four inches long. Put three large table-
spoonfuls of butter into the stew-pan with half a small onion. As soon
as the onion begins to turn yellow stir in two table-spoonfuls of
flour, and stir until brown. Add one pint of stock, if you have it; if
not, use water. Season well with pepper and salt; then put in the eels
and two bay leaves. Cover, and simmer gently three-quarters of an
hour. Heap the eels in the centre of a hot dish, strain the sauce over
them and garnish with toasted bread and parsley. If you wish, add a
table-spoonful of vinegar or lemon juice to the stew.



OYSTERS.


On the Half Shell.

Not until just before serving should they be opened. Marketmen often
furnish some one to do this. Six large oysters are usually allowed
each person. Left in half the shell, they are placed on a dinner
plate, with a thin slice of lemon in the centre of the dish.


On a Block of Ice.

Having a perfectly clear and solid block of ice, weighing ten or
fifteen pounds, a cavity is to be made in the top of it in either of
two ways. The first is to carefully chip with an ice pick; the other,
to melt with heated bricks. If the latter be chosen the ice must be
put into a tub or large pan, and one of the bricks held upon the
centre of it until there is a slight depression, yet sufficient for
the brick to rest in. When the first brick is cold remove it, tip the
block on one side, to let off the water, and then use another brick.
Continue the operation till the cavity will hold as many oysters as
are to be served. These should be kept an hour previous in a cool
place; should be drained in a colander, and seasoned with salt, pepper
and vinegar. After laying two folded napkins on a large platter, to
prevent the block from slipping, cover the dish with parsley, so that
only the ice is visible. Stick a number of pinks, or of any small,
bright flowers that do not wilt rapidly, into the parsley. Pour
oysters into the space in the top of the ice, and garnish with thin
slices of lemon. This gives an elegant dish, and does away with the
unsightly shells in which raw oysters are usually served. It is not
expensive, for the common oysters do as well as those of good size.
Indeed, as many ladies dislike the large ones, here is an excellent
substitute for serving in the shell, particularly as the oysters
require no seasoning when once on the table. A quart is enough for a
party of ten; but a block of the size given will hold two quarts.


Roasted Oysters on Toast.

Eighteen large oysters, or thirty small ones, one teaspoonful of
flour, one table-spoonful of butter, salt, pepper, three slices of
toast. Have the toast buttered and on a hot dish. Put the butter in a
small sauce-pan, and when hot, add the dry flour. Stir until smooth,
but not brown; then add the cream, and let it boil up once. Put the
oysters (in their own liquor) into a hot oven, for three minutes; then
add them to the cream. Season, and pour over the toast. Garnish the
dish with thin slices of lemon, and serve very hot. It is nice for
lunch or tea.


Oysters Panned in their Own Liquor.

Eighteen large, or thirty small, oysters, one table-spoonful of
butter, one of cracker crumbs, salt and pepper to taste, one
teaspoonful of lemon juice, a speck of cayenne. Put the oysters on in
their own liquor, and when they boil up, add seasoning, butter and
crumbs. Cook one minute, and serve on toast.


Oysters Panned in the Shell.

Wash the shells and wipe dry. Place them in a pan with the round shell
down. Set in a hot oven for three minutes; then take out, and remove
the upper shell. Put two or three oysters into one of the round
shells, season with pepper and salt, add butter, the size of two peas,
and cover with cracker or bread crumbs. Return to the oven and brown.


Oyster Sauté.

Two dozen large, or three dozen small, oysters, two table-spoonfuls of
butter, four of fine cracker crumbs, salt, pepper. Let the oysters
drain in the colander. Then season with salt and pepper and roll in
the crumbs. Have the butter very hot in a frying-pan, and put in
enough of the oysters to cover the bottom of the pan. Fry crisp and
brown, being careful not to burn. Serve on hot, crisp toast.


Oysters Roasted in the Shell.

Wash the shells clean, and wipe dry. Place in a baking pan, and put in
a hot oven for about twenty minutes. Serve on hot dishes the moment
they are taken from the oven. Though this is not an elegant dish, many
people enjoy it, as the first and best flavor of the oysters is
retained in this manner of cooking. The oysters can, instead, be
opened into a hot dish and seasoned with butter, salt, pepper and
lemon juice. They should be served immediately.


Little Pigs in Blankets.

Season large oysters with salt and pepper. Cut fat English bacon in
very thin slices, wrap an oyster in each slice, and fasten with a
little wooden skewer (toothpicks are the best things). Heat a frying-
pan and put in the "little pigs." Cook just long enough to crisp the
bacon--about two minutes. Place on slices of toast that have been cut
into small pieces, and serve immediately. Do not remove the skewers.
This is a nice relish for lunch or tea; and, garnished with parsley,
is a pretty one. The pan must be very hot before the "pigs" are put
in, and then great care must be taken that they do not burn.


Fricasseed Oysters.

One hundred oysters (about two quarts), four large tablespoonfuls of
butter, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, one table-spoonful of
flour, a speck of cayenne, salt, yolks of three eggs. Brown two table-
spoonfuls of the butter, and add to it the parsley, cayenne and salt
and the oysters, well drained. Mix together the flour and the
remainder of the butter and stir into the oysters when they begin to
curl. Then add yolks, well beaten, and take immediately from the fire.
Serve on a hot dish with a garnish of fried bread and parsley.


Creamed Oysters.

A pint of cream, one quart of oysters, a small piece of onion, a very
small piece of mace, a table-spoonful of flour, and salt and pepper to
taste. Let the cream, with the onion and mace, come to a boil. Mix
flour with a little cold milk or cream, and stir into the boiling
cream. Let the oysters come to a boil in their own liquor, and skim
carefully. Drain off all the liquor, and turn the oysters into the
cream. Skim out the mace and onions, and serve.


Crôustade of Oysters.

Have a loaf of bread baked in a round two-quart basin. When two or
three days old, with a sharp knife cut out the heart of the bread,
being careful not to break the crust. Break up the crumbs very fine,
and dry them slowly in an oven; then quickly fry three cupfuls of them
in two table-spoonfuls of butter. As soon as they begin to look golden
and are crisp, they are done. It takes about two minutes over a hot
fire, stirring all the time. Put one quart of cream to boil, and when
it boils, stir in three table-spoonfuls of flour, which has been mixed
with half a cupful of cold milk. Cook eight minutes. Season well with
salt and pepper. Put a layer of the sauce into the _crôustade_
then a layer of oysters, which dredge well with salt and pepper; then
another layer of sauce and one of fried crumbs. Continue this until
the _crôustade_ is nearly full, having the last layer a thick one
of crumbs. It takes three pints of oysters for this dish, and about
three teaspoonfuls of salt and half a teaspoonful of pepper. Bake
slowly half an hour. Serve with a garnish of parsley around the dish,


Escaloped Oysters.

Two quarts of oysters, half a cupful of butter, half a cupful of cream
or milk, four teaspoonfuls of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, two
quarts of stale bread crumbs, and spice, if you choose. Butter the
escalop dishes, and put in a layer of crumbs and then one of oysters.
Dredge with the salt and pepper, and put small pieces of butter here
and there in the dish. Now have another layer of oysters, seasoning as
before; then add the milk, and, finally, a thick layer of crumbs,
which dot with butter. Bake twenty minutes in a rather quick oven. The
crumbs must be light and flakey. The quantity given above is enough to
fill two dishes.


Escaloped Oysters, No. 2.

Put a layer of rolled crackers in an oval dish, and then a layer of
oysters, and lay on small pieces of butter. Dredge with salt and
pepper, and moisten well with milk (or equal parts of milk and water).
Add another layer of cracker and of oysters, and butter, dredge and
moisten as before. Continue these alternate layers until the dish is
nearly full; then cover with a thin layer of cracker and pieces of
butter. If the dish be a large one, holding about two quarts, it will
require an hour and a half or two hours to bake.


Oysters Served in Escalop Shells.

The shells may be tin, granite-ware, or silver-plated, or, the natural
oyster or scollop shells. The ingredients are: one quart of oysters,
half a pint of cream or milk, one pint of bread crumbs, one table-
spoonful of butter, if cream is used, or three, if milk; salt and
pepper, a grating of nutmeg and two table-spoonfuls of flour. Drain
all the liquor from the oysters into a stew-pan. Let it come to a
boil, and skim; then add the cream or milk, with which the flour
should first be mixed. Let this boil two minutes, and add the butter,
salt, pepper and nutmeg, and then the oysters. Take from the fire
immediately. Taste to see if seasoned enough. Have the shells
buttered, and sprinkled lightly with crumbs. Nearly fill them with the
prepared oysters; then cover thickly with crumbs. Put the shells in a
baking-pan, and bake fifteen minutes. Serve very hot, on a large
platter, which garnish with parsley. The quantity given above will
fill twelve common-sized shells.

Oyster Chartreuse.

One quart of oysters, one pint of cream, one small slice of onion,
half a cupful of milk, whites of four eggs, two table-spoonfuls of
butter, salt, pepper, two table-spoonfuls of flour, one cupful of
fine, dry bread crumbs, six potatoes. Pare and boil the potatoes. Mash
fine and light, and add the milk, salt, pepper, one spoonful of
butter, and then the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Have
a two-quart charlotte russe mould well buttered, and sprinkle the
bottom and sides with the bread crumbs (there must be butter enough to
hold the crumbs). Line the mould with the potato, and let stand for a
few minutes. Put the cream and onion on to boil. Mix the flour with a
little cold milk or cream--about one-fourth of a cupful--and stir into
the boiling cream. Season well with salt and pepper, and cook eight
minutes. Let the oysters come to a boil in their own liquor. Skim
them, and drain of all the juice. Take the piece of onion from the
sauce, and add the oysters. Taste to see if seasoned enough, and turn
gently into the mould. Cover with the remainder of the potato, being
careful not to put on too much at once, as in that case the sauce
would be forced to the top. When covered, bake half an hour in a hot
oven. Take from the oven ten minutes before dishing time, and let it
stand on the table. Place a large platter over the mould and turn both
dish and mould at the same time. Remove the mould very gently. Garnish
the dish with parsley, and serve. A word of caution: Every part of the
mould must have a thick coating of the mashed potato, and when the
covering of potato is put on no opening must be left for sauce to
escape.


To Pickle Oysters

Two hundred large oysters, half a pint of vinegar, half a pint of
white wine, four spoonfuls of salt, six spoonfuls of whole black
pepper and a little mace. Strain the liquor, and add the above-named
ingredients. Let boil up once, and pour, while boiling hot, over the
oysters. After these have stood ten minutes pour off the liquor,
which, as well as the oysters, should then be allowed to get cold. Put
into a jar and cover tight. The oysters will keep some time.



LOBSTER.

Lobster, to be eatable, should be perfectly fresh. One of the tests of
freshness is to draw back the tail, for if it springs into position
again, it is safe to think the fish good. The time of boiling varies
with the size of the lobster and in different localities. In Boston,
Rockport and other places on the Massachusetts coast the time is
fifteen or twenty minutes for large lobsters and ten for small. The
usual way is to plunge them into boiling water enough to cover, and to
continue boiling them until they are done. Some people advocate
putting the lobsters into cold water, and letting this come to a boil
gradually. They claim that the lobsters do not suffer so much. This
may be so, but it seems as if death must instantly follow the plunge
into boiling water. Cooking a lobster too long makes it tough and dry.
When, on opening a lobster, you find the meat clinging to the shell,
and very much shrunken, you may be sure the time of boiling was too
long. There are very few modes of cooking lobster in which it should
be more than thoroughly heated, as much cooking toughens it and
destroys the fine, delicate flavor of the meat.


To open a lobster.

Separate the tail from the body, and shake out the tom-ally, and,
also, the "coral," if there is any, upon a plate. Then by drawing the
body from the shell with the thumb, and pressing the part near the
head against the shell with the first and second finger, you will free
it from the stomach or "lady." Now split the lobster through the
centre and, with a fork, pick the meat from the joints. Cut the under
side of the tail shell open and take out the meat without breaking. On
the upper part of that end of this meat which joined the body is a
small piece of flesh, which should be lifted; and a strip of meat
attached to it should be turned back to the extreme end of the tail.
This will uncover a little vein, running the entire length, which must
be removed. Sometimes this vein is dark, and sometimes as light as the
meat itself. It and the stomach are the only parts not eatable. The
piece that covered the vein should be turned again into place. Hold
the claws on edge on a thick board, and strike hard with a hammer
until the shell cracks. Draw apart, and take out the meat. If you have
the claws lying flat on the board when you strike, you not only break
the shell, but mash the meat, and thus spoil a fine dish. Remember
that the stomach of the lobster is found near the head, and is a
small, hard sack containing poisonous matter; and that the intestinal
vein is found in the tail. These should always be carefully removed.
When lobster is opened in the manner explained it may be arranged
handsomely on a dish, and each person can season it at the table to
suit himself.


Lobster Broiled in the Shell.

Divide the tail into two parts, cutting lengthwise. Break the large
claws in two parts, and free the body from the small claws and
stomach. Replace the body in the shell. Put the meat from the claws in
half of the shells it came from, and put the other half of the shells
where they will get hot. Put the lobster into the double broiler, and
cook, with the meat side exposed to the fire, for eight minutes; then
turn, and cook ten minutes longer. Place on a hot dish, and season
slightly with salt and cayenne, and then well with _maître d'
hôtel_ butter. Cover the claws with the hot shells. Garnish the
dish with parsley, and serve.


Broiled Lobster.

Split the meat of the tail and claws, and season well with salt and
pepper. Cover with soft butter and dredge with flour. Place in the
broiler, and cook over a bright fire until a delicate brown. Arrange
on a hot dish, pour Bechamel sauce around, and serve.


Breaded Lobster.

Split the meat of the tail and claws, and season well with salt and
pepper. Dip in beaten egg and then in bread crumbs, which let dry on
the meat; and then repeat the operation. Place in a frying-basket, and
plunge into boiling fat. Cook till a golden brown--about two minutes.
Serve with Tartare sauce.


Stewed Lobster.

The meat of a two and a half pound lobster, cut into dice; two table-
spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, one pint of stock or water, a speck
of cayenne, salt and pepper to taste. Let the butter get hot, and add
the dry flour. Stir until perfectly smooth, when add the water,
gradually, stirring all the while. Season to taste. Add the lobster;
heat thoroughly, and serve.


Curry of Lobster.

The meat of a lobster weighing between two and three pounds, one very
small onion, three table-spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, a scant
one of curry powder, a speck of cayenne, salt, a scant pint of water
or stock. Let the butter get hot; and then add the onion, cut fine,
and fry brown. When the onion is cooked add the flour and curry
powder, and stir all together for two minutes. Add stock; cook two
minutes, and strain. Add the meat of lobster, cut into dice, and
simmer five minutes. Serve with a border of boiled rice around the
dish.


Devilled Lobster in the Shell.

Two lobsters, each weighing about two and a half pounds; one pint of
cream, two table-spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, one of mustard, a
speck of cayenne, salt, pepper, a scant pint of bread crumbs. Open the
lobster and, with a sharp knife, cut the meat rather fine. Be careful,
in opening, not to break the body or tail shells. Wash these shells
and wipe dry; join them in the form of a boat, that they may hold the
prepared meat. Put the cream on to boil. Mix the butter, flour,
mustard and pepper together, and add three spoonfuls of the boiling
cream. Stir all into the remaining cream, and cook two minutes. Add
the lobster, salt and pepper, and boil one minute. Fill the shells
with the mixture, and place in a pan, with something to keep them in
position (a few small stones answer very well). Cover with the bread
crumbs, and brown for twenty minutes in a hot oven. Serve on a long,
narrow dish; the body in the centre, the tails at either end. Garnish
with parsley. If for a large company, it would be best to have a broad
dish, and have four lobsters, instead of two. This is a very handsome
dish, and is really not hard to cook. There is always a little more of
the prepared lobster than will go into the shells without crowding,
and this is nice warmed and served on slices of crisp toast.


Escaloped Lobster.

Prepare the lobster as for devilling, omitting, however, the mustard.
Turn into a buttered escollop dish, and cover thickly with crumbs.
Brown in a hot oven, and serve.

White stock may be used instead of the cream. Many people who cannot
eat lobster when prepared with cream or milk, find it palatable when
prepared with stock or water.


Lobster Cutlets.

A lobster weighing between two and a half and three pounds, three
table-spoonfuls of butter, half a cupful of stock or cream, one
heaping table-spoonful of flour, a speck of cayenne, salt, two eggs,
about a pint of bread crumbs, twelve sprigs of parsley. Cut the meat
of the lobster into fine dice, and season with salt and pepper. Put
the butter on to heat. Add the flour, and when smooth, add the stock
and one well-beaten egg. Season. Boil up once, add the lobster, and
take from the fire immediately. Now add a table-spoonful of lemon
juice. Butter a platter, and pour the mixture upon it, to the
thickness of about an inch. Make perfectly smooth with a knife, and
set away to cool. When cool, cut into chops, to resemble cutlets. Dip
in beaten egg and then in bread crumbs, being sure to have every part
covered. Place in the frying-basket and plunge into boiling fat. Cook
till a rich brown. It will take about two minutes. Drain for a moment
in the basket; then arrange on a hot dish, and put part of a small
claw in each one, to represent the bone in a cutlet. Put the parsley
in the basket and plunge for a moment into the boiling fat. Garnish
with this, or, pour a white or Bechamel sauce around the dish, and
garnish with fresh parsley. The quantity given will make six or seven
cutlets.


Canned Lobster.

Canned lobster can be used for cutlets, stews, curries and patties,
can be escaloped, or served on toast.




OTHER SHELL-FISH.


Stewed Terrapins.

Put them into boiling water, and boil rapidly for ten or fifteen
minutes, or until the nails will come out and the black skin rub off--
the time depending upon the size of the fish. After this, put into
fresh boiling water, and boil until the under shell cracks, which will
be about three-quarters of an hour. Remove the under shell, throw away
the sand and gall bags, take out intestines, and put the terrapins to
boil again in the same water for an hour. Pick liver and meat from
upper shell. Cut the intestines in small pieces, and add to this meat.
Pour over all a quantity of the liquor in which the intestines were
boiled sufficient to make very moist. Put away until the next day. For
each terrapin, if of good size, a gill of cream and of wine, half a
cupful of butter, yolks of two hard-boiled eggs, rubbed smooth, salt,
pepper and cayenne are needed. Pour over the terrapin, let it come to
a boil, and serve,--[Mrs. Furness, of Philadelphia.]


Soft-Shell Crabs.

Lift the shell at both sides and remove the spongy substance found on
the back. Then pull off the "apron," which will be found on the under
side, and to which is attached a substance like that removed from the
back. Now wipe the crabs, and dip them in beaten egg, and then in fine
bread or cracker crumbs. Fry in boiling fat from eight to ten minutes,
the time depending upon the size of the crabs. Serve with Tartare
sauce. Or, the egg and bread crumbs may be omitted. Season with salt
and cayenne, and fry as before,

When broiled, crabs are cleaned, and seasoned with salt and cayenne;
are then dropped into boiling water for one minute, taken up, and
broiled over a hot fire for eight minutes. They are served with
_maître d' hôtel_ butter or Tartare sauce.




MEATS.

BOILING.

All pieces, unless very salt, should be plunged into boiling water,
and boiled rapidly for fifteen minutes, to harden the albumen that is
on the outside, and thus keep in the juices. The kettle should then be
put back where it will just simmer, for meat that is boiled rapidly
becomes hard and stringy, while that which is kept just at the boiling
point (where the water hardly bubbles) will cut tender and juicy,
provided there is any juiciness in it at the beginning. White meats,
like mutton and poultry, are improved in appearance by having rice
boiled with them; or, a still better way is to thickly flour a piece
of coarse cotton cloth, pin the meat in it, and place in the boiling
water. Meat cooked in this way will be extremely juicy.


Leg of Mutton.

Cook, as directed, in boiling water to cover. A leg that weighs eight
or nine pounds will cook in one hour and a quarter if it is wanted
done rare. Allow five minutes for every additional pound. Save the
water for soups.


Lamb.

Cook the same as mutton. Serve with drawn butter.


Boiled Ham.

Wash the ham very clean, and put on with cold water to cover. Simmer
gently five hours, and set the kettle aside for one or two hours. When
nearly cold, take out the ham and draw off the skin. Cover with
cracker crumbs and about three table-spoonfuls of sugar. Place in the
oven, in a baking-pan, for thirty or forty minutes. Many people stick
cloves into the fat part of the ham, and use only a few crumbs. The
time given is for a ham weighing about twelve pounds; every pound over
that will require fifteen minutes more. The fish kettle comes next to
a regular ham kettle, and answers quite as well as both. If you have
neither kettle, and no pot large enough to hold all the meat, cut off
the knuckle, which will cook in about two hours. But this rather hurts
the flavor and appearance of the dish.


Salt Tongue.

Soak over night, and cook from five to six hours. Throw into cold
water and peel off the skin.


Fresh Tongue.

Put into boiling water to cover, with two table-spoonfuls of salt.
Cook from five to six hours. Skin the same as salt tongue.


Corned Beef.

Wash, and put into cold water, if very salt; but such a piece as one
finds in town and city shops, and which the butchers corn themselves,
put into boiling water. Cook very slowly for six hours. This time is
for a piece weighing eight or ten pounds. When it is to be served cold
let it stand for one or two hours in the water in which it was boiled.
If the beef is to be pressed, get either a piece of the brisket, flank
or rattle-ran. Take out the bones, place in a flat dish or platter,
put a tin sheet on top, and lay on it two or three bricks. If you have
a corned beef press, use that, of course.



ROASTING.

There are two modes of roasting: one is to use a tin Kitchen before an
open fire, and the other and more common way is to use a very hot
oven. The former gives the more delicious favor, but the second is not
by any means a poor way, if the meat is put on a rack, and basted
constantly when in the oven. A large piece is best for roasting, this
being especially true of beef. When meat is cooked in a tin kitchen it
requires more time, because the heat is not equally distributed, as it
is in the oven.

To prepare for roasting: Wipe the meat with a wet towel. Dredge on all
sides with salt, pepper and flour; and if the kitchen is used, dredge
the flour into that. Run the spit through the centre of the meat, and
place very near the fire at first, turning as it browns. When the
flour in the kitchen is browned, add a pint of hot water, and baste
frequently with it, dredging with salt and flour after each basting.
Roast a piece of beef weighing eight pounds fifty minutes, if to be
rare, but if to be medium, roast one hour and a quarter, and ten
minutes for each additional pound.


Roasting in the Oven.

Prepare the meat as before. Have a rack that will fit loosely into the
baking-pan. Cover the bottom of the pan rather lightly with flour, put
in rack, and then meat Place in a very hot oven for a few minutes, to
brown the flour in the pan, and then add hot water enough to cover the
bottom of the pan. Close the oven; and in about ten minutes, open, and
baste the meat with the gravy. Dredge with salt, pepper and flour. Do
this every fifteen minutes; and as soon as one side of the meat is
brown, turn, and brown the other. Make gravy as before. Allow a
quarter of an hour less in the oven than in the tin kitchen. The heat
for roasting must be very great at first, to harden the albumen, and
thus keep in the juices. After the meat is crusted over it is not
necessary to keep up so great a heat, but for rare meats the heat
must, of course, be greater than for those that are to be well done.
The kitchen can be drawn back a little distance from the fire and the
drafts closed. Putting salt on fresh meat draws out the juices, but by
using flour a paste is formed, which, keeps in all the juices and also
enriches and browns the piece. Never roast meat without having a rack
in the pan. If meat is put into the water in the pan it becomes soggy
and looses its flavor. A meat rack costs not more than thirty or forty
cents, and the improvement in the looks and flavor of a piece of meat
is enough to pay for it in one roasting. The time given for roasting a
piece of beef is for rib roasts and sirloin. The same weight in the
face or the back of the rump will require twenty minutes longer, as
the meat on these cuts is in a very compact form. If a saddle or loin
of mutton is to be roasted, cook the same time as beef if the weight
is the same; but if a leg is to be roasted, one hour and a quarter is
the time. Lamb should be cooked an hour and a half; veal, two hours
and three-quarters; pork, three hours and a quarter. Ten minutes
before dishing the dinner turn the gravy into a sauce-pan, skim off
all the fat, and set on the stove. Let it come to a boil; then stir in
one table-spoonful of flour, mixed with half a cupful of cold water.
Season with salt and pepper, and cook two minutes. Serve the meat on a
hot dish and the gravy in a hot tureen.


Boiled Rib Roast.

Either have the butcher remove the bones, or do it your-self by
slipping a sharp knife between the flesh and bones--a simple matter
with almost any kind of meat. Roll up the piece and tie with strong
twine. Treat the same as plain roast beef, giving the same time as if
it were a piece of rump (one hour and a half for eight pounds), as the
form it is now in does not readily admit the heat to all parts. This
piece of beef can be larded before roasting, or it can be larded and
braised. Serve with tomato or horse-radish sauce.


Roast Beef, with Yorkshire Pudding.

A rib or sirloin roast should be prepared as directed for roasting.
When within three-quarters of an hour of being done, have the pudding
made. Butter a pan like that in which the meat is being cooked, and
pour in the batter. Put the rack across the pan, not in it. Place the
meat on the rack, return to the oven, and cook forty-five minutes. If
you have only one pan, take up the meat, pour off the gravy and put in
the pudding. Cut in squares, and garnish the beef with these. Another
method is to have a pan that has squares stamped in it. This gives
even squares and crust on all the edges, which baking in the flat pan
does not. When the meat is roasted in the tin-kitchen, let the pudding
bake in the oven for half an hour, and then place it under the meat to
catch the drippings.

For the Yorkshire pudding, one pint of milk, two-thirds of a cupful of
flour, three eggs and one scant teaspoonful of salt will be needed.
Beat the eggs very light. Add salt and milk, and then pour about half
a cupful of the mixture upon the flour; and when perfectly smooth, add
the remainder. This makes a small pudding--about enough for six
persons. Serve it hot.


Fillet of Veal, Roasted.

About eight or ten pounds of the fillet, ham force-meat (see rule for
force-meat), half a cupful of butter, half a teaspoonful of pepper,
two table-spoonfuls of salt, two lemons, half a pound of salt pork.
Rub the salt and pepper into the veal; then fill the cavity, from
which the bone was taken, with the force-meat. Skewer and tie the
fillet into a round shape. Cut the pork in thin slices, and put half
of these on a tin sheet that will fit into the dripping pan; place
this in the pan, and the fillet on it. Cover the veal with the
remainder of the pork. Put hot water enough in the pan to just cover
the bottom, and place in the oven. Bake slowly for four hours, basting
frequently with the gravy in the pan, and with salt, pepper and flour.
As the water in the pan cooks away, it must be renewed, remembering to
have only enough to keep the meat and pan from burning. After it has
been cooking three hours, take the pork from the top of the fillet,
spread the top thickly with butter and dredge with flour. Repeat this
after thirty minutes, and then brown handsomely. Put the remainder of
the butter, which should be about three table-spoonfuls, in a sauce-
pan, and when hot, add two heaping table-spoonfuls of flour, and stir
until dark brown. Add to it half a pint of stock or water; stir a
minute, and set back where it will keep warm, but not cook. Now take
up the fillet, and skim all the fat off of the gravy; add water enough
to make half a pint of gravy, also the sauce just made. Let this boil
up, and add the juice of half a lemon, and more salt and pepper, if
needed. Strain, and pour around the fillet. Garnish the dish with
potato puffs and slices of lemon.


Roast Ham.

Prepare the ham as for boiling, and if it is of good size (say ten
pounds), boil three hours. Remove the skin, and put the ham in a
baking pan. Let it cook two hours in a moderate oven. Serve with
champagne sauce.




BROILING.

The fire for broiling must be clear, and for meats it must be hotter
and brighter than for fish. Coals from hard wood or charcoal are best,
but in all large towns and cities hard coal is nearly always used,
except in hotels and restaurants, where there is usually a special
place for broiling with charcoal. The double broiler is the very best
thing in the market for broiling meats and fish. When the meat is
placed in it, and the slide is slipped over the handles, all there is
to do is to hold the broiler over the fire, or, if you have an open
range, before the fire. A fork or knife need not go near the meat
until it is on the dish. A great amount of the juice is saved. With
the old-fashioned gridirons it is absolutely necessary to stick a fork
into the meat to turn it, and although there are little grooves for
the gravy to run into, what is saved in this way does not compare with
what is actually kept within the meat where the double broiler is
used. Professional cooks can turn a steak without running a fork into
the meat, but not one in a hundred common cooks can do it.


Mutton Chops.

Sprinkle the chops with salt, pepper and flour. Put them in the double
broiler. Broil over or before the fire for eight minutes. Serve on a
_hot_ dish with butter, salt and pepper for tomato sauce. The
fire for chops should not be as hot as for steak. Chops can be
seasoned with salt and pepper, wrapped in buttered paper and broiled
ten minutes over a hot fire.


Beef Steak.

Have it cut thick. It will never be good, rich and juicy if only from
one-fourth to one-half an inch thick. It ought to be at least three-
quarters of an inch thick. Trim off any suet that may be left on it,
and dredge with salt, pepper and flour. Cook in the double broiler,
over or before clear coals, for ten minutes, if to be rare, twelve, if
to be rather well done. Turn the meat constantly. Serve on a hot dish
with butter and salt, or with mushroom sauce, _maitre d' Hôtel_
butter or tomato sauce. Do not stick a knife or fork into the meat to
try it. This is the way many people spoil it. Pounding is another bad
habit: much of the juice of the meat is lost. When, as it sometimes
happens, there is no convenience for broiling, heat the frying pan
very hot, then sprinkle with salt, and lay in the steak. Turn
frequently.




MISCELLANEOUS MODES.


Braised Beef.

Take six or eight pounds of the round or the face of the rump, and
lard with quarter of a pound of salt pork. Put six slices of pork in
the bottom of the braising pan, and as soon as it begins to fry, add
two onions, half a small carrot and half a small turnip, all cut fine.
Cook these until they begin to brown; then draw them to one side of
the pan and put in the beef, which has been well dredged with salt,
pepper and flour. Brown on all sides, and then add one quart of
boiling water and a bouquet of sweet herbs; cover, and cook
_slowly_ in the oven for four hours, basting every twenty
minutes. Take up, and finish the gravy as for braised tongue. Or, add
to the gravy half a can of tomatoes, and cook for ten minutes. Strain,
pour around the beef, and serve.


Fricandeau of Veal.

Have a piece of veal, weighing about eight pounds, cut from that part
of the leg called the cushion. Wet the vegetable masher, and beat the
veal smooth; then lard one side thickly. Put eight slices of pork in
the bottom of the braising-pan; place the veal on this, larded side
up. Add two small onions, half a small turnip, two slices of carrot,
one clove and a bouquet of sweet herbs--these to be at the sides of
the meat, not on top; and one quart of white stock or water. Dredge
with salt, pepper and flour. Cover, and place in a rather moderate
oven. Cook three hours, basting every fifteen minutes. If cooked
rapidly the meat will be dry and stringy, but if slowly, it will be
tender and juicy. When done, lift carefully from the pan. Melt four
table-spoonfuls of glaze, and spread on the meat with a brush. Place
in the open oven for five minutes. Add one cupful of hot water to the
contents of the braising-pan. Skim off all the fat, and then add one
heaping teaspoonful of corn-starch, which has been mixed with a little
cold water. Let it boil one minute; then strain, and return to the
fire. Add two table-spoonfuls of glaze, and when this is melted, pour
the sauce around the fricandeau, and serve. Potato balls, boiled for
twelve minutes in stock, and then slightly browned in the oven, make a
pretty garnish for this dish. It is also served on a bed of finely-
chopped spinach or mashed potatoes.


Leg of Lamb à la Française.

Put a leg of lamb, weighing about eight pounds, in as small a kettle
as will hold it. Put in a muslin bag one onion, one small white
turnip, a few green celery leaves, three sprigs each of sweet marjoram
and summer savory, four cloves and twelve allspice. Tie the bag and
place it in the kettle with the lamb; then pour on two quarts of
boiling water. Let this come to a boil, and then skim carefully. Now
add four heaping table-spoonfuls of flour, which has been mixed with
one cupful of cold water, two table-spoonfuls of salt and a speck of
cayenne. Cover tight, and set back where it will just simmer for four
hours. In the meantime make a pint and a half of veal or mutton force-
meat, which make into little balls and fry brown. Boil six eggs hard.
At the end of four hours take up the Iamb. Skim all the fat off of the
gravy and take out the bag of seasoning. Now put the kettle where the
contents will boil rapidly for ten minutes. Put three table-spoonfuls
of butter in the frying-pan, and when hot, stir in two of flour; cook
until a dark brown, but not burned, and stir into the gravy. Taste to
see if seasoned enough. Have the whites and yolks of the hard-boiled
eggs chopped separately. Pour the gravy over the lamb; then garnish
with the chopped eggs, making a hill of the whites, and capping it
with part of the yolks. Sprinkle the remainder of the yolks over the
lamb. Place the meat balls in groups around the dish. Garnish with
parsley, and serve.


Braised Breast of Lamb.

With a sharp knife, remove the bones from a breast of lamb; then
season it well with salt and pepper, and roll up and tie firmly with
twine. Put two table-spoonfuls of butter in the braising-pan, and when
melted, add one onion, one slice of carrot and one of turnip, all cut
fine. Stir for five minutes, and then put in the lamb, with a thick
dredging of flour. Cover, and set back, where it will not cook
rapidly, for half an hour; then add one quart of stock or boiling
water, and place in the oven, where it will cook _slowly_, for
one hour. Baste often. Take up the meat, skim all the fat off of the
gravy, and then put it where it will boil rapidly for five minutes.
Take the string from the meat. Strain the gravy, and pour over the
dish. Serve very hot. Or serve with tomato or Bechamel sauce. The
bones should be put in the pan with the meat, to improve the gravy.


Beef Stew.

Two pounds of beef (the round, flank, or any cheap part; if there is
bone in it, two and a half pounds will be required), one onion, two
slices of carrot, two of turnip, two potatoes, three table-spoonfuls
of flour, salt, pepper, and a generous quart of water. Cut all the fat
from the meat, and put it in a stew-pan; fry gently for ten or fifteen
minutes. In the meantime cut the meat in small pieces, and season well
with salt and pepper, and then sprinkle over it two table-spoonfuls of
flour. Cut the vegetables in very small pieces, and put in the pot
with the fat. Fry them five minutes, stirring well, to prevent
burning. Now put in the meat, and move it about in the pot until it
begins to brown; then add the quart of boiling water. Cover; let it
boil up once, skim, and set back, where it will just bubble, for two
and a half hours. Add the potatoes, cut in thin slices, and one table-
spoonful of flour, which mix smooth with half a cupful of cold water,
pouring about one-third of the water on the flour at first, and adding
the rest when perfectly smooth. Taste to see if the stew is seasoned
enough, and if it is not, add more salt and pepper. Let the stew come
to a boil again, and cook ten minutes; then add dumplings. Cover
tightly, and boil rapidly ten minutes longer.

Mutton, lamb or veal can be cooked in this manner. When veal is used,
fry out two slices of pork, as there will not be much fat on the meat.
Lamb and mutton must have some of the fat put aside, as there is so
much on these meats that they are otherwise very gross.


Irish Stew.

About two pounds of the neck of mutton, four onions, six large
potatoes, salt, pepper, three pints of water and two table-spoonfuls
of flour. Cut the mutton in handsome pieces. Put about half the fat in
the stew-pan, with the onions, and stir for eight or ten minutes over
a hot fire; then put in the meat, which sprinkle with the flour, salt
and pepper. Stir ten minutes, and add the water, boiling. Set for one
hour where it will simmer; then add the potatoes, peeled, and cut in
quarters. Simmer an hour longer, and serve. You can cook dumplings
with this dish, if you choose. They are a great addition to all kinds
of stews and ragouts.


Toad in the Hole.

This is an English dish, and a good one, despite the unpleasant name.
One pound of round steak, one pint of milk, one cupful of flour, one
egg, and salt and pepper. Cut the steak into dice. Beat the egg very
light; add milk to it, and then half a teaspoonful of salt. Pour upon
the flour, gradually, beating very light and smooth. Butter a two-
quart dish, and in it put the meat. Season well, and pour over it the
batter. Bake an hour in a moderate oven. Serve hot. This dish can be
made with mutton and lamb in place of steak.


Scotch Roll.

Remove the tough skin from about five pounds of the flank of beef. A
portion of the meat will be found thicker than the rest. With a sharp
knife, cut a thin layer from the thick part, and lay upon the thin.
Mix together three table-spoonfuls of salt, one of sugar, half a
teaspoonful of pepper, one-eighth of a teaspoonful of clove and one
teaspoonful of summer savory. Sprinkle this over the meat, and then
sprinkle with three table-spoonfuls of vinegar. Roll up, and tie with
twine. Put away in a cold place for twelve hours When it has stood
this time, place in a stew-pan, with boiling water to cover, and
simmer gently for three hours and a half. Mix four heaping table-
spoonfuls of flour with half a cupful of cold water, and stir into the
gravy. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Simmer half an hour
longer. This dish is good hot or cold.




POULTRY AND GAME.


To Clean and Truss Poultry.

First singe, by holding the bird over a blazing paper. It is best to
do this over the open stove, when all the particles of burnt paper
will fall into the fire. Next open the vent and draw out the internal
organs, if this has not been done at the butcher's. Be careful not to
break the gall bladder. Wash quickly in one water. If there are large
black pin-feathers, take out what you can with the point of a knife,
(it is impossible to get out all). Cut the oil bag from the tail. Be
sure that you have taken out every part of the wind-pipe, the lights
and crop. Turn the skin back, and cut the neck quite short. Fill the
crop with dressing, and put some in the body also. With a short
skewer, fasten the legs together at the joint where the feet were cut
off. [Be careful, in cutting off the feet of game or poultry, to cut
in the joint. If you cut above, the ligaments that hold the flesh and
bones together will be severed, and in cooking, the meat will shrink,
leaving a bare, unsightly bone. Besides, you will have nothing to hold
the skewer, if the ligaments are cut off.] Run the skewer into the
bone of the tail, and tie firmly with a long piece of twine. Now take
a longer skewer, and run through the two wings, fastening them firmly
to the sides of the bird. With another short skewer, fasten the skin
of the neck on to the back-bone. Place the bird on its breast, and
draw the strings, with which the legs were tied, around the skewers in
the wings and neck; pass them across the back three times, and tie
very tightly. By following these directions, you will have the bird in
good shape, and all the strings on the back, so that you will avoid
breaking the handsome crust that always forms on properly basted and
roasted poultry. When cooked, first cut the strings, then draw out the
skewers. The fat that comes from the vent and the gizzard of chickens,
should be tried out immediately and put away for shortening and
frying. That of geese, turkeys and ducks is of too strong a flavor to
be nice in cookery.

To clean the giblets: Cut the gall-bag from the lobe of the liver,
cutting a little of the liver with it, so as not to cut into the bag.
Press the heart between the finger and thumb, to extract all the
blood. With a sharp knife, cut lightly around the gizzard, and draw
off the outer coat, leaving the lining coat whole. If you cannot do
that (and it does require practice), cut in two, and after removing
the filling, take out the lining. When the poultry is to be boiled,
and is stuffed, the vent must be sewed with mending cotton or soft
twine. Unless the bird is full of dressing, this will not be necessary
in roasting.


Fowl and Pork.

Clean and truss, pin in the floured cloth and put into water in which
one pound of rather lean pork has been boiling three hours. The time
of cooking depends upon the age of the fowl. If they are not more than
a year old an hour and a half will be enough, but if very old they may
need three hours. The quantity of pork given is for only a pair of
fowl, and more must be used if a large number of birds be cooked.
Serve with egg sauce. The liquor should be saved for soups.


Boiled Fowl with Macaroni.

Break twelve sticks of macaroni in pieces about two inches long; throw
them into one quart of boiling water, add a table-spoonful of salt and
half a table-spoonful of pepper. Boil rapidly for twelve minutes; then
take up, and drain off all the water. Season with one table-spoonful
of butter and one teaspoonful of salt. After the fowl have been singed
and cleaned, stuff with the macaroni. Truss them, and then pin in a
floured cloth and plunge into enough boiling water to cover them. Boil
rapidly for fifteen minutes; then set back where they will just simmer
for from one and a half to two and a half hours. The time of cooking
depends upon the age of the birds. Serve with an egg or Bechamel
sauce. The quantity of macaroni given is for two fowl. Plain boiled
macaroni should be served with this dish.


Boiled Turkey with Celery.

Chop half a head of celery very fine. Mix with it one quart of bread
crumbs, two scant table-spoonfuls of salt, half a teaspoonful of
pepper, two heaping table-spoonfuls of butter and two eggs. Stuff the
turkey with this; sew up and truss. Wring a large square of white
cotton cloth out of cold water, and dredge it thickly with flour. Pin
the turkey in this, and plunge into boiling water. Let it boil rapidly
for fifteen minutes; then set back where it will simmer. Allow three
hours for a turkey weighing nine pounds, and twelve minutes for every
additional pound. Serve with celery sauce. The stuffing may be made
the same as above, only substitute oysters for celery, and serve with
oyster sauce.


Boiled Turkey.

Clean and truss the same as for roasting. Rub into it two spoonfuls of
salt, and put into boiling water to cover. Simmer gently three hours,
if it weighs nine or ten pounds, and is tender. If old and tough it
will take longer. Serve with oyster, celery or egg sauce. Pour some of
the sauce over the turkey, and serve the rest in a gravy boat.


Roast Turkey.

Proceed the same with a turkey as with a chicken, allowing one hour
and three-quarters for a turkey weighing eight pounds, and ten minutes
for every additional pound.


Roast Turkey with Chestnut Stuffing and Sauce.

Clean the turkey, and lard the breast. Throw fifty large chestnuts
into boiling water for a few minutes; then take them up, and rub off
the thin, dark skin. Cover them with boiling water, and simmer for one
hour; take them up, and mash fine. Chop one pound of veal and half a
pound of salt pork very fine. Add half of the chestnuts to this, and
add, also, half a teaspoonful of pepper, two table-spoonfuls of salt
and one cupful of stock or water. Stuff the turkey with this. Truss,
and roast as already directed. Serve with a chestnut sauce. The
remaining half of the chestnuts are for this sauce.


Boned Turkey.

Get a turkey that has not been frozen (freezing makes it tear easily).
See that every part is whole; one with a little break in the skin will
not do. Cut off the legs, in the joints, and the tips of the wings. Do
not draw the bird. Place it on its breast, and with a small, sharp
boning knife, cut in a straight line through to the bone, from the
neck down to that part of the bird where there is but little flesh,
where it is all skin and fat. Begin at the neck, and run the knife
between the flesh and the bones until you come to the wing. Then cut
the ligaments that hold the bones together and the tendons that hold
the flesh to the bones. With the thumb and fore-finger, _press_
the flesh from the smooth bone. When you come to the joint, carefully
separate the ligaments and remove the bone. Do not try to take the
bone from the next joint, as that is not in the way when carving, and
it gives a more natural shape to the bird. Now begin at the wish-bone,
and when that is free from the flesh, run the knife between the sides
and the flesh, always using the fingers to press the meat from the
smooth bones, as, for instance, the breast-bone and lower part of the
sides. Work around the legs the same as you did around the wings,
always using great care at the joints not to cut the skin. Drawing out
the leg bones turns that part of the bird inside out. Turn the bird
over, and proceed in the same manner with the other side. When all is
detached, carefully draw the skin from the breast-bone; then run the
knife between the fat and bone at the rump, leaving the small bone in
the extreme end, as it holds the skewers. Carefully remove the flesh
from the skeleton, and turn it right side out again. Rub into it two
table-spoonfuls of salt and a little pepper, and fill with dressing.
Sew up the back and neck and then the vent. Truss the same as if not
boned. Take a strong piece of cotton cloth and pin the bird firmly in
it, drawing very tight at the legs, as this is the broadest place, and
the shape will not be good unless this precaution be taken. Steam
three hours, and then place on a buttered tin sheet, which put in a
baking pan. Baste well with butter, pepper, salt and flour. Roast one
hour, basting every ten minutes, and twice with stock. When cold,
remove the skewers and strings, and garnish with aspic jelly, cooked
beets and parsley. To carve: First cut off the wings, then about two
thick slices from the neck, where it will be quite fat, and then cut
in thin slices. Serve jelly with each plate.

Filling for a turkey weighing eight pounds: The flesh of one chicken
weighing four pounds, one pound of clear veal, half a pound of clear
salt pork, one small capful of cracker crumbs, two eggs, one cupful of
broth, two and a half table-spoonfuls of salt, half a teaspoonful of
pepper, one teaspoonful of summer savory, one of sweet majoram, one of
thyme, half a spoonful of sage, and, if you like, one table-spoonful
of capers, one quart of oysters and two table-spoonfuls of onion
juice. Have the meat uncooked and free from any tough pieces. Chop
_very_ fine. Add seasoning, crackers, etc., mix thoroughly, and
use. If oysters are used, half a pound of the veal must be omitted.
Where one cannot eat veal, use chicken instead. Veal is recommended
for its cheapness. Why people choose boned turkey instead of a plain
roast turkey or chicken, is not plain, for the flavor is not so good;
but at the times and places where boned birds are used, it is a very
appropriate dish. That is, at suppers, lunches and parties, where the
guests are served standing, it is impracticable to provide anything
that cannot be broken with a fork or spoon; therefore, the advantage
of a boned turkey, chicken, or bird, is apparent. One turkey weighing
eight pounds before being boned, will serve thirty persons at a party,
if there are, also, say oysters, rolls, coffee, ices, cake and cream.
If the supper is very elaborate the turkey will answer for one of the
dishes for a hundred or more persons. If nothing more were gained in
the boning of a bird, the knowledge of the anatomy and the help this
will give in carving, pay to bone two or three chickens. It is
advisable to bone at least two fowls before trying a turkey, for if
you spoil them there is nothing lost, as they make a stew or soup.

Aspic jelly: One and a half pints of clear stock--beef if for amber
jelly, and chicken or veal if for white; half a box of gelatine, the
white of one egg, half a cupful of cold water, two cloves, one large
slice of onion, twelve pepper-corns, one stalk of celery, salt. Soak
gelatine two hours in the cold water. Then put on with other
ingredients, the white of the egg being beaten with one spoonful of
the cold stock. Let come to a boil, and set back where it will just
simmer for twenty minutes. Strain through a napkin, turn into a mould
or shallow dish, and put away to harden. The jelly can be made with
the bones of the turkey and chicken, by washing them, covering with
cold water and boiling down to about three pints; by then straining
and setting away to cool, and in the morning skimming off all the fat
and turning off the clear stock. The bones may, instead, be used for a
soup.


Roast Goose.

Stuff the goose with a potato dressing made in the following manner:
Six potatoes, boiled, pared and mashed fine and light; one table-
spoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper, one spoonful of sage, two
table-spoonfuls of onion juice, two of butter. Truss, and dredge well
with salt, pepper and flour. Roast before the fire (if weighing eight
pounds) one hour and a half; in the oven, one hour and a quarter. Make
gravy the same as for turkey. No butter is required for goose, it is
so fat. Serve with apple sauce. Many people boil the goose half an
hour before roasting, to take away the strong flavor. Why not have
something else if you do not like the real flavor of the goose?


Roast Duck.

Ducks, to be good, must be cooked rare: for this reason it is best not
to stuff. If, however, you do stuff them, use the goose dressing, and
have it very hot. The better way is to cut an onion in two, and put
into the body of the bird; then truss, and dredge with salt, pepper
and flour, and roast, if before the fire, forty minutes, and if in the
oven, thirty minutes. The fire must be very hot if the duck be roasted
in the kitchen, and if in the oven, this must be a quick one. Serve
with currant jelly and a sauce made the same as for turkey.


Roast Chicken.

Clean the chicken, and stuff the breast and part of the body with
dressing made as follows: For a pair of chickens weighing between
seven and eight pounds, take one quart of stale bread (being sure not
to have any hard pieces), and break up in very fine crumbs. Add a
table-spoonful of salt, a scant teaspoonful of pepper, a teaspoonful
of chopped parsley, half a teaspoonful of powdered sage, one of summer
savory and a scant half cupful of butter. Mix well together. This
gives a rich dressing that will separate like rice when served. Now
truss the chickens, and dredge well with salt. Take soft butter in the
hand, and rub thickly over the chicken; then dredge rather thickly
with flour. Place on the side, on the meat rack, and put into a hot
oven for a few moments, that the flour in the bottom of the pan may
brown. When it is browned, put in water enough to cover the pan. Baste
every fifteen minutes with the gravy in the pan, and dredge with salt,
pepper and flour. When one side is browned, turn, and brown the other.
The last position in which the chicken should bake is on its back,
that the breast may be nicely frothed and browned. The last basting is
on the breast, and should be done with soft butter, and the breast
should be dredged with flour. Putting the butter on the chicken at
first, and then covering with flour, makes a paste, which keeps the
juices in the chicken, and also supplies a certain amount of rich
basting that is absorbed into the meat. It really does not take as
much butter to baste poultry or game in this manner as by the old
method of putting it on with a spoon after the bird began to cook. The
water in the pan must often be renewed; and always be careful not to
get in too much at a time. It will take an hour and a quarter to cook
a pair of chickens, each weighing between three and a half and four
pounds; anything larger, an hour and a half. A sure sign that they are
done is the readiness of joints to separate from the body. If the
chickens are roasted in the tin-kitchen, before the fire, it will take
a quarter of an hour longer than in the oven.

Gravy for chickens: Wash the hearts, livers, gizzards and necks and
put on to boil in three pints of water; boil down to one pint. Take
them all up. Put the liver on a plate, and mash fine with the back of
the spoon; return it to the water in which it was boiled. Mix two
table-spoonfuls of flour with half a cupful of cold water. Stir into
the gravy, season well with salt and pepper, and set back where it
will simmer, for twenty minutes. Take up the chickens, and take the
meat rack out of the pan. Then tip the pan to one side, to bring all
the gravy together. Skim off the fat. Place the pan on top of the
stove and turn into it one cupful of water. Let this boil up, in the
meantime scraping everything from the sides and bottom of the pan.
Turn this into the made gravy, and let it all boil together while you
are removing the skewers and strings from the chickens.


Chicken à la Matelote.

Cut up an uncooked chicken. Rub in butter and flour, and brown in an
oven. Fry in four table-spoonfuls of chicken fat or butter, for about
twenty minutes, a small carrot, onion and parsnip, all cut into dice.
When the chicken is browned, put it in a stew-pan with the cooked
vegetables and one quart of white stock. Then into the fat in which
the vegetables were fried, put two table-spoonfuls of flour, and cook
until brown. Stir this in with the chicken. Add the liver, mashed
fine, one table-spoonful of capers and salt and pepper to taste. Cook
very gently three-quarters of an hour; then add one-fourth of a pound
of mushrooms, cut in small pieces. Cook fifteen minutes longer. Serve
with a border of boiled macaroni, mashed potatoes or rice.


Chicken à la Reine.

Clean, stuff and truss a pair of chickens, as for roasting. Dredge
well with salt, pepper and flour. Cut a quarter of a pound of pork in
slices, and put part on the bottom of a deep stew-pan with two slices
of carrot and one large onion, cut fine. Stir over the fire until they
begin to color; then put in the chickens, and lay the remainder of the
pork over them. Place the stew-pan in a hot oven for twenty minutes;
then add white stock to half cover the chicken (about two quarts), and
a bouquet of sweet herbs. Dredge well with flour. Cover the pan and
return to the oven. Baste about every fifteen minutes, and after
cooking one hour, turn over the chickens. Cook, in all, two hours.
Serve with Hollandaise sauce or with the sauce in which the chickens
were cooked, it being strained over them.


Chicken à la Tartare.

Singe the chicken, and split down the back. Wipe thoroughly with a
damp cloth. Dredge well with salt and pepper, cover thickly with
softened butter, and dredge thickly on both sides with fine, dry bread
crumbs. Place in a baking pan, the inside down, and cook in a very hot
oven thirty minutes, taking care not to bum. Serve with Tartare sauce.


Broiled Chicken.

Singe the chicken, and split down the back, if not already prepared;
and wipe with a damp cloth. Never wash it. Season well with salt and
pepper. Take some soft butter in the right hand and rub over the bird,
letting the greater part go on the breast and legs. Dredge with flour.
Put in the double broiler, and broil over a moderate fire, having the
breast turned to the heat at first. When the chicken is a nice brown,
which will be in about fifteen minutes, place in a pan and put into a
moderate oven for twelve minutes. Place on a hot dish, season, with
salt, pepper and butter, and serve immediately. This rule is for a
chicken weighing about two and a half pounds. The chicken is improved
by serving with _maître d' hôtel_ butter or Tartare sauce.


Chicken Stew with Dumplings.

One chicken or fowl, weighing about three pounds; one table-spoonful
of butter, three of flour, one large onion, three slices of carrot,
three of turnip, three pints of boiling water and salt and pepper. Cut
the chicken in slices suitable for serving. Wash, and put in a deep
stew-pan, add the water, and set on to boil. Put the carrot, turnip
and onion, cut fine, in a sauce-pan, with the butter, and cook slowly
half an hour, stirring often; then take up the vegetables in a
strainer, place the strainer in the stew-pan with the chicken, and dip
some of the water into it. Mash the vegetables with the back of a
spoon, and rub as much as possible through the strainer. Now skim two
spoonfuls of chicken fat from the water, and put in the pan in which
the vegetables were cooked. When boiling hot, add the three table-
spoonfuls of flour. Stir over the fire until a dark brown; then stir
it in with the chicken, and simmer until tender. Season well with
pepper and salt. The stew should only simmer all the while it is
cooking. It must not boil hard. About two hours will be needed to cook
a year old chicken. Twelve minutes before serving draw the stew-pan
forward, and boil up; then put in the dumplings, and cook _ten_
minutes. Take them up, and keep in the heater while you are dishing
the chicken into the centre of the platter. Afterwards, place the
dumplings around the edge. This is a very nice and economical dish, if
pains are taken in preparing. One stewed chicken will go farther than
two roasted.


Larded Grouse.

Clean and wash the grouse. Lard the breast and legs. Run a small
skewer into the legs and through the tail. Tie firmly with twine.
Dredge with salt, and rub the breast with soft butter; then dredge
thickly with flour. Put into a quick oven. If to be very rare, cook
twenty minutes; if wished better done, thirty minutes. The former
time, as a general thing, suits gentlemen better, but thirty minutes
is preferred by ladies. If the birds are cooked in a tin-kitchen, it
should be for thirty or thirty-five minutes. When done, place on a hot
dish, on which has been spread bread sauce. Sprinkle fried crumbs over
both grouse and sauce. Garnish with parsley. The grouse may, instead,
be served on a hot dish, with the parsley garnish, and the sauce and
crumbs served in separate dishes. The first method is the better,
however, as you get in the sauce all the gravy that comes from the
birds.


Larded Partridges.

Partridges are cooked and served the same as grouse.


Larded Quail.

The directions for cooking and serving are the same as those for
grouse, only that quails cook in fifteen minutes. All dry-meated birds
are cooked in this way. The question is sometimes asked, Should ducks
be larded? Larding is to give richness to a dry meat that does not
have fat enough of its own; therefore, meats like goose, duck and
mutton are _not_ improved by larding.


Broiled Quail.

Split the quail down the back. Wipe with a damp towel. Season with
salt and pepper, rub thickly with soft butter, and dredge with flour.
Broil ten minutes over clear coals. Serve on hot buttered toast,
garnishing with parsley.

Broiled Pigeons.

Prepare, cook and serve the same as quail They should be young for
broiling, squabs being the best.


Broiled Small Birds.

All small birds can be broiled according to the directions for quail,
remembering that for extremely small ones it takes a very bright fire.
As the birds should be only browned, the time required is very brief.


Small Birds, Roasted.

Clean, by washing quickly in one water after they have been drawn.
Season with salt and pepper. Cut slices of salt pork _very thin_,
and with small skewers, fasten a slice around each bird. Run a long
skewer through the necks of six or eight, and rest it on a shallow
baking-pan. When all the birds are arranged, put into a _hot_
oven for twelve minutes, or before a hot fire for a quarter of an
hour. Serve on toast.


Potted Pigeons.

Clean and wash one dozen pigeons. Stand them on their necks in a deep
earthen or porcelain pot, and turn on them a pint of vinegar. Cut
three large onions in twelve pieces, and place a piece on each pigeon.
Cover the pot, and let it stand all night In the morning take out the
pigeons, and throw away the onions and vinegar. Fry, in a deep stew-
pan, six slices of fat pork, and when browned, take them up, and in
the fat put six onions, sliced fine. On these put the pigeons, having
first trussed them, and dredge well with salt pepper and flour. Cover,
and cook slowly for forty-five minutes, stirring occasionally; then
add two quarts of boiling water, and simmer gently two hours. Mix four
heaping table-spoonfuls of flour with a cupful of cold water, and stir
in with the pigeons. Taste to see if there is enough seasoning, and if
there is not, add more. Cook half an hour longer. Serve with a garnish
of rice or riced potatoes. More or less onion can be used; and, if you
like it so, spice the gravy slightly.


Pigeons in Jelly.

Wash and truss one dozen pigeons. Put them in a kettle with four
pounds of the shank of veal, six cloves, twenty-five pepper-corns, an
onion that has been fried in one spoonful of butter, one stalk of
celery, a bouquet of sweet herbs and four and a half quarts of water.
Have the veal shank broken in small pieces. As soon as the contents of
the kettle come to a boil, skim carefully, and set for three hours
where they will just simmer. After they have been cooking one hour,
add two table-spoonfuls of salt. When the pigeons are done, take them
up, being careful not to break them, and remove the strings. Draw the
kettle forward, where it will boil rapidly, and keep there for forty
minutes; then strain the liquor through a napkin, and taste to see if
seasoned enough. The water should have boiled down to two and a half
quarts. Have two moulds that will each hold six pigeons. Put a thin
layer of the jelly in these, and set on ice to harden. When hard,
arrange the pigeons in them, and cover with the jelly, which must be
cold, but liquid. Place in the ice chest for six or, better still,
twelve hours. There should be only one layer of the pigeons in the
mould.

To serve: Dip the mould in a basin of warm water for one minute, and
turn on a cold dish. Garnish with pickled beets and parsley. A Tartare
sauce can be served with this dish.

If squabs are used, two hours will cook them. All small birds, as well
as partridge, grouse, etc., can be prepared in the same manner.
Remember that the birds must be cooked tender, and that the liquor
must be so reduced that it will become jellied.


Roast Rabbit.

First make a stuffing of a pound of veal and a quarter of a pound of
pork, simmered two hours in water to cover; four crackers, rolled
fine; a table-spoonful of salt, a scant teaspoonful of pepper, a
teaspoonful of summer savory, a large table-spoonful of butter and one
and a quarter cupfuls of the broth in which the veal and pork were
cooked. Chop the meat fine, add the other ingredients, and put on the
fire to heat. Cut off the rabbit's head, open the vent, and draw. Wash
clean, and season with salt and pepper. Stuff while the dressing is
hot, and sew up the opening. Put the rabbit on its knees, and skewer
in that position. Rub thickly with butter, dredge with flour, and put
in the baking pan, the bottom of which should be covered with hot
water. Bake half an hour in a quick oven, basting frequently. Serve
with a border of mashed potatoes, and pour the gravy over the rabbit.


Curry of Rabbit.

Cut the rabbit in small pieces. Wash, and cook the same as chicken
curry.


Saddle of Venison.

Carefully scrape off the hair, and wipe with a damp towel; Season well
with salt and pepper, and roll up and skewer together. Rub thickly
with soft butter and dredge thickly with flour. Roast for an hour
before a clear fire or in a _hot_ oven, basting frequently. When
half done, if you choose, baste with a few spoonfuls of claret. Or,
you can have one row of larding on each side of the back-bone. This
gives a particularly nice flavor.

To make the gravy: Pour off all the fat from the baking pan, and put
in the pan a cupful of boiling water. Stir from the sides and bottom,
and set back where it will keep hot. In a small frying-pan put one
table-spoonful of butter, a small slice of onion, six pepper-corns and
four whole cloves. Cook until the onion is browned, and then add a
generous teaspoonful of flour. Stir until this is browned; then,
gradually, add the gravy in the pan. Boil one minute. Strain, and add
half a teaspoonful of lemon juice and three table-spoonfuls of currant
jelly. Serve both venison and gravy very hot. The time given is for a
saddle weighing between ten and twelve pounds. All the dishes and
plates for serving must be hot. Venison is cooked in almost the same
manner as beef, always remembering that it must be served _rare_
and _hot_.


Roast Leg of Venison.

Draw the dry skin from the meat, and wipe with a damp towel. Make a
paste with one quart of flour and a generous pint of cold water. Cover
the venison with this, and place before a hot fire, if to be roasted
in the tin kitchen, or else in a very hot oven. As the paste browns,
baste it frequently with the gravy in the pan. When it has been
cooking one hour and a half, take off the paste, cover with butter,
and dredge thickly with flour. Cook one hour longer, basting
frequently with butter, salt and flour. Make the gravy the same as for
a saddle of venison, or serve with game sauce. The time given is for a
leg weighing about fifteen pounds.




ENTREES.


Fillet of Beef, Larded.

The true fillet is the tenderloin, although sometimes one will see a
rib roast, boned and rolled, called a fillet. A short fillet, weighing
from two and a half to three pounds (the average weight from a very
large rump), will suffice for ten persons at a dinner where this is
served as one course; and if a larger quantity is wanted a great
saving will still be made if two short fillets are used. They cost
about two dollars, while a large one, weighing the same amount, would
cost five dollars, Fillet of beef is one of the simplest, safest and
most satisfactory dishes that a lady can prepare for either her own
family or guests. After a single trial she will think no more of it
than of broiling a beef steak. First, remove from the fillet, with a
sharp knife, every shred of muscle, ligament and thin, tough skin. If
it is not then of a good round shape, skewer it into shape. Draw a
line through the centre, and lard with two rows of pork, having them
meet at this line. Dredge well with salt, pepper and flour, and put,
without water, in a very small pan. Place in a hot oven for thirty
minutes. Let it be in the lower part of the oven the first ten
minutes, then place on the upper grate. Serve with mushroom,
Hollandaise or tomato sauce, or with potato balls. If with sauce, this
should be poured around the fillet, the time given cooks a fillet of
any size, the shape being such that it will take half an hour for
either two or six pounds. Save the fat trimmed from the fillet for
frying, and the lean part for soup stock.

Fillet of Beef à la Hollandaise.

Trim and cut the short fillet into slices about half an inch thick.
Season these well with salt, and then lay in a pan with six table-
spoonfuls of butter, just warm enough to be oily. Squeeze the juice of
a quarter of a lemon over them. Let them stand one hour; then dip
lightly in flour, place in the double broiler, and cook for six
minutes over a very bright fire. Have a mound of mashed potatoes in
the centre of a hot dish, and rest the slices against this. Pour a
Hollandaise sauce around. Garnish with parsley.


Fillet of Beef à l'Allemand.

Trim the fillet and skewer it into a good shape. Season well with
pepper and salt. Have one egg and half a teaspoonful of sugar well
beaten together; roll the fillet in this and then in bread crumbs.
Bake in the oven for thirty minutes. Serve with Allemand sauce poured
around it.


Fillet of Beef in Jelly.

Trim a short fillet, and cut a deep incision in the side, being
careful not to go through to the other side or the ends. Fill this
with one cupful of veal, prepared as for quenelles, and the whites of
three hard-boiled eggs, cut into rings. Sew up the openings, and bind
the fillet into good shape with broad bands of cotton cloth. Put in a
deep stew-pan two slices of ham and two of pork, and place the fillet
on them; then put in two calf's feet, two stalks of celery and two
quarts of clear stock. Simmer gently two hours and a half. Take up the
fillet, and set away to cool. Strain the stock, and set away to
harden. When hard, scrape of every particle of fat, and put on the
fire in a clean sauce-pan, with half a slice of onion and the whites
of two eggs, beaten with four table-spoonfuls of cold water. When this
boils, season well with salt, and set back where it will just simmer
for half an hour; then strain through a napkin. Pour a little of the
jelly into a two-quart charlotte russe mould (half an inch deep), and
set on the ice to harden. As soon as it is hard, decorate with the egg
rings. Add about three spoonfuls of the liquid jelly, to set the eggs.
When hard, add enough jelly to cover the eggs, and when this is also
hard, trim the ends of the fillet, and draw out the thread. Place in
the centre of the mould, and cover with the remainder of the jelly. If
the fillet floats, place a slight weight on it. Set in the ice chest
to harden. When ready to serve, place the mould in a pan of warm water
for half a minute, and then turn out the fillet gently upon a dish.
Garnish with a circle of egg rings, each of which has a stoned olive
in the centre. Put here and there a sprig of parsley.


Alamode Beef.

Six pounds of the upper part, or of the vein, of the round of beef,
half a pound of fat salt pork, three table-spoonfuls of butter, two
onions, half a carrot, half a turnip, two table-spoonfuls of vinegar,
one of lemon juice, one heaping table-spoonful of salt, half a
teaspoonful of pepper, two cloves, six allspice, a small piece of
stick cinnamon, a bouquet of sweet herbs, two scant quarts of boiling
water and four table-spoonfuls of flour. Cut the pork in thick strips--
as long as the meat is thick, and, with a large larding needle (which
comes for this purpose), draw these through the meat. If you do not
have the large needle, make the holes with the boning knife or the
carving steel, and press the pork through with the fingers. Put the
butter in a six-quart stew-pan, and when it melts, add the vegetables,
cut fine. Let them cook five minutes, stirring all the while. Put in
the meat, which has been well dredged with the flour; brown on one
aide, and then turn, and brown the other. Add one quart of the water;
stir well, and then add the other, with the spice, herbs, vinegar,
salt and pepper. Cover tightly, and _simmer gently_ four hours.
Add the lemon juice. Taste the gravy, and, if necessary, add more salt
and pepper. Let it cook twenty minutes longer. Take up the meat, and
draw the stew-pan forward, where it will boil rapidly, for ten or
fifteen minutes, having first skimmed off all the fat. Strain the
gravy on the beef, and serve. This dish may be garnished with, potato
balls or button onions.


Macaronied Beef.

Six pounds of beef from the upper part of the round or the vein, a
quarter of a pound of macaroni (twelve sticks), half a cupful of
butter, four large onions, one quart of peeled and sliced tomatoes, or
a quart can of the vegetable; two heaping table-spoonfuls of flour,
salt, pepper and two cloves. Make holes in the beef with the large
larding needle or the steel, and press the macaroni into them. Season
with salt and pepper. Put the butter and the onions, which have been
peeled and cut fine, in a six-quart stew-pan, and stir over the fire
until a golden brown; then put in the meat, first drawing the onions
aside. Dredge with the flour, and spread the top of the meat with the
fried onions. Put in the spice and one quart of boiling water. Cover
tightly, and simmer _slowly_ for three hours; then add the
tomato, and cook one hour longer. Take up the meat, and strain the
gravy over it. Serve hot. The tomato may be omitted if one pint more
of water and an extra table-spoonful of flour are used instead. Always
serve macaroni with this dish.


Cannelon of Beef.

One thin slice of the upper part of the round of beef. Cut off all the
fat, and so trim as to give the piece a regular shape. Put the
trimmings in the chopping tray, with a quarter of a pound of boiled
salt pork and one pound of lean cooked ham. Chop very fine; then add a
speck of cayenne, one teaspoonful of mixed mustard, one of onion
juice, one table-spoonful of lemon juice and three eggs. Season the
beef with salt and pepper. Spread the mixture over it, and roll up.
Tie with twine, being careful not to draw too tightly. Have six slices
of fat pork fried in the braising pan. Cut two onions, two slices of
carrot, and two of turnip into this, and stir for two minutes over the
fire. Roll the cannelon in a plate of flour, and put it in the
braising pan with the pork and vegetables. Brown slightly on all
sides; then add one quart of boiling water, and place in the oven.
Cook three hours, basting every fifteen minutes. When it has been
cooking two hours, add half a cupful of canned tomatoes or two fresh
ones. Taste to see if the gravy is seasoned enough; if it is not, add
seasoning. The constant dredging with flour will thicken the gravy
sufficiently. Slide the cake turner under the beef, and lift carefully
on to a hot dish. Cut the string in three or four places with a
_sharp_ knife, and gently draw it away from the meat. Skim off
all the fat. Strain the gravy through a fine sieve on to the meat.
Garnish with a border of toast or riced potatoes. Cut in thin slices
with a sharp knife.


Cannelon of Beef, No. 2.

Two pounds of the round of beef, the rind of half a lemon, three
sprigs of parsley, one teaspoonful of salt, barely one-fourth of a
teaspoonful of pepper, a quarter of a nutmeg, two table-spoonfuls of
melted butter, one raw egg and half a teaspoonful of onion juice. Chop
meat, parsley and lemon rind very fine. Add other ingredients, and mix
thoroughly. Shape, into a roll, about three inches in diameter and six
in length. Roll in buttered paper, and bake thirty minutes, basting
with butter and water. When cooked, place on a hot dish, gently unroll
from the paper, and serve with Flemish sauce poured over it. You may
serve tomato or mushroom sauce if you prefer either.


Beef Roulette.

Have two pounds of the upper part of the round, cut very thin. Mix
together one cupful of finely-chopped ham, two eggs, one teaspoonful
of mixed mustard, a speck of cayenne and three table-spoonfuls of
stock or water. Spread upon the beef, which roll up firmly and tie
with soft twine, being careful not to draw too tightly, for that would
cut the meat as soon as it began to cook. Cover the roll with flour,
and fry brown in four table-spoonfuls of ham or pork fat. Put it in as
small a sauce-pan as will hold it. Into the fat remaining in the pan
put two finely-chopped onions, and cook until a pale yellow; then add
two table-spoonfuls of flour, and stir three minutes longer. Pour upon
this one pint and a half of boiling water. Boil up once, and pour over
the roulette; then add two cloves, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of
pepper and one heaping teaspoonful of salt. Cover the sauce-pan, and
set where it will simmer slowly for three hours. After the first hour
and a half, turn the roulette over. Serve hot; with the gravy strained
over it. It is also nice to serve cold for lunch or supper. Ham force-
meat balls and parsley make a pretty garnish.


Beef Olives.

One and a half pounds of beef, cut very thin. Trim off the edges and
fat; then cut in strips three inches wide and four long; season well
with salt and pepper. Chop fine the trimmings and the fat Add three
table-spoonfuls of powdered cracker, one teaspoonful of sage and
savory, mixed, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of pepper and two
teaspoonfuls of salt. Mix very thoroughly and spread on the strips of
beef. Roll them up, and tie with twine. When all are done, roll in
flour. Fry brown a quarter of a pound of pork. Take it out of the pan,
and put the olives in. Fry brown, and put in a small sauce-pan that
can be tightly covered. In the fat remaining in the pan put one table-
spoonful of flour, and stir until perfectly smooth and brown; then
pour in, gradually, nearly a pint and a half of boiling water. Stir
for two or three minutes, season to taste with salt and pepper, and
pour over the olives. Cover the sauce-pan, and let simmer two hours.
Take up at the end of this time and cut the strings with a sharp
knife. Place the olives in a row on a dish, and pour the gravy over
them.


Veal Olives.

These are made in the same manner, except that a dressing, like
chicken dressing, is made for them. For one and a half pounds of veal
take three crackers, half a table-spoonful of butter, half a
teaspoonful of savory, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of sage, a
teaspoonful of salt, a very little pepper and an eighth of a cupful of
water. Spread the strips with this, and proceed as for beef olives.


Fricandelles of Veal.

Two pounds of clear veal, half a cupful of finely-chopped cooked ham,
one cupful of milk, one cupful of bread crumbs, the juice of half a
lemon, one table-spoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, one
cupful of butter, a pint and a half of stock, three table-spoonfuls of
flour. Chop the veal fine. Cook the bread crumbs and milk until a
smooth paste, being careful not to burn. Add to the chopped veal and
ham, and when well mixed, add the seasoning and four tablespoonfuls of
the butter. Mix thoroughly, and form into balls about the size of an
egg. Have the yolks of three eggs well beaten, and use to cover the
balls. Fry these, till a light brown, in the remainder of the butter,
being _very_ careful not to burn. Stir the three table-spoonfuls
of flour into the butter that remains after the balls are fried. Stir
until dark brown, and then gradually stir the stock into it. Boil for
two minutes. Taste to see if seasoned enough; then add the balls, and
cook _very slowly_ for one hour. Serve with a garnish of toast
and lemon.

Fricandelles can be made with chicken, mutton, lamb and beef, the only
change in the above directions being to omit the ham.


Braised Tongue.

Wash a fresh beef tongue, and, with a trussing needle, run a strong
twine through the roots and end of it, drawing tightly enough to have
the end meet the roots; then tie firmly. Cover with boiling water, and
boil gently for two hours; then take up and drain. Put six table-
spoonfuls of butter in the braising pan, and when hot, put in half a
small carrot, half a small turnip and two onions, all cut fine. Cook
five minutes, stirring all the time, and then draw to one side. Roll
the tongue in flour, and put in the pan. As soon as browned on one
side, turn, and brown the other. Add one quart of the water in which
it was boiled, a bouquet of sweet herbs, one clove, a small piece of
cinnamon and salt and pepper. Cover, and cook two hours in a slow
oven, basting often with the gravy in the pan, and salt, pepper and
flour. When it has been cooking an hour and a half, add the juice of
half a lemon to the gravy. When done, take up. Melt two table-
spoonfuls of glaze, and pour over the tongue. Place in the heater
until the gravy is made. Mix one table-spoonful of corn-starch with a
little cold water, and stir into the boiling gravy, of which there
should be one pint. Boil one minute; then strain, and pour around the
tongue. Garnish with parsley, and serve.


Fillets of Tongue.

Cut cold boiled tongue in pieces about four inches long, two wide and
half an inch thick. Dip in melted butter and in flour. For eight
fillets put two table-spoonfuls of butter in the frying-pan, and when
hot, put in the tongue. Brown on both sides, being careful not to
burn. Take up, and put one more spoonful of butter in the pan, and
then one heaping teaspoonful of flour. Stir until dark brown; then add
one cupful of stock, half a teaspoonful of parsley and one table-
spoonful of lemon juice, or one tea-spoonful of vinegar. Let this boil
up once, and then pour it around the tongue, which has been dished on
thin strips of toast. Garnish with parsley, and serve. For a change, a
table-spoonful of chopped pickles, or of capers, can be stirred into
the sauce the last moment.


Escaloped Tongue.

Chop some cold tongue--not too fine, and have for each pint one table-
spoonful of onion juice, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, one
heaping teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of capers, one cupful of
bread crumbs, half a cupful of stock and three table-spoonfuls of
butter. Butter the escalop dish, and cover the bottom with bread
crumbs. Put in the tongue, which has been mixed with the parsley,
salt, pepper and capers, and add the stock, in which has been mixed
the onion juice. Put part of the butter on the dish with the remainder
of the bread crumbs, and then bits of butter here and there. Bake
twenty minutes, and serve hot.


Tongue in Jelly.

Boil and skin either a fresh or salt tongue. When cold, trim off the
roots. Have one and a fourth quarts of aspic jelly in the liquid
state. Cover the bottom of a two-quart mould about an inch deep with
it, and let it harden. With a fancy vegetable cutter, cut out leaves
from cooked beets, and garnish the bottom of the mould with them.
Gently pour in three table-spoonfuls of jelly, to set the vegetables.
When this is hard, add jelly enough to cover the vegetables, and let
the whole get very hard. Then put in the tongue, and about half a
cupful of jelly, which should be allowed to harden, and so keep the
meat in place when the remainder is added. Pour in the remainder of
the jelly and set away to harden. To serve: Dip the mould for a few
moments in a pan of warm water, and then gently turn on to a dish.
Garnish with pickles and parsley. Pickled beet is especially nice.


Lambs' Tongues in Jelly.

Lambs' tongues are prepared the same as beef tongues. Three of four
moulds, each holding a little less than a pint, will make enough for a
small company, one tongue being put in each mould. The tongues can all
be put on the same dish, or on two, if the table is long.


Lambs' Tongues, Stewed.

Six tongues, three heaping table-spoonfuls of butter, one large onion,
two slices of carrot, three slices of white turnip, three table-
spoonfuls of flour, one of salt, a little pepper, one quart of stock
or water and a bouquet of sweet herbs. Boil the tongues one hour and a
half in clear water; then take up, cover with cold water, and draw off
the skins. Put the butter, onion, turnip and carrot in the stew-pan,
and cook slowly for fifteen minutes; then add the flour, and cook
until brown, stirring all the while. Stir the stock into this, and
when it boils up, add the tongue, salt, pepper and herbs. Simmer
gently for two hours. Cut the carrots, turnips and potatoes into
cubes. Boil the potatoes in salted water ten minutes, and the carrots
and turnips one hour. Place the tongues in the centre of a hot dish.
Arrange the vegetables around them, strain the gravy, and pour over
all. Garnish with parsley, and serve.


Stewed Ox Tails.

Two ox tails, three table-spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, one large
onion, half a small carrot, three slices of turnip, two stalks of
celery, two cloves, a pint and a half of stock or water, salt and
pepper to taste. Divide the tails in pieces about four inches long.
Cut the vegetables in small pieces. Let the butter get hot in the
stew-pan; then add the vegetables, and when they begin to brown, add
the flour. Stir for two minutes. Put in the tails, and add the
seasoning and stock. Simmer gently three hours. Serve on a hot dish
with gravy strained over them.


Ox Tails à la Tartare.

Three ox tails, two eggs, one cupful of bread crumbs, salt, pepper,
one quart of stock, a bouquet of sweet herbs. Cut the tails in four-
inch pieces, and put them on to boil with the stock and sweet herbs.
Let them simmer two hours. Take up, drain and cool. When cold, dip
them in the beaten eggs and in bread crumbs. Fry in boiling fat till a
golden brown. Have Tartare sauce spread on the centre of a cold dish,
and arrange the ox tails on this. Garnish with parsley, and serve.


Haricot of Ox Tails.

Three ox tails, two carrots, two onions, two small white turnips,
three potatoes, three table-spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, three
pints of water and salt and pepper to taste. Cut the tails in pieces
about four inches long. Cut the onions very fine, and the carrots,
turnips and potatoes into large cubes. Put the butter, meat and onion
in the stew-pan and fry, stirring all the time, until the onions are a
golden brown; then add the flour, and stir two minutes longer. Add the
water, and when it comes to a boil, skim carefully. Set back where it
will simmer. When it has been cooking one hour, add the carrots and
turnips. Cook another hour, and then add the salt, pepper and
potatoes. Simmer twenty minutes longer. Heap the vegetables in the
centre of a hot dish, and arrange the tails around them. Pour the
gravy over all, and serve.


Ragout of Mutton.

Three pounds of any of the cheap parts of mutton, six table-spoonfuls
of butter, three of flour, twelve button onions, or one of the common
size; one large white turnip, cut into little cubes; salt, pepper, one
quart of water and a bouquet of sweet herbs. Cut the meat in small
pieces. Put three table-spoonfuls each of butter and flour in the
stew-pan, and when hot and smooth, add the meat. Stir until a rich
brown, and then add water, and set where it will simmer. Put three
table-spoonfuls of butter in a frying-pan, and when hot, put in the
turnips and onions with a teaspoonful of flour. Stir all the time
until a golden brown; then drain, and put with the meat. Simmer for an
hour and a half. Garnish with rice, toasted bread, plain boiled
macaroni or mashed potatoes. Small cubes of potato can be added half
an hour before dishing. Serve very hot.


Ragout of Veal.

Prepare the same as mutton, using one table-spoonful more of butter,
and cooking an hour longer.


Chicken Pie.

One fowl weighing between four and five pounds, half the rule for
chopped paste (see chopped paste), three pints of water, one-fourth of
a teaspoonful of pepper, one table-spoonful of salt (these last two
quantities may be increased if you like), three table-spoonfuls of
flour, three of butter, two eggs, one table-spoonful of onion juice
and a bouquet of sweet herbs. Clean the fowl, and cut in pieces as for
serving. Put it in a stew-pan with the hot water, salt, pepper and
herbs. When it comes to a boil, skim, and set back where it will
simmer one hour and a half. Take up the chicken, and place in a deep
earthen pie dish. Draw the stew-pan forward where it will boil rapidly
for fifteen minutes. Skim off the fat and take out the bouquet. Put
the butter in a frying-pan, and when hot, add the flour. Stir until
smooth, but not brown, and stir in the water in which the chicken was
boiled. Cook ten minutes. Beat the eggs with one spoonful of cold
water, and gradually add the gravy to them. Turn this into the pie
dish. Lift the chicken with a spoon, that the gravy may fall to the
bottom. Set away to cool. When cold, roll out a covering of paste a
little larger than the top of the dish and about one-fourth of an inch
thick. Cover the pie with this, having the edges turned into the dish.
Roll the remainder of the paste the same as before, and with a
thimble, or something as small, cut out little pieces all over the
cover. Put this perforated paste over the first cover, turning out the
edges and rolling slightly. Bake one hour in a moderate oven.


Pasties of Game and Poultry.

Make three pints of force-meat. (See force-meat for game.) Cut all the
solid meat from four grouse. Lard each piece with very fine strips of
pork. Put half a cupful of butter and a finely-cut onion in a frying-
pan. Stir until the onion is yellow; then put in the grouse, and cook
slowly, with the cover on, for forty minutes. Stir occasionally. Take
up the grouse, and put three table-spoonfuls of flour with the butter
remaining in the pan. Stir until brown; add one quart of stock, two
table-spoonfuls of glaze, a bouquet of sweet herbs, and four cloves.
Simmer twenty minutes, and strain. Butter a four-quart earthen dish,
and cover the bottom and sides with the force-meat. Put in a layer of
the grouse, and moisten well with the gravy, which must be highly
seasoned with salt and pepper; then put in the yolks of six hard-
boiled eggs, and the whites, cut into rings. Moisten with gravy, and
add another layer of grouse, and of eggs and gravy. Twelve eggs should
be used. Make a paste as for chicken pie. Cover with this, and bake
one hour and a half. Serve either hot or cold.

Any kind of meat pasties can be made in the same manner. With a veal
pastie put in a few slices of cooked ham.


Cold Game Pie.

Make three pints of force-meat. (See force-meat for game.) Cut all the
meat from two partridges or grouse, and put the bones on to boil with
three quarts of water and three pounds of a shank of veal. Fry four
large slices of fat salt pork, and as soon as brown, take up, and into
the fat put one onion, cut in slices. When this begins to turn yellow,
take up, and put the meat of the birds in the pan. Dredge well with
salt, pepper and flour, and stir constantly for four minutes; then
take up, and put away to cool. Make a crust as directed for raised
pies. Butter the French pie mould very thoroughly, and line with
paste. Spread upon the paste--both upon the sides and bottom of the
mould--a thin layer of fat salt pork, then a layer of force-meat, one
of grouse, again one of force-meat, and so on until the pie is filled.
Leave a space of about half an inch at the edge of the mould, and heap
the filling in the centre. Moisten with half a cupful of well-seasoned
stock. Roll the remainder of the paste into the shape of the top of
the mould. Wet the paste at the edge of the mould with beaten egg;
then put on the top, and press the top and side parts together. Cut a
small piece of paste from the centre of the top crust, add a little
more paste to it, and roll a little larger than the opening, which it
is to cover. Cut the edges with the jagging iron, and, with the other
end of the iron, stamp leaves or flowers. Place on the top of the pie.
Bake in a slow oven three hours and a half. While the pie is baking
the sauce can be prepared. When the bones and veal have been cooking
two hours, add two cloves, a bouquet of sweet herbs and the fried
onions. Cook one hour longer; then salt and pepper well, and strain.
The water should be reduced in boiling to one quart. When the pie is
baked, take the centre piece from the cover, and slightly press the
tunnel into the opening. Pour slowly one pint of the hot gravy through
this. Put back the cover, and set away to cool. The remainder of the
gravy must be turned into a flat dish and put in a cold place to
harden. When the pie is served, place the mould in the oven, or
steamer, for about five minutes; then draw out the wires and open it.
Slip the pie on to a cold dish, and garnish with the jellied gravy and
parsley. This is nice for suppers or lunches. All kinds of game and
meat can be prepared in the same manner.


Pâté de Foies Gras.

Make a paste with one quart of flour, as for raised pies, and put away
in a cool place. Put four fat goose livers in a pint of sweet milk for
two or three hours, to whiten them. Chop _very fine_ two pounds
of fresh pork, cut from the loin (it must not be too fat), and one
pound of clear veal. Put one and a half cupfuls of milk on to boil
with a blade of mace, an onion, two cloves, a small piece of nutmeg
and a bouquet of sweet herbs. Cook all these for ten minutes; then
strain the milk upon four table-spoonfuls of butter and two of flour,
which have been well mixed. Add to this the chopped pork and veal and
one of the livers, chopped fine; stir over the fire for ten minutes,
being careful not to brown. Season well with pepper and salt, add four
well-beaten eggs, and stir half a minute longer; then put away to
cool. Cut half a pound of salt pork in slices as thin as shavings.
Butter a French pie mould, holding about three quarts. Form three-
fourths of the paste into a ball. Sprinkle the board with flour, and
roll the paste out until about one-fourth of an inch thick. Take it up
by the four corners and place it in the mould. Be very careful not to
break it. With the hand, press the paste on the sides and bottom. The
crust must come to the top of the mould. Put a layer of the pork
shavings on the sides and bottom, then a thick layer of the force-
meat. Split the livers, and put half of them in; over them sprinkle
one table-spoonful of onion juice, salt, pepper, and, if you like, a
table-spoonful of capers. Another layer of force-meat, again the liver
and seasoning, and then the force-meat. On this last layer put salt
pork shavings. Into the remaining paste roll three table-spoonfuls of
washed butter, and roll the paste, as nearly as possible, into the
shape of the top of the pie mould. Cut a small piece from the centre.
The filling of the pie should have been heaped a little toward the
centre, leaving a space of about one inch and a half at the edges.
Brush with beaten egg the paste that is in this space. Put on the top
crust, and, with the fore-finger and thumb, press the two crusts
together. Roll the piece of paste cut from the centre of the cover a
little larger, and cover the opening with it. From some puff-paste
trimmings, cut out leaves, and decorate the cover with them. Place in
a moderate oven, and bake slowly two hours. Have a pint and a half of
hot veal stock (which will become jellied when cold) well seasoned
with pepper, salt, whole spice and onion. When the _pâté_ is
taken from the oven, take off the small piece that was put on the
centre of the cover. Insert a tunnel in the opening and pour the hot
stock through it. Replace the cover, and set away to cool. When the
_pâté_ is to be served, place it in the oven for about five
minutes, that it may slip from the mould easily. Draw out the wires
which fasten the sides of the mould, and slide the _pâté_ upon
the platter. Garnish the dish with parsley and small strips of
cucumber pickles.

Truffles and mushrooms can be cut up and put in the _pâté_ in
layers, the same as the liver and at the same time. The Strasburg fat
livers (_foies gras_) come in little stone pots, and cost from a
dollar to two dollars per pot.


Chartreuse of Chicken.

Make the force-meat as for _quenelles_ of chicken. Simmer two
large chickens in white stock for half an hour. Take up, and let cool.
Have a pickled tongue boiled tender. Cut thin slices from the breast
of the chickens, and cut these in squares. Cut the tongue in slices,
and these in turn in squares the same size as the chicken. Butter a
four-quart mould, and arrange the chicken and tongue handsomely on the
bottom and sides, being careful to have the pieces fit closely
together. Have note paper cut to fit the bottom and sides. Butter it
well, and cover about an inch deep with the force-meat. Take up the
bottom piece by the four corners and fit it into the mould, the meat
side down. Pour a little hot water into any kind of a flat-bottomed
tin basin, and put this in the mould and move it over the papers, to
melt the butter; then lift out the paper. Place the papers on the side
in the same way as on the bottom and melt the butter by rolling a
bottle of hot water over them. Remove these papers, and set the mould
in a cold place until the filling is ready. Cut from the tenderest
part of the chicken enough meat to make two quarts. Cut four large, or
six small, mushrooms and four truffles in strips. Put half a cupful of
butter, half a large onion, four cloves, a blade of mace, a slice of
carrot, one of turnip and a stalk of celery in a sauce-pan, and cook
five minutes, stirring all the while; then add five table-spoonfuls of
flour. Stir until it begins to brown, when add one quart of the stock
in which the chickens were cooked, a bouquet of sweet herbs, and salt
and pepper. Simmer twenty minutes; strain, and add to the chicken.
Return to the fire, and simmer twenty minutes longer, and set away to
cool. When cold, put a layer of the chicken in the mould, and a light
layer of the truffles and mushrooms. Continue this until the form is
nearly full, and then cover with the remainder of the force-meat.
Spread buttered paper upon it, and put in a cool place until cooking
time, when steam two hours. Turn carefully upon the dish. Brush over
with three table-spoonfuls of melted glaze. Pour one pint of supreme
sauce around it, and serve.

The force-meat must be spread evenly on the paper and smoothed with a
knife that has been dipped in hot water. All kinds of meat
_chartreuses_ can be made in this manner.


Chartreuse of Vegetables and Game.

Six large carrots, six white turnips, two large heads of cabbage, two
onions, two quarts of stock, three grouse, one pint of brown sauce,
four table-spoonfuls of glaze, two cloves, a bouquet of sweet herbs,
one pound of mixed salt pork and one cupful of butter. Scrape and wash
the carrots, and peel and wash the turnips. Boil for twenty minutes in
salted water. Pour off the water, and add three pints of stock and a
teaspoonful of sugar. Simmer gently one hour. Take up, drain, and set
away to cool. Cut the cabbage in four parts. Wash, and boil twenty
minutes in salted water. Drain in the colander, and return to the fire
with a pint of stock, the cloves, herbs and onions, tied in a piece of
muslin; a quarter of a cupful of butter and the pork and grouse. Cover
the sauce-pan, and place where the contents will just simmer for two
hours and a half. When cooked, put the grouse and pork on a dish to
cool. Turn the cabbage into the colander, first taking out the spice
and onion. Press all the juice from the cabbage and chop very fine.
Season with salt and pepper, and put away to cool. Butter a plain
mould holding about four quarts. Butter note paper, cut to fit the
sides and bottom, and line the mould with it. Cut the cold turnips and
carrots in thick slices, and then in pieces all the same size and
shape, but of any design you wish. Line the sides and bottom of the
mould with these, being particular to have the pieces come together.
Have the yellow and white arranged in either squares or rows. With the
chopped cabbage put half a pint of the brown sauce and two spoonfuls
of the glaze. Stir over the fire for six minutes. Spread a thick layer
of this on the vegetables, being careful not to displace them. Cut
each grouse into six pieces. Season with salt and pepper, and pack
closely in the mould. Moisten with the remaining half pint of brown
sauce. Cover with the remainder of the cabbage. Two hours before
serving time, place in a steamer and cook. While the _chartreuse_
is steaming, make the sauce. Put two table-spoonfuls of butter in a
stew-pan, and when hot, add two table-spoonfuls of flour. Stir until a
dark brown; then add the stock in which the cabbage was cooked and
enough of that in which the turnips and carrots were cooked to make a
quart. Stir until it boils; add two spoonfuls of glaze, and set back
where it will just simmer for one hour. Skim off the fat, and strain.
When the _chartreuse_ is done, take up and turn gently upon the
dish. Lift the mould _very_ carefully. Take off the paper. Pour
two table-spoonfuls of the sauce on the _chartreuse_ and the
remainder around it. The vegetable _chartreuse_ can be made with
any kind of game or meat.


Chartreuse of Chicken and Macaroni.

One large fowl, about four and a half or five pounds, boiled tender;
half a box of gelatine, one cupful of broth in which the chicken was
boiled, one cupful of cream, salt, pepper, fourteen ounces of
macaroni. Just cover the fowl with boiling water, and simmer until
very tender, the time depending upon the age, but being from one to
two hours if the bird is not more than a year old. Take off all the
skin and fat, and cut the meat in thin, delicate pieces. Soak the
gelatine two hours in half a cupful of cold water, and dissolve it in
the cupful of boiling broth; add to the cream, and season highly. Have
the chicken well seasoned, also. Put the macaroni in a large flat pan
with boiling water to cover, and boil rapidly for three minutes. Drain
off the water, and place the macaroni on a board, having about twelve
pieces in a bunch. Cut in pieces about three-fourths of an inch long.
Butter a two-quart mould (an oval charlotte russe mould is the best)
very thickly, and stick the macaroni closely over the bottom and
sides. When done, put the chicken in lightly and evenly, and add the
sauce very gradually. Steam one hour. Serve either cold or hot. Great
care must be taken in dishing. Place the platter over the mould and
turn platter and mould simultaneously. Let the dish rest a minute, and
then gently remove the mould. Serve immediately. A long time is needed
to line the mould with the macaroni, but this is such a handsome,
savory dish as to pay to have it occasionally. If you prefer, you can
use all broth, and omit the cream.


Galatine of Turkey.

Bone the turkey, and push the wings and legs inside of the body. Make
three pints of ham force-meat. Cut a cold boiled tongue in thin
slices. Season the turkey with salt and pepper, and spread on a board,
inside up. Spread a layer of the force-meat on this, and then a layer
of tongue. Continue this until all the tongue and force-meat are used.
Roll the bird into a round form, and sew up with mending cotton. Wrap
tightly in a strong piece of cotton cloth, which must be either pinned
or sewed to keep it in position. Put in a porcelain kettle the bones
of the turkey, two calf's feet, four pounds of the knuckle of veal, an
onion, two slices of turnip, two of carrot, twenty pepper-corns, four
cloves, two stalks of celery, one table-spoonful of salt and three
quarts of water. When this comes to a boil, skim, and put the turkey
in. Set back where it will just simmer for three hours. Take up and
remove the wrapping, put on a clean piece of cloth that has been wet
in cold water, and place in a dish. Put three bricks in a flat baking
pan, and place on top of the bird. Set away in a cool place over
night. In the morning take off the weights and cloth. Place on a dish,
the smooth side up. Melt four table-spoonfuls of glaze, and brush the
turkey with it. Garnish with the jelly, and serve. Or, the galatine
can be cut in slices and arranged on a number of dishes, if for a
large party. In that case, place a little jelly in the centre of each
slice, and garnish the border of the dish with jelly and parsley. The
time and materials given are for a turkey weighing about nine pounds.
Any kind of fowl or bird can be prepared in the same manner.

To make the jelly: Draw forward the kettle in which the turkey was
cooked, and boil the contents rapidly for one hour. Strain, and put
away to harden. In the morning scrape off all the fat and sediment.
Put the jelly in a clean sauce-pan with the whites and shells of two
eggs that have been beaten with four table-spoonfuls of cold water.
Let this come to a boil, and set back where it will just simmer for
twenty minutes. Strain through a napkin, and set away to harden.


Galatine of Veal.

Bone a breast of veal. Season well with salt and pepper. Treat the
same as turkey, using, however, two pounds of boiled ham instead of
the tongue. Cook four hours.


Chicken in Jelly.

For each pound of chicken, a pint of water. Clean the chicken, and put
to boil. When it comes to a boil, skim carefully; and simmer gently
until the meat is very tender--about an hour and a half. Take out the
chicken, skin, and take all the flesh from the bones. Put the bones
again in the liquor, and boil until the water is reduced one half.
Strain, and set away to cool. Next morning skim off all the fat. Turn
the jelly into a clean sauce-pan, carefully removing all the sediment;
and to each quart of jelly add one-fourth of a package of gelatine
(which has been soaked an hour in half a cupful of cold water), an
onion, a stalk of celery, twelve pepper-corns, a small piece of mace,
four cloves, the white and shell of one egg and salt and pepper to
taste. Let it boil up; then set back where it will simmer twenty
minutes. Strain the jelly through a napkin. In a three-pint mould put
a layer of jelly about three-fourths of an inch deep. Set in ice water
to harden. Have the chicken cut in long, thin strips, and well
seasoned with salt and pepper; and when the jelly in the mould is
hard, lay in the chicken, lightly, and cover with the liquid jelly,
which should be cool, but not hard. Put away to harden. When ready to
serve, dip the mould in warm water and then turn into the centre of a
flat dish. Garnish with parsley, and, if you choose, with Tartare or
mayonnaise sauce.


Chicken Chaud Froid.

Skin two chickens, and cut in small pieces as for serving. Wash, and
put them in a stew-pan with enough white stock to cover, and one large
onion, a clove, half a blade of mace, a bouquet of sweet herbs and
half a table-spoonful of salt. Let this come to a boil; then skim
carefully, and set back where it will simmer for one hour. Take up the
chicken, and set the stew-pan where the stock will boil rapidly. Put
three table-spoonfuls of butter in the frying-pan, and when it melts,
stir in two table-spoonfuls of flour, and cook until smooth, but not
brown. Stir this into the stock, of which there must be not more than
a pint; add four table-spoonfuls of glaze, and boil up once. Taste to
see if seasoned enough; if it is not, add more salt and pepper. Now
add half a cupful of cream, and let boil up once more. Have the
chicken in a deep dish. Pour this sauce on it, and set away to cool At
serving time, have large slices of cold boiled sweet potatoes, fried
in butter till a golden brown, handsomely arranged on a warm dish. On
them place the chicken, which must be very cold. On each piece of the
meat put a small teaspoonful of Tartare sauce. Heap the potatoes
around the edge of the dish, garnish with parsley, and serve.


To Remove a Fillet from a Fowl or Bird.

Draw the skin off of the breast, and then run a sharp knife between
the flesh and the ribs and breast-bone. You will in this way separate
the two fillets from the body of the bird. The legs and wings of the
largest birds and fowl can be boned, and stuffed with force-meat, and
then prepared the same as, and served with, the fillet. The body of
the bird can be used for soups. Fillets from all kinds of birds can be
prepared the same as those from chickens.


Chicken Fillets, Larded and Breaded.

Lard the fillets, having four fine strips of pork for each one, and
season with salt and pepper. Dip in beaten egg and in fine bread
crumbs. Fry ten minutes in boiling fat. Serve on a hot dish with a
spoonful of Tartare sauce on each.


Chicken Fillets, Braised.

Lard the fillets as for breading. For each one lay a slice of fat pork
in the bottom of the braising pan, and on this a very small piece of
onion. Dredge the fillets well with salt, pepper and flour, and place
them on the pork and onion. Cover the pan, and set on the stove. Cook
slowly half an hour; then add one pint of light stock or water and the
bones of one of the chickens. Cover the pan, and place in a moderate
oven for one hour, basting frequently with the gravy. If the gravy
should cook away, add a little more stock or water, (there should be
nearly a pint of it at the end of the hour). Take up the fillets, and
drain; then cover them with soft butter, and dredge lightly with
flour. Broil till a light brown. Serve on a hot dish with the sauce
poured around. Or, they can be dressed on a mound of mashed potato,
with a garnish of any green vegetable at the base, the sauce to be
poured around it.

To make the sauce: Skim all the fat from the gravy in which the
fillets were cooked. Cook one table-spoonful of butter and one heaping
teaspoonful of flour together until a light brown; then add the gravy,
and boil up once. Taste to see if seasoned enough, and strain.


Chicken Fillets, Sauté.

Flatten the fillets by pounding them lightly with the vegetable
masher. Season with pepper and salt, and dredge well with flour. Put
in the frying-pan one table-spoonful of butter for each fillet, and
when hot, put the fillets in, and cook rather slowly twenty minutes.
Brown on both sides. Take up, and keep hot while making the sauce. If
there are six fillets, add two table-spoonfuls of butter to that
remaining in the frying-pan, and when melted, stir in one table-
spoonful of flour. Stir until it begins to brown slightly; then slowly
add one and a half cupfuls of cold milk, stirring all the while. Let
this boil one minute. Season with salt, pepper and, if you like, a
little mustard. Fill the centre of a hot dish with green peas or
mashed potatoes, against which rest the fillets; and pour the sauce
around. Serve very hot.


Chicken Curry.

One chicken, weighing three pounds; three-fourths of a cupful of
butter, two large onions, one heaping table-spoonful of curry powder,
three tomatoes, or one cupful of the canned article, enough cayenne to
cover a silver three-cent piece, salt, one cupful of milk. Put the
butter and the onions, cut fine, on to cook. Stir all the while until
brown; then put in the chicken, which has been cut in small pieces,
the curry, tomatoes, salt and pepper. Stir well. Cover tightly, and
let simmer one hour, stirring occasionally; then add the milk. Boil up
once, and serve with boiled rice. This makes a very rich and hot
curry, but for the real lover of the dish, none too much so.


Veal Curry.

Two pounds of veal, treated in the same manner, but cooked two hours.
Mutton and lamb can be used in a like way.


Chicken Quenelles.

One large chicken or tender fowl, weighing about three pounds; six
table-spoonfuls of butter, one table-spoonful of chopped salt pork,
three eggs, one teaspoonful of onion juice, one of lemon juice, half a
cupful of white stock or cream, one cupful of stale bread, one of new
milk, and salt and pepper to taste. Skin the chicken, take all the
flesh from the bones, and chop and pound _very_ fine. Mix the
pork with it, and rub through a flour sieve. Cook the bread and milk
together for ten minutes, stirring often, to get smooth. Add this to
the chicken, and then add the seasoning, stock or cream, yolks of
eggs, one by one, and lastly the whites, which have been beaten to a
stiff froth.

Cover the sides and bottom of a frying-pan with soft butter. Take two
table-spoons and a bowl of boiling water. Dip one spoon in the water,
and then fill it with force-meat, heaping it; then dip the other spoon
in the hot water, and turn the contents of the first into it. This
gives the _quenelle_ the proper shape; and it should at once be
slipped into the frying-pan. Continue the operation until all the meat
is shaped. Cover the quenelles with white stock, boiling, and slightly
salted, and cook gently twenty minutes. Take them up, and drain for a
minute; then arrange on a border of mashed potatoes or fried bread.
Pour a spoonful of either Bechamel, mushroom or olive sauce on each,
and the remainder in the centre of the dish. Serve hot.


Chicken Quenelles, Stuffed.

Prepare the force-meat as for _quenelles_. Soak four table-
spoonfuls of gelatine for one hour in cold water to cover. Put two
table-spoonfuls of butter in a frying-pan, and when hot, add one
table-spoonful of flour. Stir until smooth, but not brown; then
gradually stir in one pint of cream. Add one table-spoonful of lemon
juice, a speck of mace and plenty of salt and pepper. Cook for two
minutes. Stir in the soaked gelatine, and remove from the fire. Into
this sauce stir one pint and a half of cold chicken, cut _very_
fine. Set away to cool. Butter eighteen small egg cups, and cover the
sides and bottoms with a thick layer of the force-meat. Fill the
centre with the prepared force-meat, which should be quite firm. Cover
with chicken. Place the cups in a steamer and cover them with sheets
of thick paper. Put on the cover of the steamer, and place upon a
kettle of boiling water for half an hour. Do not let the water boil
too rapidly. Take up, and put away to cool. When cold, dip the
_quenelles_ twice in beaten egg and in bread crumbs. Fry in
boiling fat for three minutes. Serve hot with a garnish of stoned
olives.


Chicken Quenelles, Breaded.

Prepare the _quenelles_ as before, and when they have been
boiled, drain, and let them grow cold. Dip in beaten egg and roll in
bread crumbs; place in the frying basket and plunge into boiling fat.
Cook three minutes. Serve with fried parsley or any kind of brown
sauce.


Veal Quenelles.

One pound of clear veal, one cupful of white sauce, six table-
spoonfuls of butter, one cupful of bread crumbs, one of milk, four
eggs, salt, pepper, a slight grating of nutmeg and the juice of half a
lemon. Make and use the same as chicken _quenelles_.


Chicken Pilau.

Cut a chicken into pieces the size you wish to serve at the table.
Wash clean, and put in a stew-pan with about one-eighth of a pound of
salt pork, which has been cut in small pieces. Cover with cold water,
and boil gently until the chicken begins to grow tender, which will be
in about an hour, unless the chicken is old. Season rather highly with
salt and pepper, add three tea-cupfuls of rice, which has been picked
and washed, and let boil thirty or forty minutes longer. There should
be a good quart of liquor in the stew-pan when the rice is added. Care
must be taken that it does not burn. Instead of chicken any kind of
meat may be used.


Chicken Soufflé.

One pint of cooked chicken, finely chopped; one pint of cream sauce,
four eggs, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, one teaspoonful of
onion juice, salt, pepper. Stir the chicken and seasoning into the
boiling sauce. Cook two minutes. Add the yolks of the eggs, well
beaten, and set away to cool. When cold, add the whites, beaten to a
stiff froth. Turn into a buttered dish, and bake half an hour. Serve
with mushroom or cream sauce. This dish must be served the moment it
is baked. Any kind of delicate meat can be used, the _soufflé_
taking the name of the meat of which it is made.


Fried Chicken.

Cut the chicken into six or eight pieces. Season well with salt and
pepper. Dip in beaten egg and then in fine bread crumbs in which there
is one teaspoonful of chopped parsley for every cupful of crumbs. Dip
again in the egg and crumbs. Fry ten minutes in boiling fat. Cover the
centre of a cold dish with Tartare sauce. Arrange the chicken on this,
and garnish with a border of pickled beets. Or, it can be served with
cream sauce.


Blanquette of Chicken.

One quart of cooked chicken, cut in delicate pieces; one large cupful
of white stock, three table-spoonfuls of butter, a heaping table-
spoonful of flour, one teaspoonful of lemon juice, one cupful of cream
or milk, the yolks of four eggs, salt, pepper: Put the butter in the
sauce-pan, and when hot, add the flour. Stir until smooth, but not
brown. Add the stock, and cook two minutes; then add the seasoning and
cream. As soon as this boils up, add the chicken. Cook ten minutes.
Beat the yolks of the eggs with four table-spoonfuls of milk. Stir
into the blanquette. Cook about half a minute longer. This can be
served in a rice or potato border, in a _crôustade_, on a hot
dish, or with a garnish of toasted or fried bread.


Blanquette of Veal and Ham.

Half a pint of boiled ham, one pint and a half of cooked veal, one
pint of cream sauce, one teaspoonful of lemon juice, the yolks of two
uncooked eggs, salt, pepper, two hard-boiled eggs. Have the veal and
ham cut in delicate pieces, which add with the seasoning to the sauce.
When it boils up, add the yolks, which have been beaten with four
table-spoonfuls of milled Cook half a minute longer. Garnish with the
hard-boiled eggs.


Salmis of Game,

Take the remains of a game dinner, say two or three grouse. Cut all
the meat from the bones, in as handsome pieces as possible, and set
aside. Break up the bones, and put on to boil with three pints of
water and two cloves. Boil down to a pint and a half. Put three table-
spoonfuls of butter and two onions, cut in slices, on to fry. Stir all
the time until the onions begin to brown; then add two spoonfuls of
flour, and stir until a rich dark brown. Strain the broth on this.
Stir a minute, and add one teaspoonful of lemon juice and salt and
pepper to taste; if you like, one table-spoonful of Leicestershire
sauce, also. Add the cold game, and simmer fifteen minutes. Serve on
slices of fried bread. Garnish with fried bread and parsley.

This dish can be varied by using different kinds of seasoning, and by
serving sometimes with rice, and sometimes with mashed potatoes, for a
border. Half a dozen mushrooms is a great addition to the dish, if
added about five minutes before serving. A table-spoonful of curry
powder, mixed with a little cold water, and stirred in with the other
seasoning, will give a delicious curry of game. When curry is used,
the rice border is the best of those mentioned above.


Game Cutlets à la Royale.

One quart of the tender parts of cold game, cut into dice; one
generous pint of rich stock, one-third of a box of gelatine, one quart
of any kind of force-meat, four cloves, one table-spoonful of onion
juice, two of butter, one of flour, three eggs, one pint of bread or
cracker crumbs, salt, pepper. Soak the gelatine for one hour in half a
cupful of cold water. Put the butter in a frying-pan, and when hot,
add the flour. Stir until smooth and brown, and add the stock and
seasoning. Simmer ten minutes; strain upon the game, and simmer
fifteen minutes longer. Beat an egg and add to the gelatine. Stir this
into the game and sauce and take from the fire instantly. Place the
stew-pan in a basin of cold water, and stir until it begins to cool;
then turn the mixture into a shallow baking pan, having it about an
inch thick. Set on the ice to harden. When hard, cut into cutlet-
shaped pieces with a knife that has been dipped in hot water. When all
the mixture is cut, put the pan in another of warm water for half a
minute. This will loosen the cutlets from the bottom of the pan. Take
them out carefully, cover every part of each cutlet with force-meat,
and set on ice until near serving time. When ready to cook them, beat
the two eggs with a spoon. Cover the cutlets with this and the crumbs.
Place a few at a time in the frying basket, and plunge them into
boiling fat. Fry two minutes. Drain, and place on brown paper until
all are cooked. Arrange them in a circle on a hot dish. Pour mushroom
sauce in the centre, garnish with parsley, and serve. Poultry cutlets
can be prepared and served in the same way.


Cutlets à la Duchesse.

Two pounds of Lamb, mutton or veal cutlets, one large cupful of cream,
one table-spoonful of onion juice, four table-Spoonfuls of butter, one
of flour, two whole eggs, the yolks of four more, two table-spoonfuls
of finely-chopped ham, one of lemon juice and salt and pepper to
taste. Put two table-spoonfuls of the butter in the frying-pan. Season
the cutlets with salt and pepper, and when the butter is hot, put them
in it. Fry gently for five minutes, if lamb or mutton, but if veal,
put a cover on the pan, and fry very slowly for fifteen minutes. Set
away to cool. Put the remainder of the butter in a small frying-pan,
and when hot, stir in the flour. Cook one minute, stirring all the
time, and being careful not to brown. Stir in the cream. Have the ham,
the yolks of eggs and the onion and lemon juice beaten together. Stir
this mixture into the boiling sauce. Stir for about one minute, and
remove from the fire. Season well with pepper and salt. Dip the
cutlets in this sauce, being careful to cover every part, and set away
to cool. When cold, dip them in beaten egg and in bread crumbs. Fry in
boiling fat for one minute. Arrange them in a circle on a hot dish,
and have green peas in the centre and cream sauce poured around.

Cutlets served in Papillotes.

Fold and cut half sheets of thick white paper, about the size of
commercial note, so that when opened they will be heart-shaped. Dip
them in melted butter and set aside. After trimming all the fat from
lamb or mutton chops, season them with pepper and salt. Put three
table-spoonfuls of butter in the frying pan, and when melted, lay in
the chops, and cook slowly for fifteen minutes. Add one teaspoonful of
finely-chopped parsley, one teaspoonful of lemon juice and one table-
spoonful of Halford sauce. Dredge with one heaping table-spoonful of
flour, and cook quickly five minutes longer. Take up the cutlets, and
add to the sauce in the pan four table-spoonfuls of glaze and four of
water. Stir until the glaze is melted, and set away to cool. When the
sauce is cold, spread it on the cutlets. Now place these, one by one,
on one side of the papers, having the bones turned toward the centre.
Fold the papers and carefully turn in the edges. When all are done,
place them in a pan, and put into a moderate oven for ten minutes;
then place them in a circle, and fill the centre of the dish with thin
fried, or French fried, potatoes. Serve very hot. The quantities given
above are for six cutlets.


Veal Cutlets with White Sauce.

One and a half pounds of cutlets, two table-spoonfuls of butter, a
slice of carrot and a small slice of onion. Put the butter and the
vegetables, cut fine, in a sauce-pan. Season the cutlets with salt and
pepper, and lay them on the butter and vegetables. Cover tightly, and
cook slowly for half an hour; then take out, and dip in egg and bread
crumbs, and fry in boiling fat till a golden brown. Or, dip the
cutlets in soil butter and then in flour, and broil. Serve with white
sauce poured around. Put a quart of green peas, or points of
asparagus, in the centre of the dish, and arrange the cutlets around
them. Pour on the sauce. This gives a handsome dish. Or, serve with
olive sauce.


Mutton Cutlets, Crumbed.

Season French chops with salt and pepper, dip them in melted butter,
and roll in _fine_ bread crumbs. Broil for eight minutes over a
fire not too bright, as the crumbs burn easily. Serve with potato
balls heaped in the centre of the dish.


Mutton Cutlets, Breaded.

Trim the cutlets, and season with salt and pepper. Dip in beaten egg
and in bread crumbs, and fry in boiling fat. If three-quarters of an
inch thick, they will be done rare in six minutes, and well done in
ten. Arrange in the centre of a hot dish, and pour tomato sauce around
them. One pint of sauce is enough for two pounds of cutlets.

Stewed Steak with Oysters.

Two pounds of rump steak, one pint of oysters, one tablespoonful of
lemon juice, three of butter, one of flour, salt, pepper, one cupful
of water. Wash the oysters in the water, and drain into a stew-pan.
Put this liquor on to heat. As soon as it comes to a boil, skim, and
set back. Put the butter in a frying-pan, and when hot, put in the
steak. Cook ten minutes. Take up the steak, and stir the flour into
the butter remaining in the pan. Stir until a dark brown. Add the
oyster liquor, and boil one minute. Season with salt and pepper. Put
back the steak, cover the pan, and simmer half an hour; then add the
oysters and lemon juice. Boil one minute. Serve on a hot dish with
points of toast for a garnish.


Rice Borders.

These are prepared in two ways. The first is to boil the rice as for a
vegetable, and, with a spoon, heap it lightly around the edge of the
fricassee, ragout, etc. The second method is a little more difficult.
Put one cupful of rice on to boil in three cupfuls of cold water. When
it has been boiling half an hour, add two table-spoonfuls of butter
and one heaping teaspoonful of salt. Set back where it will just
simmer, and cook one hour longer. Mash very fine with a spoon, add two
well-beaten eggs, and stir for three minutes. Butter a plain border
mould, and fill with the rice. Place in the heater for ten minutes.
Turn upon a hot dish. Fill the centre with a fricassee, salmis or
blanquette, and serve hot. A mould with a border two inches high and
wide, and having a space in the centre five and a half inches wide and
eleven long, is pretty and convenient for rice and potato borders, and
also for jelly borders, with which to decorate salads, boned chicken,
creams, etc.


Potato Border.

Six potatoes, three eggs, one table-spoonful of butter, one of salt,
half a cupful of boiling milk. Pare, boil and mash the potatoes. When
fine and light, add the butter, salt and pepper and two well-beaten
eggs. Butter the border mould and pack the potato in it. Let this
stand on the kitchen table ten minutes; then turn out on a dish and
brush over with one well-beaten egg. Brown in the oven. Fill the
centre with a curry, fricassee, salmis or blanquette.


To Make a Crôustade.

The bread for the _crôustade_ must not be too light, and should
be at least three days old. If the loaf is round, it can be carved
into the form of a vase, or if long, into the shape of a boat. Have a
very sharp knife, and cut slowly and carefully, leaving the surface as
smooth as possible. There are two methods by which it can be browned:
one is to plunge it into a deep pot of boiling fat for about one
minute; the other is to butter the entire surface of the bread and put
it into a hot oven, being careful not to let it burn. Care must be
taken that the inside is as brown as the outside; if not, the sauce
will soak through the crôustade and spoil it. Creamed oysters, stewed
lobster, chicken, or any kind of meat that is served in a sauce, can
be served in the crôustade,


Cheese Soufflé.

Two table-spoonfuls of butter, one heaping table-spoonful of flour,
half a cupful of milk, one cupful of grated cheese, three eggs, half a
teaspoonful of salt, a speck of cayenne. Put the butter in a sauce-
pan, and when hot, add the flour, and stir until smooth, but not
browned. Add the milk and seasoning. Cook two minutes; then add the
yolks of the eggs, well beaten, and the cheese. Set away to cool. When
cold, add the whites, beaten to a stiff froth. Turn into a buttered
dish, and bake from twenty to twenty-five minutes. Serve the moment it
comes from the oven. The dish in which this is baked should hold a
quart. An escalop dish is the best.


Rissoles.

Roll the trimmings from pie crust into a sheet about a sixth of an
inch thick. Cut this in cakes with the largest patty cutter. Have any
kind of meat or fish prepared as for croquettes. Put a heaping
teaspoonful on each cake. Brush the edges of the paste with beaten
egg, and then fold and press together. When all are done, dip in
beaten egg and fry brown in boiling fat. They should cook about eight
minutes. Serve hot.


Fritter Batter.

One pint of flour, half a pint of milk, one table-spoonful of salad
oil or butter, one teaspoonful of salt, two eggs. Beat the eggs light.
Add the milk and salt to them. Pour half of this mixture on the flour,
and when beaten light and smooth, add the remainder and the oil. Fry
in boiling fat. Sprinkle with sugar, and serve on a hot dish. This
batter is nice for all kinds of fritters.


Fritter Batter, No. 2.

One pint of flour, one teaspoonful of salt, one of sugar, one of cream
of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, one tablespoonful of oil, one
egg, half a pint of milk. Mix the flour, salt, sugar, cream of tartar
and soda together, and rub through a sieve. Beat the egg very light,
and add the milk. Stir half of this on the flour, and when the batter
is light and smooth, add the remainder, and finally the oil.


Chicken Fritters.

Cut cold roasted or boiled chicken or fowl in small pieces, and place
in an earthen dish. Season well with salt, pepper and the juice of a
fresh lemon. Let the meat stand one hour; then make a fritter batter,
and stir the pieces into it. Drop, by the spoonful, into boiling fat,
and fry till a light brown. Drain, and serve immediately. Any kind of
cold meat, if tender, can be used in this way.


Apple Fritters.

Pare and core the apples, and cut in slices about one-third of an inch
thick. Dip in the batter, and fry six minutes in boiling fat. Serve on
a hot dish. The apples may be sprinkled with sugar and a little
nutmeg, and let stand an hour before being fried. In that case,
sprinkle them with sugar when you serve them.


Fruit Fritters.

Peaches, pears, pineapples, bananas, etc., either fresh or canned, are
used for fritters. If you choose, when making fruit fritters, you can
add two table-spoonfuls of sugar to the batter.


Oyster Fritters.

One pint of oysters, two eggs, one pint of flour, one heaping
teaspoonful of salt, one table-spoonful of salad oil, enough water
with the oyster liquor to make a scant half pint. Drain and chop the
oysters. Add the water and salt to the liquor. Pour part of this on
the flour, and when smooth, add the remainder. Add the oil and the
eggs, well beaten. Stir the oysters into the batter. Drop small
spoonfuls of this into boiling fat, and fry until brown. Drain, and
serve hot.


Clam Fritters.

Drain and chop a pint of clams, and season with salt and pepper. Make
a fritter batter as directed, using, however, a _heaping_ pint of
flour, as the liquor in the clams thins the batter. Stir the clams
into this, and fry in boiling fat.


Cream Fritters.

One pint of milk, the yolks of six, and whites of two, eggs, two
table-spoonfuls of sugar, half a pint of flour, three heaping table-
spoonfuls of butter, half a teaspoonful of salt, a slight flavoring of
lemon, orange, nutmeg, or anything else you please. Put half of the
milk on in the double boiler, and mix the flour to a smooth paste with
the other half. When the milk boils, stir this into it Cook for five
minutes, stirring constantly; then add the butter, sugar, salt and
flavoring. Beat the eggs well, and stir them into the boiling mixture.
Cook one minute. Butter a shallow cake pan, and pour in the mixture.
Have it about half an inch deep in the pan. Set away to cool. When
cold, cut into small squares. Dip these in beaten egg and in crumbs,
place in the frying basket, and plunge into boiling fat. Fry tall a
golden brown. Arrange on a hot dish, sprinkle sugar over them, and
serve _very hot_.


Potato Fritters.

One pint of boiled and mashed potato, half a cupful of hot milk, three
table-spoonfuls of butter, three of sugar, two eggs, a little nutmeg,
one teaspoonful of salt. Add the milk, butter, sugar and seasoning to
the mashed potato, and then add the eggs well beaten. Stir until very
smooth and light. Spread, about half an inch deep, on a buttered dish,
and set away to cool. When cold, cut into squares. Dip in beaten egg
and in bread crumbs, and fry brown in boiling fat. Serve immediately.


Croquettes.

Care and practice are required for successfully making croquettes. The
meat must be chopped fine, all the ingredients be thoroughly mixed,
and the whole mixture be as moist as possible without spoiling the
shape. Croquettes are formed in pear, round and cylindrical shapes.
The last is the best, as the croquettes can be moister in this form
than in the two others.

To shape: Take about a table-spoonful of the mixture, and with both
hands, shape in the form of a cylinder. Handle as gently and carefully
as if a tender bird. Pressure forces the particles apart, and thus
breaks the form. Have a board sprinkled lightly with bread or cracker
crumbs, and roll the croquettes _very gently_ on this. Remember
that the slightest pressure will break them. Let them lie on the board
until all are finished, when, if any have become flattened, roll them
into shape again. Cover a board _thickly_ with crumbs. Have
beaten eggs, slightly salted, in a deep plate. Hold a croquette in the
left hand, and with a brush, or the right hand, cover it with the egg;
then roll in the crumbs. Continue this until they are all crumbed.
Place a few at a time in the frying basket (they should not touch each
other), and plunge into boiling fat. Cook till a rich brown. It will
take about a minute and a half. Take up, and lay on brown paper in a
warm pan.


Royal Croquettes.

Three small, or two large, sweetbreads, one boiled chicken, one large
table-spoonful of flour, one pint of cream, half a cupful of butter,
one table-spoonful of onion juice, one tablespoonful of chopped
parsley, one teaspoonful of mace, the juice of half a lemon, and salt
and pepper to taste. Let the sweetbreads stand in boiling water five
minutes. Chop very fine, with the chicken, and add seasoning. Put two
table-spoonfuls of the butter in a stew-pan with the flour. When it
bubbles, add the cream, gradually; then add the chopped mixture, and
stir until thoroughly heated. Take from the fire, add the lemon juice,
and set away to cool. Roll into shape with cracker crumbs. Dip in six
beaten eggs and then in cracker crumbs. Let them stand until dry, when
dip again in egg, and finally in bread crumbs--not too fine. All the
crumbs should first be salted and peppered. Fry quickly in boiling
fat.


Royal Croquettes, No. 2.

Half a boiled chicken, one large sweetbread, cleaned, and kept in hot
water for five minutes; a calf's brains, washed, and boiled five
minutes; one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, salt, pepper, half a pint
of cream, one egg, quarter of a cupful of butter, one table-spoonful
of corn-starch. Chop the chicken, brains and sweetbread very fine, and
add the egg well beaten. Mix the corn-starch with a little of the
cream. Have the remainder of the cream boiling, and stir in the mixed
corn-starch; then add the butter and the chopped mixture, and stir
over the fire until it bubbles. Set aside to cool. Shape, and roll
twice in egg and in cracker crumbs. Put in the frying basket, and
plunge into boiling fat. They should brown in less than a minute.
[Mrs. Furness, of Philadelphia.]


Oyster Croquettes.

Haifa pint of raw oysters, half a pint of cooked veal, one heaping
table-spoonful of butter, three table-spoonfuls of cracker crumbs, the
yolks of two eggs, one table-spoonful of onion juice. Chop the oysters
and veal very fine. Soak the crackers in oyster liquor, and then mix
all the ingredients, and shape. Dip in egg and roll in cracker crumbs,
and fry as usual. The butter should be softened before the mixing.


Lobster Croquettes.

Chop fine the meat of a two-pound lobster; take also two table-
spoonfuls of butter, enough water or cream to make very moist, one
egg, salt and pepper to taste, and half a table-spoonful of flour.
Cook butter and flour together till they bubble. Add the cream or
water (about a scant half cupful), then the lobster and seasoning,
and, when hot, the egg well beaten. Set away to cool. Shape, dip in
egg and cracker crumbs, and fry as usual.


Salmon Croquettes.

One pound of cooked salmon (about a pint and a half when chopped), one
cupful of cream, two table-spoonfuls of butter, one of flour, three
eggs, one pint of crumbs, pepper, salt. Chop the salmon fine. Mix the
flour and butter together. Let the cream come to a boil, and stir in
the flour, butter, salmon and seasoning. Boil for one minute. Stir
into it one well-beaten egg, and remove from the fire. When cold,
shape, and proceed as for other croquettes.


Shad Roe Croquettes.

One pint of cream, four table-spoonfuls of corn-starch, four shad roe,
four table-spoonfuls of butter, one teaspoonful of salt, the juice of
two lemons, a slight grating of nutmeg and a speck of cayenne. Boil
the roe fifteen minutes in salted water; then drain and mash. Put the
cream on to boil. Mix the butter and corn-starch together, and stir
into the boiling cream. Add the seasoning and roe. Boil up once, and
set away to cool. Shape and fry as directed. [Miss Lizzie Devereux.]


Rice and Meat Croquettes.

One cupful of boiled rice, one cupful of finely-chopped cooked meat--
any kind; one teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper, two table-
spoonfuls of butter,--half a cupful of milk, one egg. Put the milk on
to boil, and add the meat, rice and seasoning. When this boils, add
the egg, well beaten; stir one minute. After cooling, shape, dip in
egg and crumbs, and fry as before directed.


Rice Croquettes.

One large cupful of cooked rice, half a cupful of milk, one egg, one
table-spoonful of sugar, one of butter, half a teaspoonful of salt, a
slight grating of nutmeg. Put milk on to boil, and add rice and
seasoning. When it boils up, add the egg, well beaten. Stir one
minute; then take off and cool. When cold, shape, and roll in egg and
crumbs, as directed. Serve very hot. Any flavoring can be substituted
for the nutmeg.

Potato Croquettes.

Pare, boil and mash six good-sized potatoes. Add one table-spoonful of
butter, two-thirds of a cupful of hot cream or milk, the whites of two
eggs, well beaten, and salt and pepper to taste. If you wish, use also
a slight grating of nutmeg, or a teaspoonful of lemon juice. Let the
mixture cool slightly, then shape, roll in egg and crumbs, and fry.


Chicken Croquettes.

One _solid_ pint of finely-chopped cooked chicken, one table-
spoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, one cupful of cream or
chicken stock, one table-spoonful of flour, four eggs, one teaspoonful
of onion juice, one table-spoonful of lemon juice, one pint of crumbs,
three table-spoonfuls of butter. Put the cream or stock on to boil.
Mix the flour and butter together, and stir into the boiling cream;
then add the chicken and seasoning. Boil for two minutes, and add two
of the eggs, well beaten. Take from the fire immediately, and set away
to cool. When cold, shape and fry.

Many people think a teaspoonful of chopped parsley an improvement,


Other Croquettes.

Veal, mutton, lamb, beef and turkey can be prepared in the same manner
as chicken. Very dry, tough meat is not suitable for croquettes.
Tender roasted pieces give the finest flavor.


Large Vol-au-Vent.

Make puff or chopped paste, according to the rule given, and let it
get chilled through; roll it again four times, the last time leaving
it a piece about seven inches square. Put in the ice chest for at
least half an hour; then roll into a ten-inch square. Place on this a
plate or a round tin, nine and a half inches in diameter, and, with a
sharp knife, cut around the edge. Place another plate, measuring seven
inches or a little more, in the centre. Dip a case-knife in hot water
and cut around the plate, having the knife go two-thirds through the
paste. Place the paste in a flat baking pan and put in a hot oven.
After twelve or fifteen minutes close the drafts, to slacken the heat,
and cook half an hour longer, being careful not to let it burn. As
soon as the _vol-au-vent_ is taken from the oven, lift out the
centre piece with a case-knife, and take out the uncooked paste with a
spoon. Return the cover. At the time of serving place in the oven to
heat through; then fill and cover, and serve while hot The _vol-au-
vent_ can be made and baked the day before using, if more
convenient. Heat it and fill as directed.


Vol-au-Vent of Chicken.

Cut into dice one and a half pints of cooked chicken, and season with
salt and pepper. Make a cream sauce, which season well with salt and
pepper; and, if you like, add half a teaspoonful of onion juice and
the same quantity of mixed mustard. Heat the chicken in this, and fill
the _vol-au-vent_. All kinds of poultry and other meats can be
used for a _vol-au-vent_ with this sauce.


Vol-au-Vent of Sweetbreads.

Clean and wash two sweetbreads, and boil twenty minutes in water to
cover. Drain and cool them, and cut into dice. Heat in cream sauce,
and fill the _vol-au-vent_. Serve hot.


Vol-au-Vent of Salmon.

Heat one pint and a half of cooked salmon in cream sauce. Fill the
_vol-au-vent_, and serve hot. Any rich, delicate fish can be
served in a _vol-au-vent_.


Vol-au-Vent of Oysters.

Prepare the vol-au-vent as directed. Put one quart of oysters on to
boil in their own liquor. As soon as a scum, rises, skim it off, and
drain the oysters. Return half a pint of the oyster liquor to the
sauce-pan. Mix two heaping table-spoonfuls of butter with a scant one
of flour, and when light and creamy, gradually turn on it the boiling
oyster liquor. Season well with salt, pepper and, if you like, a
little nutmeg or mace, (it must be only a "shadow"). Boil up once, and
add three table-spoonfuls of cream and the oysters. Stir over the fire
for half a minute. Fill the case, cover, and serve immediately.


Vol-au-Vent of Lobster.

Rub together four table-spoonfuls of butter and one and a half of
flour. Pour on this, gradually, one pint of boiling white stock. Let
it boil up once, and add the juice of half a lemon, salt and a speck
of cayenne; add, also, the yolks of two eggs, beaten with a spoonful
of cold water, and the meat of two small lobsters, cut into dice. Stir
for one minute over the fire. Fill the case, put on the cover, and
serve.


Patties.

Make puff paste as directed. (See puff paste.) After it has been
rolled four times, put it on ice to harden. When hard, roll again
twice. The last time leave the paste about an inch thick. Put in the
ice chest to get very firm; then put on the board, and gently roll it
down to three-quarters of an inch in thickness. Great care must be
taken to have every part equally thick. Cut out pieces with a round
tin cutter three and a half inches in diameter, and place in the pans.
Take another cutter two and a half inches in diameter, dip it in hot
water, place in the centre of the patty, and cut about two-thirds
through. In doing this, do not press down directly, but use a rotary
motion. These centre pieces, which are to form the covers, easily
separate from the rest when baked. Place in a very hot oven. When they
have been baking ten minutes close the drafts, to reduce the heat;
bake twenty minutes longer. Take from the oven, remove the centre
pieces, and, with a teaspoon, dig out the uncooked paste. Fill with
prepared fish or meat, put on the covers, and serve. Or, if more
convenient to bake them early in the day, or, indeed, the previous
day, put them in the oven twelve minutes before serving, and they will
be nearly as nice as if fresh baked. The quantities given will make
eighteen patties.


Chicken Patties.

Prepare the cream the same as for oysters, and add to it one pint of
cold chicken, cut into dice. Boil three minutes. Fill the shells and
serve. Where it is liked, one teaspoonful of onion juice is an
improvement. Other poultry and all game can be served in patties the
same as chicken.


Veal Patties.

Put in a stew-pan a generous half pint of white sauce with a pint of
cooked veal, cut into dice, and a teaspoonful of lemon juice. Stir
until very hot. Fill the shells, and serve.


Lobster Patties.

One pint of lobster, cut into dice; half a pint of white sauce, a
speck of cayenne, one-eighth of a teaspoonful of mustard. Heat all
together. Fill the shells and serve.


Oyster Patties.

One pint of small oysters, half a pint of cream, a large tea-spoonful
of flour, salt, pepper. Let the cream come to a boil. Mix the flour
with a little cold milk, and stir into the boiling cream. Season with
salt and pepper. While the cream is cooking let the oysters come to a
boil in their own liquor. Skim carefully, and drain off all the
liquor. Add the oysters to the cream, and boil up once. Fill the patty
shells, and serve. The quantities given are enough for eighteen
shells.


Crust Patties.

Cut a loaf of stale bread in slices an inch thick. With the patty
cutter, press out as many pieces as you wish patties, and with a
smaller cutter, press half through each piece. Place this second
cutter as near the centre as possible when using. Put the pieces in
the frying basket and plunge into boiling fat for half a minute. Take
out and drain, and with a knife, remove the centre crusts and take out
the soft bread; then fill, and put on the centre pieces.

Filling for crusts: Put two table-spoonfuls of butter in the frying-
pan, and when hot, add one of flour. Stir until smooth and brown. Add
one cupful of stock. Boil one minute, and stir in one pint of cooked
veal, cut rather fine. Season with salt, pepper, and a little lemon
juice. When hot, fill the crusts. Any kind of cold meat can be served
in this manner.


 Sweetbreads.

Sweetbreads are found in calves and lambs. The demand for calves'
sweetbreads has grown wonderfully within the past ten years. In all
our large cities they sell at all times of the year for a high price,
but in winter and early spring they cost more than twice as much as
they do late in the spring and during the summer. The throat and heart
sweetbreads are often sold as one, but in winter, when they bring a
very high price, the former is sold for the same price as the latter.
The throat sweetbread is found immediately below the throat. It has an
elongated form, is not so firm and fat, and has not the fine flavor of
the heart sweetbread. The heart sweetbread is attached to the last
rib, and lies near the heart. The form is somewhat rounded, and it is
smooth and firm.


To Clean Sweetbreads.

Carefully pull off all the tough and fibrous skin. Place them in a
dish of cold water for ten minutes or more, and they are then ready to
be boiled. They must always be boiled twenty minutes, no matter what
the mode of cooking is to be.


Sweetbreads Larded and Baked.

When the sweetbreads have been cleaned, draw through each one four
very thin pieces of pork (about the size of a match). Drop them into
cold water for five or ten minutes, then into hot water, and boil
twenty minutes. Take out, spread with butter, dredge with salt, pepper
and flour, and bake twenty minutes in a quick oven. Serve with green
peas, well drained, seasoned with salt and butter, and heaped in the
centre of the dish. Lay the sweetbreads around them, and pour a cream
sauce around the edge of the dish. Garnish with parsley. One pint of
cream sauce is sufficient for eight or ten sweetbreads.


Sweetbread Sauté.

One sweetbread, after being boiled, split and cut in four pieces.
Season with salt and pepper. Put in a small frying-pan one small
table-spoonful of butter and the same quantity of flour. When hot, put
in the sweetbreads; turn constantly until a light brown. They will fry
in about eight minutes. Serve with cream sauce or tomato sauce.


Broiled Sweetbreads.

Split the sweetbread after being boiled. Season with salt and pepper,
rub thickly with butter and sprinkle with flour. Broil over a rather
quick fire, turning constantly. Cook about ten minutes, and serve with
cream sauce.


Breaded Sweetbreads.

After being boiled, split them, and season with salt and pepper; then
dip in beaten egg and cracker crumbs. Fry a light brown in hot lard.
Serve with tomato sauce.


Sweetbreads in Cases.

Cut the sweetbreads, after being boiled, in very small pieces. Season
with salt and pepper, and moisten well with cream sauce. Fill the
paper cases, and cover with bread crumbs. Brown, and serve.


Pancakes.

Six eggs, a pint of milk, one heaping teaspoonful of salt, one cupful
of flour, one table-spoonful of sugar, one of melted butter or of
salad oil. Beat the eggs very light, and add the milk. Pour one-third
of this mixture on the flour, and beat until perfectly smooth and
light; then add the remainder and the other ingredients. Heat and
butter an omelet pan. Pour into it a thin layer of the mixture. When
brown on one side, turn, and brown the other. Roll up, sprinkle with
sugar, and serve hot. Or, cover with a thin layer of jelly, and roll.
A number of them should be served on one dish.




SALADS.

A salad should come to the table fresh and crisp. The garnishes should
be of the lightest and freshest kind. Nothing is more out of place
than a delicate salad covered with hard-boiled eggs, boiled beets,
etc. A salad with which the mayonnaise dressing is used, should have
only the delicate white leaves of the celery, or the small leaves from
the heart of the lettuce, and these should be arranged in a wreath at
the base, with a few tufts here and there on the salad. The contrast
between the creamy dressing and the light green is not great, but it
is pleasing. In arranging a salad on a dish, or in a bowl, handle it
very lightly. Never use pressure to get it into form. When a jelly
border is used with salads, some of it should be helped with the
salad. The small round radishes may be arranged in the dish with a
lettuce salad. In washing lettuce great care must be taken not to
break or wilt it. The large, dark green leaves are not nice for salad.
As lettuce is not an expensive vegetable, it is best, when the heads
are not round and compact, to buy an extra one and throw the large
tough leaves away. In winter and early spring, when lettuce is raised
in hot-houses, it is liable to have insects on it. Care must be taken
that all are washed off. Only the white, crisp parts of celery should
be used in salads. The green, tough parts will answer for stews and
soups. Vegetable salads can be served for tea and lunch and with, or
after, the meats at dinner. The hot cabbage, red cabbage, celery,
cucumber and potato salads, are particularly appropriate for serving
with meats. The lettuce salad, with the French dressing, and the
dressed celery, are the best to serve after the meats. A rich salad,
like chicken, lobster or salmon, is out of place at a company dinner.
It is best served for suppers and lunches. The success of a salad
(after the dressing is made) depends upon keeping the lettuce or
celery crisp and not adding meat or dressing to it until the time for
serving.


Mayonnaise Dressing.

A table-spoonful of mustard, one of sugar, one-tenth of a teaspoonful
of cayenne, one teaspoonful of salt, the yolks of three uncooked eggs,
the juice of half a lemon, a quarter of a cupful of vinegar, a pint of
oil and a cupful of whipped cream. Beat the yolks and dry ingredients,
until they are very light and thick, with either a silver or wooden
spoon--or, better still, with a Dover beater of second size. The bowl
in which the dressing is made should be set in a pan of ice water
during the beating. Add a few drops of oil at a time until the
dressing becomes very _thick_ and rather hard. After it has
reached this stage the oil can be added more rapidly. When it gets so
thick that the beater turns hard, add a little vinegar. When the last
of the oil and vinegar has been added it should be very thick. Now add
the lemon juice and whipped cream, and place on ice for a few hours,
unless you are ready to use it. The cream may be omitted without
injury.


Salad Dressing Made at the Table.

The yolk of a raw egg, a table-spoonful of mixed mustard, one-fourth
of a teaspoonful of salt, six table-spoonfuls of oil. Stir the yolk,
mustard and salt together with a fork until they begin to thicken. Add
the oil, gradually, stirring all the while. More or less oil can be
used.


Cream Salad Dressing.

Two eggs, three table-spoonfuls of vinegar, one of cream, one
teaspoonful of sugar, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt, one-fourth
of a teaspoonful of mustard. Beat two eggs well. Add the sugar, salt
and mustard, then the vinegar, and the cream. Place the bowl in a
basin of boiling water, and stir until about the thickness of rich
cream. If the bowl is thick and the water boils all the time, it will
take about five minutes. Cool, and use as needed.


Red Mayonnaise Dressing.

Lobster "coral" is pounded to a powder, rubbed through a sieve, and
mixed with mayonnaise dressing. This gives a dressing of a bright
color. Or, the juice from boiled beets can be used instead of "coral."


Green Mayonnaise Dressing.

Mix enough spinach green with mayonnaise sauce to give it a bright
green color. A little finely-chopped parsley can be added.


Aspic Mayonnaise Dressing.

Melt, but heat only slightly, one cupful of aspic jelly; or, one
cupful of consommé will answer, if it is well jellied. Put in a bowl
and place in a basin of ice water. Have ready the juice of half a
lemon, one cupful of salad oil, one-fourth of a cupful of vinegar, one
table-spoonful of sugar, one scant table-spoonful of mustard, one
teaspoonful of salt and one-tenth of a teaspoonful of cayenne. Mix the
dry ingredients with the vinegar. Beat the jelly with a whisk, and as
soon as it begins to thicken, add the oil and vinegar, a little at a
time. Add the lemon juice the last thing. You must beat all the time
after the bowl is placed in the ice water. This gives a whiter
dressing than that made with the yolks of eggs.


Boiled Salad Dressing.

Three eggs, one table-spoonful each of sugar, oil and salt a scant
table-spoonful of mustard, a cupful of milk and one of vinegar. Stir
oil, salt, mustard and sugar in a bowl until perfectly smooth. Add the
eggs, and beat well; then add the vinegar, and finally the milk. Place
the bowl in a basin of boiling water, and stir the dressing until it
thickens like soft custard. The time of cooking depends upon the
thickness of the bowl. If a common white bowl is used, and it is
placed in water that is boiling at the time and is kept constantly
boiling, from eight to ten minutes will suffice; but if the bowl is
very thick, from twelve to fifteen minutes will be needed. The
dressing will keep two weeks if bottled tightly and put in a cool
place.


Sour Cream Salad Dressing.

One cupful of sour cream, one teaspoonful
of salt, a speck of cayenne, one table-spoonful of lemon juice, three
of vinegar, one teaspoonful of sugar. Mix all together thoroughly.
This is best for vegetables.


Sardine Dressing.

Pound in a mortar, until perfectly smooth, the yolks of four hard-
boiled eggs and three sardines, which have been freed of bones, if
there were any. Add the mixture to any of the thick dressings, like
the mayonnaise or the boiled. This dressing is for fish.


Salad Dressing Without Oil.

The yolks of four uncooked eggs, one table-spoonful of salt, one
heaping teaspoonful of sugar, one heaping teaspoonful of mustard,
half a cupful of clarified chicken fat, a quarter of a cupful of
vinegar, the juice of half a lemon, a speck of cayenne. Make as
directed for mayonnaise dressing.


Salad Dressing made with Butter.

Four table-spoonfuls of butter, one of flour, one table-spoonful of
salt, one of sugar, one heaping teaspoonful of mustard, a speck of
cayenne, one cupful of milk, half a cupful of vinegar, three eggs. Let
the butter get hot in a sauce-pan. Add the flour, and stir until
smooth, being careful not to brown. Add the milk, and boil up. Place
the sauce-pan in another of hot water. Beat the eggs, salt, pepper,
sugar and mustard together, and add the vinegar. Stir this into the
boiling mixture, and stir until it thickens like soft custard, which
will be in about fire minutes. Set away to cool; and when cold,
bottle, and place in the ice-chest. This will keep two weeks.


Bacon Salad Dressing.

Two table-spoonfuls of bacon or pork fat, one of flour, one of lemon
juice, half a teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of sugar, one of
mustard, two eggs, half a cupful of water, half a cupful of vinegar.
Have the fat hot. Add the flour, and stir until smooth, but not brown.
Add the water, and boil up once. Place the sauce-pan in another of
boiling water. Have the eggs and seasoning beaten together. Add the
vinegar to the boiling mixture, and stir in the beaten egg. Cook four
minutes, stirring all the while. Cool and use. If corked tightly, this
will keep two weeks in a cold place.


French Salad Dressing.

Three table-spoonfuls of oil, one of vinegar, one salt-spoonful of
salt, one-half a salt-spoonful of pepper. Put the salt and pepper in a
cup, and add one table-spoonful of the oil. When thoroughly mixed, add
the remainder of the oil and the vinegar. This is dressing enough for
a salad for six persons. If you like the flavor of onion, grate a
little juice into the dressing. The juice is obtained by first peeling
the onion, and then grating with a coarse grater, using a good deal of
pressure. Two strokes will give about two drops of juice--enough for
this rule.


Chicken Salad.

Have cold roasted or boiled chicken free of skin, fat and bones. Place
on a board, and cut in long, thin strips, and cut these into dice.
Place in an earthen bowl (there should be two quarts), and season with
four table-spoonfuls of vinegar, two of oil, one teaspoonful of salt
and one-half of a teaspoonful of pepper. Set away in a cold place for
two or three hours. Scrape and wash enough of the tender white celery
to make one quart. Cut this, with a sharp knife, in pieces about half
an inch thick. Put these in the ice chest until serving time. Make the
mayonnaise dressing. Mix the chicken and celery together, and add half
of the dressing. Arrange in a salad bowl or on a flat dish, and pour
the remainder of the dressing over it. Garnish with white celery
leaves. Or, have a jelly border, and arrange the salad in this. Half
celery and half lettuce is often used for chicken salad. Many people,
when preparing for a large company, use turkey instead of chicken,
there being so much more meat in the same number of pounds of the raw
material; but the salad is not nearly so nice as with chicken. If,
when the chicken or fowl is cooked, it is allowed to cool in the water
in which it is boiled, it will be juicier and tenderer than if taken
from the water as soon as done.


Lobster Salad.

Cut up and season the lobster the same as chicken. Break the leaves
from a head of lettuce, one by one, and wash them singly in a large
pan of cold water. Put them in a pan of ice water for about ten
minutes, and then shake in a wire basket, to free them of water. Place
in the ice chest until serving time. When ready to serve, put two or
three leaves together in the form of a shell, and arrange these shells
on a flat dish. Mix one-half of the mayonnaise dressing with the
lobster. Put a table-spoonful of this in each cluster of leaves.
Finish with a teaspoonful of the dressing on each spoonful of lobster.
This is an exceedingly inviting dish. Another method is to cut or tear
the leaves rather coarse, and mix with the lobster. Garnish the border
of the dish with whole leaves. There should be two-thirds lobster to
one-third lettuce.


Salmon Salad.

One quart of cooked salmon, two heads of lettuce, two table-spoonfuls
of lemon juice, one of vinegar, two of capers, one teaspoonful of
salt, one-third of a teaspoonful of pepper, one cupful of mayonnaise
dressing, or the French dressing. Break up the salmon with two silver
forks. Add to it the salt, pepper, vinegar and lemon juice. Put in the
ice chest or some other cold place, for two or three hours. Prepare
the lettuce as directed for lobster salad. At serving time, pick out
leaves enough to border the dish. Cut or tear the remainder in pieces,
and arrange these in the centre of a flat dish. On them heap the
salmon lightly, and cover with the dressing. Now sprinkle on the
capers. Arrange the whole leaves at the base, and, if you choose, lay
one-fourth of a thin slice of lemon on each leaf.


Oyster Salad.

One pint of celery, one quart of oysters, one-third of a cupful of
mayonnaise dressing, three table-spoonfuls of vinegar, one of oil,
half a teaspoonful of salt, one-eighth of a teaspoonful of pepper, one
table-spoonful of lemon juice. Let the oysters come to a boil in their
own liquor. Skim well and drain. Season them with the oil, salt,
pepper, vinegar and lemon juice. When cold, put in the ice chest for
at least two hours. Scrape and wash the whitest and tenderest part of
the celery, and, with a sharp knife, cut in _very_ thin slices.
Put in a bowl with a large lump of ice, and set in the ice chest until
serving time. When ready to serve, drain the celery, and mix with the
oysters and half of the dressing. Arrange in the dish, pour the
remainder of the dressing over, and garnish with white celery leaves.


Sardine Salad.

Arrange one quart of any kind of cooked fish on a bed of crisp
lettuce. Split six sardines, and if there are any bones, remove them.
Cover the fish with the sardine dressing. Over this put the sardines,
having the ends meet in the centre of the dish. At the base, of the
dish mate a wreath of thin slices of lemon. Garnish with parsley or
lettuce, and serve immediately.


Shad Roe Salad.

Three shad roe, boiled in salted water twenty minutes. When cold, cut
in _thin_ slices. Season and set away, the same as salmon. Serve
the same as salmon, except omit the capers, and use chopped pickled
beet.


Salads of Fish.

All kinds of cooked fish can be served in salads. Lettuce is the best
green salad to use with them, but all green vegetables, when cooked
and cold, can be added to the fish and dressing. The sardine and
French dressings are the best to use with fish.


Polish Salad.

One quart of cold game or poultry, cut very fine; the French dressing,
four hard-boiled eggs, one large, or two small heads of lettuce.
Moisten the meat with the dressing, and let it stand in the ice chest
two or three hours. Rub the yolks of the eggs to a powder, and chop
the whites very fine. Wash the lettuce and put in the ice chest until
serving time. When ready to serve, put the lettuce leaves together and
cut in long, narrow strips with a _sharp_ knife, or tear it with
a fork. Arrange on a dish, heap the meat in the centre, and sprinkle
the egg over all.


Beef Salad.

One quart of cold roasted or stewed beef--it must be very tender,
double the rule for French dressing, one table-spoonful of chopped
parsley, and one of onion juice, to be mixed with the dressing. Cut
the meat in _thin_ slices, and then into little squares. Place a
layer in the salad bowl, sprinkle with parsley and dressing, and
continue this until all the meat is used. Garnish with parsley, and
keep in a cold place for one of two hours. Any kind of meat can be
used instead of beef.


Meat and Potato Salad.

Prepare the meat as directed for beef salad, using, however, one-half
the quantity. Add one pint of cold boiled potatoes, cut in thin
slices, and dressing. Garnish, and set away as before. These salads
can be used as soon as made, but the flavor is improved by their
standing an hour or more.


Bouquet Salad.

Four hard-boiled eggs, finely chopped; one head of lettuce, or one
pint of water cresses; a large bunch of nasturtium blossoms or
buttercups, the French dressing, with the addition of one teaspoonful
of sugar. Wash the lettuce or cresses, and throw into ice water. When
crisp, take out, and shake out all the water. Cut or tear in pieces.
Put a layer in the bowl, with here and there a flower, and sprinkle in
half of the egg and half the dressing. Repeat this. Arrange the
flowers in a wreath, and put a few in the centre. Serve immediately.


Cauliflower Salad.

Boil one large cauliflower with two quarts of water and one table-
spoonful of salt, for half an hour. Take up and drain. When cold,
divide into small tufts. Arrange on the centre of a dish and garnish
with a border of strips of pickled beet. Pour cream dressing, or a
cupful of mayonnaise dressing, over the cauliflower. Arrange a star of
the pickled beet in the centre. Serve immediately.


Asparagus Salad.

Boil two bunches of asparagus with one quart of water and one table-
spoonful of salt, for twenty minutes. Take up and drain on a sieve.
When cold, cut off the tender points, and arrange diem on the dish.
Pour on cream salad dressing.


Asparagus and Salmon Salad.

Prepare the asparagus as before directed. Season a quart of cooked
salmon with one teaspoonful of salt, one-third of a teaspoonful of
pepper, three table-spoonfuls of oil, one of vinegar and two of lemon
juice. Let this stand in the ice chest at least two hours. Arrange the
salmon in the centre of the dish and the asparagus points around it.
Cover the fish with one cupful of mayonnaise dressing. Garnish the
dish with points of lemon. Green peas can be used instead of
asparagus.


Cucumber Salad.

Cut about one inch off of the point of the cucumber, and pare. (The
bitter juice is in the point, and if this is not cut off before
paring, the knife carries the flavor all through the cucumber.) Cut in
thin slices, cover with cold water, and let stand half an hour. Drain,
and season with French dressing. If oil is not liked it can be
omitted.


Tomato Salad.

Pare ripe tomatoes (which should be very cold), and cut in thin
slices. Arrange on a flat dish. Put one teaspoonful of mayonnaise
dressing in the centre of each slice. Place a delicate border of
parsley around the dish, and a sprig here and there between the slices
of tomato.


Cabbage Salad.

One large head of cabbage, twelve eggs, two small cupfuls of sugar,
two teaspoonfuls of salt, one table-spoonful of melted butter, two
teaspoonfuls of mustard, one cupful of vinegar, or more, if you like.
Divide the cabbage into four pieces, and wash well in cold water. Take
off all the wilted leaves and cut out the tough, hard parts. Cut the
cabbage very fine with a _sharp_ knife. Have the eggs boiled
hard, and ten of them chopped fine. Add these and the other
ingredients to the cabbage. Arrange on a dish and garnish with the two
remaining eggs and pickled beets.


Hot Cabbage Salad.

One quart of finely-shaved cabbage, two table-spoonfuls of bacon or
pork fat, two large slices of onion, minced _very fine_; one
teaspoonful of salt, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of pepper, half a
cupful of vinegar, one teaspoonful of sugar. Pry the onion in the fat
until it becomes yellow; then add the other ingredients. Pour the hot
mixture on the cabbage. Stir well, and serve at once. Lettuce can be
served in the same manner.


Vegetable Salad.

A spoonful of green parsley, chopped fine with a knife; six potatoes,
half of a small turnip, half of a carrot, one small beet. Cut the
potatoes in small slices, the beet a little finer, and the turnip and
carrot very fine. Mix all thoroughly. Sprinkle with a scant
teaspoonful of salt--unless the vegetables were salted in cooking, and
add the whole French dressing, or half a cupful of the boiled
dressing. Keep very cool until served.


Red Vegetable Salad.

One pint of cold boiled potatoes, one pint of cold boiled beets, one
pint of uncooked red cabbage, six table-spoonfuls of oil, eight of red
vinegar (that in which beets have been pickled), two teaspoonfuls of
salt (unless the vegetables have been cooked in salted water), half a
teaspoonful of pepper. Cut the potatoes in _thin_ slices and the
beets fine, and slice the cabbage as thin as possible. Mix all the
ingredients. Let stand in a cold place one hour; then serve. Red
cabbage and celery may be used together. Use the French dressing.


Potato Salad.

Ten potatoes, cut fine; the French dressing, with four or five drops
of onion juice in it, and one table-spoonful of chopped parsley.


Potato Salad, No. 2.

One quart of potatoes, two table-spoonfuls of grated onion, two of
chopped parsley, four of chopped beet and enough of any of the
dressings to make moist. The sardine is the best for this. Pare and
cut the potatoes in thin slices, while hot. Mix the other ingredients
with them, and put away in a cool place until serving time. This is
better for standing two or three hours.


Cooked Vegetables in Salad.

Nearly every kind of cooked vegetables can be served in salads. They
can be served separately or mixed. They must be cold and well drained
before the dressing is added. Any of the dressings given, except
sardine, can be used.


Dressed Celery.

Scrape and wash the celery. Let it stand in ice water twenty minutes,
and shake dry. With a sharp knife, cut it in pieces about an inch
long. Put in the ice chest until serving time; then moisten well with
mayonnaise dressing. Arrange in the salad bowl or on a flat dish.
Garnish with a border of white celery leaves or water-cresses. When
served on a flat dish, points of pickled beets, arranged around the
base, make an agreeable change.


Lettuce Salad.

Two small, or one large head of lettuce. Break off all the leaves
carefully, wash each separately, and throw into a pan of ice water,
where they should remain an hour. Put them in a wire basket or coarse
towel, and _shake_ out all the water. Either cut the leaves with
a sharp knife, or tear them in large pieces. Mix the French dressing
with them, and serve immediately. Beets, cucumbers, tomatoes,
cauliflower, asparagus, etc., can each be served as a salad, with
French or boiled dressing. Cold potatoes, beef, mutton or lamb, cut
fine, and finished with either dressing, make a good salad.




MEAT AND FISH SAUCES.


Brown Sauce.

One pound of round beef, one pound of veal cut from the lower part of
the leg; eight table-spoonfuls of butter, one onion, one large slice
of carrot, four cloves, a small piece of mace, five table-spoonfuls of
flour, salt and pepper to taste, four quarts of stock. Cut the meat in
small pieces. Rub three spoonfuls of the butter on the bottom of a
large stew-pan. Put in the meat, and cook half an hour, stirring
frequently. Add the vegetables, spice, a bouquet of sweet herbs and
one quart of the stock. Simmer this two hours, and add the remainder
of the stock. Half a dozen mushrooms will improve the flavor greatly.
Put the remainder of the butter in a frying-pan, and when hot, add the
flour. Stir until dark brown, and as soon as it begins to boil, add to
the sauce. Simmer one hour longer. Season with salt and pepper, and
strain through a fine French sieve or gravy strainer. Skim off the
fat, and the sauce is ready to use. This will keep a week in winter.
It is the foundation for an fine dark sauces, and will well repay for
the trouble and expense of making.


White Sauce.

Make the white sauce the same as the brown, but use all veal and white
stock. When the butter and flour are cooked together be careful that
they do not get browned.


White Sauce, No. 2.

One quart of milk, four table-spoonfuls of butter, four of flour, a
small slice of onion, two sprigs of parsley, salt and pepper to taste.
Put the milk, onion and parsley on in the double boiler. Mix the
butter and flour together until smooth and light. When the milk boils,
stir four table-spoonfuls of it into the butter and flour, and when
this is well mixed, stir it into the boiling milk. Cook eight minutes.
Strain, and serve. This sauce is best with fish.


White Sauce, No. 3.

One large slice of onion, one small slice of carrot, a clove, a small
piece of mace, twelve pepper-corns, two table-spoonfuls of flour, two
heaping table-spoonfuls of butter, one quart of cream--not very rich,
salt to taste. Cook the spice and vegetables slowly in the butter for
twenty minutes. Add the flour, and stir until smooth, being careful
not to brown. Add the cream, gradually, stirring all the while. Boil
for two minutes. Strain, and serve. This sauce is good for veal and
chicken cutlets, _quenelles_, sweetbreads, etc.


White Sauce, No. 4.

One pint of milk, one of cream, four table-spoonfuls of flour, the
yolks of two eggs, salt and pepper to taste. Put the milk and cream on
in the double boiler, reserving one cupful of the milk. Pour eight
table-spoonfuls of the milk on the flour, stir until perfectly smooth,
and add the remainder of the milk. Stir this into the other milk when
it boils. Stir the sauce for two minutes; then cover, and cook eight
minutes longer. Season well with salt and pepper. Beat the yolks of
the eggs with four spoonfuls of cream or milk. Stir into the sauce,
and remove from the fire immediately. The eggs may be omitted, if you
choose. One table-spoonful of chopped parsley stirred into the sauce
just before taking from the fire, is an improvement. This sauce is
nice for all kinds of boiled fish, but particularly for boiled salt
fish.


Bechamel Sauce.

One pint of white sauce, one pint of rich cream, salt, pepper. Let the
sauce and cream come to a boil separately. Mix them together, and boil
up once. Strain, and serve.


Cream Bechamel Sauce.

Three table-spoonfuls of butter, three scant ones of flour, ten
pepper-corns, a small piece of mace, half an onion, a large slice of
carrot, two cupfuls of white stock, one of cream, salt, a little
nutmeg, two sprigs of parsley, one of thyme and one bay leaf. Tie the
parsley, bay leaf and thyme together. Rub the butter and flour to a
smooth paste. Put all the ingredients, except the cream, in a stew-
pan, and simmer half an hour, stirring frequently; add the cream, and
boil up once. Strain, and serve.


Allemande Sauce.

One pint of white sauce, the yolks of six eggs, the juice of half a
lemon, one table-spoonful of mushroom ketchup, one table-spoonful of
butter, half a cupful of cream, salt, pepper, a grating of nutmeg. Let
the sauce come to a boil. Place the sauce-pan in another of boiling
water, and add all the seasoning except the lemon. Beat the yolks of
eggs and the cream together, and add to the sauce. Stir three minutes.
Take off, add the lemon juice, and strain.


Cream Sauce.

One pint of cream, one generous table-spoonful of flour, and salt and
pepper to taste. Let the cream come to a boil. Have the flour mixed
smooth with half a cupful of cold cream, reserved from the pint, and
stir it into the boiling cream. Add seasoning, and boil three minutes.
This sauce is good for delicate meats, fish and vegetables, and to
pour around croquettes and baked and Quaker omelets.

Cream Sauce, No. 2.

One cupful of milk, a teaspoonful of flour and a table-spoonful of
butter, salt and pepper. Put the butter in a small frying-pan, and
when hot, _but not brown,_ add the flour. Stir until smooth; then
gradually add the milk. Let it boil up once. Season to taste with salt
and pepper, and serve. This is nice to cut cold potatoes into and let
them just heat through. They are then creamed potatoes. It also
answers as a sauce for other vegetables, omelets, fish and
sweetbreads, or, indeed, for anything that requires a white sauce. If
you have plenty of cream, use it, and omit the butter.


Polish Sauce.

One pint of stock, two table-spoonfuls of butter, four of grated
horseradish, one of flour, one of chopped parsley, the juice of one
lemon, one teaspoonful of sugar, salt, pepper. Cook the butter and
flour together until smooth, but not brown. Add the stock; and when it
boils, add all the other ingredients except the parsley. Boil up once,
and add the parsley. This sauce is for roast veal.


Robert Sauce.

Two cupfuls of stock, two small onions, four table-spoonfuls of
butter, one heaping table-spoonful of flour, one tea-spoonful of dry
mustard, one of sugar, a speck of cayenne, two table-spoonfuls of
vinegar, salt. Cut the onions into dice, and put on with the butter.
Stir until they begin to color; then add the flour, and stir until
brown. As soon as it boils, add the stock and other ingredients, and
simmer five minutes. Skim, and serve.


Supreme Sauce.

Add to one pint of white sauce three finely-chopped mushrooms, the
juice of half a lemon and one table-spoonful of butter. Simmer all
together ten minutes. Rub through the strainer and use.

Olive Sauce.

Two dozen queen olives, one pint of rich stock, the juice of one
lemon, two table-spoonfuls of salad oil, one of flour, salt, pepper, a
small slice of onion. Let the olives stand in hot water half an hour,
to extract the salt. Put the onion and oil in the stew-pan, and as
soon as the onion begins to color, add the flour. Stir until smooth,
and add the stock. Set back where it will simmer. Pare the olives,
round and round, close to the stones, and have the pulp in a single
piece. If this is done carefully with a sharp knife, in somewhat the
same way that an apple skin is removed whole, the olives will still
have their natural shape after the stones are taken out. Put them in
the sauce, add the seasoning, and simmer twenty minutes. Skim
carefully, and serve. If the sauce is liked thin, half the amount of
flour given can be used. This sauce is for roast ducks and other game.


Flemish Sauce.

Cut a cupful of the red part of a carrot into _very small_ dice.
Cover with boiling water, and simmer one hour. Put three table-
spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, a slice of carrot, an onion, cut
fine; a blade of mace and twenty pepper-corns in a sauce-pan. Stir
over the fire one minute, and add two cupfuls of stock. Simmer gently
half an hour. Add a cupful of cream, boil up once, and strain. Now add
the cooked carrot, one table-spoonful of chopped parsley, two of
chopped cucumber pickles and, if you like, one of grated horseradish.
Taste to see if salt enough.


Chestnut Sauce.

One pint of shelled chestnuts, one quart of stock, one teaspoonful of
lemon juice, one table-spoonful of flour, two of butter, salt, pepper.
Boil the chestnuts in water for about three minutes; then plunge them
into cold water, and rub off the dark skins. Put them on to cook with
the stock, and boil gently until they will mash readily (it will take
about an hour). Mash as fine as possible. Put the butter and flour in
a sauce-pan and cook until a dark brown. Stir into the sauce, and cook
two minutes. Add the seasoning, and rub all through a sieve. This
sauce is for roast turkey. When, to be served with boiled turkey, use
only a pint and a half of stock; rub the butter and flour together,
and stir into the boiling mixture; rub through the sieve as before;
add half a pint of cream to the sauce; return to the fire, boil up
once, and serve. The chestnuts used are twice as large as the native
fruit All first-class provision dealers and grocers keep them.


Celery Sauce.

Cut the tender parts of a head of celery _very fine._ Pour on
water enough to cover them, and no more. Cover the sauce-pan, and set
where it will simmer one hour. Mix together two table-spoonfuls of
flour and four of butter. When the celery has been boiling one hour,
add to it the butter and flour, one pint of milk or cream, and salt
and pepper. Boil up once, and serve.


Brown Mushroom Sauce.

One forty-cent can of French mushrooms, two cupfuls of stock, two
table-spoonfuls of flour, four of butter, salt, pepper. Melt the
butter. Add the flour, and stir until a very dark brown; then
gradually add the stock. When this boils up, add the liquor from the
mushrooms. Season, and simmer twenty minutes. Skim off any fat that
may rise to the top. Add the mushrooms, and simmer five minutes
longer. Too much cooking toughens the mushrooms. This sauce is to be
served with any kind of roasted, broiled or braised meats. It is
especially nice with beef.


Brown Mushroom Sauce, No, 3.

One pint of stock, two cloves, one small slice each of turnip, carrot
and onion, three table-spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, half a can
of mushrooms, or one-eighth of a pound of the fresh vegetable. Cut the
vegetables in small pieces, and fry in the butter with the cloves
until brown. Add the flour, and stir until dark brown; then gradually
add the stock. Chop the mushrooms, stir into the sauce, and simmer
half an hour. Rub through the sieve. Use the same as the other brown
mushroom sauce.


White Mushroom Sauce.

Hake a mushroom sauce like the first, using one cupful of white stock
and one cupful of cream, and cooking the butter only until smooth. Do
not let it become browned.


Beurre Noir.

Two table-spoonfuls of butter, one of vinegar, one of chopped parsley,
one teaspoonful of lemon juice, half a tea-spoonful of salt, one
quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper. Put the butter in a frying-pan,
and when very hot, add the parsley and then the other ingredients.
Boil up once. This sauce is for fried and broiled fish, and it is
poured over the fish before sending to the table.


Maitre d' Hotel Butter.

Four table-spoonfuls of butter, one of vinegar, one of lemon juice,
half a teaspoonful of salt, one quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper,
one teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Beat the butter to a cream, and
gradually beat in the seasoning. This sauce is spread on fried and
broiled meats and fish instead of butter. It is particularly nice for
fish and beefsteak.


Maître d' Hôtel Sauce.

One pint of white stock, the yolks of three eggs, one heaping table-
spoonful of corn-starch. Put the stock on to boil, reserving one-third
of a cupful for the corn-starch. Mix the corn-starch with the cold
stock and stir into the boiling. Boil gently for five minutes. Prepare
the _maître d' hotel_ butter as directed in the rule, and add to
it the yolks of the eggs. Gradually stir into this the boiling
mixture. After placing the sauce-pan in another of boiling water, stir
constantly for three minutes. Take off, and serve.


Hollandaise Sauce.

Half a tea-cupful of butter, the juice of half a lemon, the yolks of
two eggs, a speck of cayenne, half a cupful of boiling water, half a
teaspoonful of salt. Beat the butter to a cream; then add the yolks,
one by one, the lemon juice, pepper and salt. Place the bowl in which
these are mixed in a sauce-pan of boiling water. Beat with an egg-
beater until the sauce begins to thicken (about a minute), and add the
boiling water, beating all the time. When like a soft custard it is
done. The bowl, if thin, must be kept over the fire only about five
minutes, provided the water boils all the time. The sauce should be
poured around meat or fish when it is on the dish.


Lobster Sauce.

One small lobster, four table-spoonfuls of butter, two of flour, one-
fifth of a teaspoonful of cayenne, two table-spoonfuls of lemon juice,
one pint of boiling water. Cut the meat into dice. Pound the "coral"
with one table-spoonful of the butter. Rub the flour and the remainder
of the butter to a smooth paste. Add the water, pounded "coral" and
butter, and the seasoning. Simmer five minutes, and then strain on the
lobster. Boil up once, and serve. This sauce is for all kinds of
boiled fish.


Butter Sauce.

Two table-spoonfuls of flour, half a cupful of butter and one pint of
boiling water. Work the flour and butter together until light and
creamy, and gradually add the boiling water. Stir constantly until it
comes to a boil, but do not let it boil. Take from the fire, and
serve. A table-spoonful of lemon juice and a speck of cayenne may be
added if you choose. A table-spoonful of chopped parsley also gives an
agreeable change.


White Oyster Sauce.

One pint of oysters, three table-spoonfuls of butter, one heaping
table-spoonful of flour, one of lemon juice, salt, pepper, a speck of
cayenne. Wash the oysters in enough water, with the addition of the
oyster liquor, to make a pint. Work the butter and flour to a smooth
paste. Let the water and oyster juice come to a boil. Skim, and pour
on the flour and butter. Let come to a boil, and add the oysters and
seasoning. Boil up once, and serve. Half a cupful of the water may be
omitted and half a cupful of boiling cream added at the last moment.


Brown Oyster Sauce.

The same ingredients as for the white sauce. Put the butter and flour
in the sauce-pan and stir until a dark brown. Add the skimmed liquor,
boil up, and add the other ingredients. Boil up once more, and serve.
In the brown sauce stock can be used instead of water. The sauce is
served with broiled or stewed beefsteak.


Shrimp Sauce.

Make a butter sauce, and add to it two table-spoonfuls of essence of
anchovy and half a pint of canned shrimp. Stir well, and it is ready
to serve.


Anchovy Sauce.

Make the butter sauce, and stir into it four table-spoonfuls of
essence of anchovy and one of lemon juice.


Egg Sauce.

Six hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine with a silver, knife or spoon; half
a cupful of boiling cream or milk, and the butter sauce. Make the
sauce, add the boiling cream or milk, and then the eggs. Stir well,
and serve.


Fine Herbs Sauce.

One table-spoonful of chopped onion, two of chopped mushroom, one of
chopped parsley, two of butter, salt, pepper, one pint of white sauce,
No. 3. Put the butter and chopped ingredients in a sauce-pan and stir
for one minute over the fire. Add the sauce, and boil up once.


Caper Sauce.

Make a butter sauce, and stir into it one table-spoonful of lemon
juice, two of capers, and one of essence of anchovy.


Mustard Sauce.

Stir three table-spoonfuls of mixed mustard and a speck of cayenne
into a butter sauce. This is nice for devilled turkey and broiled
smoked herrings.


Curry Sauce.

One table-spoonful of butter, one of flour, one teaspoonful of curry
powder, one large slice of onion, one large cupful of stock, salt and
pepper to taste. Cut the onion fine, and fry brown in the butter.. Add
the flour and curry powder. Stir for one minute, add the stock, and
season with the salt and pepper. Simmer five minutes; then strain, and
serve. This sauce can be served with a broil or _sauté_ of meat
or fish.


Vinaigrette Sauce.

One teaspoonful of white pepper, one of salt, half a teaspoonful of
mustard, half a cupful of vinegar, one table-spoonful of oil. Mix the
salt, pepper and mustard together; then _very_ slowly add the
vinegar, and after mixing well, add the oil. The sauce is to be eaten
on cold meats or on fish.


Piquant Sauce.

Two cupfuls of brown sauce, one of consomme, (common stock will do),
four table-spoonfuls of vinegar, two of chopped onion, two of chopped
capers, two of chopped cucumber pickles, one-fourth of a teaspoonful
of cayenne, one teaspoonful of sugar, salt to taste. Cook the onion
and vinegar in a sauce-pan for three minutes; then add the sauce,
consomme, sugar, salt and pepper. Boil rapidly for five minutes,
stirring all the while. Add the capers and pickles, and boil three
minutes longer.


Tomato Sauce.

One quart of canned tomatoes, two table-spoonfuls of butter, two of
flour, eight cloves and a small slice of onion. Cook the tomato, onion
and cloves ten minutes. Heat the butter in a small frying-pan, and add
the flour. Stir over the fire until smooth and brown, and then stir
into the tomatoes. Cook two minutes. Season to taste with salt and
pepper, and rub through a strainer fine enough to keep back the seeds.
This sauce is nice for fish, meat and macaroni.


Tartare Sauce.

The yolks of two uncooked eggs, half a cupful of oil, three table-
spoonfuls of vinegar, one of mustard, one teaspoonful of sugar, one-
quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper, one teaspoonful of salt, one of
onion juice, one table-spoonful of chopped capers, one of chopped
cucumber pickles. Make the same as mayonnaise dressing. Add the
chopped ingredients the last thing. This sauce can be used with fried
and broiled meats and fish, and with meats served in jelly.


Champagne Sauce.

Mix thoroughly a table-spoonful of butter with one of flour. Set the
sauce-pan on the fire, and stir constantly until the mixture is dark
brown; then pour into it half a pint of boiling gravy (the liquor in
which pieces of lean meat have boiled until it is very rich). Pour in
this gravy slowly, and stir slowly and continually. Let boil up once,
season well with pepper and salt, and strain. Add half a cupful of
champagne, and serve.


Port Wine Sauce for Game.

Half a tumbler of currant jelly, half a tumbler of port wine, half a
tumbler of stock, half a teaspoonful of salt, two table-spoonfuls of
lemon juice, four cloves, a speck of cayenne. Simmer the cloves and
stock together for half an hour. Strain on the other ingredients, and
let all melt together. Part of the gravy from the game may be added to
it.


Currant Jelly Sauce.

Three table-spoonfuls of butter, one onion, one bay leaf, one sprig of
celery, two table-spoonfuls of vinegar, half a cupful of currant
jelly, one table-spoonful of flour, one pint of stock, salt, pepper.
Cook the butter and onion until the latter begins to color. Add the
flour and herbs. Stir until brown; add the stock, and simmer twenty
minutes. Strain, and skim off all the fat. Add the jelly, and stir
over the fire until it is melted. Serve with game.


Bread Sauce for Game.

Two cupfuls of milk, one of dried bread crumbs, a quarter of an onion,
two table-spoonfuls of butter, and salt and pepper. Dry the bread in a
warm oven, and roll into rather coarse crumbs. Sift; and put the fine
crumbs which come through, and which make about one-third of a cupful,
on to boil with the milk and onion. Boil ten or fifteen minutes, and
add a table-spoonful of butter and the seasoning. Skim out the onion.
Fry the coarse, crumbs a light brown in the remaining butter, which
must be very hot before they are put in. Stir over a hot fire two
minutes, being watchful not to burn. Cover the breasts of the roasted
birds with these, and serve the sauce poured around the birds, or in a
gravy dish.




FORCE-MEAT AND GARNISHES.


Force-Meat for Game.

One pound of clear uncooked veal, a quarter of a pound of fat pork,
one pound of boiled ham, one quart of milk, one pint of bread crumbs,
half a cupful of butter, three table-spoonfuls of onion juice, one
table-spoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, six mushrooms,
the yolks of four eggs, a speck each of clove, cinnamon, mace and
nutmeg. Chop the veal, pork, ham and mushrooms _very fine_, and,
with a pestle, pound to a powder. Cook the bread and milk together,
stirring often, until the former is soft and smooth. Set away to cool,
first adding the butter and seasoning to it. When cold, add to the
powdered meat. Mix thoroughly, and rub through a sieve. Add the yolks
of the eggs. This force-meat is used for borders in which to serve hot
entrees of game. It is also used in game pies, and sometimes for
_quenelles._ When used for a border it is put in a well-buttered
mould and steamed three hours. It is then turned out on a flat dish,
and the hot salmis, blanquette or ragout is poured into the centre.


Ham Force-Meat.

Two pounds of cooked ham, chopped, and then pounded very fine; one
pound of bread crumbs, one pint of milk, the yolks of four eggs, one
table-spoonful of mixed mustard, one teaspoonful of salt, a speck of
cayenne, one cupful of brown sauce. Make as directed for force-meat
for game.


Veal Force-Meat.

Three pounds of veal, one cupful of butter, one pint of bread crumbs,
one pint of milk, one pint of white sauce, two table-spoonfuls of
salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, two table-spoonfuls of Halford
sauce, two of onion juice, the yolks of six eggs, half a teaspoonful
of grated nutmeg, two table-spoonfuls of chopped parsley. Make and use
the same as game force-meat.


Chicken Force-Meat.

Use only the breast of the chicken. Make the same as veal force-meat,
using cream, however, with the bread crumbs, instead of milk. This
force-meat is for the most delicate entries only. Either the chicken
or veal can be formed into balls about the size of a walnut and fried
or poached for soups.


Fish Force-Meat.

This can be made the same as veal force-meat. Salmon and halibut will
be found the best kinds of fish to use for it. The force-meat is for
entrees of fish.


Force-meat is sometimes formed into a square or oval piece for the
centre of the dish. It should be about an inch and a half thick. Place
on a buttered sheet or plate and steam two hours. When cooked, slip on
to the centre of the dish. Arrange the entree on this, and pour the
sauce around the base. Delicate cutlets, sweetbreads, etc., can be
used here. Veal or chicken force-meat is the best for all light
entrees.


Jelly Border.

Make one quart of aspic jelly. Set the plain border mould (see rice
border, under Entries) in a pan with a little ice and water. Pour
enough of the liquid jelly into the mould to make a layer half an inch
deep. Let this get hard. When hard, decorate with cooked carrot and
beet, and the white of a hard-boiled egg. These must all be cut in
pretty shapes with the vegetable cutter, and arranged on the jelly.
Very carefully add two table-spoonfuls of jelly, and let it harden.
Fill with the remainder of the jelly, and set away to harden. At
serving time put the mould for half a minute in a pan of warm water.
Wipe it, and turn the jelly on a cold flat dish. Fill the centre with
salad, boned fowl, or anything else you choose.


Marinade for Fish.

One quart of cider, two slices of carrot, one large onion, four
cloves, a bouquet of sweet herbs, two table-spoonfuls of butter, two
of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper and the same quantity of
mustard. Cook the onion and carrot in the butter for ten minutes, and
add the other ingredients. Cover the sauce-pan, and simmer one hour
and a half. This is for stewing fish. It should be strained on the
fish, and that should simmer forty minutes.


Cold Marinade.

A bouquet of sweet herbs, the juice of half a lemon, two table-
spoonfuls of oil, six of vinegar, one of onion juice, a speck of
cayenne, one teaspoonful of salt, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of
pepper, one-tenth of a teaspoonful of ground clove. Mix all together.
Sprinkle on the meat or fish, which should stand ten or twelve hours.
This is particularly for fish, chops, steaks and cutlets which are to
be either fried or broiled. Any of the flavorings that are not liked
may be omitted. When cooked meats or fish are sprinkled with salt,
pepper and vinegar, as for salads, they are said to be marinated.


To Get Onion Juice.

Feel the onion, and grate on a large grater, using a good deal of
pressure.


To Fry Parsley.

Wash the parsley, and wipe dry. Put in the frying basket and plunge
into boiling fat for half a minute.


To Make Spinach Green.

Wash a peck of spinach. Pour on it two quarts of boiling water. Let it
stand one minute. Pour off the water, and pound the spinach to a soft
pulp. Put this in a coarse towel and squeeze all the juice into a
small frying-pan. (Two people, by using the towel at the same time,
will extract the juice more thoroughly than one can.) Put the pan on
the fire, and stir until the juice is in the form of curd and whey.
Turn this on a sieve, and when all the liquor has been drained off,
scrape the dry material from the sieve, and put away for use. Another
mode is to put with the juice in the frying-pan three table-spoonfuls
of sugar. Let this cook five minutes; then bottle for use. This is
really the more convenient way. Spinach green is used for coloring
soups, sauces and creams.


Points of Lemon.

Cut fresh lemons in thin slices, and divide these slices into four
parts. This gives the points. They are used as a garnish for salads
and made dishes.


To Make a Bouquet of Sweet Herbs.

Put two sprigs of parsley on the table, and across them lay two bay
leaves, two sprigs of thyme, two of summer savory, and two
_leaves_ of sage. Tie all the other herbs (which are dry) with
the parsley. The bouquet is for soups, stews, game, and meat jellies.
When it can be obtained, use tarragon also.




VEGETABLES.

All green vegetables must be washed thoroughly in cold water and
dropped into water which has been salted and is just beginning to boil
There should be a table-spoonful of salt for every two quarts of
water. If the water boils a long time before the vegetables are put in
it loses all its gases, and the mineral ingredients are deposited on
the bottom and sides of the kettle, so that the water is flat and
tasteless: the vegetables will not look green, nor have a fine flavor.
The time of boiling green vegetables depends very much upon the age,
and how long they have been gathered. The younger and more freshly
gathered, the more quickly they are cooked. The following is a time-
table for cooking:

Potatoes, boiled. 30 minutes.

Potatoes, baked. 45 minutes.

Sweet Potatoes, boiled. 45 minutes.

Sweet Potatoes, baked. 1 hour.

Squash, boiled. 25 minutes.

Squash, baked. 45 minutes.

Green Peas, boiled. 20 to 40 minutes.

Shell Beans, boiled. 1 hour.

String Beans, boiled. 1 to 2 hours.

Green Corn. 25 minutes to 1 hour.

Asparagus. 15 to 30 minutes.

Tomatoes, fresh. 1 hour.

Tomatoes, canned. 30 minutes.

Cabbage. 45 minutes to 2 hours.

Cauliflower. 1 to 2 hours.

Dandelions. 2 to 3 hours.

Beet Greens. 1 hour.

Onions. 1 to 2 hours.

Turnips, white. 45 minutes to 1 hour.

Turnips, yellow. 1 1/2 to 2 hours.

Parsnips. 1 to 2 hours.

Carrots. 1 to 2 hours.

Nearly all these vegetables are eaten dressed with salt, pepper and
butter, but sometimes a small piece of lean pork is boiled with them,
and seasons them sufficiently.


Potatoes.

No other vegetable is in America so commonly used and abused. The most
inexperienced housekeeper takes it as a matter of course that she or
her cook cannot fail of boiling potatoes properly. The time of cooking
the potato, unlike that of nearly all other vegetables, does not vary
with age or freshness; so there need never be a failure. In baking,
the heat of the oven is not always the same, and the time of cooking
will vary accordingly. The potato is composed largely of starch.
Cooking breaks the cells and sets this starch free. If the potato is
removed from heat and moisture as soon as this occurs, it will be dry
and mealy, but if it is allowed to boil or bake, even for a few
minutes, the starch will absorb the moisture, and the potato will
become soggy and have a poor flavor.


Boiled Potatoes.

Twelve medium-sized potatoes, one table-spoonful of salt, boiling
water to cover. Pare the potatoes, and if old, let them stand in cold
water an hour or two, to freshen them. Boil fifteen minutes; then add
the salt, and boil fifteen minutes longer. Pour off _every drop_
of water. Take the cover from the sauce-pan and shake the potatoes in
a current of cold air (at either the door or window). Place the
saucepan on the back part of the stove, and cover with a clean coarse
towel until serving time. The sooner the potatoes are served, the
better. This rule will ensure perfectly sweet and mealy potatoes, if
they were good and ripe at first.


Mashed Potatoes.

Twelve potatoes, one and a half table-spoonfuls of salt, one table-
spoonful of butter, half a cupful of boiling milk. Pare and boil as
directed for boiled potatoes, and mash fine and light. Add the salt
and butter. Beat well; then add the milk, and beat as you would for
cake. This will give a light and delicate dish of potatoes. The
potatoes must be perfectly smooth before adding the other ingredients.


Purée of Potato.

Prepare the potatoes as directed for mashed potatoes, except use a
generous cupful of milk and half a teaspoonful of pepper. If the puree
is to serve as a foundation for dry meats, like grouse, veal or
turkey, use a cupful of rich stock instead of the milk. This
preparation, spread on a hot platter, with any kind of cold meat or
fish that has been warmed in a little sauce or gravy, heaped in the
centre of it, makes a delightful dish for lunch or dinner.


Potato Puffs.

Prepare the potatoes as directed for mashed potato. While _hot,_
shape in balls about the size of an egg. Have a tin sheet well
buttered, and place the balls on it. As soon as all are done, brash
over with beaten egg. Brown in the oven. When done, slip a knife under
them and slide them upon a hot platter. Garnish with parsley, and
serve immediately.


Riced Potato.

Have a flat dish and the colander hot. With a spoon, rub mashed potato
through the colander on to the hot dish. Be careful that the colander
does not touch the potato on the dish. It is best to have only a few
spoonfuls of the potato in it at one time. When all has been pressed
through, place the dish in the oven for five minutes.


Potato à la Royale.

One pint of hot toiled potatoes, a generous half cupful of cream or
milk, two table spoonfuls of butter, the whites of four eggs and yolk
of one, salt and pepper to taste. Beat the potato very light and fine.
Add the seasoning, milk and butter, and lastly the whites of the eggs,
beaten to a stiff froth. Turn into a buttered escalop dish. Smooth
with a knife and brush over with the yolk of the egg, which has been
well beaten. Brown quickly, and serve. It will take ten minutes to
brown. The dish in which it is baked should hold a little more than a
quart.


Potatoes à l'Italienne.

Prepare the potatoes as for serving _à la royale_. Add one table-
spoonful of onion juice, one of finely-chopped parsley, and half a
cupful of finely-chopped cooked ham. Heap lightly in the dish, but do
not smooth. Sprinkle on this one table-spoonful of grated Parmesan
cheese. Brown quickly, and serve. The cheese may be omitted if not
liked.


Thin Fried Potatoes.

Pare and cut raw potatoes _very thin_, with either the vegetable
slicer or a sharp knife. Put them in cold water and let them stand in
a cold place (the ice chest is best) from ten to twenty-four hours.
This draws out the starch. Drain them well. Put about one pint in the
frying basket, plunge into boiling lard, and cook about ten minutes.
After the first minute set back where the heat will decrease. Drain,
and dredge with salt. Continue this until all are fried. Remember that
the fat must be hot at first, and when it has regained its heat after
the potatoes have been added, must be set back where the potatoes will
not cook fast. If the cooking is too rapid they will be brown before
they have become crisp. Care must also be taken, when the potatoes are
first put in the frying kettle, that the fat does not boil over. Have
a fork under the handle of the basket, and if you find that there is
danger, lift the basket partly out of the kettle. Continue this until
all the water has evaporated; then let the basket remain in the
kettle. If many potatoes are cooked in this way for a family, quite an
amount of starch can be saved from the water in which they were soaked
by pouring off the water and scraping the starch from the bottom of
the vessel. Dry, and use as any other starch.


French Fried Potatoes.

Pare small uncooked potatoes. Divide them in halves, and each half in
three pieces. Put in the frying basket and cook in boiling fat for ten
minutes. Drain, and dredge with salt. Serve hot with chops or
beefsteak. Two dozen pieces can be fried at one time.


Potatoes à la Parisienne.

Pare large uncooked potatoes. Cut little balls out of these with the
vegetable scoop. Six balls can be cut from one large potato. Drop them
in ice water. When all are prepared, drain them, and put in the frying
basket. This can be half full each time--that is, about three dozen
balls can be put in. Put the basket carefully into the fat, the same
as for thin fried potatoes. Cook ten minutes. Drain. Dredge with salt,
and serve very hot. These are nice to serve with a fillet of beef,
beefsteak, chops or game. They may be arranged on the dish with the
meats, or served in a separate dish.


Potato Balls Fried in Butter.

Cut little balls from cooked potatoes with the vegetable scoop. After
all the salt has been washed from one cupful of butter (chicken fat
will do instead), put this in a small frying-pan. When hot, put in as
many potato balls as will cover the bottom, and fry until a golden
brown. Take up, drain, and dredge with salt. Serve very hot. These
balls can be cut from raw potatoes, boiled in salted water five
minutes, and fried in the butter ten minutes. When boiled potatoes are
used, the part left after the balls have been cut out, will answer for
creamed or Lyonnaise potatoes; but when raw potatoes are used, the
part left should be put into cold water until cooking time, and can be
used for mashed or riced potatoes.


Potatoes Baked with Roast Beef.

Fare rather small potatoes, and boil for twelve minutes in salted
water. Take up and put on the grate with roast beef. Bake twenty-five
or thirty minutes. Arrange on the dish with the beef, or, if you
prefer, on a separate dish.


Broiled Potatoes.

Cut cold boiled potatoes in slices a third of an inch thick. Dip them
in melted butter and _fine_ bread crumbs. Place in the double
broiler and broil over a fire that is not too hot. Garnish with
parsley, and serve on a hot dish. Or, season with salt and pepper,
toast till a delicate brown, arrange on a hot dish, and season with
butter.


Lyonnaise Potatoes.

One quart of cold boiled potatoes, cut into dice; three table-
spoonfuls of butter, one of chopped onion, one of chopped parsley,
salt, pepper. Season the potatoes with the salt and pepper. Fry the
onions in the butter, and when they turn yellow, add the potatoes.
Stir with a fork, being careful not to break them. When hot, add the
parsley, and cook two minutes longer. Serve immediately on a hot dish.


Duchess Potatoes.

Cut cold boiled potatoes into cubes. Season well with salt and pepper,
and dip in melted butter and lightly in flour. Arrange them on a
baking sheet, and bake fifteen minutes in a quick oven. Serve _very
hot_.


Housekeeper's Potatoes.

One quart of cold boiled potatoes, cut into dice; one pint of stock,
one table-spoonful of chopped parsley, one of butter, one teaspoonful
of lemon juice, salt, pepper. Season the potatoes with the salt and
pepper, and add the stock. Cover, and simmer twelve minutes. Add lemon
juice, butter and parsley, and simmer two minutes longer.


Potatoes à la Maître d' Hôtel.

One quart of cold boiled potatoes, cut into dice; one scant pint of
milk, one table-spoonful of chopped parsley, three of butter, one
teaspoonful of lemon juice, salt, pepper, the yolks of two eggs, one
teaspoonful of flour. Mix the butter, flour, lemon juice, parsley and
yolks of eggs together. Season the potatoes with salt and pepper. Add
the milk, and put on in the double boiler. Cook five minutes; then add
the other ingredients, and cook five minutes longer. Stir often.


Stewed Potatoes.

One quart of cold boiled potatoes, cut into little dice j one pint and
a half of milk, one table-spoonful of parsley, one of flour, two of
butter, salt, pepper. Put the potatoes in the double boiler, and
dredge them with the salt, pepper and flour. Add the parsley, butter
and milk. Cover, and put on to boil. Cook twelve minutes. Serve very
hot.


Creamed Potatoes.

One quart of cold boiled potatoes, cut in very _thin_ slices; one
pint of cream sauce, salt, pepper. Season the potatoes with salt and
pepper, and turn them into the sauce. Cover the stew-pan, and cook
until the potatoes are hot--no longer. Serve immediately in a hot
dish. They will heat in the double boiler in six minutes, and will not
require stirring.


Escaloped Potatoes.

Cut one quart of cold boiled potatoes in _very thin_ slices, and
season well with salt and pepper. Butter an escalop dish. Cover the
bottom with a layer of cream sauce, add a layer of the potatoes,
sprinkle with chopped parsley, and moisten with sauce. Continue this
until all the material is used. Have the last layer one of cream
sauce. Cover the dish with fine bread crumbs, put a table-spoonful of
butter in little bits on the top, and cook twenty minutes. It takes
one pint of sauce, one table-spoonful of parsley, half a cupful of
bread crumbs, one teaspoonful of salt and as much pepper as you like.
This dish can be varied by using a cupful of chopped ham with the
potatoes. Indeed, any kind of meat can be used.


Potato Soufflé.

Six large, smooth potatoes, half a cupful of boiling milk, one table-
spoonful of butter, the whites of four eggs, salt and pepper to taste.
Wash the potatoes clean, being, careful not to break the skin. Bake
forty-five minutes. Take the potatoes from the oven, and with a sharp
knife, cut them in two, lengthwise. Scoop out the potato with a spoon,
and put it in a hot bowl. Mash light and fine. Add the seasoning,
butter and milk, and then half the whites of the eggs. Fill the skins
with the mixture. Cover with the remaining white of the egg, and brown
in the oven. Great care must be taken not to break the skins.


Sweet Potatoes.

Sweet potatoes require from forty-five to fifty-five minutes to boil,
and from one hour to one and a quarter to bake. The time given will
make the potatoes moist and sweet If, however, they are preferred dry
and mealy, fifteen minutes less will be enough.


French Fried Sweet Potatoes.

Prepare and fry the same as the white potatoes. Or, they can first be
boiled half an hour, and then pared, cut and fried as directed. The
latter is the better way, as they are liable to be a little hard if
fried when raw.


Cold Boiled Sweet Potatoes.

Cut cold boiled sweet potatoes in thick slices, and season well with
salt and pepper. Have the bottom of the frying-pan covered with
either butter, or pork, ham or chicken fat. Put enough of the sliced
potatoes in the pan to just cover the bottom. Brown one side, and
turn, and brown the other. Serve in a hot dish. Cold potatoes can be
served in cream, cut in thick slices and toasted, cut in thick slices,
dipped in egg and bread crumbs and fried brown, and can be fried in
batter.


Plain Boiled Macaroni.

Two quarts of boiling water, one table-spoonful of salt, and twelve
sticks of macaroni. Break and wash the macaroni, throw it into the
salt and water, and boil _rapidly_ for twenty-five minutes. Pour
off the water, season with salt, pepper and butter, and serve.


Macaroni in Gravy.

Twelve sticks of macaroni, one and a half pints of stock, one scant
table-spoonful of flour, one generous table-spoonful of butter, salt,
pepper. Break and wash the macaroni. Put it in a sauce-pan with the
stock. Cover, and simmer half an hour. Mix the butter and flour
together. Stir this and the seasoning in with the macaroni. Simmer ten
minutes longer, and serve. A table-spoonful of grated cheese may be
added.


Macaroni with Cream Sauce.

Boil the macaroni as directed for the plain boiled dish. Drain, and
serve with half a pint of cream sauce.


Macaroni with Tomato Sauce.

Boil and drain as directed for plain boiled macaroni. Pour over it one
pint of tomato sauce.


Macaroni with Cheese.

Prepare the macaroni with the cream sauce. Turn into a buttered
escalop dish. Have half a cupful of grated cheese and half a cupful of
bread crumbs mixed. Sprinkle over the macaroni, and place in the oven
and brown. It will take about twenty minutes.


Macaroni à l'Italienne.

Twelve sticks of macaroni (a quarter of a pound), half a pint of milk,
two table-spoonfuls of cream, two of butter, one of flour, some salt,
white pepper and cayenne, and a quarter of a pound of cheese. Break
and wash the macaroni, and boil it rapidly for twenty minutes in two
quarts of water. Put the milk on in the double boiler. Mix the butter
and flour together, and stir into the boiling milk. Add the seasoning,
cream and cheese. Drain, and dish the macaroni. Pour the sauce over
it, and serve immediately. One table-spoonful of mustard can be
stirred into the sauce if you like. If the sauce and macaroni are
allowed to stand long after they are put together the dish will be
spoiled. If they cannot be served immediately, keep both hot in
separate dishes.


Stuffed Tomatoes.

Twelve large, smooth tomatoes, one teaspoonful of salt, a little
pepper, one table-spoonful of butter, one of sugar, one cupful of
bread crumbs, one teaspoonful of onion juice. Arrange the tomatoes in
a baking pan. Cut a thin slice from the smooth end of each. With a
small spoon, scoop out as much of the pulp and juice as possible
without injuring the shape. When all have been treated in this way,
mix the pulp and juice with the other ingredients, and fill the
tomatoes with this mixture. Put on the tops, and bake slowly three-
quarters of an hour. Slide the cake turner under the tomatoes and lift
gently on to a flat dish. Garnish with parsley, and serve.


Stuffed Tomatoes, No 2.

Twelve tomatoes, two cupfuls of bread crumbs, one of stock, four
table-spoonfuls of butter, one of flour, salt, pepper, one teaspoonful
of onion juice. Cut slices from the stem end of the tomatoes. Remove
the juice and pulp with a spoon, and dredge the inside with salt and
pepper. Put two table-spoonfuls of the butter in a frying-pan, and
when hot, stir in the bread crumbs. Stir constantly until they are
brown and crisp, and fill the tomatoes with them. Cover the openings
with fresh crumbs and bits of butter. Bake slowly half an hour.
Fifteen minutes before the tomatoes are done, make the sauce in this
manner: Put one table-spoonful of butter in the frying-pan, and when
hot, add the flour. Stir until brown and smooth; then add the stock,
tomato juice and pulp. Stir until it boils up, and add the onion
juice, salt and pepper. Simmer ten minutes, and strain. Lift the
tomatoes on to a flat dish, with the cake turner. Pour the sauce
around, garnish with parsley, and serve. Any kind of meat, chopped
fine and seasoned highly, can be used in place of the crumbs.


Escaloped Tomatoes.

One pint of fresh or canned tomatoes, one generous pint of bread
crumbs, three table-spoonfuls of butter, one of sugar, one scant
table-spoonful of salt, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of pepper. Put a
layer of the tomato in an escalop dish. Dredge with salt and pepper,
and dot butter here and there. Now put in a layer of crumbs. Continue
this until all the ingredients are used, having crumbs and butter for
the last layer. If fresh tomatoes have been used, bake one hour, but
if canned, bake half an hour.


Broiled Tomatoes.

Cut the tomatoes in halves. Sprinkle the inside of the slices with
_fine_ bread crumbs, salt and pepper. Place them in the double
broiler, and broil over the fire for ten minutes, having the outside
next the fire. Carefully slip them on a hot dish (stone china), and
put bits of butter here and there on each slice. Put the dish in the
oven for ten minutes, and then serve. Or, if you have a range or gas
stove, brown before the fire or under the gas.


Fried Tomatoes.

Slice ripe tomatoes and dip them in well-beaten eggs, which have been
seasoned with salt, pepper and sugar (one teaspoonful of sugar to each
egg), and then, in fine bread or cracker crumbs. Have two table-
spoonfuls of butter in a frying-pan, and when hot, put in as many
slices of tomato as will cover the bottom. Fry for ten minutes, five
for each side. Serve on thin slices of toast.


To Peel Tomatoes.

Put the tomatoes in a frying basket and plunge them into boiling water
for about three minutes. Drain, and peel.


Baked Onions.

Peel large onions, and boil one hour in plenty of water, slightly
salted. Butter a shallow dish or a deep plate, and arrange the onions
in it. Sprinkle with pepper and salt, put a teaspoonful of butter in
the centre of each onion, and cover lightly with crumbs. Bake slowly
one hour. Serve with cream sauce.


Stuffed Onions.

Boil as for baking. Cut out the heart of the onions, and fill the
space with any kind of cold meat, chopped fine, and highly seasoned.
To each pint of meat add one egg and two-thirds of a cupful of milk or
cream. When the onions are filled put a bit of butter (about a
teaspoonful) on each one. Cover with crumbs, and bake one hour. Serve
with cream sauce.


Parsnips Fried in Butter.

Scrape the parsnips, and boil gently forty-five minutes. When cold,
cut in long slices about one-third of an inch thick. Season with salt
and pepper. Dip in melted butter and in flour. Have two table-
spoonfuls of butter in the frying pan, and as soon as hot, put in
enough parsnips to cover the bottom. Fry brown on both sides, and
serve on a hot dish.


Parsnips Fried in Molasses.

Have one cupful of molasses in a large frying-pan. When boiling, put
in slices of parsnips that have been seasoned with salt, and cooled.
Fry brown, and serve hot.


Parsnip Balls.

Mash one pint of boiled parsnips. Add two table-spoonfuls of butter,
one heaping teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper, two table-spoonfuls
of cream or milk and one beaten egg. Mix all the ingredients except
the egg. Stir on the fire until the mixture bubbles; then add the egg,
and set away to cool. When cold, make into balls one-third the size of
an egg. Dip them in beaten egg and in crumbs. Put in the frying basket
and plunge into boiling fat. Cook till a rich brown.


Escaloped Parsnip.

Prepare the parsnips as for the balls, omitting the egg. Turn into a
buttered dish, cover with crumbs, dot with butter, and brown in the
oven.


Asparagus with Cream.

Have the asparagus tied in bundles. Wash, and plunge into boiling
water in which there is a teaspoonful of salt for every quart of
water. Boil rapidly for fifteen minutes. Take up, and cut off the
tender heads. Put them in a clean sauce-pan with one generous cupful
of cream or milk to every quart of asparagus. Simmer ten minutes. Mix
one tablespoonful of butter and a generous teaspoonful of flour
together. When creamy, stir in with the asparagus. Add salt and pepper
to taste, and simmer five minutes longer.


Green, Peas à la Française.

Boil green peas until tender, and drain. For every quart, put in a
sauce-pan two table-spoonfuls of butter, one of flour, and half a
teaspoonful of sugar. Stir until all are thoroughly mixed. Add the
peas, and stir over the fire for five minutes. Add one cupful of white
stock or cream, and simmer ten minutes. The canned peas can be
prepared in the same manner.


Minced Cabbage.

Drain boiled cabbage in the colander. Put it in the chopping tray and
chop fine. For each quart of the chopped cabbage, put two table-
spoonfuls of butter and one of flour in the frying-pan. As soon as
smooth and hot, put in the cabbage, which season well with salt,
pepper, and, if you like it, two table-spoonfuls of vinegar. Stir
constantly for five or eight minutes. When done, heap on a dish. Make
smooth with a knife, and garnish with hard-boiled eggs.


Minced Spinach.

Boil the spinach in salt and water until tender. Drain in the
colander, and chop fine in the tray. Season well with pepper and salt.
For each quart of the chopped spinach, put two tablespoonfuls of
butter and one of flour in a frying-pan. When this has cooked smooth,
and before it has become browned, add the spinach. Stir for five
minutes; then add half a cupful of cream or milk, and stir three
minutes longer. Arrange in a mound on a hot dish. Garnish with a
wreath of slices of hard-boiled eggs at the base, and finish the top
with another wreath. Serve hot. Lettuce can be cooked and served in
the same manner. It must be boiled about twenty minutes to be tender.


Cauliflower with Cream Sauce.

Take off the green leaves and the stalk of the cauliflower. Wash, and
put on to cook in boiling water. Boil gently for half an hour. Turn
off the water, and add one pint of milk, one pint of boiling water and
one table-spoonful of salt. Simmer half an hour longer. Take up with,
a skimmer, being careful not to break it. Pour over this a cream
sauce, and serve.


Escaloped Cauliflower.

Cook the cauliflower one hour in salt and water. Drain, and break
apart. Put a layer of the cauliflower in an escalop dish, moisten it
with Bechamel or cream sauce, and sprinkle in a little grated cheese.
Put in another layer of cauliflower, and continue, as directed before,
until all of the vegetable is used. There should be two tablespoonfuls
of grated cheese and one pint of sauce to each head of cauliflower.
Cover with bread crumbs and cheese, and dot with bits of batter. Bake
half an hour in a moderate oven.


Stewed Celery with Cream Sauce.

Wash and scrape the tender white part of two heads of celery. Cut them
in pieces about two inches long. Cover with boiling water and simmer
gently half an hour. Season well with salt. Drain off the water in
which the celery was cooked. Add a pint of cream sauce, and serve.


Celery Stewed in Stock.

Scrape, wash and cut the white part of two heads of celery. Put in a
stew-pan with one pint of stock, and simmer half an hour. Mix together
two table-spoonfuls of butter and one of flour. Stir this in with the
celery. Season with salt, and simmer five minutes longer.


Stewed Okra.

After the ends of the pods have been cut off, wash, and put on with
just enough water to prevent burning (about a cupful to a quart of the
okra) and a teaspoonful of salt. Simmer gently thirty minutes. Season
with pepper and butter, and with more salt, if necessary.


Okra Stewed with Tomatoes.

Cut the okra in thin slices, and pare and slice the tomatoes. Have one
pint of tomatoes to two of okra. Put the vegetables in a stew-pan with
one teaspoonful of salt and a little pepper. Simmer half an hour. Add
one table-spoonful of butter, and more salt, if needed.


Scalloped Okra and Tomatoes.

Prepare the same as stewed okra and tomatoes. When they have been
stewing fifteen minutes add the butter and pepper, and turn into a
deep dish. Cover with bread or cracker crumbs, dot with butter, and
bake half an hour.


Fried Egg Plant.

Cut the plant in slices about one-third of an inch thick. Pare these,
and lay in a flat dish. Cover with boiling water, to which has been
added one table-spoonful of salt for every quart of water. Let this
stand one hour. Drain, and pepper the slices slightly, and dip in
beaten egg and bread crumbs (two eggs and a pint of crumbs for a good-
sized plant). Fry in boiling fat for eight or ten minutes. The slices
will be soft and moist when done. Or, the slices can be seasoned with
pepper, and fried in just enough pork fat to brown them. The egg plant
is sometimes stewed, and sometimes baked, but there is no other mode
so good as frying.


Boiled Rice.

One cupful of rice, one quart of boiling water, one scant table-
spoonful of salt. Wash the rice in three waters, and put in the double
kettle with the salt and boiling water. Boil rapidly fifteen minutes;
then pour off _all_ the water. Cover tightly, return to the fire,
and cook twenty minutes longer. The water in the under boiler must
boil rapidly all the time. Rice cooked in this manner will have every
grain separate.


Corn Oysters.

One cupful of flour, half a cupful of melted butter, three table-
spoonfuls of milk, two teaspoonfuls of salt, one-fourth of a
teaspoonful of pepper, one pint of grated corn. Pour the corn on the
flour, and beat well; then add the other ingredients, and beat rapidly
for three minutes. Have fat in the frying-pan to the depth of about
two inches. When smoking hot, put in the batter by the spoonful. Hold
the spoon close to the fat and the shape of the oyster will be good.
Fry about five minutes.


New Bedford Corn Pudding.

Twelve ears of corn, four eggs, a generous pint and a half of milk, a
generous teaspoonful of salt, four table-spoonfuls of sugar. Grate the
corn, beat the eggs with a spoon, and mix all the ingredients
together. Butter a deep earthen dish, and pour the mixture into it.
Bake slowly two hours. Serve hot. When the corn is old it will take
one quart of milk. If very young and milky, one pint of milk will be
sufficient.


Pickled Beets.

Cut boiled beets in slices. Lay these in a large glass jar or earthen
pot. For every beet, put in one slice of onion, one table-spoonful of
grated horse-radish, six cloves, and vinegar enough to cover. The
beets will be ready to use in ten or twelve hours. They will not keep
more than a week.


Baked Beans.

Pick one quart of beans free from stones and dirt. Wash, and soak in
cold water over night. In the morning pour off the water. Cover with
hot water, put two pounds of corned beef with them, and boil until
they begin to split open, (the time depends upon the age of the beans,
but it will be from thirty to sixty minutes). Turn them into the
colander, and pour over them two or three quarts of cold water. Put
about half of the beans in a deep earthen pot, then put in the beef,
and finally the remainder of the beans. Mix one tea-spoonful of
mustard and one table-spoonful of molasses with a little water. Pour
this over the beans, and then add boiling water to just cover. Bake
_slowly_ ten hours. Add a little water occasionally.




PIES AND PUDDINGS.


Puff Paste.

One quart of pastry flour, one pint of butter, one table-spoonful of
salt, one of sugar, one and a quarter cupfuls of ice water. Wash the
hands with soap and water, and dip them first in very hot, and then in
cold, water. Rinse a large bowl or pan with boiling water and then
with cold. Half fill it with cold water. Wash the butter in this,
working it with the hands until it is light and waxy. This frees it of
the salt and butter-milk, and lightens it, so that the pastry is more
delicate. Shape the butter into two thin cakes, and put in a pan of
ice water, to harden. Mix the salt and sugar with the flour. With the
hands, rub one-third of the butter into the flour. Add the water,
stirring with a knife. Stir quickly and vigorously until the paste is
a smooth ball. Sprinkle the board _lightly_ with flour. Turn the
paste on this, and pound quickly and lightly with the rolling pin. Do
not break the paste. Roll from you and to one side; or, if easier to
roll from you all the while, turn the paste around. When it is about
one-fourth of an inch thick, wipe the remaining butter, break it in
bits, and spread these on the paste. Sprinkle lightly with flour. Fold
the paste, one-third from each side, so that the edges meet. Now fold
from the ends, but do not have these meet. Double the paste, pound
lightly, and roll down to about one-third of an inch in thickness.
Fold as before, and roll down again. Repeat this three times if for
pies, and six times if for _vol-au-vents_, patties, tarts, etc.
Place on the ice, to harden, when it has been rolled the last time. It
should be in the ice chest at least an hour before being used. In hot
weather if the paste sticks when being rolled down, put it on a tin
sheet and place on ice. As soon as it is chilled it will roll easily.
The less flour you use in rolling out the paste the tenderer it will
be. No matter how carefully every part of the work may be done, the
paste will not be good if much flour is used.


Chopped Paste.

One quart of pastry flour, two cupfuls of unwashed butter, one
teaspoonful of salt, one table-spoonful of sugar, and a scant cupful
of ice water. Put the flour, salt, sugar and butter in the chopping-
tray. Chop all together until the butter is thoroughly mixed with the
flour; then add the water, and continue chopping. When well mixed,
sprinkle the board with flour, turn the paste on it, and roll into a
flat piece. Place in a pan on the ice. When hard, use the same as puff
paste. It can be used as soon as mixed, but will not, of course, be so
nice.


French Paste for Raised Pies.

One quart of pastry flour, one table-spoonful of sugar, one
teaspoonful of salt, one scant cupful of butter, one egg, one tea-
cupful of water. Rub the butter, salt and sugar into the flour. Beat
the egg, and add the water to it. Stir this into the flour and butter.
Stir this mixture until it is a smooth paste; then put on the board
and roll the same as puff paste. This paste must be rolled eight
times.


To Make a Pie.

Butter the pie plate (tin is the best), and cover with paste that has
been rolled very thin. Roll a strip of paste long enough to go around
the plate, and cut in strips an inch wide. Wet the edge of the plate
with water, and put a strip of paste on it. Fill with any kind of
prepared fruit Have the paste in a roll, and cut enough from the end
to cover the pie. Sprinkle the board lightly with flour, and place the
paste up-on it. Flour the rolling pin with, the hand. Roll from you
and to one side until the paste is the right size. It must be much
larger than the plate. In the centre cut a slit about halt an inch
long. Cover the pie, having the paste "_fulled_" on, as it
shrinks in the baking. The oven must be hot at first, and after the
first fifteen minutes the drafts must be closed. A mince pie will
require one hour to bake, and an apple pie fifty minutes. Peach, and
nearly all other fruit pies, require the same time.


Mince Pie Meat.

Boil a beef tongue, weighing six pounds, and six pounds of the vein of
a round of beef (these should just simmer). After skinning the tongue,
chop it and the beef very fine, and add five pounds of beef suet,
chopped fine; five pounds of stoned raisins, three of dried currants,
one and a half of citron, cut fine; nine of sugar, one and a half
pints of molasses, two quarts of the liquor in which the meat was
boiled, one quart of brandy, one pint of white wine, a cupful of salt,
half a cupful of cinnamon, one-fourth of a cupful of cloves, one-
fourth of a cupful of allspice, three nutmegs, a table-spoonful of
mace. Put all in a large pan, and let stand over night. Put what you
wish to bake in another pan with half as much stewed and sweetened
apple as you have meat, and let it stand one hour. Put the remainder
of the meat in a jar. Cover with a paper dipped in brandy, and then
cover tightly, to exclude the air. Set in a cool place for future use,
[Mrs. M. L. W.]


Squash pies.

Five pints of stewed and strained squash, two quarts of boiling milk,
one and a half nutmegs, four teaspoonfuls of salt, five cupfuls of
sugar, nine eggs, four table-spoonfuls of Sicily Madeira and two of
rose-water. Gradually pour the boiling milk on the squash, and stir
continually. Add the nutmeg, rose-water and sugar. When cold, add the
eggs, well beaten; and just before the mixture is put in the plates,
add the Madeira. Butter deep plates, and line with a plain paste. Fill
with the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven for forty minutes. [Mrs.
M. L. W.]


Sweet Potato Pies.

When the potatoes are dry and mealy, take a quart after they have been
pared, boiled and mashed, a quart of milk, four eggs, salt, nutmeg,
cinnamon and sugar to taste. Bake the same as squash pies. If the
potatoes are very moist, use less milk.


Lemon Pie.

The juice and rind of one lemon, two eggs, eight heaping table-
spoonfuls of sugar, one small tea-cupful of milk, one teaspoonful of
corn-starch. Mix the corn-starch with a little of the milk. Put the
remainder on the fire, and when boiling, stir in the corn-starch. Boil
one minute. Let this cool, and add the yolks of the eggs, four heaping
table-spoonfuls of the sugar, and the grated rind and juice of the
lemon, all well beaten together. Have a deep pie plate lined with
paste, and fill with this mixture. Bake slowly half an hour. Beat the
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and gradually beat into them the
remainder of the sugar. Cover the pie with this, and brown slowly.


Orange Pies.

Two cupfuls of sugar, two of flour, five eggs, one tea-spoonful of
cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, the juice and rind of one
orange. These are for the cake. Beat the eggs very light; then add the
sugar, and beat until frothy. Now add the orange. Mix the soda and
cream of tartar with the flour, and rub through a sieve on to the
beaten eggs and sugar. Stir well, and bake in deep tin plates. There
will be enough for six plates. When baked, put a thin layer of the
icing between the cakes, and cover the pie with icing. There should be
three cakes in a pie. Icing: The whites of four eggs, one tea-cupful
of powdered sugar, the juice and rind of two oranges. After beating
the whites to a stiff froth, beat in the sugar and then the rind and
juice of the oranges. When the pies are iced, dry them in the heater.


Chocolate Pies.

Make plain cup cake, and bake in Washington-pie plates, having the
cake thick enough to split. After splitting, spread one half with a
filling made as below, place the top piece on, and sprinkle with
powdered sugar. The cake should always be fresh.

Filling: One square of Baker's chocolate, one cupful of sugar, the
yolks of two eggs, one-third of a cupful of boiling milk. Mix scraped
chocolate and sugar together; then add, very slowly, the boiling milk,
and then the eggs, and simmer ten minutes, being careful that it does
not burn. Flavor with vanilla. Have fully cold before using.




HOT PUDDINGS.


Custard Soufflé.

Two scant table-spoonfuls of butter, two table-spoonfuls of flour, two
table-spoonfuls of sugar, one cupful of milk, four eggs. Let the milk
come to a boil. Beat the flour and butter together; add to them,
gradually, the boiling milk, and cook eight minutes, stirring often.
Beat the sugar and the yolks of the eggs together. Add to the cooked
mixture, and set away to cool. When cool, beat the whites of the eggs
to a stiff froth, and add to the mixture. Bake in a buttered pudding
dish for twenty minutes in a moderate oven. Serve _immediately_
with creamy sauce.


Cabinet Pudding.

One quart of milk, four eggs, four table-spoonfuls of sugar, half a
teaspoonful of salt, one table-spoonful of butter, three pints of
stale sponge cake, one cupful of raisins, chopped citron and currants.
Have a little more of the currants than of the two other fruits. Beat
the eggs, sugar and salt together, and add the milk. Butter a three-
pint pudding mould (the melon shape is nice), sprinkle the sides and
bottom with the fruit, and put in a layer of cake. Again sprinkle in
fruit, and put in more cake. Continue this until all the materials are
used. Gradually pour on the custard. Let the pudding stand two hours,
and steam an hour and a quarter. Serve with wine or creamy sauce.


English Plum Pudding.

A pound of suet, chopped fine; a pint of sugar, one pound of grated
stale bread, one pound of raisins, two of currants, a glass of brandy,
two teaspoonfuls of ginger, two nutmegs, half a pint of milk, a little
salt Beat well, and steam five hours. Serve with rich sauce.


Rachel Pudding.

One quart of breadcrumbs, one of apples, cut very fine; half a cupful
of suet, chopped very fine; one cupful of English currants, the rind
and juice of two lemons, four eggs, well beaten. Mix thoroughly.
Grease a pudding mould, and put the mixture in it. Steam three hours,
and serve with rich wine sauce.


Chocolate Pudding.

One quart of milk, four table-spoonfuls of corn-starch, four of sugar,
four of scraped chocolate, two of boiling water, two eggs, one
teaspoonful of salt. Reserve one cupful of the milk, and put the
remainder on to boil. Put the sugar, chocolate and water in a sauce-
pan or, better still, a small frying-pan, and stir over a _hot_
fire for about a minute, when the mixture should be smooth and glossy.
Stir this into the boiling milk. Mix the corn-starch with cold milk.
Beat the egg, and add to the corn-starch and milk; add, also, the
salt. Stir this into the _boiling_ milk, and beat well for about
three minutes. Turn the mixture into a melon mould that has been
dipped in cold water. Let the pudding stand in the mould about fifteen
minutes. Turn into the pudding dish, and heap whipped cream around it.
Serve sugar and cream with it; or, vanilla sauce will answer.


Chocolate Roll Pudding.

This pudding consists of cake, frosting and sauce. It is very nice.
Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, and add the yolks.
Beat into the eggs one cupful of sugar and one of flour. As soon as
all are thoroughly mixed, stir in half a cupful of cold water, in
which has been dissolved soda about the size of a pea. Pour thin into
a buttered pan, and bake in a moderate oven from twelve to fifteen
minutes. When baked, sprinkle the top with two table-spoonfuls of
milk.

Frosting: Beat the whites of six eggs to a froth, and divide into two
parts. Put a teaspoonful of sugar to one half, and one teaspoonful of
sugar and three of grated chocolate to the other. Take the cake from
the pan and put it on a flat dish or tin sheet. Spread half of each
mixture over the top. Return to the oven for about five minutes, to
harden the frosting. Take out and roll up. Put the remainder of the
frosting on the top and sides of the roll. Put again in the oven to
harden the frosting. Take out, and slide on a flat dish. Pour the
sauce around, and serve. The yolks of the eggs may be used for
puddings or custards.

Sauce: One egg, one tea-cupful of powdered sugar, five table-spoonfuls
of boiling milk, one teaspoonful of vanilla extract. Beat the white of
the egg to a stiff froth, and gradually beat in the sugar. Add the
yolk of the egg, the vanilla, and lastly the boiling milk.


Ground Rice Pudding.

One quart of milk, five table-spoonfuls of ground rice, four of sugar,
one teaspoonful of salt, six eggs, half a cupful of butter. Put the
milk in the double boiler, reserving half a cupful. Mix the rice and
cold milk together, and stir into the milk in the boiler when this is
hot. Stir constantly for five minutes. Add the salt, butter and sugar,
and set away to cool. When cold, add the eggs, well beaten. Bake one
hour in a moderate oven. Serve with creamy sauce.


Rice Pudding.

One cupful of rice, one quart of milk, one cupful of raisins, one
heaping teaspoonful of salt, one cupful of water, one quart of soft
custard. Wash the rice, and let it soak two hours in cold water. Turn
off the water, and put the rice in the double boiler with the cupful
of water. Cook half an hour; then add the salt, raisins and milk, and
cook an hour longer. Butter a melon mould and pack the rice in it. Let
it stand twenty minutes. Turn out on a deep dish, decorate with bits
of bright jelly, pour the custard around, and serve. The custard
should be _cold_ and the pudding _hot_. The raisins can be omitted
if not liked.


German Puffs.

The yolks of six eggs, five table-spoonfuls of flour, one of melted
butter, one pint of milk, half a teaspoonful of salt. Beat the yolks
of the eggs light, add the milk to them, and pour part of this mixture
on the flour. Beat light and smooth; then add the remainder of the
eggs and milk, and the salt and butter. Butter muffin pans, and half
fill them with the batter. The quantities given will make twelve
puffs. Bake twenty minutes in a quick oven. Serve on a hot platter
with the sauce poured over them.

Sauce: The whites of six eggs, one cupful of powdered sugar, the juice
of two oranges or of one lemon. After beating the whites to a stiff
froth, gradually beat in the sugar, and then the juice of the fruit.


Down-East Pudding.

One pint of molasses, one quart of flour, one table-spoonful of salt,
one teaspoonful of soda, three pints of blackberries. Boil three
hours, and serve with sauce made in the following manner:

One tea-cupful of powdered sugar, half a cupful of butter, one egg,
two teaspoonfuls of _boiling_ water, one of brandy. Beat the
butter to a cream, and add, very gradually, the sugar and brandy. Beat
in the yolk of the egg, and, when perfectly creamy, add the white,
which has been beaten to a froth; then add the water, and stir very
carefully.


Amber Pudding.

One dozen large, tart apples, one cupful of sugar, the juice and rind
of two lemons, six eggs, four table-spoonfuls of butter, enough puff
or chopped paste to line a three-pint pudding dish. Pare and quarter
the apples. Pare the thin rind from the lemon, being careful not to
cut into the white part. Put the butter, apple, and lemon rind and
juice in a stew-pan with half a cupful of water. Cover tightly, and
simmer about three-quarters of an hour. Rub through a sieve, add the
sugar, and set away to cool. Line the dish with _thin_ paste.
Beat the yolks of the eggs, and stir into the cooled mixture. Turn
this into the lined dish. Bake slowly for half an hour. Beat the
whites to a stiff froth, and gradually beat into them three table-
spoonfuls of powdered sugar. Cover the pudding with this. Return to
the oven and cook twelve minutes with the door open. Serve either hot
or cold.


Fig Pudding.

One cupful of molasses, one of chopped suet, one of milk, three and a
quarter of flour, two eggs, one teaspoonful of soda, one of cinnamon,
half a teaspoonful of nutmeg, one pint of figs. Mix together the
molasses, suet, spice, and the figs, cut fine. Dissolve the soda with
a table-spoonful of hot water, and mix with the milk. Add to the other
ingredients. Beat the eggs light, and stir into the mixture. Add the
flour, and beat thoroughly. Butter two small or one large brown bread
mould. Turn the mixture into the mould or moulds, and steam five
hours. Serve with creamy or wine sauce.


Date Pudding.

Make the same as fig pudding, but use a pint of dates instead of the
figs.


Apple Tapioca Pudding.

One large cupful of tapioca, three pints of water, one cupful of
sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of essence of lemon,
three pints of pared and quartered apples. Wash the tapioca and soak
over night in three pints of cold water (three hours will do if there
is no more time). Put the tapioca in the double boiler and cook until
it looks clear. It will take from twenty to thirty minutes. When
cooked enough, add the sugar, salt and lemon, and then the apples.
Turn into a buttered dish and bake an hour and a quarter. Let it stand
in a cool room half an hour before serving. Serve with sugar and
cream.


Baked Apple Pudding.

Fill a three-quart earthen dish with pared and quartered apples.
Sprinkle on these one cupful of sugar, a slight grating of nutmeg, one
table-spoonful of butter, and half a cupful of water. Cover, and bake
thirty minutes. Make half the rule for chopped paste. Roll a piece of
the paste into a strip that will reach around the pudding dish. This
strip should be about two inches deep. Roll the remainder of the paste
to cover the dish. Take the pudding dish from the oven, slip the strip
of paste between the apple and the dish, and put on the top crust.
Return to the oven, and bake one hour longer. Serve with a cream
sauce.


Dutch Apple Pudding.

One pint of flour, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a
teaspoonful of soda, half a teaspoonful of salt, an egg, a generous
two-thirds of a cupful of milk, two table-spoonfuls of butter, four
large apples. Mix the salt, soda and cream of tartar with the flour,
and rub through the sieve. Beat the egg light, and add the milk. Rub
the butter into the flour. Pour the milk and egg on this, and mix
quickly and thoroughly. Spread the dough about half an inch deep on a
buttered baking pan. Have the apples pared, cored and cut into
eighths. Stick these pieces in rows into the dough. Sprinkle with two
table-spoonfuls of sugar. Bake in a quick oven for about twenty-five
minutes. This pudding is to be eaten with sugar and cream or a simple
sauce.


Apple Soufflé.

One pint of steamed apple, one table-spoonful of melted butter, half a
cupful of sugar, the whites of six eggs and the yolks of three, a
slight grating of nutmeg. Stir into the hot apple the butter, sugar
and nutmeg, and the yolks of the eggs, well beaten. When this is cold,
beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and stir into the
mixture. Butter a three-pint dish, and turn the _soufflé_ into
it. Bake thirty minutes in a moderate oven. Serve immediately with any
kind of sauce.


Apple and Rice Pudding.

One cupful and a half of uncooked rice, and two dozen apples. Wash the
rice well, and soak two hours in cold water. Peel and quarter the
apples. Wet the pudding cloth and spread it in the colander. Cover
with two-thirds of the rice. Lay in the apples, having them packed as
closely as possible. Sprinkle the remainder of the rice over them. Tie
as tightly as possible, and plunge into boiling water. Boil one hour.
Serve with molasses sauce.


Eve's Pudding.

Six eggs, six apples, six ounces of bread, six ounces of currants,
half a teaspoonful of salt, nutmeg. Boil three hours, or steam four.
Serve with wine sauce.


Batter and Fruit Pudding.

One pint of milk, one pint of flour, four eggs, one table-spoonful of
butter, one teaspoonful of salt, one pint of fruit, pared and
quartered, (apples or peaches are best). Beat the eggs well with a
spoon, and add the milk to them. Turn part of this mixture on the
flour, and beat to a light, smooth batter. Add the remainder of the
milk and eggs, and the salt. Butter a pudding dish and pour in the
batter. Sprinkle in the fruit. Bake half an hour. Serve with foaming
sauce the moment it comes from the oven.


Amherst Pudding.

Three-fourths of a cupful of butter, three-fourths of a pint of sugar,
four eggs, five table-spoonfuls of strained apple, the grated rind and
the juice of a lemon, and nutmeg and rose-water, if you like. Bake
half an hour, in a moderate oven, in a shallow pudding dish that has
been lined with a rich pasts, rolled very thin. Let it become
partially cooled before serving.


Swiss Pudding.

One tea-cupful of flour, four table-spoonfuls of butter, three of
sugar, one pint of milk, five eggs, the rind of a lemon. Grate the
rind of the lemon (the yellow part only, remember,) into the milk,
which put in the double boiler. Rub the flour and butter together.
Pour the boiling milk on this, and return to the boiler. Cook five
minutes, stirring the first two. Beat the yolks of the eggs and the
sugar together, and stir into the boiling mixture. Remove from the
fire immediately. When cold, add the whites of the eggs, beaten to a
stiff froth. Have a three-quart mould, well buttered. Turn the mixture
into this, and steam forty minutes. Turn on a hot dish, and serve
without delay. Creamy sauce, or a tumbler of currant jelly, melted
with the juice of two lemons, should be served with it.


Delicate Indian Pudding.

One quart of milk, two heaping table-spoonfuls of Indian meal, four of
sugar, one of butter, three eggs, one teaspoonful of salt. Boil the
milk in the double boiler. Sprinkle the meal into it, stirring all the
while. Cook twelve minutes, stirring often. Beat together the eggs,
salt, sugar and half a teaspoonful of ginger. Stir the butter into the
meal and milk. Pour this gradually on the egg mixture. Bake slowly one
hour.


Indian and Apple Pudding.

One cupful of Indian meal, one cupful of molasses, two quarts of milk,
two teaspoonfuls of salt, three table-spoonfuls of butter, or one of
finely-chopped suet; one quart of pared and quartered apples (sweet
are best, but sour will do), half a teaspoonful of ginger, half a
teaspoonful of grated nutmeg. Put the milk on in the double boiler.
When it boils, pour it gradually on the meal. Pour into the boiler
again and cook half an hour, stirring often. Add the molasses, butter,
seasoning and apples. Butter a deep pudding dish, pour the mixture
into it, and bake slowly three hours. Make half the rule if the family
is small.


COLD PUDDINGS.


Royal Pudding.

One quart of milk, half a cupful of sago, two table-spoonfuls of
butter, one tea-cupful of granulated sugar, half a teaspoonful of
salt, four eggs, four table-spoonfuls of raspberry jam, four table-
spoonfuls of wine. Put the milk in the double boiler, and just before
it comes to a boil, stir in the sago. Cook until it thickens (about
half an hour), stirring frequently; then add the butter, sugar and
salt. Let it cool; and when cold, add the yolks of the eggs, well
beaten, and the wine. Turn into a buttered pudding dish, and bake half
an hour. Set away to cool. When cold, spread the jam over it. Beat the
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and stir into them four table-
spoonfuls of powdered sugar. Spread this on the pudding. Brown
quickly, and serve. The pudding can be made the day before using. In
this case, put the whites of the eggs in the ice chest, and make the
meringue and brown just before serving.


Cold Tapioca Pudding.

Soak a cupful of tapioca over night in a quart of cold water. In the
morning drain off all the water. Put the tapioca and a quart and half
a pint of milk in the double boiler. After cooking forty-five minutes,
add a teaspoonful of salt Stir well, and cook fifteen minutes longer.
Wet a mould or bowl in cold water. Turn the pudding into this, and set
away to cool. Serve with sugar and cream. This. pudding is also nice
hot.


Danish Pudding.

One cupful of tapioca, three generous pints of water, half a
teaspoonful of salt, half a tea-cupful of sugar, one tumbler of any
kind of bright jelly. Wash the tapioca, and soak in the water all
night. In the morning put on in the double boiler, and cook one hour.
Stir frequently. Add the salt, sugar and jelly, and mix thoroughly.
Turn into a mould that has been dipped in cold water, and set away to
harden. Serve with cream and sugar.


Black Pudding.

One quart of blueberries, one pint of water, one cupful of sugar, a
five-cent baker's loaf, butter. Stew the berries, sugar and water
together. Cut the bread in thin slices, and butter these. Put a layer
of the bread in a deep dish, and cover it with some of the hot
berries. Continue this until all the bread and fruit is used, and set
away to cool. The pudding should be perfectly cold when served. Serve
with cream and sugar. Any other small berries can be used instead of
blueberries.


Almond Pudding.

One pint of shelled almonds, two dozen macaroons, the grated rind of a
lemon, half a cupful of sugar, half a cupful of butter, the yolks of
six eggs, one quart of milk, one pint of cream, one table-spoonful of
rice flour. Blanch the almonds and pound them in a mortar. Put the
milk in a double boiler, reserving half a cupful. Add the pounded
almonds to it. Mix the rice flour with the half cupful of cold milk,
and stir into the boiling milk. Cook six minutes, and put away to
cool. When about half cooled, add the sugar and butter, which should
have been beaten together until light When cold, add the yolks of the
eggs, well beaten, the macaroons, which have been dried and rolled
fine, and the cream. Butter a pudding dish that will hold a little
more than two quarts; or, two small ones will do. Turn the mixture
into this, and bake slowly forty-five minutes. Serve cold.


Jenny Lind Pudding.

One dozen sponge fingers, one dozen macaroons, one dozen cocoanut
cakes, one quart of custard, two cupfuls of freshly-grated cocoanut.
Make a quart of soft custard, and season with one teaspoonful of lemon
extract or two table-spoonfuls of wine. When cold, pour on the cakes,
which have been arranged in a deep glass dish. Sprinkle the grated
cocoanut over this, and serve. If you have not the fresh cocoanut use
one cupful of the prepared.


Peach Meringue Pudding.

Three dozen ripe peaches, one and a third cupfuls of granulated sugar,
six table-spoonfuls of powdered sugar, one quart of milk, three
teaspoonfuls of corn-starch, six eggs. Put one cupful of the
granulated sugar and one pint of water on to boil. Peel and quarter
the peaches. When the sugar and water begins to boil, put in one-third
of the peaches, and simmer eight minutes. Take them up, and put in
another third. Continue this until all the fruit is done. Boil the
syrup until it becomes thick. Pour over the peaches and set away to
cool. Separate the whites and yolks of the six eggs, and put the
whites in the ice chest. Beat together the yolks and one-third of a
cupful of sugar. Put a pint and a half of milk in the double boiler.
Mix three teaspoonfuls of corn-starch with half a pint of cold milk,
and when the other milk is boiling, stir this into it Stir for three
minutes; then put on the cover and cook three minutes longer. Pour the
boiling mixture gradually on the beaten eggs and sugar. Return to the
boiler and cook four minutes, stirring all the while. Take from the
fire, add half a teaspoonful of salt, and set away to cool. This is
the sauce. Twenty minutes before serving heap the peaches in the
centre of a shallow dish. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff
froth, and gradually beat in five table-spoonfuls of powdered sugar.
Cover the peaches with this. Place a board in the oven, put the dish
on it, and cook until a light brown. Season the sauce with one-fourth
of a teaspoonful of almond extract, and pour around the pudding.
Serve.

The peaches and sauce must be cold. If the oven is hot, and the board
is placed under the dish, the browning of the meringue will not heat
the pudding much.


Apple Meringue Pudding.

Two quarts of pared and quartered apples, a lemon, two cupfuls of
granulated sugar and six table-spoonfuls of powdered, six eggs, one
quart of milk, three teaspoonfuls of corn-starch. Pare the thin yellow
rind off of the lemon, being careful not to cut into the white part,
and put it in a sauce-pan with one and two-thirds cupfuls of the
granulated sugar. Boil ten minutes; then put in the apples and juice
of the lemon. Cover, and simmer half an hour. The apples should be
tender, but not much broken. Take them up, and boil the syrup until
thick. When it is reduced enough, pour it over the apples, and put
these away to cool. Make the sauce and finish the pudding the same as
for peach meringue, flavoring the sauce, however, with extract of
lemon.


Frozen Cabinet Pudding.

Two dozen stale lady-fingers, one cupful of English currants, one pint
of cream, one pint of milk, one _small_ tea-cupful of sugar,
three eggs, three table-spoonfuls of wine. Put the milk in the double
boiler. Beat the eggs and sugar together, and gradually pour the hot
milk on them. Return to the boiler and cook two minutes, stirring all
the while. Pour the hot custard on the lady-fingers, add the currants,
and set away to cool. When cold, add the wine and the cream, whipped
to a froth. Freeze the same as ice cream. When frozen, wet a melon
mould in cold water, sprinkle a few currants on the sides and bottom,
and pack with the frozen mixture. Pack the mould in salt and ice for
one hour. At serving time, wipe it, and dip in warm water for a moment
Turn out the pudding on a dish, pour apricot sauce around it, and
serve.


Frozen Cabinet Pudding, No. 2.

One dozen macaroons, one dozen and a half sponge fingers, one dozen
cocoanut cakes, one cupful of English currants, one quart of custard.
Wet a melon mould in cold water. Sprinkle the sides and bottom with
currants. Arrange layers of the mixed cakes, which sprinkle with
currants. Continue this until all the cake and currants are used. Put
a pint and a half of milk in the double boiler. Beat together four
eggs and two table-spoonfuls of sugar. When the milk is hot, stir in
one-third of a package of gelatine, which has been soaking one hour in
half a cupful of milk. Add the beaten egg and sugar, and cook four
minutes, stirring all the while. Take off, and add one-fourth of a
teaspoonful of salt and one teaspoonful of vanilla, or two table-
spoonfuls of wine. Pour this, a few spoonfuls at a time, on the cake.
Set away to cool. When cold, cover with thick white paper, and put on
the tin cover. Pack the mould in salt and ice for four or six hours.
At serving time, wipe the mould free of salt and ice and dip for a
moment in warm water. Take off the cover and paper, and turn out.
Serve with quince sauce.


Peach Pudding.

Pare and cut fine one dozen ripe peaches. Sprinkle with three table
spoonfuls of sugar, and let them stand one hour. Make a custard the
same as for frozen cabinet pudding, No. 2. Have the peaches in a deep
glass dish, and, as soon as the custard is partly cooled, turn it on
them. Set away in a cold place for six or eight hours. When
convenient, it is well to make this pudding the day before using.


Orange Pudding.

One pint of milk, the juice of six oranges and rind of three, eight
eggs, half a cupful of butter, one large cupful of granulated sugar, a
quarter of a cupful of powdered sugar, one table-spoonful of ground
rice, paste to line the pudding dish. Mix the ground rice with a
little of the cold milk. Put the remainder of the milk in the double
boiler, and when it boils, stir in the mixed rice. Stir for five
minutes; then add the butter, and set away to cool. Beat together the
sugar, the yolks of the eight eggs and whites of four. Grate the rind
and squeeze the juice of the oranges into this. Stir all into the
cooked mixture. Have a pudding dish, holding about three quarts, lined
with paste. Pour the preparation into this, and bake in a moderate
oven for forty minutes. Beat the remaining four whites of the eggs to
a stiff froth, and gradually beat in the powdered sugar. Cover the
pudding with this. Return to the oven, and cook ten minutes, having
the door open. Set away to cool. It must be ice cold when served.


Orange Pudding, No. 3.

One cupful and a half of granulated sugar, six table-spoonfuls of the
powdered, six eggs, six large, or eight small, sweet oranges, half a
package of gelatine, one quart of boiling milk. Soak the gelatine for
two hours in one cupful of the milk. Put the remaining milk in the
double boiler. Beat together the yolks of the eggs and the granulated
sugar. When the milk boils, stir in the gelatine, and then the beaten
yolks and sugar. Stir constantly until the mixture begins to thicken
(which will be about five minutes); then remove from the fire and put
away to cool. Pare the oranges, and free them of seeds and tough
parts. Put them in a large glass dish, and when the custard has
cooled, pour it over the fruit. Let this stand in a cold place six or
eight hours. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and
gradually beat in the powdered sugar. Cover the pudding with this, and
serve.


Royal Diplomatic Pudding.

Soak half a box of gelatine in half a cupful of cold water one or two
hours. Pour on this two-thirds of a pint of boiling water, and add the
juice of a lemon, a cupful of sugar and half a pint of wine. Stir, and
strain. Have two moulds, one holding two quarts, the other a quart.
Put a layer of jelly in the large mould, and place on ice. When hard,
garnish with candied cherries, cut in two. Pour in a few spoonfuls of
liquid jelly, _not hot,_ to hold the cherries, and then pour in
enough to cover them. When the jelly is perfectly hard, set the small
mould in the centre of the large one, and fill the space between with
jelly. Fill the small mould with ice, and set both in a basin of ice
water. When the jelly is again hard, remove the ice from the small
mould, which fill with warm water, and lift it out carefully. The
vacant space is to be filled with custard made by the following
recipe: The yolks of five eggs, half a cupful of sugar, two table-
spoonfuls of wine, one teaspoonful of vanilla extract, half a box of
gelatine, soaked in half a cupful of cold water, a scant cupful of
milk. Put the milk to boil. Add the gelatine, and the eggs and sugar,
beaten together. Strain, and add the wine and vanilla. When the
custard begins to thicken, add half a pint of cream, whipped to a
stiff froth. Pour the custard into the space mentioned, and let it
stand until it hardens. Turn the pudding out of the mould, and serve
with soft custard poured around it.


Orange Diplomatic Pudding.

Make one quart of orange jelly. Arrange this in the mould and make a
filling the same as for royal diplomatic pudding. Flavor the filling,
and the custard for the sauce, with orange.


Lemon Diplomatic Pudding.

Make one quart of lemon jelly, and prepare the mould with it the same
as for the royal diplomatic pudding. Make a lemon sponge, with which
fill the cavity. When hard, serve with a custard flavored with lemon.


Bird's Nest Pudding.

Half a package of Cox's sparkling gelatine, six oranges, three cupfuls
and a half of sugar, one pint of blanc-mange. Take the peel from the
oranges in quarters. Put it in two quarts of water, and let it stand
over night. In the morning drain off the water. Cut the peel in thin
strips with the scissors. Put it in cold water and boil until tender.
Make a syrup of half a cupful of sugar and a pint of water. Drain the
straws of orange peel on a sieve. Put them in this syrup and simmer
half an hour. Turn into a bowl, and let stand until next day. Put one
pint of sugar and one pint of water on to boil. Cook rapidly for
twenty minutes; the syrup will then fall from the spoon in threads.
Put the straws in this and boil half an hour. Take out, and drain on a
sieve. As they dry, put them in a dish, which place in the warm oven.
These are for the nests. For the jelly, soak the gelatine two hours in
half a cupful of cold water; then pour on it enough boiling water to
make, with the juice of the oranges, two cupfuls and a half. Add one
small cupful of sugar and the orange juice. Stir well, and strain
through a napkin into a shallow dish. In one end of each of six eggs
make a hole, about the size of a cent Break the yolks with a skewer,
and pour the eggs into a bowl. (They may be used for puddings and
custards.) Wash and drain the shells. Fill them with the blanc-mange.
Have a pan filled with meal, in which to stand the shells. Set away to
cool. Break the jelly in pieces with a fork, and put in a flat glass
dish. Arrange the straws in the form of nests, six in number, and
arrange them on the jelly. Place the eggs in these, and serve.


Quince Iced Pudding.

Beat three eggs very light; then add one cupful and a half of powdered
sugar, and beat until foamy. Put two cupfuls of sifted pastry flour in
the sieve, and add one teaspoonful of cream of tarter and half a
teaspoonful of soda. Stir half a cupful of cold water into the beaten
eggs and sugar; then sift the flour on this. Mix quickly and
thoroughly. Have a tin mould similar to the border moulds shown in the
chapter on Kitchen Furnishing, but of oval shape, higher and plain. It
should be about four inches high, and six wide and eight long, top
measurement--the mould tapering. The space between the outer and inner
walls should be an inch and a half. Butter this mould and pour the
cake mixture into it. Bake slowly for forty-five minutes. Let it stand
in the mould until nearly cold. Turn on a flat dish. Put the whites of
two eggs in a bowl, gradually beat into them one cupful and a half of
powdered sugar, and season with half a teaspoonful of vanilla extract
Ice the cake with this, and set away to dry. In the meantime, make a
cream with one generous quart of cream, one cupful of sugar, one
table-spoonful of vanilla and one pint of soft custard. Freeze the
same as ice cream. Spread the inside of the cake with a large tumbler
of quince jelly. At serving time pack the frozen cream in the centre
of the cake. Heap whipped cream on the top and at the base, and serve
immediately. This is an elegant pudding, and is not difficult to make.


Princess Pudding.

Soak for an hour in a pint of cold water one box of Cox's sparkling
gelatine, and add one pint of boiling water, one pint of wine, the
juice of four lemons, and three large cupfuls of sugar. Beat the
whites of four eggs to a stiff froth, and stir into the jelly when it
begins to thicken. Pour into a large mould, and set in ice water in a
cool place. When ready to serve, turn out as you would jelly, only
have the pudding in a deep dish. Pour one quart of soft custard around
it, and serve.


Apple Porcupine.

Sixteen large apples, two large cupfuls of granulated sugar, one
lemon, one quart of water, one tea-cupful of powdered sugar, one quart
of milk, one table-spoonful of corn-starch, half a teaspoonful of
salt, six eggs, one pint of blanched almonds. Put the water and
granulated sugar in a sauce-pan. Have ten of the apples pared and
cored, and as soon as the sugar and water boils, put in as many of the
apples as will cook without crowding. Simmer gently until the fruit is
cooked through. When done on one side the fruit must be turned. Drain,
and cool them on a dish. Cook ten apples in this manner. Have the six
that remain pared and quartered and stewed in one cupful of water.
Turn the stewed apples into the syrup left from cooking the others.
Add the grated rind and the juice of the lemon. Simmer until a smooth
marmalade is formed. It will take about twenty minutes. Set away to
cool. Put the milk on in the double boiler, reserving half a cupful.
When it boils, stir in the corn-starch, which has been mixed with the
cold milk. Stir well, and cook five minutes. Beat the yolks of the six
eggs and the whites of two with half of the powdered sugar. Gradually
pour the boiling mixture on this. Return to the boiler and cook three
minutes, stirring all the time. Add the salt. Turn into a pitcher or
bowl, and set away to cool. Heap the cooked apples in a mound, using
the marmalade to fill up the spaces between the apples. Beat the four
whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and beat the half cupful of powdered
sugar into it. Cover the apples with this, and stick the almonds into
it. Brown slowly in the oven. Set away to cool. At serving time,
season the custard with lemon, and pour it around the porcupine.




SAUCES.


Rich Wine Sauce.

One cupful of butter, two of powdered sugar, half a cupful of wine.
Beat the butter to a cream. Add the sugar gradually, and when very
light, add the wine, which has been made hot, a little at a time.
Place the bowl in a basin of hot water and stir for two minutes. The
sauce should be smooth and foamy.


Creamy Sauce.

Half a cupful of butter, one cupful of _powdered_ sugar, one-
fourth of a cupful of cream or milk, four table-spoonfuls of wine, or
one teaspoonful of vanilla or lemon extract. If lemon or vanilla is
used, add four table-spoonfuls of cream. Beat the butter to a cream.
Add the sugar, gradually, beating all the while. When light and
creamy, gradually add the wine, and then the cream, a little at a
time. When all is beaten smooth, place the bowl in a basin of hot
water and stir until the sauce is smooth and creamy--no longer. It
will take only a few minutes. This is a delicious sauce, and if well
beaten, and not kept in the hot water long enough to melt the sugar,
it will be white and foamy all through.


Foaming Sauce.

One cupful of butter, two of powdered sugar, the whites of two eggs,
five table-spoonfuls of wine or three of brandy, one-fourth of a tea-
cupful of _boiling_ water. Beat the butter to a cream, and
gradually beat the sugar into it. Add the whites of the eggs,
unbeaten, one at a time, and then the brandy or wine. When all is a
light, smooth mass, add the water, beating in a little at a time.
Place the bowl in a basin of hot water and stir until smooth and
frothy, which will be about two minutes. This sauce is for rich
puddings.


German Sauce.

One cupful of sugar, half a cupful of water, three eggs, one table-
spoonful of butter, three of brandy, or a teaspoonful of any extract
you like. Put the sugar and water in a sauce-pan and boil for fifteen
minutes. Beat the yolks of the eggs, and stir them into the boiling
syrup. Put the basin in another of hot water and beat the mixture with
the whisk until it begins to thicken; then add the butter, the whites
of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, and the brandy. Stir one minute
longer, and serve.


German Sauce, No. 2.

The yolks of five and whites of three eggs, one cupful of powdered
sugar, one pint of cream, and any flavor you choose. Beat together the
yolks of the eggs and the sugar, and add the cream. Put this mixture
in the double boiler (having first beaten the whites to a stiff
froth), and stir until it begins to thicken; then add the whites and
seasoning. Beat thoroughly, and serve.


Lemon Sauce.

One cupful of sugar, half a cupful of water, the rind and juice of two
lemons, the yolks of three eggs. Boil together the sugar, water, lemon
juice and grated rind for twenty minutes. Beat the yolks of the eggs.
Put the basin containing the boiling syrup in another of boiling
water. Stir the yolks of the eggs into this, and beat rapidly for
three minutes. Take up the sauce-pan and continue the beating for five
minutes; then serve.

Cream Sauce.

One cupful of powdered sugar, one egg, two cupfuls of whipped cream.
Beat the white of the egg to a stiff froth. Add the yolk and sugar,
and beat well. Flavor with vanilla, lemon or wine, and add the cream
last of all. This sauce is excellent for a light pudding.


Vanilla Sauce.

The whites of two eggs and the yolk of one, half a cupful of powdered
sugar, one teaspoonful of vanilla, three table-spoonfuls of milk. Beat
the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, next beat in the sugar, and
then the yolk of the egg and the seasoning. Serve immediately. This
sauce is for light puddings.


Molasses Sauce.

One cupful of molasses, half a cupful of water, one table-spoonful of
butter, a little cinnamon or nutmeg (about half a teaspoonful), one-
fourth of a teaspoonful of salt, three table-spoonfuls of vinegar.
Boil all together for twenty minutes. The juice of a lemon can be used
instead of the vinegar. This sauce is nice for apple or rice puddings.


Caramel Sauce.

Put one cupful of sugar in a small frying-pan and stir on the fire
until a dark brown, if you like a strong caramel flavor, or till a
light brown, if you like a delicate flavor. Add a cupful of boiling
water, and simmer fifteen minutes. Set away to cool.


Quince Sauce.

One cupful of quince preserve, one of milk, one table-spoonful of
corn-starch, half a cupful of sugar. Mix the corn-starch with a little
of the cold milk, and put the remainder in the double boiler. When it
boils, stir in the corn-starch, and cook ten minutes; then add the
sugar and the preserve, mashed fine. Cook ten minutes longer and rub
through a strainer. This sauce is usually served cold, but when used
with hot pudding, it too should be hot.


Apricot Sauce.

One cupful of canned apricot, one of sugar, one of milk, one table-
spoonful of corn-starch, half a cupful of water. Put the milk in the
double boiler. Mix the corn-starch with a few spoonfuls of cold milk,
and stir into the boiling milk. Cook ten minutes. Boil the sugar and
water together for twenty minutes. Rub the apricot through a sieve,
and stir it into the syrup. Beat well, and then beat in the boiled
milk and corn-starch. Place the sauce-pan in a dish of cold water and
stir for about eight minutes. Set away to cool. If you have cream, use
it instead of the milk. All kinds of fruit can be used in pudding
sauces by following this rule. If the fruit is preserved, use less
sugar; and if very acid, use more.

If it is necessary to make the wine, creamy or foamy sauce any
considerable time before dinner, do not add the hot water or hot wine,
and do not place the bowl in hot water, until serving time. The
vanilla and cream sauces are spoiled by standing after being made.




DESSERT.


Blanc-Mange Made with Sea Moss Farina.

One quart of milk, one level table-spoonful of sea moss farina, half a
teaspoonful of salt, three table-spoonfuls of sugar, one teaspoonful
of flavor. Put the milk in the double boiler and sprinkle the farina
into it, stirring all the while. Let this heat slowly. Stir often.
When it boils up, and looks white, add the sugar, salt and flavor.
Strain, and turn into a mould that has been dipped in cold water. Set
away to harden. It will take about three hours for this. The blanc-
mange is ready to use as soon as cold.


Blanc-Mange Made with Gelatine.

One package of gelatine, three pints of milk, four table-spoonfuls of
sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of extract of
vanilla or of lemon. Put the gelatine with the milk and let it stand
in a cold place for two hours; then put it in the double boiler, and
heat quickly. Do not let it boil. Stir often; and as soon as the
gelatine is melted, take off, and add the sugar, salt and flavor.
Strain, and partially cool, before putting into the moulds. It should
stand six hours before serving, and it is even better, especially in
summer, to make it the day before using.


Blanc-Mange Made with Isinglass.

One quart of milk, three and a half sheets of Cooper's isinglass, half
a teaspoonful of salt, three table-spoonfuls of sugar and a four-inch
piece of stick cinnamon. Break up the isinglass, put it and the
cinnamon with the milk, and let stand in a cold place two hours; then
put it in the double boiler and let it come, gradually, to the boiling
point. It must not boil. Stir often while heating. As soon as the
isinglass is dissolved, take from the fire, and add the salt and
sugar. Strain into a tin basin, which place in a pan of cold water.
Stir occasionally while cooling. When nearly cold, turn into a mould
and place in the ice chest. It can be poured into the mould as soon as
strained, but the cream will rise to the top in that case, unless the
mixture is stirred carefully in the centre of the mould. The sheets of
isinglass vary in thickness, so that it is best to take part of die
thick sheets and part of the thin.


Chocolate "Blanc"-Mange.

One package of gelatine, four table-spoonfuls of sugar, one (ounce)
square of Baker's chocolate, three pints of milk. Soak the gelatine
two hours in the milk, and then put it in the double boiler. Scrape
the chocolate fine and put it in a small frying-pan with two spoonfuls
of the sugar and two of boiling water. Stir this over a _hot_
fire until smooth and glossy (it will take about a minute), and stir
into the milk. Add the remainder of the sugar, and strain. Turn into
moulds, and set away to harden. This dish should be made at least
eight hours before being used. If you please, you can add a
teaspoonful of vanilla extract. By adding the chocolate to any of the
preparations for blanc-mange while they are hot, you have a chocolate
"blanc"-mange.


Cream à la Versailles.

One quart of milk, half a cupful of sugar, half a teaspoonful of
vanilla extract, half a teaspoonful of salt, seven eggs, two table-
spoonfuls of water. Put the sugar in a small frying-pan and stir until
a very light brown. Add the water, stir a moment longer, and mix with
the milk. Beat the eggs and salt with a spoon. Add this mixture and
the vanilla to the milk. Butter a two-quart charlotte russe mould
lightly, and put the custard in it Put the mould in a basin of warm
(not hot) water and bake slowly until the custard is firm in the
centre. It should take forty minutes; but if the oven is quite hot, it
will be done in thirty minutes. Test by putting a knife down into the
centre, for if the custard is not milky, it is done. Set away in a
cold place until serving time. It must be ice cold when eaten. Turn
out on a flat dish, and pour caramel sauce over it.


Royal Cream.

One quart of milk, one-third of a box of gelatine, four table-
spoonfuls of sugar, three eggs, vanilla flavor. Put the gelatine in
the milk, and let it stand for half an hour. Beat the yolks well with
sugar, and stir into the milk. Set the kettle in a pan of hot water
and stir until the mixture begins to thicken like soft custard. Have
ready the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth; and the moment
the kettle is taken from the fire, stir them in, quickly, and turn
into the moulds. Set away in a cold place to harden.

When you cannot get cream, to make charlotte russe, this is a good
filling, if you omit the whites of eggs, and fill the moulds when the
cream is perfectly cold, but not hardened.


Lemon Sponge.

The juice of four lemons, four eggs, one cupful of sugar, half a
package of gelatine, one generous pint of cold water. Soak the
gelatine two hours in half a cupful of the water. Squeeze the lemons,
and strain the juice on the sugar. Beat the yolks of the eggs and mix
them with the remainder of the water. Add the sugar and lemon to this,
and cook in the double boiler until it begins to thicken; then add the
gelatine. Strain this mixture into a tin basin, which place in a pan
of ice water. Beat with the whisk occasionally, until it has cooled,
but not hardened. Now add the unbeaten whites of the eggs, and beat
all the time until the mixture begins to thicken. Let it thicken
almost to the point where it cannot be poured, and then turn into a
mould and set away to harden. Remember that the whites of the eggs
must be added as soon as the mixture cools, which should be in about
six or eight minutes, and that the mixture must be beaten until it
begins to harden. The hardening is rapid after it once begins, so that
it will be necessary to have the moulds all ready. The sponge will not
be smooth and delicate if not poured into the moulds. If for any
reason you should get the mixture too hard before pouring, place the
basin in another of hot water, and let the sponge melt a little; then
beat it up again. Serve with powdered sugar and cream.


Orange Sponge.

Make orange sponge the same as lemon, using a small pint of water and
the juice of six large oranges.


Peach Sponge.

One pint of canned peaches, half a package of gelatine, the whites of
five eggs, one scant cupful of sugar, one and a half cupfuls of water.
Soak the gelatine for two hours in half a cupful of the water. Boil
the cupful of water, and the sugar fifteen minutes. Hash the peaches
fine, rub through a sieve, and put in the syrup. Cook five minutes,
stirring all the time. Place the sauce-pan in another of boiling water
and add the gelatine. Stir for five or eight minutes, to dissolve the
gelatine; then place the sauce-pan in a dish of ice water and beat the
syrup until it begins to cool. Add the whites of the eggs, and beat
until the mixture begins to harden. When it will just pour, turn it
into the mould, and set away to harden. Serve with sugar and cream.
Apricot and pear sponges can be made in the same manner.


Strawberry Sponge.

One quart of strawberries, half a package of gelatine, one cupful and
a half of water, one cupful of sugar, the juice of a lemon, the whites
of four eggs. Soak the gelatine two hours in half a cupful of the
water. Mash the strawberries, and add half the sugar to them. Boil the
remainder of the sugar and the cupful of water gently twenty minutes.
Rub the strawberries through a sieve. Add the gelatine to the boiling
syrup and take from the fire immediately; then add the strawberries.
Place in a pan of ice water and beat five minutes. Add the whites of
eggs and beat until the mixture begins to thicken. Pour into the
moulds and set away to harden. Serve with sugar and cream. Raspberry
and blackberry sponges are made in the same way.


Pineapple Sponge.

One small fresh pineapple, or a pint-and-a-half can of the fruit; one
small cupful of sugar, half a package of gelatine, one cupful and a
half of water, the whites of four eggs. Soak the gelatine two hours in
half a cupful of the water. Chop the pineapple, and put it and the
juice in a sauce-pan with the sugar and the remainder of the water.
Simmer ten minutes. Add the gelatine, take from the fire immediately,
and strain into a tin basin. When partially cooled, add the whites of
the eggs, and beat until the mixture begins to thicken. Pour into a
mould and set away to harden. Serve with soft custard flavored with
wine.


Strawberry Bavarian Cream.

One quart of strawberries, one pint of cream, one large cupful of
sugar, half a cupful of boiling water, half a cupful of cold water.
Soak the gelatine two hours in the cold water. Mash the berries and
sugar together, and let them stand one hour. Whip the cream to a
froth. Strain the juice from the berries, pressing through as much as
possible without the seeds. Pour the hot water on the gelatine, and
when dissolved, strain it into the strawberry juice. Place the basin
(which should be tin) in a pan of ice water and beat until the cream
begins to thicken. When as thick as soft custard, stir in the whipped
cream; and when this is well mixed, turn into the mould (it will make
nearly two quarts), and set away to harden. Serve with whipped cream
heaped around it, or, if the border mould is used, have the cream in
the centre.

Raspberry and blackberry Bavarian creams are made the same as the
strawberry.


Orange Bavarian Cream.

A pint and a half of cream, the juice of five oranges and grated rind
of two, one large cupful of sugar, the yolks of six eggs, half a
package of gelatine, half a cupful of cold water. Soak the gelatine
two hours in the cold water. Whip the cream, and skim off until there
is less than half a pint unwhipped. Grate the rind of the oranges on
the gelatine, Squeeze and strain the orange juice, and add the sugar
to it. Put the unwhipped cream in the double boiler. Beat the yolks of
the eggs and add to the milk. Stir this mixture until it begins to
thicken, and add the gelatine. As soon as the gelatine is dissolved,
take off, and place in a pan of ice water. Stir until it begins to
cool (about two minutes), and add the orange juice and sugar. Beat
about as thick as soft custard, and add the whipped cream. Stir until
well mixed, and pour into the moulds. Set away to harden. There will
be about two quarts. Serve with whipped cream heaped around the orange
cream.


Peach Bavarian Cream.

One quart of canned peaches, one large cupful of sugar, one pint of
cream, half a box of gelatine, half a cupful of cold water. Mash the
peaches and rub them and the juice through a sieve. Add the sugar.
Soak the gelatine two hours in the cold water. Whip the cream to a
froth. Put the peaches in a sauce-pan and let them simmer twenty
minutes. Stir often. Add the gelatine to the hot peaches and remove
from the fire immediately. Place the sauce-pan in a pan of ice water
and beat until the mixture begins to thicken; then stir in the cream.
Mix thoroughly, and pour into the mould. Set away to harden. Serve
with whipped cream. Apricot and pear Bavarian creams are made in the
same way.


Pineapple Bavarian Cream.

One pint of canned pineapple, one small tea-cupful of sugar, one pint
of cream, half a package of gelatine, half a cupful of cold water.
Soak the gelatine two hours in the water. Chop the pineapple fine and
put it on with the sugar. Simmer twenty minutes. Add the gelatine, and
strain immediately into a tin basin. Rub as much of the pineapple as
possible through the sieve. Beat until it begins to thicken, and add
the cream, which has been whipped to a froth. When well mixed, pour
into the mould, and put away to harden. Serve with whipped cream.


Almond Bavarian Cream.

One pint and a half of cream, one pint of blanched sweet almonds, one-
fourth of a teaspoonful of essence of almond, half a package of
gelatine, three eggs, one small cupful of sugar, half a cupful of
milk. Soak the gelatine two hours in the milk. Whip the cream to a
stiff froth, until about half a pint is left unwhipped. Pound the
almonds to a paste in the mortar. Put the almonds and unwhipped cream
in the double boiler. Beat the sugar and eggs together and stir in
with the cream and almonds. Cook until the mixture begins to thicken;
then stir in the gelatine, and remove from the fire. Strain this into
a tin basin, and add the essence of almond. Beat until it begins to
thicken, and add the whipped cream. Mix well, pour into the moulds,
and set away. Serve with whipped cream. Pistachio Bavarian cream is
made in the same way, using one pint of pistachio nuts instead of the
almonds, and omitting the essence of almond.


Chocolate Bavarian Cream.

One pint of cream, one cupful of milk, half a cupful of sugar, half a
box of gelatine, one square of Baker's chocolate (an ounce). Soak the
gelatine in half a cupful of the milk. Whip the cream to a stiff
froth. Scrape the chocolate, and add two table-spoonfuls of the sugar
to it. Put in a small frying-pan with one table-spoonful of hot water.
Stir over a hot fire until smooth and glossy. Have the remaining half
cupful of milk boiling. Stir the chocolate into it, and add the
gelatine. Strain into a tin basin, and add the remainder of the sugar.
Place the basin in a pan of ice water and beat the mixture until it
begins to thicken; then add the whipped cream; and when well mixed,
turn into the mould. When hard, serve with whipped cream heaped
around.


Coffee Bavarian Cream.

One cupful of strong coffee, one pint of cream, half a package of
gelatine, one cupful of sugar, one-third of a cupful of cold water.
Soak the gelatine two hours in the cold water. Pour on this the
coffee, boiling hot, and when the gelatine is dissolved, add the
sugar. Strain into a tin basin, which put in a pan of ice water. Beat
with a whisk until it begins to thicken; then add the cream, which has
been whipped to a froth. When thoroughly mixed, turn into a mould and
set away to harden. Serve with sugar and cream.


Directions for Freezing.

Four the mixture that is to be frozen into the tin can, put the beater
in this, and put on the cover. Place in the tub, being careful to have
the point on the bottom fit into the socket in the tub. Put on the
cross-piece, and turn the crank to see if everything is in the right
place. Next comes the packing. Ice should be broken in large pieces,
and put in a canvas bag, and pounded fine with a mallet. Put a thick
layer of it in the tub (about five inches deep), and then a thin layer
of salt. Continue this until the tub is full, and pack down solid with
a paddle or a common piece of wood. After turning the crank a few
times add more salt and ice, and again pack down. Continue in this way
until the tub is full. For a gallon can, three pints of salt and
perhaps ten quarts of fine ice will be required. Remember that if the
freezer is packed solid at first, no more ice or salt is needed. The
water must never be let off, as it is one of the strongest elements to
help the freezing. If more salt than the quantity given is used, the
cream will freeze sooner, but it will not be so smooth and rich as
when less is used.

Turn the crank for twenty minutes--not fast at first, but very rapidly
the last ten minutes. It will be hard to torn when the mixture is
frozen. Turn back the cross-piece, wipe the salt and ice from the
cover, and take off the cover, not displacing the can itself. Remove
the beater and scrape the cream from it. Work a large spoon up and
down in the cream until it is light and the space left by taking out
the beater is filled. Cover the can, cork up the hole from which the
handle of the beater was taken, put on the cross piece, and set the
tub in a cool place until serving time. Then dip the can for a few
seconds in water that is a trifle warm, wipe it, and turn on the dish.
Rest it for a moment, and lift a little.

If the cream is to be served from a mould, remove it when you do the
beater. Fill the mould and work the cream up and down with a spoon.
This will press the cream into every part, and lighten it. Cover the
top of the mould with thick white paper, put on the tin cover, and
bury in fresh ice and salt.

There are a great many good freezers. The Packer is especially suited
to family use. It turns so easily that any lady can make her own
creams. For the first twelve minutes a child can work it. It is made
of the best stock, and will last many years. The cogs on freezers
should be oiled occasionally. When you have made cream, see that every
part of the freezer is clean and perfectly dry before putting away.


Vanilla Ice Cream.

The foundation given in this rule is suitable for all kinds of ice
cream. One generous pint of milk, one cupful of sugar, half a cupful
of flour, _scant_; two eggs, one quart of cream, one table-
spoonful of vanilla extract, and when the cream is added, another tea-
cupful of sugar. Let the milk come to a boil. Beat the first cupful of
sugar, the flour and eggs together, and stir into the boiling milk.
Cook twenty minutes, stirring often. Set away to cool, and when cool
add the sugar, seasoning and cream, and freeze.


Vanilla Ice Cream, No. 2.

One pint of sugar, one of water, three pints of cream--not too rich,
the yolks of five eggs and one large table-spoonful of vanilla extract
Boil the sugar and water together for twenty-five minutes. Beat the
yolks of the eggs with one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt Place the
basin of boiling syrup in another of boiling water. Stir the yolks of
the eggs into the syrup, and beat rapidly for three minutes. Take the
basin from the fire, place it in a pan of ice water and beat until
cold. Add the vanilla and cream, and freeze.


Lemon Ice Cream.

Make the same as vanilla cream, and flavor with one table-spoonful of
lemon extract.


Lemon Ice Cream, No. 2.

Three tea-cupfuls of sugar, the juice of three lemons, three pints of
cream, the yolks of eight eggs, one pint of water. Boil the water,
sugar and lemon juice together twenty minutes; then proceed as
directed for vanilla ice cream, No. 2.


Orange Ice Cream.

Follow the second rule for lemon cream, but use the juice of six
oranges instead of that of lemons.


Pineapple Ice Cream.

Make the same as vanilla, and flavor with a teaspoonful of extract of
pineapple.


Pineapple Ice Cream, No. 2.

Pare a pineapple and cut it fine. Put it in a sauce-pan with one pint
of water and a scant pint of sugar. Simmer gently for thirty minutes.
Rub through a sieve, add the cream, gradually, and freeze.


Strawberry Ice Cream.

One quart of cream, one quart of strawberries, one pint of sugar. Mash
the sugar and strawberries together, and let them stand one or two
hours. Add the cream, rub through a strainer into the freezer, and
freeze. Or, the cream can be made the same as the vanilla cream, and
when half frozen, the whole berries be stirred in.


Strawberry Ice Cream à la Surprise.

Put three pints of strawberries in a deep dish with one cupful of
sugar. Season three pints of cream with a cupful and a half of sugar
and two table-spoonfuls of wine. Freeze this. Take out the beater and
draw the frozen cream to the sides of the freezer. Fill the space in
the centre with the strawberries and sugar, which cover with the
frozen cream. Put on the cover and set away for an hour or more. When
the cream is turned out, garnish the base, if you please, with
strawberries.


Raspberry Ice Cream.

Make raspberry ice cream the same as strawberry, using a little less
sugar.


Apricot Ice Cream.

One quart of cream, one generous pint of canned apricot, one pint of
sugar, the yolks of three eggs, one pint of water. Boil the sugar and
water together twenty minutes. Rub the apricot through a sieve and add
it to the boiling syrup; add also the beaten yolks of the eggs, and
cook for six minutes, stirring all the while. Take from the fire and
place in a pan of cold water. Beat the mixture ten minutes. If cold at
the end of that time, add the cream, and freeze.


Peach Ice Cream.

Peach ice cream can be made like the apricot, having the pint of
peaches a very generous one.


Banana Ice Cream.

Make this the same as the apricot, using, however, only one cupful and
a half of sugar, and six bananas. More bananas can be used if a strong
flavor of the fruit is liked.


Chocolate Ice Cream.

Make a foundation with two eggs, one cupful of sugar, half a cupful of
flour and a pint of milk, the same as for vanilla ice cream. While
this is cooking, scrape one square (an ounce) of Baker's chocolate,
and add to it two table-spoonfuls of sugar and one of boiling water.
Stir this over the fire until perfectly smooth and glossy, and add it
to the boiling mixture. This quantity gives a very delicate flavor. If
a stronger one is wished use two squares of the chocolate. Put the
mixture in cold water to cool. Stir occasionally. When cold, add one
tea-cupful of sugar and one quart of milk. Freeze.


Brown Bread Ice Cream.

Dry the crust of brown bread in a warm oven. Roll fine and sift. Add
one pint of the crumbs to the preparation for vanilla ice cream. The
vanilla, and two-thirds of the second cupful of sugar must be omitted.


Macaroon Ice Cream.

Make a cream the same as for vanilla, except omit the second cupful of
sugar and the vanilla flavor. Brown one dozen and a half macaroons
into the oven. Let them cool; then roll them into fine crumbs. Add
these and three table-spoonfuls of wine to the cream, and freeze.


Coffee Ice Cream.

Make the same as vanilla, with the addition of one cupful of strong
coffee. This gives a strong flavor. Less can be used. The second
cupful of sugar should be large.


Caramel Ice Cream.

Make the hot mixture, as for vanilla. Put the small cupful of sugar in
a small frying-pan and stir over the fire until the sugar turns liquid
and begins to smoke. Turn into the boiling mixture, and put away to
cool. When cold, add one quart of cream. Strain the mixture into the
freezer, and freeze. The flavor of this cream can be varied by
browning the sugar more or less.


Almond Ice Cream.

This is made the same as vanilla, except that one teaspoonful of
extract of bitter almond is used for flavoring.

Almond Ice Cream, No. 2.

One pint of blanched almonds, the yolks of five eggs, one quart of
cream, one and a half cupfuls of sugar, one pint of milk, one pint of
water. Boil the water and sugar together for twenty-five minutes. Put
the almonds in a frying-pan and stir over the fire until they are a
rich brown. Remove from the fire, and pound to a paste in the mortar.
Cook the milk and powdered almonds in the double boiler for twenty
minutes. Beat the yolks of the eggs and stir them into the boiling
syrup. Beat this for four minutes, having the basin in boiling water.
Take from the fire, and gradually beat into it the almonds and milk.
Strain the mixture through a sieve, and rub through as much as
possible. Stir occasionally while cooling. When cold, add the cream
and half a teaspoonful of extract of almond. Freeze.


Pistachio Ice Cream.

One pint of pistachio nuts, half a cupful of blanched almonds, one
quart of cream, one pint of water, one scant pint of sugar, the yolks
of five eggs, one pint of milk, spinach green enough to give a
delicate color (about a heaping teaspoonful-to be cooked with the
nuts). Make the same as almond cream.


Walnut Ice Cream.

One pint of the meat of walnuts (the American are the best), pounded
fine in a mortar; one pint of milk, one quart of cream, two small
cupfuls of sugar, four eggs, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt. Beat
the eggs with one cupful of sugar. Put them and the milk in the double
boiler, and stir constantly until the mixture begins to thicken; then
add the salt, and put away to cool. When cold, add the cream and nut
meat, and freeze.


Cocoanut Ice Cream.

One quart of cream, one pint of milk, three eggs, one cupful and a
half of sugar, one cupful of prepared cocoanut, the rind and juice of
a lemon. Beat together the eggs and the grated lemon rind, and put
with the milk in the double boiler. Stir until the mixture begins to
thicken. Add the cocoanut, and put away to cool. When cool, add the
sugar, lemon juice and cream. Freeze.


Fig Ice Cream.

One quart of milk, two table-spoonfuls of corn-starch, one of
gelatine, one pint of cream, a cupful and a half of sugar, three eggs,
two cupfuls of figs, cut fine; one table-spoonful of vanilla. Put the
milk in the double boiler, reserving half a cupful. When it is
_boiling_, stir in the corn-starch, which has been mixed with the
cold milk. Cook ten minutes. Beat the eggs and sugar together. Pour
the cooked mixture on this, stirring all the time. Return to the fire,
add the gelatine, which has been soaking in four table-spoonfuls of
cold water, and cook three minutes. Set away to cool. When cold, add
the cream and vanilla, and freeze. When the cream has been freezing
ten minutes, take off the cover and stir in the figs. Cover again and
freeze until hard. Take out the beater, and with a large spoon, pack
the cream smoothly. Set away until serving time.


Glacé Méringue.

One quart of cream, one large cupful of granulated sugar and six
table-spoonfuls of powdered, one table-spoonful of vanilla extract,
the whites of six eggs, one cupful of milk, one table-spoonful of
gelatine, soaked an hour in four of cold water. Let the milk come to a
boil, and stir the gelatine into it. Strain into the cream. Add the
vanilla and granulated sugar. Turn into the tin, and freeze. When the
mixture is frozen (it will take about fifteen minutes), take out the
beater and pack the cream smoothly, being careful to have the top
perfectly level. Set away until serving time. It should stand half an
hour at least. When ready to serve, beat the whites of the eggs to a
stiff froth, and gradually beat into this the powdered sugar. Turn the
cream out on an earthen dish and cover every part with the méringue.
Brown in a hot oven, and serve immediately. If the dish is flat, put a
board under it. This keeps the heat from the bottom. _Glacé
méringue_ is an elegant dish.


Bombe Glacée.

One quart of strawberry or raspberry sherbet, No. 2, one pint of
sugar, one pint and a half of water, the yolks of eighteen eggs, one
large table-spoonful of vanilla extract. Boil the sugar and water
together twenty minutes. Beat the yolks of the eggs very light. Place
the sauce-pan, with the syrup, in another of boiling water. Stir the
beaten yolks of eggs into this syrup and beat with a whisk for ten
minutes. Take from the fire, place the basin in a pan of cold water,
and continue beating for twelve or fifteen minutes. Pack an ice cream
mould in salt and ice. Take the sherbet from the freezer and spread on
the sides and bottom of the mould. When it is hard, put the cooked
mixture in the centre, being careful not to disturb the sherbet. Cover
the cream with a piece of thick white paper. Put on the cover, and
cover the top of the mould with salt and ice. _Bombe glacée_ can
be made with any kind of (No. 2) sherbet, having the centre part
flavored to correspond with the sherbet. The handsomest dishes are, of
course, made with the brightest-colored sherbets.


Frozen Pudding.

One generous pint of milk, two cupfuls of granulated sugar, a scant
half cupful of flour, two eggs, two table-spoonfuls of gelatine, one
quart of cream, one pound of French candied fruit--half a pound will
do, four table-spoonfuls of wine. Let the milk come to a boil. Beat
the flour, one cupful of sugar and the eggs together, and stir into
the boiling milk. Cook twenty minutes, and add the gelatine, which has
been soaking one or two hours in water enough to cover it. Set away to
cool. When cool, add the wine, sugar and cream. Freeze ten minutes;
then add the candied fruit, and finish freezing. Take out the beater,
pack smoothly, and set away for an hour or two. When ready to serve,
dip the tin in warm water, turn out the cream, and serve with whipped
cream heaped around.


Nesselrode Pudding.

One pint of shelled almonds, one pint and a half of shelled chestnuts,
one pint of cream, a pint can of pineapple, the yolks of ten eggs,
half a pound of French candied fruit, one table-spoonful of vanilla
extract, four of wine, one pint of water, one of sugar. Boil the
chestnuts half an hour; then rub off the black skins, and pound in the
mortar until a paste. Blanch the almonds, and pound in the same
manner. Boil the sugar, water and juice from the pineapple for twenty
minutes in a sauce-pan. Beat the yolks of the eggs, and stir them into
the syrup. Put the sauce-pan in another of boiling water and beat the
mixture, with an egg beater, until it thickens. Take off, place in a
basin of cold water, and beat for ten minutes. Mix the almonds and
chestnuts with the cream, and rub all through a sieve. Add the candied
fruit and the pineapple, cut fine. Mix this with the cooked mixture.
Add the flavor and half a teaspoonful of salt. Freeze the same as ice
cream.


Lemon Sherbet.

The juice of five lemons, one pint of sugar, one quart of water, one
table-spoonful of gelatine. Soak the gelatine in a little of the
water. Boil one cupful of the water and dissolve the gelatine in it.
Mix together the sugar, water, gelatine and lemon juice. Turn into the
can, and freeze. This is light and creamy.


Lemon. Sherbet, No. 2.

One pint and a half of sugar, three pints of water, the juice of ten
lemons. Boil the sugar and water together twenty-five minutes. Add the
lemon juice, and strain and freeze. This makes a smooth, rich sherbet.


Orange Sherbet.

Make this the same as the lemon, using, however, ten oranges. In the
spring, when oranges are not very acid, add the juice of a lemon.


Orange Sherbet, No. 2.

Make the same as lemon sherbet, No. 2, but use the juice of twenty
oranges instead of ten lemons. Boil the syrup for this dish thirty
minutes.


Pineapple Sherbet.

A pint-and-a-half can of pineapple, or, if fresh fruit is used, one
large pineapple; a small pint of sugar, a pint of water, one table-
spoonful of gelatine. Soak the gelatine one or two hours in cold water
to cover. Cut the hearts and eyes from the fruit, chop it fine, and
add to the sugar and the juice from the can. Have half of the water
hot, and dissolve the gelatine in it. Stir this and the cold water
into the pineapple. Freeze. This sherbet will be white and creamy.


Pineapple Sherbet, No. 2.

Two small cans of pineapple, one generous pint of sugar, one quart of
water. Pour the juice of the pineapple into a bowl. Put the fruit in a
sauce-pan with half the water, and simmer twenty minutes. Put the
sugar and the remainder of the water on to boil. Cook fifteen minutes.
Rub the cooked pineapple through a sieve and add it to the boiling
syrup. Cook fifteen minutes longer. Add the juice, and cool and
freeze.


Strawberry Sherbet.

Two quarts of strawberries, one pint of sugar, one pint and a half of
water, one table-spoonful of gelatine. Mash the berries and sugar
together, and let them stand two hours. Soak the gelatine in cold
water to cover. Add one pint of the water to the strawberries, and
strain. Dissolve the gelatine in half a pint of boiling water, add
this to the strained mixture, and freeze.


Strawberry Sherbet, No. 2.

One pint and a half of strawberry juice, one pint of sugar, one pint
and a half of water, the juice of two lemons. Boil the water and sugar
together for twenty minutes. Add the lemon and strawberry juice.
Strain, and freeze.


Raspberry Sherbet.

This sherbet is made the same as the strawberry. When raspberries are
not in season, use the preserved or canned fruit and a smaller
quantity of sugar. The juice of a lemon or two is always an
improvement, but is not necessary. The sherbet can also be made by
following the second rule for strawberry sherbet.


Raspberry Sherbet, No. 2.

One bottle of German raspberries (holding a little more than a pint,
and costing about $1.25), one cupful of sugar, one quart of water, the
juice of two lemons. Mix all together, strain, and freeze.


Currant Sherbet.

One pint of currant juice, one pint and a half of water, the juice of
one lemon, one pint of sugar, one table-spoonful of gelatine. Have the
gelatine soaked in cold water, and dissolve it in half a pint of
boiling water. Mix it with the pint of cold water, the sugar, lemon
and currant juice, and freeze.

Currant Sherbet, No. 2.

One pint of sugar, one quart of water, one pint of currant juice, the
juice of a lemon. Boil the water and sugar together half an hour. Add
the currant and lemon juice to the syrup. Let this cool, and freeze.


Frozen Strawberries.

Two quarts of fresh strawberries, one pint of sugar, one quart of
water. Boil the water and sugar together half an hour; then add the
strawberries, and cook fifteen minutes longer. Let this cool, and
freeze. When the beater is taken out add one pint of whipped cream.
Preserved fruit can be used instead of the fresh. In this case, to
each quart of preserves add one quart of water, and freeze.


Frozen Raspberries.

Prepare raspberries the same as strawberries. When cold, add the juice
of three lemons; and freeze. All kinds of canned and preserved fruits
can be prepared and frozen in any of the three ways given.


Frozen Peaches.

One can of peaches, one heaping pint of granulated sugar, one quart of
water, two cupfuls of whipped cream. Boil the sugar and water together
twelve minutes; then add the peaches, and cook twenty minutes longer.
Rub through a sieve; and when cool, freeze. When the beater is taken
out, stir in the whipped cream with a large spoon. Cover, and set away
until serving time. It should stand one hour at least.


Frozen Apricots.

One can of apricots, a generous pint of sugar, a quart of water, a
pint of whipped cream--measured after being whipped. Cut the apricots
in small pieces, add the sugar and water, and freeze. When nearly
frozen add the cream.


Biscuit Glacé.

Mix together in a deep bowl or pail one pint of _rich_ cream,
one-third of a cupful of sugar and one teaspoonful of vanilla extract.
Put the mixture in a pan of ice water and whip to a stiff froth. Stir
this down, and whip again. Skim the froth into a deep dish. When all
the cream has been whipped to a froth, fill paper cases with it, and
place these in a large tin box (or, the freezer will do,) that is
nearly buried in ice and salt--two quarts of salt to six of ice--and
is wholly covered after the cases are put in. Let these remain there
two hours. Make a pint of strawberry sherbet. Put a thin layer of it
on each case of cream, and return to the freezer. Let the cases stand
half an hour longer, and serve. They should be arranged on a bright
napkin, spread on a flat dish.


Biscuit Glacé, No. 2.

One pint of cream, whipped to a froth; a dozen and a half macaroons,
three eggs, half a cupful of water, two-thirds of a cupful of sugar, a
teaspoonful of vanilla extract. Boil the sugar and water together for
half an hour. Beat the eggs well, and stir into the boiling syrup.
Place the sauce-pan containing the mixture in another of boiling
water, and beat for eight minutes. Take from the fire, place the
sauce-pan in a pan of cold water, and beat the mixture until it is
cold; then add the flavor and whipped cream. Stir well, and fill paper
cases. Have the macaroons browned and rolled fine. Put a layer of the
crumbs on the cream in the cases, and freeze as directed in the other
recipe.


Chocolate Soufflé.

Two cupfuls of milk, one and a half squares of Baker's chocolate,
three-fourths of a cupful of powdered sugar, two table-spoonfuls of
corn-starch, three eggs, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt, half a
teaspoonful of vanilla extract. Boil the milk in the double boiler,
leaving out a third of a cupful to mix with the corn-starch. After
mixing, stir into the boiling milk, and cook eight minutes. Dissolve
the chocolate with half a cupful of the sugar and two table-spoonfuls
of boiling water. Add to the other mixture. Beat the yolks and add
them and the salt. Cook two minutes. Set in cold water, and beat until
cool; then add the flavor, and pour into a dish. Beat the whites of
the eggs to a stiff froth, add the remaining sugar, and heap on the
custard. Dredge with sugar. Brown with a salamander or hot shovel.

Orange Soufflé.

A pint of milk, five eggs, one-fourth of a cupful of granulated sugar
and three table-spoonfuls of powdered, five Florida oranges and a
speck of salt. Put the milk on to boil. Beat the yolks of five eggs
and whites of two with the granulated sugar. Pour the milk, gradually,
over this, stirring all the while. Return to the sauce-pan, place in a
basin of boiling water, and stir until it begins to thicken like soft
custard. This will be about two minutes. Add the salt, and set away to
cool. Pare the oranges, remove the seeds, cut up fine, and put in a
glass dish. Pour on the cold custard. Just before serving beat the
three remaining whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and beat in the
powdered sugar. Heap this on the custard, and brown with a hot shovel
or a salamander.

Surprise Soufflé.

One pint of the juice of any kind of fruit, one-third of a package of
gelatine, half a cupful of sugar (unless the fruit is very acid, in
which case use a little more), one pint of soft custard, ten
macaroons, half a cupful of water. Soak the gelatine two hours in a
little of the water. Let the remainder of the water come to a boil,
and pour it on the soaked gelatine. Place the basin in another of hot
water and stir until all the gelatine is dissolved. Strain this into
the fruit juice. Add the sugar. Place the basin in a pan of ice water,
and as soon as the mixture begins to thicken, beat with a whisk until
it hardens; then place in the ice chest for a few hours. Brown the
macaroons in a cool oven. Let them cool and roll them fine. At serving
time put the custard in a _soufflé_ dish. Heap the jelly on this,
and cover all with the macaroon crumbs.

Omelet Soufflé à la Crème.

Four eggs, two table-spoonfuls of sugar, a speck of salt, half a
teaspoonful of vanilla' extract, one cupful of whipped cream. Beat the
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and gradually beat the sugar and
the flavor into them. When well beaten, add the yolks, and lastly the
whipped cream. Have a dish, holding about one quart, slightly
buttered. Pour the mixture into this and bake _just twelve
minutes_. Serve the moment it is taken from the oven.

Omelet Soufflé à la Poêle.

The whites of eight and yolks of four eggs, two table-spoonfuls of
sugar, a speck of salt, two table-spoonfuls of butter, half a
teaspoonful of any kind of flavor. Beat the yolks of the eggs, the
sugar, salt and flavor together. Beat the whites to a stiff froth.
Stir this in with the beaten yolks. Have a large omelet pan very hot.
Put one table-spoonful of butter in this, and pour in half the
mixture. Shake rapidly for a minute; then fold, and turn on a hot
dish. Put the remainder of the butter and mixture in the pan, and
proceed as before. Turn this omelet on the dish by the side of the
other. Dredge lightly with sugar, and place in the oven for eight
minutes. Serve the moment it comes from the oven.


Charlotte Russe.

Ten eggs, one cupful of sugar, four table-spoonfuls of wine, one of
vanilla extract, a package of gelatine, one and a half cupfuls of
milk, one pint of cream. Soak the gelatine in half a cupful of the
milk. Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar together, and put in
the double boiler with the remaining milk. Stir until the mixture
begins to thicken; then add the gelatine, and strain into a large tin
basin. Place this in a pan of ice water, and when it begins to cool,
add the whites of the eggs, well beaten, the wine and flavor, and the
whipped cream. Mix thoroughly, and pour into moulds that have been
lined with sponge cake. Set away to harden. With the quantities given
two quart moulds can be filled. The lining may be one piece of sponge
cake, or strips of it, or lady-fingers. The wine may be omitted.


Charlotte Russe, No. 2.

One pint of _rich_ cream, one teaspoonful of vanilla flavor, one-
third of a cupful of sugar. Mix all together in a tin pail and place
in a basin of ice water. Whip the cream to a stiff froth, and skim,
into a colander. When nearly whipped, return to the pail that which
has drained through the colander, and whip it again. Have a quart
mould lined with stale sponge cake. Fill it with whipped cream and set
in the ice chest for an hour or two.


 Apple Charlotte.

One scant pint of apples, steamed, and rubbed through a sieve; one-
third of a box of gelatine, soaked an hour in one-third of a cupful of
cold water; one cupful of sugar, the juice of a large lemon, the
whites of three eggs. Pour half a cupful of boiling water upon the
gelatine, stir until thoroughly dissolved, and pour upon the apple;
then add the sugar and lemon juice. Place in a basin of ice water, and
beat until it begins to thicken. Add the whites of the eggs, beaten to
a stiff froth. Pour into a two-quart mould, which has been lined with
sponge cake, and put on ice to harden. Make a soft custard of the
yolks of the eggs, one pint of milk and three table-spoonfuls of
sugar. When the charlotte is turned out on a dish, pour this around.


Calf's Foot Jelly.

Four calf's feet, six quarts of water, the juice of two lemons and
rind of one, two cloves, a two-inch piece of stick cinnamon, two
cupfuls of sugar, a pint of wine, the whites and shells of two eggs.
Wash the feet very carefully and put them on with the cold water. Boil
gently until the water is reduced to two quarts; then strain through a
napkin, and set away to harden. In the morning scrape off all the fat
and wipe the jelly with a clean towel. Break it up and put in a kettle
with the other ingredients, having first beaten the whites of the eggs
and the shells with half a cupful of cold water. Let the mixture come
to a boil slowly, and set back for twenty minutes where it will keep
at the boiling point. Strain through a napkin, mould, and set away to
harden.


Wine Jelly.

One box of gelatine, half a pint of cold water, a pint and a half of
boiling water, one pint of sherry, one of sugar, the juice of a lemon.
Soak the gelatine two hours in the cold water. Pour the boiling water
on it, and stir until dissolved. Add the lemon juice, sugar and wine.
Strain through a napkin, turn into moulds, and, when cold, place in
the ice chest for six or eight hours.

One good way to mould this jelly is to pour some of it into the mould,
harden it a little, put in a layer of strawberries, pour in jelly to
set them, and then enough to make another layer, then put in more
berries, and a third layer of jelly, and so continue, until all the
jelly has been used.


Cider Jelly.

A box of gelatine, one pint of sugar, a quart and half a pint of
cider, half a pint of cold water. Soak the gelatine in the cold water
for two hours. Let the cider come to a boil, and pour it on the
gelatine. Add the sugar, strain through a napkin, and turn into
moulds. When cold, place in the refrigerator for six or eight hours.


Lemon Jelly.

Two cupfuls of sugar, one of lemon juice, one quart of boiling water,
one cupful of cold water, a box of gelatine. Soak the gelatine in the
cold water for two hours. Pour the boiling water on it, add the sugar
and lemon juice, strain through a napkin, mould and harden.


Orange Jelly.

One box of gelatine, one pint of orange juice, the juice of a lemon,
one pint of sugar, a pint and a half of boiling water, half a pint of
cold water, the white and shell of an egg. Soak the gelatine as for
the other jellies. Add the boiling water, sugar, the fruit juice, and
the white and shell of the egg, beaten with two table-spoonfuls of
cold water. Let the mixture come to a boil, and set back for twenty
minutes where it will keep hot, but will not boil. Strain through a
napkin. A pretty way to mould this jelly is to fill the mould to the
depth of two inches with liquid jelly, and, when this is hardened, put
on a layer of oranges, divided into eighths; to pour on a little more
jelly, to set the fruit, and then fill up with jelly. Keep in the ice
chest for six or eight hours.


Currant Jelly.

Make the same as wine jelly, using a pint of currant juice instead of
wine.


Strawberry Jelly.

Three pints of ripe strawberries, a box of gelatine, a pint of sugar,
one pint of boiling water, half a pint of cold water, the juice of a
lemon. Soak the gelatine for two hours in the cold water. Mash the
berries with the sugar, and let them stand two hours. Pour the boiling
water on the fruit and sugar. Press the juice from the strawberries
and add it and the lemon juice to the dissolved gelatine. Strain
through a napkin, pour into moulds, and harden. Raspberry jelly is
made in the same way.


Pineapple Jelly.

A pint-and-a-half can of pineapple, a scant pint of sugar, the white
and shell of an egg, a box of gelatine, the juice of a lemon, one
quart of boiling water, half a pint of cold water. Cut the pineapple
in fine pieces, put with the boiling water and simmer gently twenty
minutes. Soak the gelatine in the cold water for two hours. Add it,
the sugar, lemon and pineapple juice, and the white and shell of the
egg to the boiling mixture. Let this boil up once, and set back for
twenty minutes where it will keep hot, but will not boil. Strain
through a napkin, turn into moulds and set away to harden.


Coffee Jelly.

One pint of sugar, one of strong coffee, a pint and a half of boiling
water, half a pint of cold water, a box of gelatine. Soak the gelatine
two hours in the cold water. Pour the boiling water on it, and when it
is dissolved, add the sugar and coffee. Strain, turn into moulds, and
set away to harden. This is to be served with sugar and cream.


Soft Custard.

One quart of milk, one scant half teacupful of sugar, half a
teaspoonful of salt, the yolks of eight eggs and whites of two, one
teaspoonful of lemon or vanilla flavor, or half as much of almond.
Beat the sugar and eggs together, and add one cupful of milk. Let the
remainder of the milk come to a boil, pour it on the beaten mixture,
and put this on the fire in the double boiler. Stir until it begins to
thicken, which will be in about five minutes, when add the salt, and
set away to cool. When cold, add the flavor. Serve in custard glasses.


Soft Caramel Custard.

One quart of milk, half a cupful of sugar, six eggs, half a
teaspoonful of salt. Put the milk on to boil, reserving a cupful. Beat
the eggs, and add the cold milk to them. Stir the sugar in a small
frying-pan until it becomes liquid and just begins to smoke. Stir it
into the boiling milk; then add the beaten eggs and cold milk, and
stir constantly until the mixture begins to thicken. Set away to cool.
Serve in glasses.


Chocolate Whips.

One quart of milk, one (ounce) square of Baker's chocolate, one
generous half cupful of sugar, six eggs, a speck of salt. Scrape the
chocolate fine and put it in a small frying-pan with two table-
spoonfuls of the sugar and one of boiling water. When dissolved, add
it to a pint and a half of the milk, which should be hot in the double
boiler. Beat the eggs and the remainder of the sugar together, add the
cold milk, and stir into the boiling milk. Stir constantly until it
begins to thicken. Add the salt, and set away to cool. Season one pint
of cream with two table-spoonfuls of sugar and half a teaspoonful of
vanilla extract. Whip to a stiff froth. When the custard is cold, half
fill glasses with it, and heap whipped cream upon it. Or, it can be
served in one large dish, with the whipped cream on top.


Kisses.

Beat the whites of six eggs to a stiff froth. They should be beaten
until so light and dry that they begin to fly off of the beater. Stir
in a cupful of powdered sugar, gently and quickly. Spread paraffin
paper over three boards, which measure about nine by twelve inches.
Drop the mixture by spoonfuls on the boards, having perhaps a dozen on
each one. Dry in a warm oven for about three-quarters of an hour; then
brown them slightly. Lift from the paper and stick them together at
the base by twos. A dozen and a half can be made from the quantities
given.


Cream Méringues.

These are made similar to kisses, but are pat on the paper in oblong
shape, and dried two hours. Take from the board and, with a spoon,
remove all the soft part. Season half a pint of rich cream with a
table-spoonful of sugar and one of wine, or a speck of vanilla, and
whip it to a stiff froth. Fill the shells with this, and join them.
Or, they may be filled with ice cream. If the méringues are exposed to
much heat they are spoiled.


Kiss Wafers.

Half a pint of blanched bitter almonds, one heaping cupful of powdered
sugar, the whites of six eggs, one-third of a cupful of flour, two
table-spoonfuls of corn-starch. Blanch the almonds and pound them in a
mortar. As soon as they are a little broken add the white of an egg.
Pound until very fine. When there is a smooth paste add the sugar, a
little at a time, the whites of two eggs, one at a time, and the flour
and corn-starch. When thoroughly mixed, add, by degrees, the three
remaining whites. Butter the bottom of a flat baking pan and put the
mixture on it in spoonfuls. Spread it _very thin_, especially in
the centre, and bake in a quick oven. The moment the cakes are taken
from the oven, roll into the shape of cornucopias. If allowed to cool,
they cannot be rolled, and for this reason it is best to bake only
half a dozen at a time. When all are shaped, fill with the kiss
mixture, made by beating the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth,
and stirring into them, lightly, four table-spoonfuls of powdered
sugar. Place the wafers in a warm oven for twenty minutes or half an
hour, to dry. With the quantities given two dozen can be made.


Brier Hill Dessert.

Stew one quart of blackberries with one quart of sugar and half a
cupful of water. They should cook only fifteen minutes. When cold,
serve with powdered cracker and sugar and cream. The cracker and
berries should be in separate dishes.


Richmond Maids of Honor.

In the little town of Richmond, England, is a small pastry shop widely
known for its cheese cakes. It is said that the original recipe for
them was furnished by a maid of Queen Elizabeth, who had a palace at
Richmond. In the neighboring city of London the cakes are in great
demand, and the popular opinion there is that the only place to get
them is the shop mentioned, where they are made somewhat as follows:

One cupful of sweet milk, one of sour, one of sugar, a lemon, the
yolks of four eggs, a speck of salt. Put all the milk in the double
boiler and cook until it curds; then strain. Rub the curd through a
sieve. Beat the sugar and yolks of eggs together, and add the rind and
juice of the lemon and the curd. Line little patty pans with puff or
chopped paste, rolled very thin. Put a large spoonful of the mixture
in each one, and bake from fifteen to twenty minutes in a moderate
oven. Do not remove from the pans until cold. These are nice for
suppers or lunches as well as for dessert.


Fanchonettes.

One cupful of sugar, half a cupful of water, one table-spoonful of
corn-starch, one teaspoonful of butter, the yolks of four eggs, the
juice and rind of two lemons. Mix the cornstarch with a little cold
water, and stir in half a cupful of boiling water. Beat the sugar,
eggs and lemon together, and stir into the boiling corn-starch. Place
the basin in another of boiling water, and stir (over the fire) until
it thickens, perhaps from eight to ten minutes; then add the butter
and set away to cool. Line little patty pans with puff paste, or any
rich paste, rolled very thin. Put a spoonful of the mixture in each
one, and bake in a slow oven from twelve to twenty minutes. When cool,
slip out of the pans, and serve on a napkin. They are nice for lunch,
tea or children's parties, only for parties make them small. The
mixture for fanchonettes will keep a number of weeks in a cool place,
so that if one makes a quantity at one time, portions can be used with
the trimmings of pastry left from pies.


Fruit Glacè.

Boil together for half an hour one cupful of granulated sugar, one of
water. Dip the point of a skewer in the syrup, after it has been
boiling the given time, and then in water. If the thread formed breaks
off brittle the syrup is done. Have oranges pared, divided into
eighths and wiped free of moisture. Pour part of the hot syrup into a
small cup, which keep in boiling water. Take the pieces of orange on
the point of a large needle or skewer and dip them in the syrup. Place
them on a dish that has been buttered lightly. Grapes, cherries,
walnuts, etc., can be prepared in the same way. Care must be taken not
to stir the syrup, as that spoils it.


Gâteau Saint Honoré.

Make a paste the same as for _éclairs_. Butter three pie plates.
Roll puff or chopped paste very thin, and cover the plates with it.
Cut off the paste about an inch from the edge all round the plates.
Spread a thin layer of the cooked paste over the puff paste. Put a
tube, measuring about half an inch in diameter, in a pastry bag. Turn
the remainder of the paste into the bag and press it through the tube
on to the edges of the plates, where the puff paste has been cut off.
Care must be taken to have the border of equal thickness all round the
plates. With a fork, prick holes in the paste in the centre of the
plate. Bake half an hour in a moderate oven. When the plates have been
put in the oven, make what paste is left in the bag into balls about
half the size of an American walnut. There will be enough for three
dozen. Drop them into a pan that has been buttered lightly, and bake
fifteen or twenty minutes. While they are baking, put half a cupful of
water and half a cupful of granulated sugar in a small sauce-pan, and
boil twenty-five minutes.

When the little balls and the paste in the plate is done, take the
balls on the point of a skewer or large needle, dip them in the syrup
and place them on the border of paste (the syrup will hold them),
about two inches apart. A word of caution just here: Do not stir the
syrup, as that will make it grain, and, of course, spoil it. A good
plan is to pour part of the syrup into a small cup, which place in hot
water. That remaining in the sauce-pan should be kept hot, but it
should not boil, until needed. When all the balls have been used, dip
four dozen French candied cherries in the syrup, and stick them
between the balls. Reserve about fifteen cherries, with which to
garnish the centre of the cake. Whip one pint and a half of cream to a
froth. Soak half a package of gelatine in half a cupful of milk for
two hours. Pour on this half a cupful of boiling milk. Place the pan
of whipped cream in another of ice water, and sprinkle over it two-
thirds of a cupful of sugar and nearly a teaspoonful of vanilla
flavor. Strain the gelatine on this, and stir gently from the bottom
until it begins to thicken. When it will just pour, fill the three
plates with it, and set them in the ice chest for half an hour.
Garnish the top with the remaining cherries, and serve. This is an
excellent dish for dessert or party suppers.




CAKE.


Rice Cake.

One cupful of butter, two of sugar, two and one-fourth of rice flour,
six eggs, the juice and rind of a lemon. Beat the butter to a cream;
then gradually beat in the sugar, and add the lemon. Beat the yolks
and whites separately, and add them to the beaten sugar and butter.
Add also the rice flour. Pour into a shallow pan, to the depth of
about two inches. Bake from thirty-five to forty-five minutes in a
moderate oven.


Silver Cake.

One cupful of sugar, half a cupful of butter, the whites of three
eggs, half a cupful of corn-starch, dissolved in nearly half a cupful
of milk;--one and a fourth cupfuls of flour, half a teaspoonful of
cream of tartar, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of soda, and vanilla or
almond flavor. Beat the butter to a cream, and gradually beat in the
sugar. Add the flavor. Mix the flour, cream of tartar and soda
together, and sift. Beat the whites to a stiff froth. Add the corn-
starch and milk to the beaten sugar and butter; then add the whites of
the eggs and the flour. Mix quickly and thoroughly. Have the batter in
sheets, and about two inches deep. Bake in a moderate oven for about
half an hour. A chocolate frosting is nice with this cake. [Mrs. L. C.
A.]


Gold Cake.

One cupful of sugar, half a cupful of butter, the yolks of three eggs
and one whole egg, half a cupful of milk, one-fourth of a teaspoonful
each of soda and cream of tartar, one and three-fourths cupfuls of
flour. Mix the butter and sugar together, and add the eggs, milk,
flavor and flour, in the order named. Bake the same as the silver
cake. A white frosting is good with this cake. [Mrs. L. C. A.]

Angel Cake.

The whites of eleven eggs, one and a half cupfuls of granulated sugar,
one cupful of pastry flour, measured after being sifted four times;
one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, one of vanilla extract. Sift the
flour and cream of tartar together. Beat the whites to a stiff froth.
Beat the sugar into the eggs, and add the seasoning and flour,
stirring quickly and lightly. Beat until ready to put the mixture in
the oven. Use a pan that has little legs at the top corners, so that
when the pan is turned upside down on the table, after the baking, a
current of air will pass under and over it. Bake for forty minutes in
a moderate oven. Do not grease the pan.


Sunshine Cake.

This is made almost exactly like angel cake. Have the whites of eleven
eggs and yolks of six, one and a half cupfuls of granulated sugar,
measured after one sifting; one cupful of flour, measured after
sifting; one teaspoonful of cream of tartar and one of orange extract.
Beat the whites to a stiff froth, and gradually beat in the sugar.
Beat the yolks in a similar manner, and add to them the whites and
sugar and the flavor. Finally, stir in the flour. Mix quickly and
well. Bake for fifty minutes in a slow oven, using a pan like that for
angel cake.


Demon Cake.

One cupful of butter, one of sugar, one of molasses, two eggs, four
and one-fourth cupfuls of flour, one table-spoonful of ginger, one of
cinnamon, four of brandy, half a grated nutmeg, one teaspoonful of
soda, dissolved in two table-spoonfuls of milk; one cupful of
currants, and one of preserved ginger, cut in fine strips. Beat the
butter to a cream; then beat in the sugar, molasses, brandy and spice.
Have the eggs well beaten, and add them. Stir in the soda and flour.
Have two pans well buttered, or lined with paraffin paper. Pour the
cake mixture, to the depth of about two inches, in each pan. Sprinkle
a layer of fruit on it. Cover with a thin layer of the mixture, and
add more fruit. Continue this until all the batter and fruit is used.
Bake two hours in a moderate oven.


Ames Cake.

One generous cupful of butter, two of sugar, three cupfuls of pastry
flour, one small cupful of milk, the yolks of five eggs and whites of
three, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda,
or one and a half teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one teaspoonful of
lemon extract, or the juice of one fresh lemon. Beat the butter to a
cream. Add the sugar, gradually, then the seasoning, the eggs, well
beaten, next the milk and then the flour, in which the soda and cream
of tartar are mixed. Mix thoroughly, but quickly, and bake in two
sheets in a moderate oven for twenty-five or thirty minutes. Cover
with a frosting made by stirring two small cupfuls of powdered sugar
into the whites of two eggs, and seasoning with lemon.


Black Cake.

Three cupfuls of butter, one quart of sugar, three pints of flour,
half a pint of molasses, half a pint of brandy, half a pint of wine,
one teaspoonful of saleratus, one ounce each of all kinds of spices,
twelve eggs, three pounds of raisins, two of currants, half a pound of
citron. Bake in deep pans, in a moderate oven, between three and four
hours. This is one of the best of rich cakes.


Fruit Cake.

One cupful of butter, two of sugar, three of flour, the whites of
eight eggs, half a wine-glass of white wine, two teaspoonfuls of
baking powder, one-fourth of a pound of citron, cut fine; half a pound
of chopped almonds, one tea-cupful of dessicated cocoanut. Beat the
butter to a cream, and gradually beat in the sugar, and then the wine.
Beat the eggs to a stiff froth, and stir into the butter and sugar.
Add the flour, which is thoroughly mixed with the baking powder, and
lastly the fruit. Bake, in two loaves, forty minutes in a moderate
oven.


Wedding Cake.

Nine cupfuls of butter, five pints of sugar, four quarts of flour,
five dozen of eggs, seven pounds of currants, three and a half of
citron, four of shelled almonds, seven of raisins, one and a half
pints of brandy, two ounces of mace. Bake in a moderate oven for two
hours or more. This will make eight loaves, which will keep for years.


Lady's Cake.

Three-fourths of a cupful of butter, two cupfuls of sugar, half a
cupful of milk, three cupfuls of pastry flour, the whites of six eggs,
one teaspoonful of baking powder, one teaspoonful of essence of
almond. Beat the butter to a cream. Add the sugar, gradually, then the
essence, milk, the whites of eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, and the
flour, in which the baking powder has been mixed. Bake in one large
pan or two small ones, and frost, or not, as you please. If baked in
sheets about two inches deep, it will take about twenty-five minutes
in a moderate oven.


Queen's Cake.

One cupful of butter, a pint of sugar, a quart of flour, four eggs,
half a gill of wine, of brandy and of thin cream, one pound of fruit,
spice to taste. Warm the liquids together, and stir quickly into the
beaten sugar, butter and egg; add the flour; finally add the fruit.
Bake in deep pans in a moderate oven.


Composition Cake.

One and one-half quarts of flour, half a pint of sour milk, one pint
of butter, three-fourths of a quart of sugar, eight eggs, one wine-
glass of wine and one of brandy, one scant teaspoonful of soda, one
cupful of raisins, stoned and chopped; two pounds of currants, half a
pound of citron, a nutmeg, two teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, one of
allspice, one of mace, half a teaspoonful of clove. Beat the butter to
a cream, and add the sugar, gradually, the well-beaten eggs, the
spice, wine and brandy. Dissolve the soda in a table-spoonful of hot
water; stir into the sour milk, and add to the other ingredients. Then
add the flour, and lastly the fruit. Bake two hours in well-buttered
pans in a moderate oven. This will make three loaves.


Ribbon Cake.

Two cupfuls of sugar, one of butter, one of milk, four of flour
(rather scant), four eggs, half a teaspoonful of soda, one of cream of
tartar. Beat the butter to a cream. Add the sugar, gradually, beating
all the while; then the flavoring (lemon or nutmeg). Beat the eggs
very light. Add them and the milk. Measure the flour after it has been
sifted. Return it to the sieve, and mix the soda and cream of tartar
with it. Sift this into the bowl of beaten ingredients. Beat quickly
and vigorously, to thoroughly mix, and then stop. Take three sheet
pans of the same size, and in each of two put one-third of the
mixture, and bake. To the other third add four teaspoonfuls of
cinnamon, a cupful of currants and about an eighth of a pound of
citron, cut fine. Bake this in the remaining pan. When done, take out
of the pans. Spread the light cake with a thin layer of jelly, while
warm. Place on this the dark cake, and spread with jelly. Place the
other sheet of light cake on this. Lay a paper over all, and then a
thin sheet, on which put two irons. The cake will press in about two
hours.


Regatta Cake.

Two pounds of raised dough, one pint of sugar, one cupful of butter,
four eggs, a nutmeg, a glass of wine, a teaspoonful of saleratus, one
pound of raisins. Mix thoroughly, put in deep pans that have been
thoroughly greased, and let it rise half an hour, if in very warm
weather, or fifteen minutes longer, if in cold weather. Bake in a
moderate oven.


Nut Cake.

One cupful of sugar, half a cupful of butter, half a cupful of milk,
two cupfuls of pastry flour, two eggs, one coffee-cupful of chopped
raisins, one of chopped English walnuts, one teaspoonful of cream of
tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda. Beat the butter to a cream. Add
the sugar, gradually, and when light, the eggs, well beaten, then the
milk and the flour, in which the soda and cream of tartar have been
thoroughly mixed. Mix quickly, and add the raisins and nuts. Bake in
rather deep sheets, in a moderate oven, for thirty-five minutes.
Frost, if you please. The quantities given are for one large or two
small sheets. If you use baking powder, instead of cream of tartar and
soda, take a teaspoonful and a half.


Snow Flake Cake.

Half a cupful of butter, one and a half of sugar, two of pastry flour,
one-fourth of a cupful of milk, the whites of five eggs, one
teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, or a
teaspoonful and a half of baking-powder, the juice of half a lemon.
Beat the butter to a cream. Gradually add the sugar, then the lemon,
and when very light, the milk, and whites of the eggs, beaten to a
stiff froth; then the flour, in which the soda and cream of tartar are
well mixed. Bake in sheets in a moderate oven. When nearly cool,
frost.

Frosting: The whites of three eggs, two large cupfuls of powdered
sugar, half a grated cocoanut, the juice of half a lemon. Beat the
whites to a stiff froth. Add the sugar, gradually, and the lemon and
cocoanut. Put a layer of frosting on one sheet of the cake. Place the
other sheet on this, and cover with frosting. Or, simply frost the top
of each sheet, as you would any ordinary cake. Set in a cool place to
harden.


Federal Cake.

One pint of sugar, one and a half cupfuls of butter, three pints of
flour, four eggs, two wine-glasses of milk, two of wine, two of
brandy, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of
saleratus, fruit and spice to taste. Bake in deep pans, the time
depending on the quantity of fruit used.


Sponge Rusks.

Two cupfuls of sugar, one of butter, two of milk, one of yeast, three
eggs. Rub the butter, sugar and eggs together. Add the milk and yeast,
and flour enough to make a thick batter. Let this stand in a warm
place until light, and then add flour enough to make as thick as for
biscuit. Shape, and put in a pan in which they are to be baked, and
let them stand two or three hours (three hours unless the weather is
very warm). Bake about forty minutes in a moderate oven. It is always
best to set the sponge at night, for it will then be ready to bake the
following forenoon. If the rusks are wanted warm for tea, the sponge
must, of course, be set early in the morning.


Taylor Cake.

Half a cupful of butter, two and a half of sugar, one of milk, three
and a half of pastry flour, three eggs, one teaspoonful of cream of
tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, flavor to taste. Beat the butter
to a cream, then beat in the sugar, next the eggs, well beaten; the
seasoning, the milk, and lastly the flour, in which the soda and cream
of tartar have been thoroughly mixed. Bake in a moderate oven, either
in loaves or sheets. If in sheets, twenty-five minutes; if in loaves,
forty-five. The quantities given are for two loaves or sheets. This
cake is nice for Washington or chocolate pies, and is good baked in
sheets and frosted.


Loaf Cake.

Two quarts of sugar, seven cupfuls of butter, six quarts of sifted
flour, six pounds of fruit, one pint of wine, one pint of yeast, eight
nutmegs, mace, twelve eggs, one quart of milk. It should be made at
such an hour (being governed by the weather) as will give it time to
get perfectly light by evening. It should stand about six hours in
summer and eight in whiter.

Put in half the butter and eggs, and the milk, flavor and yeast, and
beat thoroughly. In the evening add the remainder of the butter,
rubbing it with the sugar, the rest of the eggs, and the spice. Let
the cake rise again, until morning; then add the fruit. Put in deep
pans, and let rise about half an hour. Bake from two to three hours in
a slow oven.


Chocolate Cake.

One and a half cupfuls of sugar, half a cupful of butter, half a
cupful of milk, one and three-fourths cupfuls of flour, a quarter of a
pound of Baker's chocolate, three eggs, one teaspoonful of cream of
tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda. Scrape the chocolate fine, and add
five table-spoonfuls of sugar to it (this in addition to the cupful
and a half). Beat the butter to a cream. Gradually add the sugar,
beating all the while. Add three table-spoonfuls of boiling water to
the chocolate and sugar. Stir over the fire until smooth and glossy;
then stir into the beaten sugar and butter. Add to this mixture the
eggs, well beaten, then the milk and the flour, in which the soda and
cream of tartar have been thoroughly mixed. Bake twenty minutes in a
moderate oven. This will make two sheets. Frost it, if you like.


Chocolate Cake, No. 2.

One cupful of butter, two of sugar, three and a half of Sour, one of
milk, five eggs--the whites of two being left out, one teaspoonful of
cream of tartar and half a teaspoonful of soda, or one and a half of
baking powder. Beat the butter to a cream. Add the sugar, gradually,
then the eggs, well beaten, the milk, next the flour, in which the
soda and cream of tartar have been well mixed. Bake in two sheets for
thirty minutes in a moderate oven, and ice.

Icing: The whites of two eggs, one and a half cupfuls of powdered
sugar, six table-spoonfuls of grated chocolate, one teaspoonful of
vanilla. Put the chocolate and six table-spoonfuls of the sugar in a
sauce-pan with two spoonfuls of hot water. Stir over a hot fire until
smooth and glossy. Beat the whites to a froth, and add the sugar and
chocolate.


Orange Cake.

Two cupfuls of sugar, a small half cupful of butter, two cupfuls of
flour, half a cupful of water, the yolks of five eggs and whites of
four, half a teaspoonful of soda, a teaspoonful of cream of tartar,
the rind of one orange and the juice of one and a half. Beat the
butter to a cream. Add the sugar, gradually, then the orange, the
eggs, well beaten, the water and the flour, in which the soda and
cream of tartar have been well mixed. Bake in sheets for twenty-five
minutes, in a moderate oven, and when cool, frost.

Frosting: The white of an egg, the juice of one and a half oranges and
the grated rind of one, one cupful and a half of powdered sugar,
unless the egg and oranges are very large, in which case use two
cupfuls.


Railroad Cake.

Two cupfuls of sugar, two of flour, six table-spoonfuls of butter, two
of milk, six eggs, one teaspoonful of saleratus, two of cream of
tartar, lemon peel. Bake in shallow pans in a quick oven.


Hot Water Sponge Cake.

Six eggs, two cupfuls of sugar, two of pastry flour, half a cupful of
_boiling_ water, the grated rind of half a lemon, and one
teaspoonful of the juice. Beat the yolks and sugar to a froth; also,
beat the whites to a stiff froth. Add the lemon to the yolks and
sugar, then add the boiling water, next the whites, and, last of all,
the flour. Mix quickly, and bake in two sheets for half an hour, in a
moderate oven.


Sponge Cake.

Ten eggs, two and a half cupfuls of sugar, two and a half of pastry
flour, the juice and grated rind of one lemon. Beat the yolks and
sugar together until very light. Add the lemon. Beat the whites to a
stiff froth. Stir the flour and this froth alternately into the beaten
yolks and sugar. Have the batter about three inches deep in the pan.
Sprinkle with sugar, and bake three-quarters of an hour in a moderate
oven. If the batter is not so deep in the pan it will not take so long
to bake.


Sponge Cake, No. 2.

The yolks of a dozen eggs and whites of eight, one and three-fourths
cupfuls of sugar, the same quantity of flour, the rind of one lemon
and juice of two. Beat the yolks and sugar together. Add the lemon
rind and juice and beat a little longer. Beat the whites to a stiff
froth, and add them to the mixture. Gradually stir in the flour. Pour
the mixture into a baking pan to the depth of about two inches. Bake
from thirty-five to forty minutes in a slow oven.


Viennois Oakes.

Cut any kind of plain cake into small squares. Cut a small piece from
the centre of each square, and fill the cavity with some kind of
marmalade or jelly. Replace the crust part that was removed, and cover
with icing. These cakes are nice for dessert.


Dominos.

Have any kind of sponge cake baked in a rather thin sheet. Cut this
into small oblong pieces, the shape of a domino. Frost the top and
sides of them. When the frosting is hard, draw the black lines and
make the dots with a small brush that has been dipped in melted
chocolate. These are particularly good for children's parties.


Lady-Fingers.

Four eggs, three-fourths of a cupful of pastry flour, half a cupful of
_powdered_ sugar. Have the bottom of three large baking pans
covered with paraffin paper or sheets of buttered note paper. Beat the
yolks of the eggs and the sugar to a froth. Beat the whites to a
stiff, dry froth, and add to the yolks and sugar. Add the flour, and
stir quickly and gently. Pour the mixture into the pastry bag, and
press it through on to the paper in the shape and of the size you
wish. When all the mixture has been used, sprinkle powdered sugar on
the cakes, and bake from twelve to sixteen minutes in a _very_
slow oven.

Caution. The mixture must be stirred, after the flour is added, only
enough to mix the flour lightly with the sugar and eggs. Much stirring
turns the mixture liquid. If the oven is hot the fingers will rise and
fall, and if too cool they will spread. It should be about half as hot
as for bread.

You will not succeed in using the pastry bag the first time, but a
little practice will make it easy to get the forms wished. There are
pans especially for baking lady-fingers. They are quite expensive.


Sponge Drops.

Make the batter the same as for lady-fingers, and drop on the paper in
teaspoonfuls. Sprinkle with sugar. Bake in a slow oven from twelve to
sixteen minutes.


Sponge Drops, No. 2.

Three eggs, one and a half cupfuls of sugar, two of flour, half a
cupful of cold water, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a
teaspoonful of saleratus. Beat the sugar and eggs together. Add the
water when they are light, and then the flour, in which mix the
saleratus and cream of tartar. Flavor with lemon. Have muffin cups
very lightly buttered, and drop a teaspoonful of the mixture into each
one. Bake in a quick oven. These drops are nice for dessert or tea.


Sponge Cake for Charlotte Russe.

Line the bottoms of two shallow baking pans with paraffin Paper or
buttered paper, and spread the lady-finger mixture on it. Bake slowly
eighteen minutes. Cut paper to fit the sides of the mould. When the
cake is cold, lay this pattern on it and cut with a sharp knife.


Jelly Roll.

Make the sponge cake mixture as for lady-fingers, and bake in one
shallow pan twenty minutes. While it is yet warm, cut off the edges,
and spread the cake with any kind of jelly. Roll up, and pin a towel
around it. Put in a cool place until serving time. Cut in slices with
a sharp knife.


Molasses Pound Coke.

One quart of molasses, one pint of water, six and a half pints of
flour, one ounce of soda, half an ounce of alum, one heaping cupful of
butter, six eggs, one ounce of cinnamon, one pound of raisins. Boil
the alum in part of the pint of water, and let it cool before mixing
with the other ingredients. Instead of alum, one ounce of cream of
tartar may be used.


Soft Gingerbread.

Six cupfuls of flour, three of molasses, one of cream, one of lard or
butter, two eggs, one teaspoonful of saleratus, and two of ginger.
This is excellent.


Hard Gingerbread.

One cupful of sugar, one of butter, one-third of a cupful of molasses,
half a cupful of sour milk or cream, one teaspoonful of saleratus, one
table-spoonful of ginger, flour enough to roll. Roll thin, cut in
oblong pieces, and bake quickly. Care must be taken that too much
flour is not mixed in with the dough. All kinds of cakes that are
rolled should have no more flour than is absolutely necessary to work
them.


Canada Gingerbread.

One cupful of butter, two of sugar, one of molasses, five of flour,
three eggs, one nutmeg, one teaspoonful of ginger, one of soda, one
tea-cupful of cream or rich milk, one table-spoonful of cinnamon, one
pound of currants. Beat the butter to a cream. Add the sugar, molasses
and spice; next the eggs, well beaten; then the milk, in which the
soda has been dissolved, next the flour; and lastly the currants. This
will make three sheets, or two very thick ones. Bake in a moderately-
quick oven, if in three sheets, twenty five minutes; if in two sheets,
ten minutes longer.


Fairy Gingerbread.

One cupful of butter, two of sugar, one of milk, four of flour, three-
fourths of a teaspoonful of soda, one table-spoonful of ginger. Beat
the butter to a cream. Add the sugar, gradually, and when very light,
the ginger, the milk, in which the soda has been dissolved, and
finally the flour. Turn baking pans upside down and wipe the bottoms
very clean. Butter them, and spread the cake mixture very thin on
them; Bake in a moderate oven until brown. While still _hot_, cut
into squares with a case-knife and slip from the pan. Keep in a tin
box. This is delicious. With the quantities given a large dish of
gingerbread can be made. It must be spread on the bottom of the pan as
thin as a wafer and cut the moment it comes from the oven.


Shewsbury Cake.

Two cupfuls of butter, one pint of sugar, three pints of flour, four
eggs, half a teaspoonful of mace. Roll thin, cut into small cakes, and
bake in a quick oven. Not a particle more of flour than what is given
above must be used. The cakes should be made in a rather cool room,
and they cannot be made in very warm weather. They can be kept a long
time, and are delicious.


Jumbles.

Three cupfuls of sugar, two of butter, five of flour, one egg, half a
teaspoonful of soda, flavor to taste. Roll thin, sprinkle with sugar,
cut in round cakes, and cut a small piece from the centre of each.
Bake in a quick oven.


Seed Cakes.

Three-fourths of a pint of sugar, one cupful of butter, a quart and
half a pint of flour, one teaspoonful of saleratus, two eggs, and
seeds. Roll thin, cut in round cakes, and bake quickly.


Cookies.

One cupful of butter, two of sugar, five of flour, a teaspoonful of
saleratus, dissolved in four of milk; one egg, flavor to taste. Roll
and bake like seed cakes.


Hermits.

Two cupfuls of sugar, one of butter, one of raisins (stoned and
chopped), three eggs, half a teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in three
table-spoonfuls of milk; a nutmeg, one teaspoonful each of clove and
cinnamon, and six cupfuls of flour. Roll about one-fourth of an inch
thick, and cut with a round cake cutter. Bake in a rather quick oven.
It will take about twelve minutes. [Mrs. L. C. A.]


Kneaded Plum Cake.

Two and a half cupfuls of sugar, half a cupful of butter, half a
cupful of sour milk, two spoonfuls of cream, a teaspoonful of
saleratus, half a spoonful of cinnamon and of nutmeg, a cupful of
chopped raisins, and flour enough to knead (about six cupfuls). Roll
an inch thick, and cut in oblong pieces. Bake on sheets in a quick
oven.


Eclairs.

Put one cupful of boiling water and half a cupful of butter in a large
sauce-pan, and when it boils up, turn in one pint of flour. Beat well
with the vegetable masher. When perfectly smooth, and velvety to the
touch, remove from the fire. Break five eggs into a bowl. When the
paste is nearly cold, beat the eggs into it with the hand. Only a
small part of the eggs should be added at a time. When the mixture is
thoroughly beaten (it will take about twenty minutes), spread on
buttered sheets in oblong pieces about four inches long and one and a
half wide. These must be about two inches apart. Bake in a rather
quick oven for about twenty-five minutes. As soon as they are done,
ice with either chocolate or vanilla frosting. When the icing is cold,
cut the _éclairs_ on one side and fill them.


Chocolate Éclairs.

Put one cupful and a half of milk in the double boiler. Beat together
two-thirds of a cupful of sugar, one-fourth of a cupful of flour, two
eggs, and one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt. Stir the mixture into
the boiling milk. Cook fifteen minutes, stirring often. When cold,
flavor with one teaspoonful of vanilla extract. Put two squares of
scraped chocolate with five table-spoonfuls of powdered sugar and
three of boiling water. Stir over the fire until smooth and glossy.
Dip the tops of the _éclairs_ in this as they come from the oven.
When the chocolate icing is dry, cut open, and fill with the cream,
which should be cold. If a chocolate flavor is liked with the cream,
one table-spoonful of the dissolved chocolate may be added to it.


Vanilla Éclairs.

Make an icing with the whites of two eggs and a cupful and a half of
powdered sugar. Flavor with one teaspoonful of vanilla extract. Frost
the _éclairs_; and when dry, open, and fill with a cream, the
same as chocolate _éclairs_. They may be filled with cream
sweetened, flavored with vanilla and whipped to a stiff froth.
Strawberry and raspberry preserves are sometimes used to fill
_éclairs_. They are then named after the fruit with which they
are filled.


Frosting.

The white of one egg, one tea-cupful of powdered sugar, one table-
spoonful of lemon juice. Put the white of the egg in a bowl and add
the sugar by degrees, beating with a spoon. When all has been added,
stir in the lemon juice. If the white of the egg is large it will
require a very full cup of sugar, and if small, a rather scant cupful.
The egg must _not_ be beaten until the sugar is added. This gives
a smooth, tender frosting, which will cover one small sheet of cake.
The same amount of material, prepared with the whites of the eggs
unbeaten, will make one-third less frosting than it will if the eggs
are beaten to a stiff froth before adding the sugar; but the icing
will be enough smoother and softer to pay for the extra quantity. It
may be flavored with half a teaspoonful of vanilla.


Chocolate Icing.

Two squares of Baker's chocolate, the whites of two eggs, two cupfuls
of powdered sugar, four table-spoonfuls of boiling water. Beat one and
two-thirds cupfuls of the sugar into the unbeaten whites of the eggs.
Scrape the chocolate, and put it and the remaining third of a cupful
of sugar and the water in a small frying-pan. Stir over a hot fire
until smooth and glossy, and then stir into the beaten whites and
sugar. With the quantity given two sheets of cake can be iced.


Chocolate Icing, No. 2.

Soak a teaspoonful of gelatine one or two hours in three table-
spoonfuls of water. Pour on it one-fourth of a cupful of boiling
water, and stir into it one and two-thirds cupfuls of powdered sugar.
Prepare two squares of chocolate as for the first icing, and stir them
into this mixture. Use immediately.


Caramel Frosting.

One cupful of brown sugar, one square of Baker's chocolate, scraped
fine; one table-spoonful of water. Simmer gently twenty minutes, being
careful not to let it burn. Spread on the cake while hot.


Golden Frosting.

Into the yolks of two eggs stir powdered sugar enough to thicken, and
flavor strongly with lemon. This does not have so good a flavor as
other kinds of frosting, but it makes a change.


Marking Cakes in Gold.

Bake round cakes for the children, and when the frosting on them is
hard, dip a small brush into the yolk of an egg, and write a word or
name upon the cake. It pleases the little ones very much.




PRESERVING.

In using self-sealing glass jars great care must be taken. If the work
is properly done the fruit can be kept for years. Have a kettle of hot
water on the stove beside the preserving kettle, and also a small
dipper of hot water. Plunge a jar into the hot water, having the water
strike both inside and outside the jar at the same time. If you set it
down instead of plunging it, it will break. Put the cover in the
dipper. When the jar is hot, lift it up and pour the water from it
into the kettle. Stand the jar in the hot water and fill it with hot
fruit from the preserving kettle. Fill to the brim with the hot syrup.
Take the cover from the dipper of hot water and screw it on very
tightly. In using the jars a second time have the right cover and band
for each one. A. large-mouthed tunnel, such as grocers have, is almost
indispensible in the work of preserving.

Jellies and jams should be put in tumblers or bowls. A paper should be
cut to fit the top, and then wet in brandy, and another paper should
be pasted over it Jelly tumblers with glass covers are more convenient
than the old-fashioned ones, and where they are used the second paper
cover is not necessary. It is better not to cover until some weeks
after the jelly is made. White crushed sugar is much the nicest for
preserving. If jelly does not seem hard, as it should be the day after
it is made, it can be set in the sun for several hours, which will
help it greatly.


Strawberries.

To each pound of berries allow half a pound of sugar. Put the berries
in a kettle, and mash them a little, so that there will be juice
enough to cook them without using water. Stir them to prevent
scorching. Cook fifteen minutes; then add the sugar, and let them boil
hard one minute. Put them in the jars as directed. More or less sugar
may be used, as one prefers.


Raspberries.

To each pound of berries allow three-fourths of a pound of sugar, and
cook the same as the strawberries.


Cherries.

Cherries may be preserved either with or without stones. Many think
the stones give a richer flavor. To each pound of cherries allow one
third of a pound of sugar. Put the sugar in the kettle with half a
pint of water to three pounds of sugar. Stir it until it is dissolved.
When boiling, add the cherries, and cook three minutes; then put in
the jars.


Currants.

Currants should be prepared the same as raspberries.


Pineapple.

Pare the fruit, and be sure you take out all the eyes and discolored
parts. Cut in slices, and cut the slices in small bits, taking out the
core. Weigh the fruit, and put in a pan with half as many pounds of
sugar as of fruit. Let it stand over night In the morning put it over
the fire and let it boil rapidly for a minute only, as cooking long
discolors it. Put it in the jars as directed.


Grated Pineapple.

Pare the fruit clean; then grate it on a coarse grater, rejecting the
cores. Weigh it, and put to each pound of fruit a pound of sugar. Let
it stand over night. In the morning boil for a minute, and it is done.
Put it in jars as directed.


Blackberries.

Blackberries are prepared like strawberries. If they are quite ripe,
not quite so much sugar is needed.


Whortleberries.

To each quart of berries allow one-third of a pound of sugar, and half
a pint of water to three pounds of sugar. Put the water and sugar over
the fire, and when boiling hot, add the berries. Cook three minutes.
Put in the jars as directed.


Crab-Apples.

To each pound of fruit allow half a pound of sugar, and a pint of
water to three pounds of sugar. When the syrup is boiling hot, drop in
the apples. They will cook very quickly. When done, fill a jar with
the fruit, and fill it up with syrup.


Pears.

Pare the fruit and cut in halves. Throw into cold water, or they will
be discolored. Use one pound of sugar for three of fruit, and one
quart of water for three pounds of sugar. When the syrup is boiling,
take the pears from the water, and drop into the syrup. Cook until
they can be pierced easily with a silver fork. Fill the jars with
fruit, and fill up to the brim with syrup, using a small strainer in
the tunnel, that the syrup may look clear. Bartlett pears are
delicious, as are, also, Seckel; but many other varieties are good.


Peaches.

Have ready a kettle of boiling water. Fill a wire basket with peaches
and plunge them into the boiling water. In two minutes take them out,
and the skins will come off easily. Drop the fruit into cold water, to
keep the color. For three pounds of fruit use one pound of sugar, and
one pint of water for three pounds of sugar. When the syrup is boiling
hot, take the fruit from the water, and drop into it. Put but a few in
at a time, as they cook very quickly. Take them from the syrup with a
silver fork, fill the jar, and fill up with strained syrup. Peaches
are much nicer preserved whole, as the stones give a rich flavor.


Brandied Peaches.

The Morris white peaches are the best. Take off the skins with boiling
water. To each pound of fruit allow one pound of sugar, and half a
pint of water to three pounds of sugar. When the syrup is boiling hot,
put in the peaches, and as fast as they cook, take them out carefully
and spread on platters. When cool, put them in jars, and fill up these
with syrup, using one-half syrup and one-half pale brandy. First-proof
alcohol, diluted with an equal quantity of water, can be used, instead
of brandy, but it is not, of course, so nice.


Plums.

The large white plums must be skinned by using boiling water, as for
peaches, and then throwing them into cold water. For one pound of
fruit allow half a pound of sugar, and half a pint of water for three
pounds of sugar. Cook but few at a time, and take them out carefully.
Fill up the jar with hot syrup.


Damsons.

Wash the fruit, and for one pound of it use half a pound of sugar, and
half a pint of water for three pounds of sugar. When the syrup is
boiling hot, put in the fruit, and cook three minutes. Dip the plums
and syrup together into the jars.


Quinces.

Pare and quarter the fruit, and take out all the cores and the hard
place around them. Boil the fruit in clear water until tender; then
spread it on towels to dry. For one pound of fruit allow half a pound
of sugar, and one pint of water for three pounds of sugar. When the
syrup is boiling hot, put in the fruit, and let it cook very slowly;
or, set it back on the stove so that it hardly cooks at all, and keep
it on for an hour or more, if you can without its cooking to pieces--
as the longer it cooks, the brighter red color it will be. Put it in
jars, and strain the syrup over it, as with other fruits.


Sour Oranges.

Grate off the rind, cut the orange into two parts, and remove the
pulp. Weigh the peel, place it in a large stone pot, and cover with
brine made of three gallons of water and a quart of salt. Let it stand
twenty-four hours, and drain off the brine. Again cover the peel with
brine made of the same quantity of water and half as much salt as was
first used, and let it stand another day. Drain, cover with clear cold
water, and let it stand a third day. Drain again, and put in a boiler
and cover with fresh cold water. Let it come to a boil, and boil
fifteen minutes; then take out and drain. Make a syrup of three quarts
of sugar and one of water, for every six pounds of peel. When the
syrup is clear, drop in the peel and boil until it is clear and
tender--perhaps four hours of slow boiling. Great care must be taken
that it is not scorched. It must be stirred every fifteen minutes. The
sugar may be either white or brown. The orange used is not the common
orange, but the wild, sour fruit, found in Florida. The pulp may be
used for marmalade.


Grapes.

Squeeze the pulp of the grapes out of the skins. Cook fee pulp (a few
minutes) until you can press it all through a sieve. Reject the seeds.
Add a little water to the skins, and cook until they are quite tender.
Then put the skins and pulp together. Measure; and to each pint add a
pound of sugar, and boil fifteen minutes.


Apple Ginger.

Four pounds each of apple and sugar. Make a syrup of the sugar, adding
a pint of water. Chop the apple very fine--with one ounce of green
ginger; or, if you cannot get the green ginger, use white ginger root
Put in the syrup with the grated rind of four lemons, and boil slowly
for two hours, or until it looks clear.


Raspberry or Strawberry Jam.

For each pound of fruit allow a pound of sugar. Mash the fruit in the
kettle. Boil hard for fifteen minutes; then add the sugar, and boil
five minutes.


Orange Marmalade.

Take equal weights of sour oranges and sugar. Grate the yellow rind
from a fourth of the oranges. Cut all the fruit in halves at what
might be called the "equator." Pick out the pulp, and free it of
seeds. Drain off as much juice as you conveniently can, and put it on
to boil with the sugar. Let it come to a boil. Skim, and simmer for
about fifteen minutes; then put in the pulp and grated rind and boil
fifteen minutes longer. Put away in jelly tumblers.


Quince Marmalade.

Cut up quinces--skins, cores and all, cover with water and boil until
tender. Rub through a sieve, and to every pint of pulp add one pint of
sugar. Boil two hours, stirring often. Peach, crab-apple and, in feet,
all kinds of marmalade may be made in the same manner.


Currant Jelly.

Wash the currants clean. Put them in the preserving kettle and mash
them, and boil twenty minutes or more, or until they are thoroughly
cooked. Dip them, a quart or more at a time, into a strainer cloth,
and squeeze out all the juice. Measure this, and for each pint allow
one pound of sugar. Put the juice over the fire, and let it boil
rapidly for five minutes; then add the sugar, and let it boil rapidly
one minute longer. Take off of the fire, skim clear, and put in
tumblers.


Barberry Jelly.

The barberries need not be stripped from the stems. Put the fruit in a
kettle with water enough to come just to the top of the fruit, and
boil until thoroughly cooked. Put in a strainer cloth and get out all
the juice. To each pint of it allow one pound of sugar. Boil the juice
hard for fifteen minutes. Add the sugar, and boil rapidly five or ten
minutes, or until it is thick.


Grape Jelly.

Mash the grapes in a kettle, put them over the fire, and cook until
thoroughly done. Drain through a sieve, but do not press through. To
each pint of the juice allow one pound of sugar. Boil rapidly for five
minutes. Add the sugar, and boil rapidly three minutes more.


Cider Apple Jelly.

Cut good, ripe apples in quarters, put them in a kettle, and cover
them with _sweet_ cider, just from the press. (It should, if
possible, be used the day it is made--or, at any rate, before it has
worked at all.) Boil until well done, and drain, through a sieve. Do
not press it through. Measure the liquor, and to each pint add one
pound of sugar. Boil from twenty minutes to half an hour.


Crab-Apple Jelly.

Wash the fruit clean, put in a kettle, cover with water, and boil
until thoroughly cooked. Then pour it into a sieve, and let it drain.
Do not press it through. For each pint of this liquor allow one pound
of sugar. Boil from twenty minutes to half an hour.

Other Jellies.

Jellies can be made from quinces, peaches and Porter apples by
following the directions for crab-apple jelly.



PICKLES AND KETCHUP.


Pickled Blueberries.

Nearly fill a jar with ripe berries, and fill up with good molasses.
Cover, and set away. In a few weeks they will be ready to use.


Sweet Melons.

Use ripe citron melons. Pare them, cut them in slices and remove the
seeds. To five pounds of melon allow two and one-half pounds of sugar
and one quart of vinegar. The vinegar and sugar must be heated to the
boiling point and poured over the fruit six times, or once on each of
six successive days. In the last boiling of the syrup add half an
ounce of stick cinnamon, half an ounce of white ginger root and a few
cloves. When the syrup boils, put in the melon, and boil ten minutes;
then put in jars. Skim the syrup clear and pour it over the melon.


Peaches, Pears and Sweet Apples.

For six pounds of fruit use three of sugar, about five dozen cloves
and a pint of vinegar. Into each apple, pear or peach, stick two
cloves. Have the syrup hot, and cook until tender.


Sweet Tomato Pickle.

One peck of green tomatoes and six large onions, sliced. Sprinkle with
one cupful of salt, and let them stand over night. In the morning
drain. Add to the tomatoes two quarts of water and one quart of
vinegar. Boil fifteen minutes; then drain again, and throw this
vinegar and water away. Add to the pickle two pounds of sugar, two
quarts of vinegar, two table-spoonfuls of clove, two of allspice, two
of ginger, two of mustard, two of cinnamon, and one teaspoonful of
cayenne, and boil fifteen minutes.


Spiced Currants.

Make a syrup of three pounds of sugar, one pint of vinegar, two table-
spoonfuls of cinnamon, two table-spoonfuls of clove, and half a
teaspoonful of salt. Add six pounds of currants, and boil half an
hour.


Spiced Plums.

Make a syrup, allowing one pound of sugar to one of plums, and to
every three pounds of sugar, a scant pint of vinegar. Allow one ounce
each of ground cinnamon, cloves, mace and allspice, to a peck of
plums. Prick the plums. Add the spices to the syrup, and pour,
boiling, over the plums. Let these stand three days; then skim them
out, and boil down the syrup until it is quite thick, and pour hot
over the plums in the jar in which they are to be kept. Cover closely.


Pickled Cucumbers.

Six hundred small cucumbers, two quarts of peppers, two quarts of
small onions. Make enough brine to cover the pickles, allowing one
pint of salt to four quarts of water, and pour it, boiling, over the
pickles. Let them stand until the next morning; then pour off the
brine, throw it away, make a new one, and scald again. The third
morning scald this same brine and pour it over again. The fourth
morning rinse the pickles well in cold water, and cover them with
boiling vinegar. Add a little piece of alum and two table-spoonfuls
each of whole cloves and allspice, tied in a bit of muslin, if you
like the spice.


Pickled Cucumbers, No. 2.

Wash and wipe six hundred small cucumbers and two quarts of peppers.
Put them in a tub with one and a half cupfuls of salt and a piece of
alum as large as an egg. Heat to the boiling point three gallons of
cider vinegar and three pints of water. Add a quarter of a pound each
of whole cloves, whole allspice and stick cinnamon, and two ounces of
white mustard seed, and pour over the pickles. Cover with cabbage
leaves.


Stuffed Peppers.

Get large bell peppers. Cut around the stem, remove it, and take out
all the seeds. For the stuffing use two quarts of chopped cabbage, a
cupful of white mustard seed, three table-spoonfuls of celery seed,
two table-spoonfuls of salt, half a cupful of grated horse-radish.
Fill each pepper with part of this mixture, and into each one put a
small onion and a little cucumber. Tie the stem on again, put the
peppers in a jar, and cover with cold vinegar.


Mangoes.

Get small green musk-melons or cantelopes. Cut a small square from the
side of each one, and, with a teaspoon, scrape out all the seeds. Make
a brine of one pint of salt to a gallon of water. Cover the mangoes
with it while it boils. Let them stand two days; then drain them, and
stuff with the same mixture as is used for peppers. Pour boiling
vinegar over them, using in it a bit of alum.


Chopped Pickle.

One peck of green tomatoes, two quarts of onions and two of peppers.
Chop all fine, separately, and mix, adding three cupfuls of salt. Let
them stand over night, and in the morning drain well. Add half a pound
of mustard seed, two table-spoonfuls of ground allspice, two of ground
cloves and one cupful of grated horse-radish. Pour over it three
quarts of boiling vinegar.


Pickled Tomato.

One peck of green tomatoes, a dozen onions, sliced thin; two cupfuls
of salt, a small (quarter of a pound) box of mustard, one quarter of a
pound of mustard seed, one ounce each of ground allspice, clove and
pepper. Cut the tomatoes in thin slices, sprinkle with the salt, and
let them stand two days; then drain them. Mix the spices. Put layers
of tomato, onion and spice in the kettle, and cover with vinegar. Cook
slowly until the tomato looks clear--about half an hour.


Pickled Cauliflowers.

Two cauliflowers, cut up; one pint of small onions, three medium-sized
red peppers. Dissolve half a pint of salt in water enough to cover the
vegetables, and let these stand over night. In the morning drain them.
Heat two quarts of vinegar with four table-spoonfuls of mustard, until
it boils. Add the vegetables, and boil for about fifteen minutes, or
until a fork can be thrust through the cauliflower.


Tomato Ketchup.

Twelve ripe tomatoes, peeled; two large onions, four green peppers,
chopped fine; two table-spoonfuls of salt, two of brown sugar, two of
ginger, one of cinnamon, one of mustard, a nutmeg, grated; four
cupfuls of vinegar. Boil all together till thoroughly cooked (about
three hours), stirring frequently. Bottle while hot.


Tomato Ketchup, No, 2.

Skin the tomatoes, and cook them well. Press them through a sieve, and
to each five pints add three pints of good cider vinegar. Boil slowly
a long while (about two hours), until it begins to thicken; then add
one table-spoonful of ground clove, one of allspice, one of cinnamon
and one of pepper, and three grated nutmegs. Boil until very thick
(between six and eight hours), and add two table-spoonfuls of fine
salt. When thoroughly cold, bottle, cork and seal it.


Barberry Ketchup.

Three quarts of barberries, stewed and strained; four quarts of
cranberries, one cupful of raisins, a large quince and four small
onions, all stewed with a quart of water, and strained. Mix these
ingredients with the barberries, and add half a cupful of vinegar,
three-fourths of a cupful of salt, two cupfuls of sugar, one dessert-
spoonful of ground dove and one of ground allspice, two table-
spoonfuls of black pepper, two of celery seed, and one of ground
mustard, one tea-spoonful of cayenne, one of cinnamon and one of
ginger, and a nutmeg. Let the whole boil one minute. If too thick, add
vinegar or water. With the quantities given, about three quarts of
ketchup can be made.




POTTING.

For potting, one should have small stone or earthen jars, a little
larger at the top than at the bottom, so that the meat may be taken
out whole, and then cut in thin slices. All kinds of cooked meats and
fish can be potted. The meat must, of course, be well cooked and
tender, so that it can be readily pounded to a paste. Of the fish,
salmon and halibut are the best for potting. When the potted meat or
fish is to be served, scrape off all the butter, run a knife between
the meat and the jar, and, when the meat is loosened, turn it out on a
dish. Cut it in thin slices, and garnish with parsley; or, serve it
whole, and slice it at the table. The butter that covered meats can be
used for basting roasted meats, and that which covered fish can be
used for basting baking fish.


Beef.

Three pounds of the upper part of the round of beef, half a cupful of
butter, one table-spoonful of salt, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of
pepper, a speck of cayenne, one-eighth of a teaspoonful of mace, the
same quantity of clove, a bouquet of sweet herbs, three table-
spoonfuls of water. Cut the meat in small pieces and put it in a jar
with the water, herbs and seasoning. Mix one cupful of flour with
water enough to make a stiff paste. Cover the mouth of the jar with
paper, and spread over this the paste. Place the jar in a pan of hot
water and put in a moderate oven for five hours. Take up and remove
the cover and herbs. Pound the meat to a paste, add half of the butter
to it, and when thoroughly mixed, pack solidly in small jars. Melt the
remainder of the butter and pour it over the meat. Paste paper over
the jars, put on the covers, and set away in a cool, dry place. Veal
may be potted in the same manner, omitting the clove.


Chicken.

One quart of cold roasted chicken, one cupful of cold boiled ham, four
table-spoonfuls of butter, a speck of cayenne, a slight grating of
nutmeg, and two teaspoonfuls of salt. Free the chicken of skin and
bones. Cut it and the ham in fine pieces. Chop, and pound to a paste.
Add the butter and seasoning, and pack solidly in small stone pots.
Cover these, and place them in a pan of hot water, which put in a
moderate oven for one hour. When the meat is cold, cover with melted
butter, and put away in a cool, dry place.


Tongue.

Pound cold boiled tongue to a paste, and season with salt, pepper and
a speck of cayenne. To each pint of the paste add one table-spoonful
of butter and one teaspoonful of mixed mustard. Pack closely in little
stone jars. Place these in a moderate oven in a pan of hot water. Cook
half an hour. When cool, cover the tongue with melted butter. Cover,
and put away.


Ham.

Cut all the meat, fat and lean, from the remains of a boiled ham,
being careful not to mix with it either the outside pieces or the
gristle. Chop very fine, and pound to a paste with the vegetable
masher. To each pint of the paste add one teaspoonful of mixed mustard
and a speck of cayenne, and, if there was not much fat on the meat,
one table-spoonful of butter, Pack this smoothly in small earthen
jars. Paste paper over these, and put on the covers. Place the pots in
a baking pan, which, when in the oven, should be filled with hot
water. Bake slowly two hours. Cool with, the covers on. When cold,
take off the covers and pour melted butter over the meat. Cover again,
and set away in a cool place. The ham will keep for months. It is a
nice relish for tea, and makes delicious sandwiches.


Marbled Veal.

Trim all the roots and tough parts from a boiled pickled tongue, which
chop and pound to a paste. Have two quarts of cold roasted or boiled
veal chopped and pounded to a paste. Mix two table-spoonfuls of butter
and a speck of cayenne with the tongue, and with the veal mix four
table-spoonfuls of butter, one of salt, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of
pepper and a speck of mace. Butter a deep earthen dish. Put a layer of
the veal in it and pack down solidly; then put spoonfuls of the tongue
here and there on the veal, and fill in the spaces with veal. Continue
this until all the meat has been used, and pack very solidly. Cover
the dish, and place it in the oven in a pan of water. Cook one hour.
When cold, pour melted butter over it. Cover, and set away.


Fish.

Take any kind of cooked fish and free it of skin and bones. To each
quart of fish add one table-spoonful of essence of anchovy, three of
butter, two teaspoonfuls of salt, a little white pepper and a speck of
cayenne. Pound the fish to a paste before adding the butter and
anchovy. When all the ingredients are thoroughly mixed, pack the fish
closely in little size jars. Place these in a pan of water and put in
a moderate oven. Cook forty-five minutes. When cold, pour melted
butter over the fish. Paste paper over the top, and set way.


Lobster.

Prepare and pot lobster the same as fish. If there is "coral" in the
lobster, pound it with the meat.


Mackerel.

Nine pounds of small mackerel (about twenty-five in number), one ounce
of whole cloves, one of pepper-corns, one of whole allspice, six
teaspoonfuls of salt, three pints of vinegar. Wash the mackerel and
pack them in small, deep earthen or stone pots. Three will be needed
for the quantities given. Divide the spice into six parts. Put each
portion in a small piece of muslin, and tie. Sprinkle two teaspoonfuls
of salt on the fish in each pot, and put two of the little bags of
spice in each pot. Cover the fish with the vinegar; and if there
should not be enough, use more. Cover the pots with old plates, and
place in a moderate oven. Bake the fish four hours. Cool, and put away
in the pots in which they were baked. They will keep five or six
months. Where oil is liked, half a cupful can be added to each pot
with the vinegar. Any kind of small fish can be potted in this manner.


Smelts.

Six dozen smelts, one pint of olive oil, three pints of vinegar, or
enough to cover the smelts; three table-spoonfuls of salt. Spice the
same as potted mackerel, and prepare and cook the same as mackerel.
More or less oil can be used. Smelts are almost as nice as sardines.




BREAKFAST AND TEA.


Meat Hash.

Chop rather fine any kind of cold meat; corned beef is, however, the
best. To each pint add one pint and a half of cold boiled potatoes,
chopped fine; one table-spoonful of butter and one cupful of stock;
or, if no stock is on hand, two-thirds of a cupful of hot water.
Season with salt and pepper to taste. Put the mixture in a frying-pan,
and stir over the fire for about eight minutes, being careful not to
burn. Spread smoothly. Cover the pan and set back where the hash will
brown slowly. It will take about half an hour. When done, fold it like
an omelet and turn on to a hot dish. Garnish with points of toast and
parsley. Serve hot. If there are no cold potatoes, the same quantity
of hot mashed potatoes may be used.


Vegetable Hash.

Chop, not very fine, the vegetables left from a boiled dinner, and
season them with salt and pepper. To each quart of the chopped
vegetables add half a cupful of stock and one table-spoonful of
butter. Heat slowly in the frying-pan. Turn into a hot dish when done,
and serve immediately. If vinegar is liked, two or more table-
spoonfuls of it can be stirred into the hash while it is heating.


Breaded Sausages.

Wipe the sausages dry. Dip them in beaten egg and bread crumbs. Put
them in the frying-basket and plunge into boiling fat. Cook ten
minutes. Serve with a garnish of toasted bread and parsley.


Meat Fritters.

Cut any kind of cold meat into dice. Season well with salt and pepper.
Make a fritter batter. Take up some of it in a large spoon, put a
small spoonful of the meat in the centre, cover with batter, and slide
gently into boiling fat. Cook about one minute. Drain on brown paper,
and serve on a hot dish.


Lyonnaise Tripe.

About one pound of cooked tripe, cut in small pieces; two table-
spoonfuls of butter, one of chopped onion, one of vinegar, salt,
pepper. Put the onion and butter in a frying-pan, and when the onion
turns yellow, put in the tripe. Cook five minutes. Season with the
salt, pepper and vinegar. Serve on slices of toast.


Meat and Potato Sandwiches.

Any kind of cold meat, cut in slices and seasoned with salt and
pepper; four large potatoes, two eggs, salt, pepper, one-forth of a
cupful of boiling milk, one table-spoonful of butter. Have the meat
cut in thin slices and seasoned with salt and pepper. Pare, boil and
mash the potatoes. Add the milk, butter, salt, pepper and one well-
beaten egg. Cover the slices of meat on both sides with this
preparation, and dip in well-beaten egg. Put in the frying-basket and
fry till a light brown. Serve on a hot dish.


Minced Veal and Eggs.

One quart of cold veal, chopped rather coarse; one teaspoonful of
lemon juice, one cupful of stock or water, two table-spoonfuls of
butter, one teaspoonful of flour, salt, pepper. Melt the butter in a
frying-pan. Add the flour to it. Stir until smooth, and add the stock
and seasoning. When it boils up, add the chopped veal. Heat
thoroughly, and dish on slices of toast. Put a dropped egg in the
centre of each slice, and serve very hot.


Mutton, Réchauffé.

Cut cold roasted or boiled mutton in slices about half an inch thick,
and cover both sides with sauce made in this way: Put two table-
spoonfuls of butter in the frying-pan, and when melted, add one of
flour. Stir until smooth. Add, gradually, one cupful of stock, and two
table-spoonfuls of glaze. Boil for one minute, and stir in the yolks
of two eggs. Season with salt, pepper and one table-spoonful of lemon
juice, and remove from the fire at once. Season the mutton with salt
and pepper, and as soon as the sauce begins to cool, dip both sides of
the slices in it, and roll them in fine bread crumbs. Beat one whole
egg and the two whites together. Dip the sauced mutton in this and
again in the crumbs. Fry in boiling fat for two minutes. Drain on
brown paper, and serve with either tomato, Tartare or Hollandaise
sauce. Any kind of cold meat can be served in this manner.


Chicken In Jelly.

A little cold chicken (about one pint), one cupful of water or stock,
one-fifth of a box of gelatine, half a teaspoonful of curry powder,
salt, pepper. Cut the meat from the bones of a chicken left from
dinner. Put the bones on with water to cover, and boil down to one
cupful Put the gelatine to soak in one-fourth of a cupful of cold
water. When the stock is reduced as much as is necessary, strain and
season. Add the curry and chicken. Season, and simmer ten minutes;
then add the gelatine, and stir on the table until it is dissolved.
Turn all into a mould, and set away to harden. This makes a nice
relish for tea or lunch. If you have mushrooms, omit the curry, and
cut four of them into dice. Stir into the mixture while cooking. This
dish can be varied by using the whites of hard-boiled eggs, or bits of
boiled ham. To serve: Dip the mould in warm water, and turn out on the
dish. Garnish with parsley.


Chicken Cutlets.

Season pieces of cold chicken or turkey with salt and pepper. Dip in
melted butter; let this cool on the meat, and dip in beaten egg and in
fine bread crumbs. Fry in butter till a delicate brown. Serve on
slices of hot toast, with either a white or curry sauce poured around.
Pieces of cold veal make a nice dish, if prepared in this manner.


Broiled Liver.

Cut in slices and dip in melted butter, and lightly in flour. Broil
over a bright fire eight or ten minutes.


Liver, Fried in Crumbs.

Season slices with salt and pepper. Dip in beaten egg and very fine
cracker crumbs. Fry six minutes in boiling lard.


Liver and Bacon.

Cut in slices, season with salt and pepper, and cut again into small
squares. Place on a skewer pieces of liver and bacon, alternating. Fry
five minutes in boiling fat. Slip off of the skewer on to toasted
bread, and serve immediately.


Liver, Sauté.

Cut the liver in _thin_ slices. Season with salt and pepper. Heat
together in a small frying-pan two table-spoonfuls of butter and a
large one of flour. Lay in the liver, and brown it on both sides. Add
a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, two table-spoonfuls of water and one
of wine. Taste to see if salt enough. Boil up once, and serve.


Liver, Sauté, with Piquant Sauce.

Cut the liver in slices about one-third of an inch thick, and if beef
liver, let it stand in warm water ten minutes (calves' livers will not
need this). Drain dry, and put in the frying-pan with enough beef or
pork drippings to prevent its sticking, and cook very slowly for eight
minutes, turning constantly. Take up on a hot dish and pour a piquant
sauce over it. Serve immediately.


Curry of Liver.

Cut the liver in small, thin pieces, and for every pound have four
table-spoonfuls of butter, two slices of onion, two table-spoonfuls of
flour, a speck of cayenne, salt, pepper, one teaspoonful of curry
powder. Let the butter get hot; then cook the liver in it slowly for
four minutes. Add the flour and other ingredients. Cook two minutes,
and add, slowly, one cupful of stock. Let this boil up. Dish, and
serve.


Chicken Livers, Sauté.

Wash and wipe six livers. Put two table-spoonfuls of butter in the
frying-pan, and when hot, add a large slice of onion, which cook
slowly ten minutes, and then take out. Dredge the livers with salt,
pepper and flour, and fry for ten minutes in the butter; add one
teaspoonful of flour, and cook a minute longer. Pour in half a cupful
of stock, one tea-spoonful of lemon juice, one of vinegar and one-
fourth of a spoonful of sugar, and boil up once. Serve with a garnish
of toasted bread.


Chicken Livers and Bacon.

Cut the livers in pieces the size of a half dollar, and have thin
slices of bacon of the same size. Nearly fill a small wire skewer with
these, alternating. Place in the frying basket and plunge into boiling
fat for about one minute. Serve on the skewers, or on toast, with thin
slices of lemon for a garnish. Or, the skewers can be rested on the
sides of a narrow baking pan and placed in a hot oven for five
minutes. Serve as before. The livers of all other kinds of poultry can
be cooked the same as chicken.


Chicken Livers in Papillotes.

Wash the livers and drop them into boiling water for one minute. Take
them up; and when drained, split them. For eight livers put two table-
spoonfuls of butter in the frying-pan, and when hot, add one table-
spoonful of flour. Stir until smooth; then gradually add half a cupful
of cold water. Stir into this two spoonfuls of glaze, if you have it.
Season with pepper and salt, and stir into the sauce half a cupful of
finely-chopped ham. Spread this mixture on the livers, place them in
_papillotes_ the same as cutlets, lay them in a pan, and put in a
slow oven for fifteen minutes. Have little squares of toast or of
fried brown bread. Heap these in the centre of a hot dish, and arrange
the livers around them. Serve very hot.


Stewed Kidneys.

Cut the kidneys in thin round slices. Cover them with cold water and
let them stand half an hour; then wash them clean, and put them in a
stew-pan with one quart of water or stock, a clove, two table-
spoonfuls of onion juice, and salt and pepper. Simmer two hours. Put
one table-spoonful of butter in the frying-pan, and when hot, add one
of flour. Stir until it is brown and smooth, and add to the kidneys.
Put a small bouquet of sweet herbs in the stew-pan, and simmer half an
hour longer. Taste to see if seasoned enough; if not, add more salt
and pepper, and, if you like, one table-spoonful of lemon juice. Take
out the bouquet, and serve. This dish can be prepared any time in the
day, as it is quite as good warmed over as when first prepared.


Kidneys, Sauté.

Skin, wash and wipe the kidneys, cut in thin, round slices, and season
with salt and pepper. Put one table-spoonful of butter and half a
table-spoonful of flour in the frying-pan, and when hot, put in the
kidneys. Stir two minutes, then add half a cupful of stock or water.
When the dish boils up, add half a table-spoonful of lemon juice.
Serve with a garnish of points of toast.


Broiled Kidneys.

Skin, wash, wipe and split sheep's or lambs' kidneys. Run a small
skewer through each, to keep it open. Season with salt and pepper, dip
in melted butter and in flour, place in the double broiler and cook
six minutes over a bright fire. Serve on a hot dish.


Kidneys à la Maître d'Hôtel.

Split and cut in two, lengthwise, lambs' or sheep's kidneys. Wash and
wipe them. Season with salt and pepper, and dip in melted butter and
fine bread crumbs. Run a small skewer through each, to keep it open.
Put them in the double broiler and cook about six minutes over a
bright fire. Serve on a hot dish with _maître d'hôtel_ butter.


Ham and Eggs on Toast.

Chop fine the trimmings from cold boiled or roasted ham. Toast and
butter slices of stale bread. Spread the ham on these, and place in
the oven for about three minutes. Beat six eggs with half a cupful of
milk, a little pepper and one teaspoonful of salt. Put this mixture in
a sauce-pan with two table-spoonfuls of butter, and stir over the fire
until it begins to thicken. Take off, and beat for a moment; then
spread on the ham and toast. Serve immediately.


Ham Croquettes.

One cupful of finely-chopped cooked ham, one of bread crumbs, two of
hot mashed potatoes, one large table-spoonful of butter, three eggs, a
speck of cayenne. Beat the ham, cayenne, butter, and two of the eggs
into the potato. Let the mixture cool slightly, and shape it like
croquettes. Roll in the bread crumbs, dip in beaten egg and again in
crumbs, put in the frying-basket and plunge into boiling fat. Cook two
minutes. Drain, and serve.


Canapees.

After cutting the crust from a loaf of stale bread, cut the loaf in
very thin slices, and toast to a delicate brown. Butter lightly, and
spread with any kind of potted meat or fish. Put two slices together,
and, with a sharp knife, cut them in long strips. Arrange these
tastefully on a dish and serve at tea or evening parties. Sardines may
be pounded to a paste and mixed with the yolks of hard-boiled eggs,
also pounded to a paste, and used instead of potted meats. In this
case, the slices of bread may be fried in salad oil.


Welsh Rare-Bit.

Half a pound of cheese, two eggs, a speck of cayenne, a table-spoonful
of butter, one teaspoonful of mustard, half a teaspoonful of salt,
half a cupful of cream. Break the cheese in small pieces and put it
and the other ingredients in a bright sauce-pan, which put over
boiling water. Stir until the cheese melts; then spread the mixture on
slices of crisp toast. Serve immediately. A cupful of ale or beer can
be used instead of the cream.


Welsh, Rare-Bit, No. 2.

Grate one pint of cheese. Sprinkle on it half a teaspoonful of
mustard, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt and a speck of cayenne.
Heap this on slices of buttered toast. Put in the hot oven for a few
moments, and when the cheese begins to melt, serve at once.


Corn Pie.

Four ears of cold boiled corn, two eggs, one table-spoonful of butter,
one of flour, half a cupful of milk, half a teaspoonful of salt, a
little pepper. Cut the corn from the cobs. Mix the milk, gradually,
with the flour. Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately, and
add them and the other ingredients to the flour and milk. The butter
should be melted. Bake twenty minutes in two squash pie plates. This
is a dish for breakfast.


Hominy.

Wash a cupful of hominy in two waters; then stir it into one quart of
boiling water, with a teaspoonful of salt, and boil from thirty to
sixty minutes. The latter time is the better. Be careful that the
hominy does not burn. It can be used more than oatmeal, as it is good
with any kind of meat. It is appropriate for any meal, and is nice
eaten warm or cold with milk.


Oatmeal.

Oatmeal, Indian meal and hominy an require two things for perfection--
plenty of water when put on to boil, and a long time for boiling. Have
about two quarts of boiling water in a large stew-pan, and into it
stir a cupful of oatmeal, which has been wet with cold water. Boil one
hour, stirring often, and then add half a spoonful of salt, and boil
an hour longer. If it should get too stiff, add more boiling water;
or, if too thin, boil a little longer. You cannot boil too much. The
only trouble in cooking oatmeal is that it takes a long time, but
surely this should not stand in the way when it is so much better for
having the extra time. If there is not an abundance of water at first
the oatmeal will not be very good, no matter how much maybe added
during the cooking. Cracked wheat is cooked in the same way.


Strawberry Short-Cake.

One pint of flour, measured before sifting; one teaspoonful of cream
of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of
salt, two table-spoonfuls of sugar, four of butter, one tea-cupful of
milk. Mix the other dry ingredients with the flour, and rub through a
sieve. Rub the butter into the mixture, and add the milk. Butter two
tin squash-pie plates. Spread the mixture in them, and bake in a quick
oven from eighteen to twenty minutes. Mash one quart of strawberries
with three-fourths of a cupful of sugar. When the cakes are taken from
the oven, split and butter them, and put half of the strawberries and
sugar in each cake. Serve immediately.


Sweet Strawberry Short-Cake.

Three eggs, one cupful of sugar, two of flour, one table-spoonful of
butter, one scant teaspoonful of cream of tartar, a small half
teaspoonful of soda. Beat the butter and sugar together. Add the eggs,
well beaten. Mix the soda and cream of tartar with the flour, and rub
through a sieve. Stir into the beaten egg and sugar. Bake in deep tin
plates. Four can be filled with the quantities given. Have three pints
of strawberries mixed with a cupful of sugar. Spread a layer of
strawberries on one of the cakes, lay a second cake over this, and
cover with berries. Or, a mèringue, made with the white of an egg and
a table-spoonful of powdered sugar, may be spread over the top layer
of strawberries,




MUFFINS AND CAKES.

English Muffins.


One quart of flour, one teaspoonful of salt, one-third of a cake of
compressed yeast, or one-third of a cupful of liquid yeast; one cupful
and a half of water. Have the water blood warm. Dissolve the yeast in
one-third of a cupful of cold water. Add it and the salt to the warm
water, and gradually stir into the flour. Beat the dough thoroughly;
cover, and let it rise in a warm place until it is spongy (about five
hours). Sprinkle the bread board with flour. Shape the dough into
balls about twice the size of an egg, and drop them on the floured
board. When all the dough has been shaped, roll the balls into cakes
about one-third of an inch thick. Lay these on a warm griddle, which
has been lightly greased, and put the griddle on the back of the
stove, where there is not much heat. When the cakes have risen a
little, draw the griddle forward and cook them slowly, turning often,
to keep the flat shape. It will take about twenty minutes for them to
rise on the griddle, and fifteen to cook. Tear them apart, butter
them, and serve.


Muffins, No. 1.

One quart of flour, two cupfuls of milk, half a cupful of sugar, two
eggs, two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, one of soda, half a
teaspoonful of salt, butter the size of an egg. Mix the other dry
ingredients with the flour, and rub through a sieve. Melt the butter
with four table-spoonfuls of boiling water. Beat the eggs light, and
add the milk. Stir into the flour, and add the butter. Beat
thoroughly. Bake in buttered muffin pans from twenty-five to thirty
minutes, in a quick oven.


Muffins, No. 2.

One cupful of milk, one of flour, one teaspoonful of sugar, a scant
half teaspoonful of salt, two eggs. Beat the eggs light, and add the
milk, salt and sugar. Pour gradually on the flour. Beat till light and
smooth. Pour into buttered muffin pans and bake in a _hot_ oven
for twenty minutes.


Raised Muffins.

One pint of warm milk, half a cake of compressed yeast, or half a
cupful of liquid yeast; one quart of flour, one table-spoonful of
butter. Beat two eggs well, and add them and the salt, butter and
yeast to the milk. Stir gradually into the flour. Beat until the
batter is light and smooth. Let it rise four hours in a warm place.
Fill buttered muffin pans two-thirds to the top with the batter, and
let them stand until the batter has risen to the brim. Bake half an
hour.


Graham Muffins.

Into a bowl put one and a half pints of Graham, half a cupful of
sugar, and a teaspoonful of salt. Into a sieve put half a pint of
flour, a teaspoonful of saleratus and two of cream of tartar. Mix
thoroughly with the flour, and sift on to the material in the bowl.
Mix all thoroughly while dry, and add two well-beaten eggs and a pint
of milk. Fill muffin cups about two-thirds to the top, and bake in a
quick oven.


Raised Graham Muffins.

These are made the same as Graham bread. Fill tin muffin pans two-
thirds to the brim and let the mixture rise to the top. This will take
an hour. Bake in a rather quick oven for twenty minutes.


Corn Muffins.

One pint of flour, one of Indian meal, one-third of a cupful of sugar,
one teaspoonful of soda, two of cream of tartar, two eggs, a pint of
milk, one table-spoonful of melted butter. Mix the dry ingredients
together, and sift them. Beat the eggs light, add the milk to them,
and stir into the dry ingredients. Bake twenty minutes in buttered
muffin pans. Two dozen muffins can be made with the quantities given.


Fried Indian Muffins.

One pint of Indian meal, one pint of _boiling_ water, two eggs,
one teaspoonful of salt, one table-spoonful of sugar, one heaping
table-spoonful of flour. Pour the boiling water gradually on the meal,
salt and sugar. Beat thoroughly, and set away in a cool place. In the
morning add the eggs, well beaten, and the flour. Dip a table-spoon in
cold milk, fill it with batter, and drop this into boiling fat Cook
ten minutes.


Corn Cake.

One quart of milk, one pint of Indian meal, two eggs, one teaspoonful
of salt, butter the size of an English walnut. Let the milk come to a
boil, and gradually pour it on the meal Add the butter and salt, and
beat well, and set away in a cool place. Do this at night. In the
morning beat thoroughly. Beat the eggs well, and add them. Pour the
mixture into buttered deep earthen plates. Bake from twenty to thirty
minutes. Success depends upon a good, beating of the cake in the
morning.


Corn Cake, No. 2.

Two tea-cupfuls of corn meal, one of flour, three of sour milk, two
eggs, one table-spoonful of sugar, or of molasses, if you prefer; one
teaspoonful of soda, one of salt. Mix together the sugar, salt, meal
and flour. Beat the eggs light. Dissolve the soda in two table-
spoonfuls of boiling water, and pour into the sour milk. Stir well,
and add to the other mixed ingredients. Add the eggs, and mix
thoroughly. Pour into buttered tins to the depth of about an inch and
a half. Bake twenty-five minutes in a quick oven.


Raised Corn Cake.

One pint of Indian meal, one pint and a half of boiling milk or water,
one table-spoonful of sugar, two of butter, an egg, one teaspoonful of
salt, one-fourth of a cake of compressed yeast or one-fourth of a
cupful of liquid yeast. Pour the boiling milk, gradually, on the meal;
then add the salt, sugar and butter, and beat well. Set away to cool.
When blood warm, add the compressed yeast, dissolved in two table-
spoonfuls of cold water, or the liquid yeast, and the egg, well
beaten. Let the batter rise five hours. Turn into buttered pans to the
depth of about two niches. Let it stand in a warm place for half an
hour, and then bake it from thirty-five to forty-five minutes.


Thin Corn Cake.

One cupful of Indian meal, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt, butter
the size of an egg, one cupful and a half of boiling water, one
teaspoonful of sugar. Pour the boiling water on the meal, sugar and
salt. Beat thoroughly. Add the butter, and, when well mixed, spread
_very_ thin on buttered tin sheets. Bake slowly for about twenty
minutes.


Rye Muffins.

One pint of rye meal, not flour; one pint of wheat flour, one pint of
milk, half a cupful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, one of soda,
two of cream of tartar and two eggs. Put the meal in a mixing bowl.
Put the flour and other ingredients in a sieve, and mix thoroughly,
and sift. Beat the eggs light. Add the milk to them and pour on the
dry ingredients. Beat well. Butter the muffin tins and bake twenty
minutes is a quick oven. The quantities given will make twenty-four
muffins. To make a less quantity, divide the dry mixture after it is
prepared (it can be used whenever it may be wanted if it is kept dry);
then halve the other ingredients.


Fried Rye Muffin.

One cupful and a half of rye meal, one cupful and a half of flour, one
cupful of milk, two eggs, one teaspoonful of soda, two of cream of
tartar, two generous table-spoonfuls of sugar, half a teaspoonful of
salt. Put the meal in a large bowl. Put the flour, cream of tartar,
soda, sugar and salt in the sieve, and rub through on to the meal.
Beat the eggs well, add the milk to them, and stir into the dry
ingredients. Fry the same as Indian muffins.


Rice Muffins.

One pint of milk, one quart of flour, one pint of boiled rice, three
eggs, two table-spoonfuls of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, one of
soda, two of cream of tartar. Mix the sugar, salt, soda and cream of
tartar with the flour, and rub through a sieve. Beat the eggs and add
to the milk. Stir gradually into the flour. When a smooth, light
paste, add the rice. Beat thoroughly. Bake thirty-five minutes in
buttered pans. Three dozen muffins can be made from the quantities
given.


Raised Rice Muffins.

One pint of warm milk, two cupfuls of warm boiled rice, one quart of
bread flour, one teaspoonful of salt, two table-spoonfuls of butter,
one-third of a cake of compressed yeast. Mix the butter, rice and milk
together. Pour the mixture on the flour, and beat till a light batter
is formed. Mix the yeast with four table-spoonfuls of cold water, and
add it and the salt to the batter, which let rise over night in a cool
place. In the morning fill buttered muffin pans two-thirds to the top,
and set them in a warm place till the batter has so risen as to fill
the tins. Bake thirty-five minutes. One-third of a cupful of liquid
yeast may be substituted for the compressed yeast.


Hominy Muffins.

A pint of milk, a quart of Haxall flour, one teaspoonful of salt, two
table-spoonfuls of butter, one-third of a cake of compressed yeast, or
one-third of a cupful of liquid yeast; half a cupful of hominy,
measured before cooking. Wash the hominy, and add a pint of boiling
water. Boil one hour, stirring often. Then add the milk, salt, yeast
and butter. Pour this, gradually, on the flour, beating well. Let it
rise over night In the morning put in buttered muffin pans and let
rise from half to three-quarters of an hour. Bake thirty-five
minutes. The muffins may be put to rise in the morning for tea.


Gems.

One pint of flour, one of milk, an egg, half a teaspoonful of salt.
Beat the egg until light, add the milk and salt to it, and beat,
gradually, into the flour. Bake twenty minutes in hot gem pans. A
dozen cakes can be made with the quantities given.


Hominy Drop-Cakes.

One pint of fresh boiled hominy (or, cold hominy may be used; if the
latter, break into grains, as lightly as possible, with a fork, and
heat in a farina kettle without adding water), one table-spoonful of
water, two eggs--whites and yolks beaten separately. Stir the yolks
into the hominy first, then the whites, and a teaspoonful of salt, if
the hominy has not been salted in cooking; or, if it has, use half a
teaspoonful. Drop, in table-spoonfuls, on well-buttered tin sheets,
and bake to a good brown in a quick oven.


Squash Biscuit.

One cupful and a half of sifted squash, half a cupful of sugar, half a
cake of compressed yeast, or half a cupful of liquid yeast; one cupful
of milk, half a teaspoonful of salt, four table-spoonfuls of butter,
five cupfuls of flour. Dissolve the yeast in a scant half cupful of
cold water. Mix it and the milk, butter, sugar, salt and squash
together, and stir into the flour. Knead well, and let it rise over
night In the morning shape into biscuit. Let these rise an hour and a
half, and bake them half an hour.


Sally Lunn.

One quart of flour, one generous pint of milk, two table-spoonfuls of
sugar, two eggs, three table-spoonfuls of butter, one teaspoonful of
salt, half a cake of compressed yeast. Have the milk blood warm, and
add the butter, melted; the eggs, well beaten; and the yeast,
dissolved in three table-spoonfuls of cold water. Pour, gradually, on
the flour, and beat into a smooth batter; then add the salt and sugar.
Butter baking pans, and pour in the batter to the depth of about two
inches. Let it rise two hours in a warm place. Bake half an hour.


Snow Pancakes.

Half a pint of milk, an egg, an apple, pared, quartered, and chopped
very fine; a cupful and a half of flour, one-fourth of a teaspoonful
of salt, a bowl of snow. Beat the egg light, and add the milk to it.
Pour gradually on the flour, and beat until smooth and light Add the
apple and salt, and at the last moment the snow. Drop by spoonfuls
into boiling fat, and cook until a rich brown.


Waffles.

One pint of sifted flour, milk enough to make a thin batter (about
two-thirds of a pint), two eggs, beaten very light; a table-spoonful
of melted butter, and a little salt. Gradually mix the milk with the
flour until there is a smooth paste; then add the salt and butter, and
lastly the eggs. Have waffle irons about as hot as a griddle for
cakes, and butter them well, or grease with pork as you would a
griddle. Pour in enough of the batter to cover an iron, and put the
other side gently down upon it. Keep over the fire about half a
minute; then turn over, and let the other side remain to the fire the
same time. Remove, and place the waffles where they will keep warm
until enough are cooked to serve.

Many people butter the waffles as they place them on the dish, and
others add sugar. This is very well if known to be to the taste of the
family, but it is always safe to let each suit himself at the table.


Waffles, No. 2.

One pint of milk, two eggs, two table-spoonfuls of butter, one
teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, one scant
pint and a half of flour. Mix the other dry ingredients with the
flour, and rub through a sieve. Beat the eggs very light. Add the milk
and the butter, which should be melted with two table-spoonfuls of
boiling water. Stir into the flour.


Raised Waffles.

One pint of milk, one pint and a half of flour, an egg, a teaspoonful
of salt, one-fourth of a yeast cake, or one-fourth of a cupful of
liquid yeast. Dissolve the yeast in two table-spoonfuls of cold water.
Have the milk blood warm, and add to it the yeast, salt and the egg,
well beaten. Stir gradually into the flour. Cover, and let it rise
four hours. Cook as usual.


Indian Waffles.

Half a cupful of Indian meal, two cupfuls of boiling milk, two eggs,
one generous cupful of flour, one table-spoonful of butter, half a
teaspoonful of baking powder, half a teaspoonful of salt. Pour the
boiling milk on the meal and butter. Beat well, and set away to cool.
Mix the other dry ingredients with, the flour, and sift. Beat the
eggs, and add them and the flour to the cold mixture.


Rice Waffles.

Stir two cupfuls of boiled rice into the mixture for waffles, No. 2.
Hominy waffles can be made in the same way.


Flannel Cakes.

One cupful of Indian meal, two of flour, three of boiling milk, one-
fourth of a yeast cake, or one-fourth of a cupful of liquid yeast; one
teaspoonful of salt, one table-spoonful of sugar, two of butter. Have
the milk boiling, and pour it on the meal and butter. When cool, add
the flour, salt, sugar and the yeast, which has been dissolved in four
table-spoonfuls of cold water. Let the mixture rise over night. Fry
like griddle-cakes.


Graham Griddle-Cakes.

Two cupfuls of Graham, one of flour, two and a half of milk, one
table-spoonful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, one of cream of
tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, two eggs. Let half the milk come
to a boil. Pour it on the Graham, and stir until perfectly smooth;
then add the cold milk, and set away to cool. Mix the other dry
ingredients with the flour, and rub through a sieve. Add with the
eggs, well beaten, to the Graham and milk. Rye griddle-cakes are made
the same way.


Squash Griddle-Cakes.

One pint of flour, nearly a pint of milk, two eggs, one tea-spoonful
of cream of tartar, half as much soda, four table-spoonfuls of sugar,
one teaspoonful of salt, two cupfuls of sifted squash. Mix the flour
with the other dry ingredients, and rub through a sieve. Beat the eggs
well, add them and the milk to the squash, and pour on the flour. Beat
till smooth and light. This gives a thin batter. If the cakes are
liked thick a little more flour may be used. Fry as usual.


Indian Griddle-Oakes.

One cupful of Indian meal, one of flour, three of boiling milk, two
eggs, one teaspoonful of salt, one of cream of tartar, half a
teaspoonful of soda, two table-spoonfuls of sugar. Have the milk
boiling, and, gradually, pour it on the meal. Put the other dry
ingredients with the flour, and rub through a sieve. When the scalded
meal is cool, add to it the flour and the eggs, well beaten.


Hominy Griddle-Cakes.

To a pint of warm boiled hominy add a pint of milk or water and a pint
of flour. Beat two or three eggs and stir into the batter with a
little salt Fry as any other griddle-cakes. They are delicious.




EGGS.


Omelets.

There is no better form in which to serve eggs than as an omelet, but
so few people make a good omelet that that is one of the last things
the inexperienced housekeeper or cook will attempt. Yet the making is
a simple operation, the cause of failure usually being that the pan
for cooking is not hot enough, and too much egg is put in at one time.
When there is too much egg in the pan, one part will be cooked hard
before the other is heated through. A pan measuring eight inches in
diameter will cook an omelet made with four eggs; if more eggs are
used, a larger pan is necessary.


Plain Omelet.

Four eggs, one teaspoonful of salt, two table-spoonfuls of milk, one
table-spoonful of butter. Beat the eggs with a Dover, or any other
good egg beater, and add the salt and milk. Have the pan _very
hot_. Put in the spoonful of butter and pour in the beaten egg.
Shake vigorously on the hottest part of the stove until the egg begins
to thicken; then let it stand a few seconds to brown. Run the knife
between the sides of the omelet and the pan, fold, and turn on a
_hot_ dish. Serve without delay.


Quaker Omelet.

A Quaker omelet is a handsome and sure dish when care is taken in the
preparation. Three eggs, half a cupful of milk, one and a half table-
spoonfuls of corn-starch, one tea-spoonful of salt, one table-
spoonful of butter. Put the omelet pan, and a cover that will fit
closely, on to heat. Beat well together the yolks of the eggs, the
corn-starch and the salt. Beat the whites to a stiff froth. Add to the
well-beaten yolks and corn-starch. Stir all together very thoroughly,
and add the milk. Put the butter in the hot pan. When melted, pour in
the mixture. Cover, and place on the stove where it will brown, but
not burn. Cook about seven minutes. Fold, turn on a hot dish, and
serve with cream sauce poured around it. If the yolks and corn-starch
are thoroughly beaten, and if, when the stiff whites are added, they
are well mixed, and the pan and cover are very hot, there can hardly
be failure.


Cheese Omelet.

Make the same as plain omelet, and as soon as it begins to thicken,
sprinkle in three table-spoonfuls of grated cheese.


Ham Omelet.

The same as plain omelet, and add three tablespoonfuls of cooked ham,
chopped rather fine, as soon as it begins to thicken.


Chicken Omelet.

The same as plain omelet, and, just before folding, add one cupful of
cooked chicken, cut rather fine, and warmed in cream sauce.


Jelly Omelet.

A jelly omelet is made like the others, and, just before folding,
spread with any kind of jelly (currant or grape is the best, however).
Fold quickly, and serve.


Savory Omelet.

This is made like a plain omelet, with the addition of salt and one
table-spoonful of chopped parsley. A little grated onion may be used
also, if you like it.


Fish Omelet.

Boil a shad roe twenty minutes in salt and water. Chop it fine, and
add to it a cupful of any kind of cold fish, broken fine. Season with
salt and pepper, and warm in a cupful of cream sauce. Make a plain
omelet with six eggs. When ready to fold, spread the prepared fish on
it. Roll up, dish, and serve immediately.


Corn Omelet.

One pint of cold boiled corn, four eggs, half a cupful of milk, one
teaspoonful and a half of salt, a little pepper, three table-spoonfuls
of butter. Beat the eggs, and add to them the salt, pepper, milk and
corn. Fry like a plain omelet.


Baked Omelet.

One pint and a half of milk, four eggs, one table-spoonful of flour,
one of butter, one teaspoonful of salt. Let the milk come to a boil.
Mix the butter and flour together. Pour the boiling milk on the
mixture, which then cook five minutes, stirring all the while. Put
away to cool. When cooled, add the salt and the eggs, the yolks and
whites having been beaten separately. Pour into a buttered dish, and
bake twenty minutes in a quick oven. Serve at once. The dish should
hold a little more than a quart.


Dropped Eggs,

Have one quart of boiling water and one table-spoonful of salt in a
frying-pan. Break the eggs, one by one, into a saucer, and slide
carefully into the salted water. Cook until the white is firm, and
lift out with a griddle-cake turner and place on toasted bread. Serve
immediately.


Scrambled Eggs.

Four eggs, one table-spoonful of butter, half a teaspoonful of salt.
Beat the eggs, and add the salt to them. Melt the butter in a sauce-
pan. Turn in the beaten eggs, stir quickly over a hot fire for one
minute, and serve.


Poached Eggs.

Two eggs, two table-spoonfuls of milk, half a teaspoonful of salt,
half a teaspoonful of butter. Beat the eggs, and add the salt and
milk. Put the butter in a small sauce-pan, and when it melts, add the
eggs. Stir over the fire until the mixture thickens, being careful not
to let it cook hard. About two minutes will cook it. The eggs, when
done, should be soft and creamy. Serve immediately.


Soft-boiled Eggs.

Place the eggs in a warm saucepan, and cover with _boiling_
water. Let them stand where they will keep hot, but _not_ boil,
for ten minutes. This method will cook both whites and yolks.


Soft-boiled Eggs, No. 2.

Put the eggs in boiling water, and boil three minutes and a half. By
this method the white of the egg is hardened so quickly that the heat
does not penetrate to the yolk until the last minute, and consequently
the white is hard and the yolk hardly cooked enough. The first method
is, therefore, the more healthful.


Hard-boiled Eggs.

Put the eggs in hot water to cover, and boil twenty minutes. Ten
minutes will boil them hard, but they are not so digestible as when
boiled twenty. Ten minutes makes the yolks hard and soggy; twenty
makes them light and mealy.


Spanish Eggs.

Cook one cupful of rice thirty minutes in two quarts of boiling water,
to which has been added one table-spoonful of salt. Drain through a
colander, and add one table-spoonful of butter. Spread very lightly on
a hot platter. On the rice place six dropped eggs, and serve.


Eggs Sur Le Plat.

Little stone china dishes come expressly for this mode of serving
eggs. Heat and butter the dish, and break into it two eggs, being
careful not to break the yolks. Sprinkle lightly with salt and pepper,
and drop on them half a teaspoonful of butter, broken in small pieces.
Place in a moderately-hot oven until the white is set, which will be
in about five minutes. There should be a dish for each person. The
flavor can be changed by sprinkling a little finely-chopped ham or
parsley on the plate before putting in the eggs.


Creamed Eggs.

Boil six eggs twenty minutes. Make one pint of cream sauce. Have six
slices of toast on a hot dish. Put a layer of sauce on each one, and
then part of the whites of the eggs, cut in thin strips; and rub part
of the yolks through a sieve on to the toast. Repeat this, and finish
with a third layer of sauce. Place in the oven for about three
minutes. Garnish with parsley, and serve.


Stuffed Eggs.

Cut six hard-boiled eggs in two. Take out the yolks and mash them
fine. Add two teaspoonfuls of butter, one of cream, two or three drops
of onion juice, and salt and pepper to taste. Mix all thoroughly. Fill
the eggs from the mixture, and put them together. There will be a
little filling left, to which add a well-beaten egg. Cover the other
eggs with this last preparation, and roll in cracker crumbs. Fry in
_boiling_ lard till a light brown.


Scotch Eggs.

One cupful of cooked lean ham, chopped very fine; one-third of a
cupful of stale bread crumbs, one-third of a cupful of milk, half a
teaspoonful of mixed mustard, cayenne enough to cover a silver five-
cent piece, one raw egg, and six hard-boiled. Cook the bread and milk
together until a smooth paste. Add to the ham, and add the seasoning
and raw egg. Mix thoroughly. Break the shells from the hard-boiled
eggs, and cover with this mixture. Put in a frying basket, and plunge
into boiling fat for two minutes. These are nice for lunch, tea, or
picnics.


Eggs, Brouillé.

Six eggs, half a cupful of milk, or, better still, of cream; two
mushrooms, one teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper, three table-
spoonfuls of butter, a slight grating of nutmeg. Cut the mushrooms
into dice, and fry them for one minute in one table-spoonful of the
butter. Beat the eggs, salt, pepper, and cream together, and put them
in a saucepan. Add the butter and mushrooms to these ingredients. Stir
over a moderate heat until the mixture begins to thicken. Take from
the fire and beat rapidly until the eggs become quite thick and
creamy. Have slices of toast on a hot dish. Heap the mixture on these,
and garnish with points of toast. Serve immediately.




ECONOMICAL DISHES.


Calf's Liver, Braised.

Wash and wipe a calf's liver. Lard one side of it. Cover the bottom of
the braising pan with slices of salt pork, using about a quarter of a
pound. Cut an onion and half a carrot in small pieces, and spread over
the pork. Lay the liver on this, and dredge thickly with salt, pepper
and flour. Cover the pan, and place where it will cook slowly for half
an hour. Add a bouquet of sweet herbs and three pints of stock or
water. Put the pan in a moderate oven and cook for two hours. Baste
frequently with the gravy in the pan, and salt, pepper and flour.
About twenty minutes before the liver is done, add one teaspoonful of
vinegar and one of lemon juice. Strain the gravy over the liver when
it is dished.


Beef Stew.

Take the bones and hard, tough parts left from a roast of beef. Remove
all the meat from the bones, and cut it in small pieces. Cut about a
quarter of a pound of the fat of the meat in very small pieces. Put it
in the stew-pan to fry. When it begins to brown, put in half a carrot,
one small turnip, and two onions, cut fine. Stir over the fire for ten
minutes. Take out the fat and vegetables, and put the bones in the
bottom of the kettle. Add the meat and the cooked vegetables, but not
the fat. Dredge well with salt, pepper, and flour, shaking in at least
half a cupful of flour. Add three pints of water, and simmer gently
one hour; then put in six potatoes, pared and cut in slices. Simmer
one hour longer. Taste to see if seasoned enough. Draw forward where
it will boil more rapidly. Stir the stew, and put in the dumplings.
Cook just ten minutes. The cover of the stew-pan must fit tightly.
There should be about two pounds of meat for this stew, not counting
the bones.


Cold Meat with Purée of Potato.

Six good-sized potatoes, one table-spoonful of butter, one cupful of
boiling milk, salt and pepper to taste. Pare and boil the potatoes,
and mash light and fine. Add the butter, seasoning and boiling milk.
Beat up light, and spread on a hot platter. Lay on this handsome
slices of any kind of cold meat, and on each slice put a table-
spoonful of hot gravy. Put a little gravy around the dish, and set in
the oven for five minutes. Garnish with parsley, and serve. If there
is no gravy left from the dinner of the day before, make a pint in the
following manner: Put a quart of water with some of the hard pieces
and bones of the meat, and boil down to one pint. Put one table-
spoonful of butter in a frying-pan, and, when hot, add one table-
spoonful of flour. Stir until dark brown, and strain the broth on
this. Season with salt, pepper and, if you please, one spoonful of
Halford sauce.


Shepherds' Pie.

One quart of any kind of cold meat, eight large potatoes, one small
onion, one cupful of boiling milk, salt, pepper, and nearly a pint of
gravy or stock, thickened with one table-spoonful of flour. Season the
meat and put in a deep earthen dish. Grate the onion into the gravy,
and pour over the meat. Pare, boil and mash the potatoes. Add the
salt, pepper and milk and one table-spoonful of butter. Cover the pie
with this, and bake gently half an hour.


Shepherds' Pie, No. 2.

Cut into dice one quart of any kind of cold meat. Mince very fine two
table-spoonfuls of salt pork, and add to the meat. Pare and cut into
dice four large uncooked potatoes; grate or chop fine one onion; chop
fine one table-spoonful of parsley. Mix, and season well with salt and
pepper, and add a large cupful of water. Put in a deep earthen dish.
Make a paste with four potatoes, two table-spoonfuls of butter, a
large cupful of boiling milk and a pint of flour. Pare, boil and mash
the potatoes; then add butter, salt and milk. When all is very light,
beat in the flour, gradually. Sprinkle the board with flour, and roll
the paste a little larger than the dish. Make a hole in the centre, to
let out the air. Cover the dish with the paste, being careful to have
the edge come inside the dish. Bake gently one hour.


Escaloped Meat.

Chop the meat rather coarse. Season with salt and pepper. For one pint
of meat use half a cupful of gravy and a heaping cupful of bread
crumbs. Put a layer of the meat in an escalop dish, then gravy, then a
thin layer of crumbs; and continue this until the dish is full. The
last layer should be a thick one of crumbs. Cook in a hot oven from
fifteen to twenty minutes. All kinds of cold meat can be escaloped,
but beef is so dry that it is not so good as mutton, veal, etc,


Curry of Cold Meat.

Three table-spoonfuls of butter, three teaspoonfuls of flour, one
onion, one teaspoonful of curry powder, salt, pepper, one generous
pint of stock or water, about two pounds of any kind of cold meat, cut
in thin slices. Put the butter in the frying-pan, and, when hot, add
the onion. When the onion turns yellow, add the flour and curry
powder. Stir two minutes, add the stock or water, simmer five minutes,
and strain on the meat. Simmer all together for ten minutes. Serve
with a border of rice or mashed potatoes.


Barley Stew.

About a quarter of a pound of cold roasted or broiled meat, two
onions, four potatoes, a quarter of a cupful of barley, one table-
spoonful of flour, one quart of water, and salt and pepper to taste.
Cut the meat into dice; wash the barley; cut the onions _very
fine_. Put all in a stew-pan, and dredge with the flour, half a
table-spoonful of salt, and one-eighth of a teaspoonful of pepper. Add
the water, and simmer two hours. Pare and slice the potatoes. Add them
to the stew, and simmer one hour longer. Taste to see if there is
enough, salt and pepper, and if there is not, add more.


Dumplings.

One pint of flour, measured before sifting; half a teaspoonful of
soda, a teaspoonful of cream of tartar, one of sugar, half a
teaspoonful of salt. Mix all thoroughly and run through the sieve. Wet
with a small cupful of milk. Sprinkle a little flour on the board.
Turn the dough (which should have been stirred into a smooth ball with
a spoon) on it roll to the thickness of half an inch, cut into small
cakes, and cook ten minutes.

By remembering that the soup should be boiling rapidly when the
dumplings are put in; that they should not sink too deep in it; that
they should boil _just ten minutes_; that the cover should fit
tightly, so that the steam shall not escape; and that the pot boils
all the time, so that the steam is kept up; and by following the other
directions, success is insured.




BREAD.

When you put the bread on the board, pat it lightly. Do not _press
down_, but let all motions be as elastic as possible. Knead with
the _palm_ until the dough is a flat cake, and then fold. Keep
doing this until the dough is light and smooth and will not stick to
the board or hands. Use as little flour as possible in kneading. Do
not stop until you have fully finished, for bread that has "rested" is
not good. Milk can be used instead of water in mixing. It should
always be first scalded, and then allowed to cool to blood heat. One
table-spoonful of lard or butter makes the bread tenderer when water
is used.

In cold weather some kitchens grow cold very quickly after the fire is
out. In this case the bread should be made earlier in the evening, and
set in a warmer place (about eighty or ninety degrees); because if it
begins to rise within the first two hours, it will continue to rise,
unless the temperature falls to the freezing point. The reason for
letting the rolls rise longer than the loaves is that the former,
being smaller, are penetrated by heat much more quickly than the
loaves are, and, of course, fermentation is stopped sooner; therefore,
the rolls do not rise as much in the oven as the loaves.

Rolls should be made into smooth little balls, and should be placed in
even rows in a shallow pan. Breakfast rolls, are first made into
little balls and then rolled between the hands until three inches
long. They are placed close together in even rows in the pan. Dinner
and French rolls, after being made into little balls, are put on a
well-floured board, and a little, well-floured rolling-pin, two and a
half inches in diameter, is pressed nearly through their centre. The
rolls are to be so placed in pans as not to touch each other. Being so
small, and baking so quickly, they have a sweet taste of the wheat.

The best-sized pan for loaves is made of block tin; is eight and a
half inches long, four and a half wide, and three deep. Those for
wheat bread should be greased very slightly with either butter or
lard. For rye, Indian, or Graham, they must be greased thoroughly, as
the dough clings more to the tins. There are many kinds of bread that
can be made readily and safely after once learning to make good common
bread. It is difficult to give exact rules for flour, as it varies,
some kinds requiring much more water than others. The "new process"
flour has so much more starch, and packs so much more closely than the
"old process," that one-eighth less is required, or one-eighth more of
liquid; but if the flour is weighed, the same amount of water is taken
for a pound of flour made by either process. The best flour is always
the cheapest for bread. As there is no one article of food of so great
importance for the health and happiness of the family as bread, make
it as nearly perfect as possible.


Yeast.

Put two quarts of water and two table-spoonfuls of hops on to boil.
Pare and grate six large potatoes. When the hops and water
_boil_, strain the water on the grated potatoes, and stir well.
Place on the stove and boil up once. Add half a cupful of sugar and
one-fourth of a cupful of salt. Let the mixture get blood warm; then
add one cupful of yeast, or one cake of compressed yeast, and let it
rise in a warm place five or six hours. When well risen, turn into a
stone jug. Cork this tightly, and set in a cool place. As poor yeast
is the chief cause of poor bread, pains should be taken to make yeast
properly and to keep it well. It must never be allowed to stand in a
warm room after it has risen, and the jug in which it is kept should
be carefully washed and _scalded_ each time the yeast is renewed.
As much care must be taken with the stopper as with the jug. When it
is convenient to get fresh cakes of Fleischmann's compressed yeast, it
will be much better and cheaper to use them than to make your own.
This yeast is wholly free of any injurious substance, and with it good
bread can always be made, provided the flour is good and the rules are
followed.


Yeast Bread, No. 1.

With these materials two loaves can be made: Two quarts of flour, half
a cupful of yeast, nearly a pint and a half of water, half a table-
spoonful each of lard, sugar, and salt. Sift the flour into a bread-
pan, and, after taking out a cupful for use in kneading, add the salt,
sugar, yeast, and the water, which must be about blood warm (or, say
one hundred degrees, if in cold weather, and about eighty in the hot
season). Beat well with a strong spoon. When well mixed, sprinkle a
little flour on the board, turn out the dough on this, and knead from
twenty to thirty minutes. Put back in the pan. Hold the lard in the
hand long enough to have it very soft. Rub it over the dough. Cover
closely, that neither dust nor air can get in, and set in a warm
place. It will rise in eight or nine hours. In the morning shape into
loaves or rolls. If into loaves, let these rise an hour where the
temperature is between ninety and one hundred degrees; if into rolls,
let these rise an hour and a half. Bake in an oven that will brown a
teaspoonful of flour in five minutes. (The flour used for this test
should be put on a bit of crockery, as it will have a more even heat.)
The loaves will need from forty-five to sixty minutes to bake, but the
rolls will be done in half an hour if placed close together in the
pan; and if French rolls are made, they will bake in fifteen minutes.
As soon as baked, the bread should be taken out of the pans and placed
on a table where it can rest against something until cool. It should
then be put in a stone pot or tin box, which has been thoroughly
washed, scalded and dried, and be set away in a cool, dry place.


Yeast Bread, No. 2.

One cupful of Indian meal, two quarts of flour, one pint and a half of
boiling water, one table-spoonful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt,
half a cake of compressed yeast. Pour the boiling water on the Indian
meal. Stir well, and set away to cool. When blood warm, add the yeast,
salt and sugar to it. Stir this mixture into the flour, and proceed as
for yeast bread, No. I.


Bread Made with Dried Yeast.

Two quarts of flour, one yeast-cake, one generous pint of water, blood
warm; one table-spoonful of sugar, one of butter, one teaspoonful of
salt. Dissolve the yeast in the water, and stir gradually into one
pint of the flour. Set in a warm place for two hours. It will then be
risen to a sponge. Stir it into the remainder of the flour. Knead
well, and put in a warm place to rise. It will rise in about five
hours if the heat is about seventy-five or eighty degrees. Or, it will
rise during the night in a heat of sixty degrees. In the morning treat
like yeast bread, No. I.


Sticks.

Four cupfuls of flour, one table-spoonful of sugar, one-fourth of a
cupful of butter, one cupful of boiled milk, the white of an egg, one-
fourth of a cake of compressed yeast, one scant teaspoonful of salt.
Dissolve the butter in the milk, which have blood warm. Beat the white
of the egg to a stiff froth. Dissolve the yeast in three table-
spoonfuls of cold water. Add all the other ingredients to the flour,
and knead well. Let the dough rise over night, and in the morning make
into balls about the size of a large English walnut. Roll each of
these balls into a stick about a foot long. Use the moulding board.
Place the sticks about two inches apart in long pans. Let them rise
half an hour in a cool place, and bake twenty-five minutes in a very
moderate oven. Sticks should be quite dry and crisp. They cannot be if
baked rapidly.


Graham Bread.

With this material two loaves or two dozen muffins can be made: One
pint of water or milk, one of flour, one _large_ pint of Graham,
half a cupful of yeast, half a cupful of sugar, one teaspoonful of
salt. Have the milk or water blood warm, and add the yeast. Sift the
flour into a deep dish. Add the milk and yeast, gradually, and beat
until wholly smooth. Set in a rather cool place (about sixty degrees)
to rise over night. In the morning add the salt and sugar and then the
Graham, a little at a time, beating vigorously all the while. When
thoroughly beaten, turn into pans, and let it rise an hour in a
temperature of from 90° to 100°. Bake an hour.


Togus Bread.

Three cupfuls of sweet milk and one of sour, three cupfuls of Indian
meal and one of flour, half a cupful of molasses, one teaspoonful of
saleratus, one of salt. Steam three hours.


Brown Bread.

One cupful of rye meal, one of Indian meal, one of molasses, two of
flour, one pint and a half of sour milk, a teaspoonful of soda, an
egg, one teaspoonful of salt. Mix the dry ingredients together.
Dissolve the soda in two table-spoonfuls of boiling water. Add it and
the milk to the molasses. Stir well, and pour on the other mixed
ingredients. Beat the egg and add it. Mix thoroughly, and pour into a
well-buttered tin pan that holds two quarts. Steam four hours, and
then put in the oven for half an hour.




DRINKS.


Cocoa.

Cocoa is rich in nutritive elements. Like milk, it has all the
substances necessary for the growth and sustenance of the body. It is
the fruit of a small tree that grows in Mexico, Central America, the
West Indies and other islands. The fruit is in shape like a large,
thick cucumber, and contains from six to thirty beans. There is a
number of forms in which it is sold in the market, the most convenient
and nutritious being chocolate. Next comes cocoa, then cocoa nibs, and
lastly cocoa shells. The beans of the cocoa are roasted in the same
manner as coffee. The husks or shells are taken off and the beans then
ground between hot rollers. Sometimes the husks are not removed, but
ground with the bean. The ground bean is called cocoa; and mixed with
sugar, after being ground very fine, is termed chocolate. Vanilla is
often added as a flavor. Sometimes the cocoa is mixed with starch.
When the bean is broken in small pieces, these are called nibs.


To Make Cocoa.

Put a gill of the broken cocoa in a pot with two quarts of water, and
boil gently three hours. There should be a quart of liquid in the pot
when done. If the boiling has been so rapid that there is not this
quantity, add more water, and let it boil once again. Many people
prefer half broken cocoa and half shells. If the stomach is delicate,
this is better than all cocoa. Sugar and milk are used, as with
coffee.


Shells.

Use twice the quantity of shells that you would of broken cocoa, and
boil twice as long.


Chocolate.

Scrape fine an ounce (one of the small squares) of Baker's or any
other plain chocolate. Add two table-spoonfuls of sugar, and put in a
small saucepan with a table-spoonful of hot water. Stir over a hot
fire for a minute or two, until it is perfectly smooth and glossy, and
then stir it all into a quart of boiling milk, or half milk and half
water. Mix thoroughly, and serve at once. If the chocolate is wanted
richer, take twice as much chocolate, sugar, and water. Made in this
way, chocolate is perfectly smooth, and free of oily particles. If it
is allowed to boil after the chocolate is added to the milk, it
becomes oily and loses its fine flavor.


Coffee.

There is a variety of coffees; but, unlike the teas, they do not owe
their difference of flavor or color to the curing, but to the soil and
climate in which they grow. Coffee grows on small trees. The fruit is
something like the cherry, but there are two seeds in it. The beans
are separated by being bruised with a heavy roller, and are then
washed and dried. The longer the raw berry is kept the riper and
better flavored it becomes. In countries where coffee is grown the
leaves are used as much as the berry. Like tea, coffee must be
roasted, that the fine flavor shall be developed. There are large
establishments for roasting and grinding coffee. The work is done by
machinery; and nearly always the grains arc evenly roasted, and just
enough to give the right flavor. If the coffee, after roasting, is put
in close tin cans, it will retain its best qualities for a long time.
It can be ground when needed for use. Many persons think that heating
the dry coffee just before making improves the flavor. There are many
modes of making coffee, each having its advantages and disadvantages.
Some people think that by first wetting the coffee with cold water,
and letting it come to a boil, and by then adding the boiling water,
more of the strength of the coffee is extracted. When there is not
cream for coffee the milk should be boiled, as it makes the coffee
richer. As soon as the milk boils up it should be taken off of the
stove, since it grows strong and oily by much boiling. To many people
it is injurious to drink coffee; but physicians say that, taken
without milk, it is harmless. Some element of the coffee combines with
the milk to form a leathery coating on the stomach, which impairs
digestion. A great many substances are mixed with coffee, when sold,
to cheapen it,--chicory, beans, peas, rye, and wheat being the
commonest. To obtain it pure, the safest way is to buy it unground,
unless you purchase of a strictly honest dealer. Coffee drinkers, as a
rule, eat less than other people, though coffee, and also tea, have
little direct food value; but they retard the waste of the tissues,
and so take the place of food. The sugar and milk used with them give
some nutriment.


Boiled Coffee.

The old method of boiling coffee is still practised by at least one-
half the housekeepers in this country. The coffee is sometimes boiled
with an egg, which makes it perfectly clear, and also enriches it.
When an egg is not used a small piece of salt fish skin is boiled with
the coffee to clear it.

Directions for making: A small cupful of roasted and ground coffee,
one-third Mocha and two-thirds Java; a small egg, shell and all,
broken into the pot with the dry coffee. Stir veil with a spoon, and
then pour on three pints of boiling water. Let it boil from five to
ten minutes, counting from the time it begins to boil. As soon as it
has boiled enough, pour in a cupful of cold water, and turn a little
of the coffee into a cup, to see that the nozzle of the pot is not
filled with grounds. Turn this back, and let the coffee stand a few
moments to settle, taking care that it does not boil again. The
advantages of boiled coffee are that when the egg is used the yolk
gives a very rich flavor, and when the milk or cream is added the
coffee has a rich, yellow look, which is pleasing. It has also a
peculiar flavor, which many people prefer to the flavor gained by any
other process. The disadvantages are that the egg coats the dry
coffee, and when the hot water is added the coating becomes hard, and
a great deal of the best of the coffee remains in the grounds after
boiling. Also, in boiling, much of the fine flavor is lost in the
steam that escapes from the pot.


Filtered Coffee.

Another--and really the most economical and the easiest--way of
making coffee is by filtering. The French coffee biggin is valuable
for this. It consists of two cylindrical tin vessels, one fitting into
another, and the bottom of the upper being a fine strainer. Another
coarser strainer, with a rod running from the centre, is placed upon
this. Then the coffee, which must be finely-ground, is put in, and
another strainer is placed at the top of the rod. The boiling water is
poured on, and the pot set where it will keep hot, but not boil, until
the water has gone through. This will make a clear, strong coffee,
with a rich, smooth flavor. The advantage of the two extra strainers
is that the one coming next to the fine strainer prevents the grounds
from filling up the fine holes, and so the coffee is clear, and made
more easily. The upper strainer causes the boiling water to fall on
the coffee like rain. In this way it is more evenly distributed, and
the fine coffee is not carried through the fine strainer, as it would
be if the water were poured directly on the dry coffee. When milk or
cream is added to filtered coffee it does not turn a rich yellow, as
in the case of that boiled with an egg. A few spoonfuls of this
coffee, without sugar or milk, taken after dinner, is said to help
digestion.


Vienna Coffee.

A quartet of a cupful of boiled milk. Add three table-spoonfuls of
whipped cream, and fill up with filtered coffee.


Café au Lait.

This is simply one pint of filtered coffee added to one pint of milk
that has come just to the boiling point.


Steamed Coffee.

Another mode of preparing coffee is to steam it. The coffee is put in
a pot and boiling water poured on it. This pot, which is made to fit
into a tea-kettle, is placed in the kettle, and the coffee is cooked
from ten to twenty minutes, the water in the kettle boiling all the
time. This will make a clear and delicious drink.


Tea.

There are three varieties of the tea plant; both black and green tea
can be prepared from them all. Green tea is made from leaves which are
dried quickly, and black from leaves which have first been allowed to
stand twelve hours or more before roasting. The leaves wilt and grow
moist in that time, and that is what gives the dark and peculiar
appearance to this tea. In making tea the pot should be earthen,
rinsed with boiling water and left to stand a few moments on the
stove, to dry. Put in the tea leaves, and let the pot stand a few
minutes longer. Pour on boiling water, leaving the pot standing where
it will be at the boiling point, yet will not boil, for from three to
five minutes. For moderate strength use one teaspoonful of tea to half
a pint of water. If the water is soft it should be used as soon as it
boils, for boiling causes all the gases which flavor the water to
escape; but if the water is hard it is best to boil from twenty to
thirty minutes. The gases escape from hard water also, but boiling
causes the mineral matter, which hardens the water, to settle on the
bottom of the kettle, and the water becomes softer.


Lemonade.

Good lemonade can be made with half a pint of lemon juice (extracted
with a squeezer, and strained), three pints of water and a generous
pint of sugar. Have the drink cold. Hot lemonade is highly recommended
for a cold. A glass can be made with the juice of a lemon, one large
table-spoonful of sugar and a cupful of boiling water. Drink it hot.




HOW--


To Blanch Almonds.

Shell the nuts, and pour boiling water over them. Let them stand in
the water a minute, and then throw them into cold water. Rub between
the hands.


To Corn Beef.

For fifty pounds of beef make a pickle with two gallons of water, four
pounds of salt, one and a half pounds of brown sugar, one and a half
ounces of saltpetre, half an ounce of saleratus. Put these ingredients
on to boil, and when they boil, skim, and put away to cool. When cold,
put the beef in it. Put weights on the meat, to keep it under the
brine.


To Scrape Chocolate.

If only one square of chocolate is needed, draw a line across the two
squares at the end, dividing them in halves. With a sharp knife, shave
off the chocolate until you come to the line. By this method there is
no waste of time or material. If you want two or more squares, all
that is necessary is, of course, to shave off until you come to the
dividing line already there. The pound packages of Baker's chocolate
consist of two cakes, each of which has eight squares; so one of these
squares is an ounce.


To Use the Salamander.

The salamander is a circular iron plate, to which is attached a long
handle. It is made red hot in the fire and held over the article to be
browned, being careful not to have it touch. If you have not a
salamander the fire shovel can be heated and used in the same way; but
the shovel is not improved by the operation.


To Clean English Currants.

Pick all the stones, bits of dirt and long stems from the currants.
Add one pint of flour to two quarts of currants, and rub well between
the hands. This starts the stems and dirt from the fruit. Put about a
pint of currants in the flour sieve and rub them until all the flour
has passed through; then put them in the colander and shake until the
stems have passed through. When all the fruit has been treated in this
manner, put it in a large pan of cold water. Wash thoroughly, and
drain in the colander. Repeat this operation three times. When the
fruit is well drained, spread it on boards or flat dishes and dry in a
warm place. Put away in jars.


To Remove Jellies and Creams from Moulds.

Have in a pan water enough (a little more than blood warm) to come to
the top of the mould. If the mould is tin, set it in this for about
half a minute; if earthen, keep it in long enough to have the heat
pass through the mould. Wipe the mould, place over it the dish into
which the jelly is to be turned, and turn both dish and mould
simultaneously. Let the mould rest a moment before lifting it gently
from the jelly.


To Whip Cream.

Very rich or _very_ poor cream will not whip well. When too rich
it turns to butter, and when too poor the froth becomes liquid almost
as soon as it has been skimmed. Thick cream, that will hardly pour,
should have an equal quantity of milk added to it before whipping.
Such cream as one gets from the milkman will rarely be found
_too_ rich for whipping. It is more likely to be the other way;
and one is often disappointed in finding it too poor to froth. The
cream should be ice cold.

Have a large bowl or tin pail, rather narrow at the bottom. Place this
in a pan of ice water. Have a bright tin pan in another of ice water.
Put the cream in the bowl and put the whip churn in this. Hold the
churn with the left hand, tipping it slightly, that the cream may flow
out at the bottom. With the right hand draw the dasher lightly about
half way up the cylinder; then press down hard. It must not be
forgotten that the _up_ stroke is _light_ and the _down_ stroke
is _hard_. When the bowl is full, skim the froth into a
tin pan. Continue this until nearly all the cream has been whipped.
Draw the froth in the pan to one side, and turn the liquid cream
at the bottom of the pan back into the bowl. Whip it again. A
little of the cream will always become liquid again.

When the cream is for whips, or for a garnish for frozen pudding or
Bavarian creams, sweeten it, and flavor with anything you please,
before whipping. If the cream is very rich a Dover beater will whip
it, but there is nothing that will whip cream so quickly and so well
as the whip churn described in the chapter on Kitchen Furnishing.


To Boil Sugar.

The degrees of boiling sugar are variously divided by different cooks.
Some give six and others as high as eight. The Stench boil sugar for
nearly all their desserts. For all practical purposes a cook need
understand only three stages. Put one cupful of granulated or loaf
sugar and half a cupful of water on to boil. When the mixture has
boiled fifteen minutes, dip the fore-finger and thumb in cold water
and take up a little of the syrup between them. If, upon drawing them
apart, the syrup forms a thread, it is at the second degree. This is
the best stage for frozen fruits, sherbets, and preserves.

If, a little later, when some syrup is taken up with a spoon and blown
hard, it flies off in tiny bubbles, it is at the fourth degree, called
the _soufflé_. It takes about twenty minutes' boiling for this.
The syrup is then used for _biscuit glacé_ and various kinds of
creams. At this stage it also gives sherbets and fruits a much richer
flavor than when used at the second degree.

If, when a little syrup is taken up on the point of a stick or skewer,
and dipped in cold water, it breaks off brittle, the sixth degree has
been reached. This is the stage where it is used for icing fruit and
cake, the dish being called fruit _glacé_ or _gâteau glacé_.
The syrup must _never_ be stirred, as this will cause it to
grain. Great care must be taken that it does not boil after coming to
the sixth degree, as it burns quickly after that point is reached.

To Make and Use a Pastry Bag.

Fold a piece of strong cotton cloth (perhaps a foot square) from the
opposite corners, so as to give it a triangular shape. On one side sew
together the two edges, thus making a bag shaped like a "dunce's cap."
Cut the cloth at the apex just enough to permit a short tin tube,
somewhat like a tailor's thimble, to be pushed through. The tube for
éclairs measures about three-fourths of an inch at the smallest
opening; that for lady-fingers is three-eighths of an inch, and that
for meringues and kisses, half an inch. The tubes for decorating with
frosting are very small.

Fill the bag with the mixture to be forced through, and gather the
cloth together at the top with the left hand. Hold the point of the
tube close to the pan on which the mixture is to be spread. Press the
mixture out with the right hand. If the cakes are to be large use a
good deal of pressure, but if to be small, very little will do. At
first, it will be hard to get the shapes, but with a little practice
it will seem comparatively easy.


To Make Paper Cases.

This is not difficult, if one will carefully study for a moment the
diagram below and the directions following:

[Illustration: diagram]


Cut the paper on the dark lines--(there are _eight_).

Crease on every dotted line.

At each end turn the parts lettered A over that lettered B, so that
the lines _c_ rest on the line _d_, and one A overlaps the other.

Fold the parts B up against the backs of the parts A.

Fold inward those parts of the edges which are lightly shaded, and
fold outward those which are heavily shaded.

Stick the parts of the box together with the white of an egg mixed
with a little flour.

Remember that it is a box that is to be made, and after the first two
steps it may be easy to guess how to complete the work. By tracing a
copy of the diagram one obtains a good model one quarter of the size
the case should be; that is, the square should be five inches on a
side instead of two and one-half. After experimenting with this the
shape may be varied to suit the taste. Stiff white paper should be
used. Cases can be bought of restaurateurs. They are used for
_biscuit glacé, biscuit soufflé,_ and other dainties.


To Lard.

Larding is a simple operation. The pork should be firm and young
(salt, of course). Cut thin, even slices parallel with the rind, and
cut these in long, narrow strips that will fit into the needle. For
beef, veal, turkey or chicken the strips should be about as large
round as a lead pencil, and about three and a half inches long; and
for birds, chops, and sweetbreads they should be about as large round
as a match. Three slices are all that can be cut from one piece of
pork, because when you get more than an inch away from the rind, the
pork is so tender that it will break when in the needle.

Put the strips in a bowl of broken ice, to harden. Have the meat, if
beef or veal, free of skin and gristle. Put a strip (also called a
lardoon) into the needle as far as it will go. With a skewer or knife
draw a line on both sides of the meat and along the upper part. Thrust
the needle into the meat at one of the side lines; and when it is
about half way through to the top of the piece, press the steel
slightly with the thumb and fore-finger, to hold the lardoon in place
until it has entered the meat. Now push the needle through to the top,
and gently draw it out, leaving about three-quarters of an inch of the
strip exposed at both the side and upper part of the meat That part of
the pork which is hidden should be half an inch under the surface. The
needle's course is as if it started under the eaves of a gable roof
and came out at the ridge-pole. Continue until all the rows are filled
with lardoons. Two rows are enough for a fillet of beef. If the strips
are too large for the needle they will be pressed out as soon as the
lower part of the needle enters the meat.


To Stew.

The meat and vegetables for stews should, when it is possible, be
browned in a little fat, and hot water should then be added. As soon
as the stew comes to the boiling point, skim it, and set back where it
will just simmer, not boil, the given time. The pieces of meat in a
stew should come to the table whole and tender and juicy, and they
will be in this condition only with _slow_ cooking.


To Braise.

Braising is one of the best modes of preparing meat. There are pans
expressly for braising; but any deep tin, sheet-iron, or granite-ware
pan, with a cover, will answer quite well. The meat to be cooked must
always be browned in some kind of fat, the vegetables fried in the
same fat, and enough stock (if possible) or water be added to half
cover the meat. The pan should then be covered and placed in the oven.
The meat must cook _slowly_ and thoroughly, and be basted
frequently. No matter how tough, if properly braised it will become
tender and juicy. If, however, the cooking is hurried the dish will be
spoiled.


To Fry.

There are two modes of frying. One is to have just enough fat to
prevent the article from burning or sticking; and the other is to have
enough not only to cover the food, but to float it. The latter is by
far the better way, as all the surface of the article is instantly
hardened, and, therefore, will not absorb fat. It is also the cheaper
way, because the fat can be used so many times. If the drippings saved
from meats, soups and gravies should not be enough for frying
purposes, buy pure lard to use with it. Many recommend buying beef
suet for this same purpose; but food fried in suet is more liable to
absorb fat than that fried in lard. The reason of this is that lard
can be heated to a higher temperature without burning than can beef or
any of the other fats. Butter is also often recommended for frying. If
used, it should be free of salt. But aside from being so expensive, it
is not so nice for frying purposes as fats, for it burns at a much
lower temperature than either beef fat or lard. The Scotch kettle is
the _best_ utensil for frying. It rests on a rim, which lifts the
bottom from the stove, and the inside surface is polished very smooth;
therefore, the fat is less liable to burn than if the surface were
rough and the bottom rested on the hot stove. The fat should heat
gradually; and when the food is plunged into it a slight smoke should
rise from the _centre._ It will smoke at the sides some time
before it has become hot enough for frying. After the food has been
put in, let the kettle stand on the hottest part of the stove until it
regains its former temperature, and then set it back where it is not
quite so hot. In frying fish-balls, doughnuts, etc., put only a few at
a time in the boiling fat; then wait a few moments for the fat to
regain its former temperature, and put in a few more. Fish-balls are
often spoiled by the putting of a great many in the kettle at once.
The temperature of the fat is instantly reduced, and the balls absorb
the fat. When an article of food is fried, drain the fat from it, and
lay it on a sheet of brown paper in a warm pan. The paper will absorb
any fat that may remain on the food. As soon as you are through
frying, take the fat from the fire, and when cooled a little, strain
it, (See the chapter on the Care of Food.) If the directions given are
followed, there will be no difficulty in having food fried without its
being saturated with grease.


To Serve.

The dishes on which meats, fish, jellies and creams are placed should
be large enough to leave a margin of an inch or so between the food
and the lower edge of the border of the dish.

It is well to pour the sauce for cold puddings around the pudding,
especially if there will be a contrast in color.

It is a great improvement to have the sauce poured around the article
instead of over it, and to have the border of the dish garnished with
bits of parsley, celery tops or carrot leaves.

When sauce is poured around meat or fish the dish must be quite hot,
or the sauce will cool quickly.

Small rolls or sticks of bread are served with soup. Potatoes and
bread are usually served with fish, but many people prefer to serve
only bread. Butter is not served at the more elegant dinners. Two
vegetables will be sufficient in any course. Cold dishes should be
very cold, and hot dishes _hot._

It is a good idea to have a dish of sliced lemons for any kind of
fish, and especially for those broiled or fried.

Melons, cantelopes, cucumbers and radishes, and tomatoes, when served
in slices, should all be chilled in the ice chest.

Be particular not to overdo the work of decorating. Even a simple
garnish adds much to the appearance of a dish, but too much decoration
only injures it. Garnishes should be so arranged as not to interfere
with serving.

Potato-balls and thin fried potatoes make a nice garnish for all kinds
of fried and broiled meats and fish.

Cold boiled beets, carrots and turnips, and the whites of hard-boiled
eggs, stamped out with a fancy vegetable cutter, make a pretty garnish
for cold or hot meats.

Thin slices of toast, cut into triangles, make a good garnish for many
dishes.

Whipped cream is a delicate garnish for all Bavarian dreams, blanc-
manges, frozen puddings and ice creams.

Arrange around jellies or creams a border of any kind of delicate
green, like smilax or parsley, or of rose leaves, and dot it with
bright colors--pinks, geraniums, verbenas or roses. Remember that the
green should be dark and the flowers small and bright. A bunch of
artificial rose leaves, for decorating dishes of fruit at evening
parties, lasts for years. Natural leaves are preferable when they can
be obtained.

Wild roses, buttercups and nasturtiums, if not used too freely, we
suitable for garnishing a salad.




BILLS OF FARE.

What to set before guests at the table, or, indeed, before one's own
family, is sometimes a perplexing matter for housekeepers to decide,
and a few bills of fare are given on the following pages as an aid.
The number of dishes can readily be increased or diminished. Any of
the company dinners can be prepared at home almost as easily as an
ordinary dinner, success depending not upon a great number of dishes,
but upon a few well cooked and well served, and a hostess apparently
free from care.

A great part of any company dinner can be prepared the day before. The
vegetables can be prepared and put in cold water, the game or meat be
larded, the meat or fish cooked for croquettes and salads, the salad
dressing made ready, and jellies, creams and cold puddings be made. If
a clear soup (and that is always best) is to be served, it also should
be made. In the morning the bread and cake can be baked, and the fish
and other dishes prepared. Early in the afternoon freeze the creams
and sherbets.

Make a list of the principal dishes. With each dish have a list of the
vegetables, sauces or other things to be served, and the time for
serving. This will insure the dishes being ready at the proper moment.
Have the plates and other dishes counted and ready to warm--and, by
the way, arrange to have these and the silver washed where the noise
cannot reach the guests.

Twelve seems to be a good number of people for a dinner party. But
very little increase in the quantity of material will be required if
the number should be as large as sixteen or eighteen. Fox six or eight
the quantity of soup, oysters, creams, sherbets and coffee, can be
diminished one-third, but that of meats and fish should not be much
smaller. It is supposed that the coffee will be served in small cups.
Although it is usually drunk clear, cream and sugar should be offered
with it.

People differ as to the kinds of breakfast required. Many believe in
the French custom of having only chocolate or coffee, rolls, and
perhaps eggs in some form. Again, others believe in and require a
substantial breakfast. There is no limit to the variety of dishes that
can be prepared for breakfast and tea if the cook has taste and
judgment in using the remains of meats, fish and vegetables left from
dinner. Either oatmeal or hominy should always be served at breakfast.
When it is possible, have fruit for the first course.


BREAKFAST.

Fruit.

Oatmeal and Cream.

Baked Potatoes.

Mutton Chops.

Rye Muffins.

Hominy Griddle-Cakes.

Coffee, Tea or Chocolate.


   *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Fruit.

Oatmeal.

Broiled Ham. Omelet.

Graham Muffins. Toast.

Griddle-Cakes.

Coffee or Tea.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Fruit.

Escaloped Meat.

Dropped Eggs.

Raised Muffins.

Corn Cake.

Drinks.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

DINNERS FOR TWELVE.


Clear Soup (five pints).

Fish (four or five pounds, baked, boiled, or escaloped).

Bread, and Potatoes if you like.

Chicken Croquettes, or any kind of Patties.

Fillet of Beef, Larded (two and a half to three pounds), with Mushroom
Sauce.

Potato Puffs.

Sweetbreads (six).

Green Peas (two quarts, if fresh, or two cans of French peas).

Lettuce Salad (French dressing; two large heads of lettuce).

A Cold Pudding. Ice Cream (one gallon). Cake.

Crackers.

Cheese.

Coffee.

The cost of a dinner like this, when prepared at home, depends
somewhat upon the market, but will rarely exceed twenty-five dollars.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Oysters on a Block of Ice (two quarts).

_Consommé à la Royale_ (five pints).

Baked Fish (five pounds), Hollandaise Sauce (double the rule).

Cheese _Soufflé_ (double the rule).

Roast Chicken (nine to twelve pounds).

Mashed Potatoes (twelve).

Green Peas (two quarts or two cans).

Celery. Cranberry Jelly.

Oyster Patties (fourteen).

Lettudfe Salad (two heads of lettuce with French dressing).

Water Crackers (a dozen and a half).

Neufchatel Cheese (two packages).

Orange Sherbet (three quarts).

Frozen Cabinet Pudding (the rule given), Apricot Sauce.

_Glacé Meringué_ (the rule given). Sponge Cake. Fruit.

Coffee (the rule for filtered coffee).


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *


_Potage à la Reine_ (five pints).

Sardine Canapees (two dozen). Olives.

Roast Turkey (about eight pounds), Chestnut Stuffing and Sauce.

Macaroni, _à l'Italienne_ (twice the rule).

Cranberry Jelly.

Plain Boiled Potatoes.

Lettuce Salad (two large heads).

Custard _Soufflé_ (twice the rule), Creamy Sauce.

Frozen Pudding (the rule given).

Lemon Sherbet Cake.

Fruit.

Coffee (three pints of filtered).

Crackers and Cheese.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Oyster Soup (two quarts).

Smelts _à la Tartare_ (three dozen).

Chicken _Vol-au-Vent_ (a large one).

Rolled Rib Roast (about twelve pounds).

Polish Sauce. Grape Jelly.

Cauliflower, with Cream Sauce.

Potato _Soufflé_.

Rice Croquettes (two dozen).

Larded Grouse with Bread Sauce (three grouse).

Potatoes, _a la Parisienne._

Dressed Celery (two heads).

Royal Diplomatic Pudding (the rule given).

Raspberry Sherbet (three quarts).

Vanilla Ice Cream (three quarts).

Cake.

Fruit.

Coffee (three pints of the filtered).

Crackers and Cheese.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

GAME DINNER.

Meg Merrilies' Soup.

Grouse Soup.

Stewed Terrapin.

Turtle Steak.

Larded Grouse, Bread Sauce and Crumbs.

Broiled Quail on Toast, Currant Jelly.

Potato Croquettes.

Escaloped Tomato.

Roast Loin of Venison, Game Sauce.

Potato Puffs.

Cauliflower, with Cream Sauce.

Roast Ducks, Olive Sauce.

Potatoes _à la Parisienne._

French Peas.

Dressed Celery.

Lemon Sherbet.

Charlotte Russe.

Nesselrode Pudding.

Crackers and Cheese.

Coffee.

Fruit.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

SUPPER FOR FIFTY.

Boned Turkey (one).

Tongue in Jelly (two).

Chicken Salad (six quarts).

Escaloped Oysters (six quarts).

Two quarts of olives.

One hundred _small_ rolls, buttered.

Fifty Sardine Sandwiches.

Jelly (four moulds).

Orange Bavarian Cream (four moulds). Frozen Pudding (three gallons).

Chocolate Ice Cream (two gallons).

Vanilla (ten quarts).

Pistachio (ten quarts).

Mixed Cake (three baskets).

Coffee (twelve quarts).


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

CHILDREN'S PARTY (FIFTY).

Chicken Sandwiches.

Tongue Sandwiches.

Buttered Rolls.

Buttered Slices of Bread.

Richmond Maids of Honor.

_Gáteau St. Honore._

Dominos and other Small Cakes.

Vanilla and Chocolate Ice Cream.

Candies and Fruit.

The meat for the sandwiches should be chopped fine. The rolls must be
small, and the buttered bread should be cut in thin slices, two slices
be put together, and then be cut into long strips or little squares.
There should be one hundred sandwiches, seventy-five rolls, one
hundred dices of bread, forty maids of honor, six dishes of _gáteau
St. Honore_ two gallons of each kind of ice cream, and a generous
supply of small cakes, candies and fruit.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

FAMILY DINNERS-SPRING.

Oyster Soup.

Spinach. Fricandeau of Veal. Mashed Potatoes.

Lettuce Salad.

Orange Sherbet.

Cake.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Potato Soup.

Boiled Haddock, Lobster Sauce.

Potato _Souffle._

Chicken Croquettes, Cream Sauce.

Chocolate Blanc-Mange.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Scotch Broth.

Broiled Halibut, _Mâitre d'Hôtel_ Butter.

French Fried Potatoes.

Stewed Tomatoes.

Braised Tongue.

Rice.

Ground Rice Pudding.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Lobster Soup.

Roast Beef.

Potatoes.

Yorkshire Pudding.

Squash.

Cabbage Salad.

Lemon Sponge.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Turbot _à la Crème._

Cold Roast Beef with Purée of Potatoes.

Stewed Tomatoes.

Boiled Macaroni.

Ice Cream.

Cake.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Mock Bisque Soup.

Roast Chicken.

Currant Jelly.

Potato Puffs.

Asparagus.

Corn-Starch Pudding.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

FAMILY DINNERS---SUMMER.

Asparagus Soup.

Boiled Blue Fish, _ Maître d' Hôtel_ Butter.

Veal Cutlets, White Sauce.

Green Peas.

Dressed Cucumbers.

Mashed Potatoes.

Charlotte Russe.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Salmon, White Sauce.

Green Peas.

Potatoes.

Rice Croquettes.

Lettuce Salad.

Strawberry Bavarian Cream.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Green Pea Soup.

Braised Fillet of Beef.

Potatoes _à la Parisienne._

String Beans.

Lobster Salad.

Frozen Pudding.

Cake.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Cream of Barley Soup.

Soft-Shell Crabs.

Fried Egg Plant.

Blanquette of Chicken In a Rice Border.

Shelled Beans.

Strawberry Ice Cream.

Cake.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Vegetable Soup.

Roast Lamb, Mint Sauce.

Potato Croquettes.

Green Peas.

Salmon Salad.

Frozen Apricots.

Cake.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Baked Fish, Tomato Sauce.

Potatoes.

Sweetbreads, Cream Sauce.

Green Peas.

Tapioca Pudding.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

FAMILY DINNERS--FALL.


Macaroni Soup.

Boiled Fish, Egg Sauce.

Celery.

Roast Ducks, Game Sauce.

Stuffed Tomatoes.

French Fried Potatoes.

Eve's Pudding, Wine Sauce.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Fried Smelts, Tartare Sauce.

Boiled Turkey, Oyster Sauce.

Macaroni _à l'italienne_.

Boiled Potatoes.

Escaloped Cauliflower.

Lemon Pudding.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

White Soup.

Baked Fish, Hollandaise Sauce.

Salmis of Turkey in a Potato Border.

Stewed Celery with Cream Sauce.

Potato Salad.

Apple and Rice Pudding.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

FAMILY DINNERS-WINTER.


Fish Chowder.

Braised Beef.

Macaroni with Tomato Sauce.

Baked Sweet Potatoes.

Potato Puffs.

Oyster Salad.

Cabinet Pudding, Creamy Sauce.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Beef Stew with Dumplings.

Mutton Cutlets, Tomato Sauce.

Thin Fried Potatoes.

Vegetable Salad.

Blanc-Mange with Cream.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Celery Soup.

Mashed Turnips.

Boiled Fowl, Bechamel Sauce.

Boiled Potatoes.

Beef Steak, Brown Oyster or Mushroom Sauce.

Potatoes _à la Parisienne_.

Orange Cream.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Cream of Rice Soup.

Baked Cod, Tomato Sauce.

Riced Potatoes.

Rice.

Beef Olives.

Squash.

Danish Pudding.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Clear Soup.

Cusk, _à la Crème_, Boiled Potatoes.

Roast Leg of Mutton, Currant Jelly.

Mashed Potato.

Mashed Turnip.

Ice Cream.

Cake.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *

Tomato Soup.

Escaloped Fish.

Stewed Celery.

Mutton with Purée of Potatoes.

Macaroni with Cheese.

Apple Tapioca Pudding.


    *     *     *     *     *     *     *




ILLUSTRATIONS.

Aitchbone
Apple parer
Back of the rump
Bain-marie
Bain-marie pan
Baked fish, Hollandaise sauce
Basting spoon
Bird roaster
Boning knife
Bread grater
Bread pans
Brown bread tin
Buckets
Cake box
Carcass of mutton
Carving knife and fork
Chuck ribs
Coffee biggin
Coffee pot
Colander
Confectioner's tube
Crown moulds
Devilled lobster
Double boiler
Double broilers
Dover egg beater
Dripping pan
Escalop shell
Face of the rump
Fillet of beef, mushroom sauce
First five ribs
Fore-quarter of beef
French cook's knife
French frying-pan
French pie mould
French roll pans
Frying basket
Garnishing knife
Hind-quarter of beef
Ice cream freezer
Jagging iron
Jellymoulds
Knife box
Ladle
Lady's fingers pans
Larding and trussing needles
Leg of mutton
Lemon squeezer
Lobster salad
Loin of beef
Long rump steak
Meatrack
Melon mould
Milk pan
Muffin pan
Paper cases
Potato slicer
Quart measure
Rattle-ran
Rice mould
Round of beef
Round pudding mould
Royal diplomatic pudding
Rump
Rump, showing end which joins the round
Rump steak, out with the grain
Saddle of mutton and French chops
Saucepan
Scotch kettle
Shortfillet
Short rump steak
Sirloin roast, second cut
Skewers
Spice box
Squash strainer
Steamer for pot
Steamer for tea-kettle
Stew-pan
Tea caddy
Tin kitchen
Vegetable cutter
Vegetable scoop
Whip churn
Wooden boxes




INDEX


Allemand sauce,

Almond Bavarian cream,
  ice cream,
  pudding.

Almonds, To blanch

Amber pudding,

Ames cake,

Amherst pudding,

Anchovy sauce,

Angel cake,

Apple and Indian pudding,
  and rice pudding,
  charlotte,
  fritters,
  ginger,
  meringue pudding,
  porcupine,
  pudding, Baked
  pudding, Dutch
  _ souffle_,
  tapioca pudding,

Apple, Pickled sweet

Apricot ice cream,

Appricots, Frozen

Artichokes,

Asparagus,
  salad,
  and salmon salad,
  soup,
  with cream,

Aspic jelly,


Bacon dressing for salads,

Baking powder,

Banana ice cream,

Barberry jelly,
  ketchup.

Barley stew,

Bass,

Batter and fruit pudding,

Bavarian cream, Almond
  Chocolate
  Coffee
  Orange
  Peach
  Pineapple
  Strawberry

Beans,
  Baked

Bechamel Sauce,

Beef, see "Marketing" in Index,
  Alamode
  Boiled corned
  Braised
  Cannelon of
  fillet,
    _à l'Allemande_,
    _a la Hollandaise_,
    in jelly,
    larded,
  How to corn
  Macaronied
  olives,
  Potted
  roasted, with Yorkshire pudding
  roulette,
  salad,
  steak, broiled,
  stew,
  tongue, Braised
    in jelly.

Beets, Pickled

_Beurre noir_,

Bills of Fare,
  Breakfest,
  Children's party,
  Dinners for twelve,
  Family Dinners.
    Spring,
    Summer,
    Autumn,
    Winter,
  Game dinner.
  Supper for fifty,

Bird's nest pudding

_Biscuit Glacé_,

Black bean soup,

Blackberries, Preserved

Black cake,

Black-fish,

Black pudding.

Blanc-mange,
  Chocolate
  made with,
    gelatine,
    isinglass,
    sea moss farina,

Blanquette of chicken,
  of veal and ham,

Blueberries, Pickled

Blue-fish,

Boiled salad dressing,

Boiling meats.

_Bombe Glacee_,

Boned turkey,

Border, Jelly
  Potato
  Rice

Bouillon,

Bouquet Salad,

Braising,

BREAD,
  Brown
  fried for soups,
  Graham
  made with dried yeast,
  sauce,
  Sticks,
  Togus
  Yeast

BREAKFAST AND TEA.
  Breaded sausages.
  Cakes, Corn
    Flannel
    Gems,
    Griddle cakes, Graham
      Hominy
      Indian
      Squash
    Hominy drop cakes.
    Sally Lunn,
    Snow pan-cakes.
    Waffles,
      Indian
      Raised
      Rice
  Canapees,
  Chicken cutlets,
    in jelly,
    livers and bacon,
    livers in _papillotes_,
    livers, _sauté_,
  Corn pie,
  EGGS, _bruillé_
    Creamed
    Dropped
    Hard-boiled
    Omelets,
    Poached
    Scotch
    Scrambled
    Soft-boiled
    Spanish
    Stuffed
    _sur le plat_,
  Ham and eggs on toast,
  Ham croquettes,
  Hominy,
  Kidneys, _à la maitre d'hôtel_,
    Broiled
    _sauté_,
    Stewed
  Liver and bacon,
    Broiled
    Curry of
    fried in crumbs,
    _sauté_,
    _sauté_, with piquant sauce,
  Lyonnaise tripe,
  Meat and potato sandwiches,
    fritters,
    hash,
  Minced veal and eggs,
  Muffins,
    Corn,
    English,
    Fried Indian,
    Graham,
    Hominy,
    Raised,
    Rice,
    Rye,
  Mutton, _rechauffé_,
  Oat meal,
  Strawberry short-cake,
  Vegetable hash,
  Welch rare-bit,

Brier Hill dessert,

Broiling meats

Broth, Scotch,

Brown bread,

Brown broad ice cream,

Butter sauce,

Cabbage,
  Minced,
  salad,

Cabinet pudding,

_Café au lait_,

CAKE,
  Ames,
  Angel,
  Black,
  Caramel frosting for,
  Chocolate,
    _eclairs,_
    icing,
  Composition,
  Cookies,
  Corn,
    Raised
    Thin
  Demon
  Dominoes
  _Éclairs,_
  Federal,
  Frosting for
  Gingerbread, Canada
    Fairy
    Hard
    Soft
  Gold
  Golden frosting for
  Hermits,
  Jelly roll,
  Jumbles,
  Lady-fingers,
  Lady's,
  Loaf,
  Marking in gold,
  Molasses pound,
  Nut,
  Orange,
  Plum, kneaded,
  Queen's,
  Railroad,
  Regatta,
  Ribbon,
  Rice,
  Seed cakes,
  Shrewsbury cakes,
  Silver,
  Snow-flake,
  Sponge,
    drops,
    for charlotte russe,
    rusks,
  Sunshine,
  Taylor,
  Vanilla _eclairs_,
  Viennois,
  Wedding,
  White fruit,

Calf's foot jelly,

Canapees,

Caper sauce,

Caramel,
  frosting,
  ice cream,

CARE OF FOOD,

Cauliflower,
  Escaloped
  Pickled
  salad,
  with cream sauce,

Celery,
  salad,
  sauce,
  soap,
  stewed in stock,
  with cream sauce,

Champagne sauce,

Charlotte russe,

_Chartreuse_ of chicken,
  of chicken and macaroni,
  of oysters,
  of vegetables and game,

Cheese _soufflé,_
  soup,

Cherries, Preserved

Chestnut sauce,

Chickens,
  _à la matelote,_
  _à la reine,_
  _à la Tartare,_
  Blanquette of
  Broiled
  _Chartreuse_ of
  _chaud-froid,_
  croquettes,
  curry,
  cutlets,
  fillets,
  force-meat,
  Fried
  fritters,
  in jelly,
  livers and bacon,
      in _papillotes_,
      _sauté_,
  patties,
  pie,
  pillau,
  Potted
  _quenelles_,
  Roasted
  salad,
  _soufflé_,
  stew with dumplings,
  _Vol-au-vent of_

Chicory,

Chocolate,
  Bavarian cream,
  "blanc" mange,
  cake,
  _éclairs_,
  ice cream,
  icing,
  pie,
  pudding,
  _soufflé_,
  To scrape
  whips,

Chops, Broiled mutton

Chowder, Corn
  Fish

Cider apple jelly,

Cider jelly,

Clam fritters,

Clams,

Cocoa,
  To make

Cocoanut ice cream,

Cod,
  in purée of potatoes,
  _Matelote_ of
  To cook salt
  with lobster sauce, Boiled

Coffee,
  Boiled
  _Café au lait_,
  Filtered
  Steamed
  Vienna

Coffee Bavarian cream,
  ice cream,
  jelly,

Composition cake,

Consommé,

_Consommé à la royal_,

Cookies,

Corn,
  cake,
  chowder,
  oysters,
  pie,
  pudding,
  soup,

Court-bouillon,

Crab-apple jelly,

Crab-apples, Preserved

Crabs,

Cream _à la Versailles_,
  fritters,
  méringue,
  of barley soup,
  of celery soup,
  of rice soup,
  of tartar,
  salad dressing,
  sauces,
  To whip

Croquettes, Chicken
  Lobster
  Oyster
  Potato
  Rice
  Rice and meat
  Royal
  Salmon
  Shad roe

_Crôustade_, Oyster
  To make a

Crumbs, To fry (under Bread Sauce)

Crust patties,

Cucumber salad,

Cucumbers,
  Pickled

Currant jelly,
  jelly sauce,
  sherbet,

Currants, English
  Preserved
  Spiced

Curry, of chicken,
  of lobster,
  of veal,

Cusk,
  _à la crème_,

Custard _soufflé_,

Custards, Soft,
  Soft caramel,

Cutlets, _à la duchesse_,
  Game, _à la royale_,
  Lobster,
  Mutton,
  served _in papillotes_,
  Veal,

Damsons, Preserved,

Dandelions,

Danish pudding,

Date pudding,

Demon cake,

DESSERT.
  Apple charlotte,
  Bavarian creams,
  _Biscuit Glacé_,
  Blanc-mange,
  _Bombe Glacée_,
  Brier Hill Dessert,
  Charlotte russe,
  Chocolate whips,
  Cream _à la versailles_,
  Cream méringues,
  Fanchonettes,
  Frozen apricots,
    peaches,
    pudding,
    raspberries,
    strawberries,
  _Fruit Glacé_,
  _Gâteau St. Honoré_,
  _Glacé Méringue_,
  Ice Cream,
  Jellies,
  Kisses,
  Kiss wafers,
  Nesselrode pudding,
  Richmond maids of honor,
  Royal cream,
  Sherbets,
  Soft custards,
  _Soufflé_, Chocolate,
    Omelet, _à la crème_,
    Omelet, _à la poête_,
    Orange,
    Surprise,
  Sponges,

Directions for freezing,

Dominos,

Down East pudding,

Dressings for salads,

DRINKS,
  Chocolate,
  Cocoa,
  Coffee,
  Lemonade,
  Shells,
  Tea,

Duchess soup,

Duck,
  Roasted,

Dumplings,

_Éclairs_,
  Chocolate,
  Vanilla,

ECONOMICAL DISHES.
  Barley stew,
  Beef stew,
  Calf's liver, Braised,
  Cold meats with purée of potato,
  Curry of cold meats,
  Dumplings,
  Escaloped meat,
  Shepherd's pies,

Eels,
  _à la Tartare_,
  Stewed,

Egg balls for soups,
  plant, Fried,
  sauce,

EGGS, _brouillé_,
  Creamed,
  Dropped,
  Hard-boiled,
  Omelets,
  Poached,
  Scotch,
  Scrambled,
  Soft-boiled,
  Spanish,
  Stuffed,
  _sur la plat_,

Endive,

English currants, To clean,

ENTREES.
  Alamode beef,
  Beef olives,
  Beef roulette,
  Blanquette of chicken,
     of veal and ham,
  Braised tongue,
  Cannelon of beef,
  _Chartreuse_ of chicken,
     of chicken and macaroni,
     of vegetable and game,
  Cheese _soufflé_,
  Chicken, _chaud-froid_,
     Curry of
     fillet, Braised
     Fried
     in jelly,
     pie,
     pillau,
     _quenelles_,
     _soufflé_,
  Cold game pie,
  Croquettes,
  _Crôustade_, To make a
  Cutlets,
  Escaloped tongue,
  Fillets,
  Fricandelles of veal,
  Fritters,
  Galatine of turkey,
    of veal,
  Lambs' tongues in jelly,
  Macaronied beef,
  Ox-tails,
  Pancakes,
  Pasties of game and poultry,
  _Pâté de fois gras_,
  Patties,
  Potato border,
  Ragouts of mutton and veal,
  Rice border,
  Rissoles,
  Salmis of game,
  Stewed lambs' tongues,
  Stewed steak with oysters,
  Sweetbreads,
  Tongue in jelly,
  Veal, Curry of
    olives,
    _quenelles_,
  _Vol-au-vents_,

Eve's pudding,

Fanchonettes,

Federal cake,

Fig ice cream,
  pudding,

Fillet of beef,
  of chicken,
  of tongue,
  of veal,
  To remove a

FISH,
  See "Marketing" in Index.
  _à la vinaigrette_,
  _au gratin_,
  Baked,
  balls,
  Boiled
    cod with lobster sauce,
    Court-bouillon,
    haddock with lobster sauce,
  Broiled
    halibut,
  chowder,
  Crabs,
  Cusk _à la crème_,
  Eels,
  Escaloped
  force-meat,
  Fried
  Lobsters,
  _Matelots_ of cod,
  Oysters,
  salad,
  Salmon,
  Salt cod in purée of potato,
    To cook
  Salt fish _soufflé_,
    with dropped eggs,
  Sauces for
  Smelts,
  Stewed
  Terrapins, stewed,
  Turbot _à la crème_,

Flannel cakes,

Flemish sauce,

Flounders,

Flour,

FOOD, CARE OF

Force-meat, Chicken
  Fish,
  for game,
  Ham
  Veal

Fowl,
  Boiled, with macaroni,
  with pork,

French dressing for salads,
  paste for soups,

Fricandeau of veal,

Fricandelles of veal,

Fritters, Apple
  Batter for
  Chicken
  Clam
  Cream
  Fruit
  Meat
  Oyster
  Potato

Frosting,
  Caramel
  Chocolate
  Golden

Frozen
  apricots,
  cabinet puddings,
  peaches,
  pudding,
  raspberries,
  strawberries,

Fruit cake, White

_Fruit glacé_,

Frying,

GAME,
  cutlets, _à la royale_,
  Force-meat for
  Goose, roasted,
  Grouse, larded,
  Partridges, larded,
  pie,
  Pigeons, broiled,
    in jelly,
    potted,
  Quail, broiled,
    larded,
  Rabbit, Curry of
    roasted,
  Salmis of
  Small birds, broiled,
    roasted,
  Venison, Roast leg of
    Saddle of

Garnishes.
  Jelly border,
  Lemon points,
  Marinade, Cold
  Marinade for fish,

_Gâteau St. Honoré_,

Geese,

Gems,

German puffs,

Giblet soup,

Gingerbread, Canada
  Fairy
  Hard
  Soft

_Glacé méringue_,

Glaze,

Gold cake,

Golden frosting,

Goose, Roasted

Graham,
  bread,
  muffins,

Grape jelly,

Grapes, Preserved

Green turtle soup,

Griddle-cakes,
  Graham
  Hominy
  Indian
  Squash

GROCERIES,
  Baking powder,
  Cracked wheat,
  Cream of tartar,
  English currants,
  Flour,
  Graham,
  Hominy,
  Meal, Indian
    Oat
    Rye
    Raisins,
    Soda,
    Spices,
    Sugar,
    Sundries,

Grouse,
  soup,
  larded,

Haddock,
  with lobster sauce,

Halibut,
  Broiled
  with _maître d'hôtel_ butter,

Ham and eggs on toast,
  Blanquette of veal and
  Boiled
  croquettes,
  force-meat,
  Potted
  Roasted

Haricot of ox-tails,

Hash,

Hearts,

Herbs sauce,
  Sweet
  To make a bouquet of

Hermits,

Hollandaise sauce,

Hominy,
  drop cakes,
  muffins,

Hot cabbage sald,

How to blanch almonds,
  to boil sugar,
  to braise,
  to clean and truss poultry,
  to clean English currants,
  to corn beef,
  to fry,
  to fry crumbs, (under Bread Sauce)
  to fry parsley,
  to get onion juice,
  to lard,
  to make a bouquet of sweet herbs,
  to make and use a pastry bag,
  to make paper cases,
  to make spinach green,
  to open lobsters,
  to remove jellies and creams from moulds,
  to scrape chocolate,
  to serve,
  to stew,
  to use the salamander,
  to whip cream,

Ice cream,
  Almond,
  Apricot,
  Banana,
  Brown bread,
  Caramel,
  Chocolate,
  Cocoanut,
  Coffee,
  Directions for freezing,
  Fig,
  Lemon,
  Macaroon,
  Orange,
  Peach,
  Pineapple,
  Pistachio,
  Raspberry,
  Strawberry,
  Vanilla,
  Walnut,

Icing, Chocolate

Indian and apple pudding,
  meal,
  pudding, Delicate

Irish stew,

Jelly,
  Aspic,
  Barberry
  border,
  Calf's foot
  Cider
  Cider apple
  Coffee
  Crab-apple
  Currant
  Grape
  Lemon
  Orange
  Pineapple
  roll,
  Strawberry
  Wine

Jenny Lind pudding,

Jumbles,

Ketchup, Barberry
  Tomato

Kidneys,
  _à la maître d'hôtel_,
  Broiled
  _sauté_,
  Stewed

Kisses,

Kiss wafers,

KITCHEN FURNISHING,
  Gas and oil stoves,
  Refrigerators,
  Stoves and ranges,
  Utensils,

Lady fingers,

Lady's cake,

Lake shad,

Lamb,
  Boiled,
  Braise breast of,
  Leg of, _à la française_,
  tongue in jelly,
  tongue, Stewed,

Larding,

Lemon diplomatic pudding,
  ice cream,
  jelly,
  pie,
  points,
  sherbet,
  sponge,

Lettuce,
  salad,

Little pigs in blankets,

Liver,
  and bacon,
  Braised calf's,
  Broiled,
  Curry of,
  fried in crumbs,
  _sauté_,
  _sauté_, with piquant sauce,

Loaf cake,

LOBSTER,
  Breaded,
  Broiled,
  broiled in the shell,
  Canned,
  croquettes,
  Curry of,
  cutlets,
  Devilled, in the shell,
  Escaloped,
  patties,
  Potted,
  salad,
  sauce,
  soup,
  Stewed,
  To open a,
  _Vol-au-vent of_,

Macaroni, _à l'Italienne_,
  Boiled,
  _Chartreuse_ of chicken and,
  in gravy,
  with cheese,
  with cream sauce,
  with tomato sauce,

Macaroon ice cream,

Mackerel,

Mackerel, _Continued._,
  Potted,

_Maître d'hôtel_ butter,
  sauce,

Mangoes, Pickled,

Marbled veal,

Marinades,

MARKETING,
  Beef,
    As to choosing it,
    Fore-quarter,
    Hearts,
    Hind-quarter,
    Kidneys,
    Liver,
    Porter-house steak,
    Quality and cost,
    Rattle-ran,
    Ribs,
    Round steak,
    Rump steak,
    Sirloin,
    Sirloin steak,
    Tenderloin steak,
    The rump,
    Tongues,


 Fish,
    Bass,
    Black-fish, or tautog,
    Blue-fish,
    Clams,
    Cod,
    Crabs,
    Cusk,
    Eels,
    Flounders,
    Haddock,
    Halibut,
    Lake shad,
    Lobster,
    Mackerel,
    Mullet,
    Oysters,
    Pollock,
    Salmon,
    Scollops,
    Shad,
    Shrimp,
    Small, or pan-fish,
    Smelts,
    Sturgeon,
    Sword-fish,
    Tautog,
    Terrapin,
    Turbot,
    Weak-fish,
    White-fish, or lake shad,
  Lamb,
    Kidneys,
    Tongues,
  Mutton,
    Chops and cutlets.
    Fore-quarter,
    Hind-quarter,
    Leg,
    Loin,
    Prices,
  Pork,
    Kidneys,
    Liver,
    Sausages,
  Poultry and Game,
    Chickens,
    Ducks,
    Fowl,
    Geese,
    Grouse, or prairie chicken,
    Partridges,
    Pigeons,
    Quail,
    Squabs,
    Turkeys,
    Venison,
    Woodcock,
  Veal,
  Vegetables,
    Artichokes,
    Asparagus,
    Beans,
    Cauliflower,
    Celery,
    Chicory, or endive,
    Corn,
    Cucumbers,
    Dandelions,
    Endive,
    Lettuce,
    Mushrooms,
    Radishes,
    Spinach,
    Sweet herbs,
    Tomatoes,
    When in season,

Marking cakes in gold,

Mayonnaise dressings,

Meal, Indian
  Oat
  Rye

Meat and fish sauces.
  and potato salad,
  Cold, with purée of potato.
  Escaloped

MEATS,
  Boiling,
    Cornedbeef,
    Ham,
    Lamb,
    Leg of mutton,
    Tongues,
  Broiling,
    Beefsteak,
    Mutton chops,
  Roasting,
    Beef, with Yorkshire pudding
    Fillet of veal,
    Ham,
    in the oven,
    Rolled rib,
  Miscellaneous modes,
    Beef stew,
    Braised beef,
    Braised breast of lamb,
    Fricandeau of veal,
    Irish stew,
    Leg of lamb, _à la française_,
    Scotch roll,
    Toad in the hole,

Meg Merrilies' soup,

Melon, Sweet

Minced veal and eggs,

Mince-pie meat,

Mock bisque soup,

Molasses pound cake,

Muffins,
  Corn,
  English,
  Fried Indian,
  Graham,
  Hominy,
  Raised,
  Rice,
  Rye,

Mullet,

Mulligatawny soups,

Mushrooms,

Mutton.
  See "Marketing" in Index.
  chops, broiled,
  cutlets,
  Leg of boiled,
  Ragout of
  _réchauffé_

Nesselrode pudding,

Nut cake,

Oatmeal,

Okra, escaloped, with tomatoes,
  soups,
  stewed,
  stewed, with tomatoes,

Olives, Beef,
  sauce,
  Veal,

OMELETS,
  Baked,
  Cheese,
  Chicken,
  Corn,
  Fish,
  Ham,
  Jelly,
  Plain,
  Quaker,
  Savory,
  _Soufflé à la crème_,
  _Soufflé a la poête_,

Onions, Baked,
  soup,
  Stuffed,
  To get juice of,

Orange
  Bavarian cream,
  cake,
  diplomatic pudding
  ice cream,
  jelly,
  marmalade,
  pie,
  pudding,
  sherbet,
  _soufflé_,
  sponge,

Oranges, Preserved sour,

Ox tails, _à la Tartare_,
  Haricot of,
  Stewed,

OYSTERS,
  _Chartreuse_ of,
  Creamed,
  Croquettes,
  _Crôustade_ of,
  Escaloped,
  Fricasseed,
  Fritters,
  in escalop shells,
  Little pigs in blankets,
  on a block of ice,
  on the half shell,
  panned in the shell,
  panned in their own liquor,
  Patties,
  Pickled,
  roasted in the shell,
  roasted, on toast,
  Salad,
  Sauces,
  _Sauté_,
  _Vol-au-vent of_,

Pancakes,

Pan-fish,

Paper cases, To make,

Parsley, To fry,

Parsnip balls,
  Escaloped,
  fried in butter,
  fried in molasses,

Partridges,
  Larded,

Paste, Chopped,
  French, for pies,
  French, for soups,
  Puff,

Pasties of game and poultry,

Pastry bag, To make and use a,

_Pâté de foie gras_

Patties,
  Chicken,
  Crust,
  Lobster,
  Oyster,
  Veal,

Peach,
  Bavarian cream,
  ice cream,
  méringue pudding,
  pudding,
  sponge,

Peaches,
  Brandied,
  Frozen,
  Pickled,
  Preserved,

Pears,
  Pickled,
  Preserved,

Pea soup, Green,

Peas, _à la française,_
  when in season,

Peppers, Stuffed,

Philadelphia clam soup,

PICKLED,
  blueberries,
  cauliflower,
  Chopped pickle,
  cucumbers,
  mangoes,
  oysters,
  peaches, pears and sweet apples,
  Spiced currants,
  Spiced plums,
  Stuffed peppers,
  Sweet melons,
  Sweet tomato,
  tomatoes,

PIES,
  Chicken,
  Chocolate,
  Cold game,
  Corn,
  How to make,
  Lemon,
  Orange,
  Shepherd's,
  Squash,
  Sweet potato,

Pigeons,
  Broiled,
  in jelly,
  Potted,

Pineapple
  Bavarian cream,
  ice cream,
  jelly,
  Preserved,
  sherbet,
  sponge,

Piquant sauce,

Pistachio ice cream,

Plum cake,
  Kneaded,
  pudding,

Plums,
  Preserved,
  Spiced,

Polish salad,
  sauce,

Pollock,

Pork, see "Marketing" in Index.,

Port wine sauce,

_Potage à la reine_,

Potatoes,
  _à la maître d'hôtel,
  à la Parisienne,
  à la royale,
  à l'Italienne_,
  baked with roast beef,
  balls, fried in butter,
  Boiled,
  borders,
  Broiled,
  Creamed,
  croquettes,
  Duchess,
  Escaloped,
  Fried,
  fritters,
  Housekeeper's,
  Lyonnaise,
  Mashed,
  puffs,
  Purée of,
  Riced,
  Salad,
  _soufflé_,
  soup,
  Stewed,
  Sweet,
  when in season,

POTTING,
  beef,
  chickens,
  fish,
  ham,
  lobsters,
  mackerel,
  smelts,
  tongue,
  veal,

POULTRY,
  See "Marketing" in Index.
  Chicken _à la matelote,
    à la reine,
    à la Tartare_,
    Broiled,
    Roasted,
    stew with dumplings,
  Duck, Roasted,
  Fowl and pork,
  Fowl and pork,
    boiled with macaroni,
  Goose, Roasted,
  To clean and truss,
  Turkey, Boiled,
    Boiled, with celery,
    Boned,
    Roasted, with chestnut stuffing and sauce,

Pound cake, Molasses,

Prairie chickens,

PRESERVING,
  Apple ganger,
  Barberry jelly,
  blackberries,
  Brandied peaches,
  cherries,
  Cider apple jelly,
  crab-apples,
  Crab-apple jelly,
  currants,
  Currant Jelly
  damsons,
  grapes,
  Grape jelly,
  Orange marmalade,
  peaches,
  pears,
  pineapple,
  pineapple, grated
  plums,
  quinces,
  Quince marmalade,
  raspberries,
  Raspberry jam,
  sour oranges,
  strawberries,
  Strawberry jam,
  whortleberries,

PUDDINGS.
  Cold.
    Almond,
    Apple méringue,
    Apple porcupine,
    Bird's nest,
    Black,
    Danish,
    Frozen,
    Frozen cabinet,
    Jenny Lind,
    Lemon diplomatic,
    Nesselrode,
    Orange,
    Orange diplomatic,
    Peach,
    Peach méringue,
    Princess,
    Quince iced,
    Royal,
    Royal diplomatic,
    Tapioca,
  Hot.
    Amber,
    Amherst,
    Apple and rice,
    Apple _soufflé_
    Apple tapioca,
    Baked apple,
    Batter and fruit,
    Cabinet,
    Chocolate,
    Chocolate roll,
    Corn,
    Custard _soufflé_
    Date,
    Delicate Indian,
    Down East,
    Dutch apple,
    English plum,
    Eve's,
    Fig,
    German puffs,
    Ground rice,
    Indian and apple,
    Rachel,
    Rice,
    Yorkshire,
  Sauces.
    Apricot,
    Caramel,
    Cream,
    Creamy,
    Foaming,
    German,
    Lemon,
    Molasses,
    Quince,
    Rich wine,
    Vanilla,

Puff paste,

Pumpkin soup,

Quail,
  Broiled,
  Larded,

Queen's cake,

_Quenelles_, Chicken,
  breaded,
  stuffed,
  Veal,

Quince iced pudding,
  marmalade,

Quinces, preserved,

Rabbit, curry of,
  Roasted,

Rachel pudding,

Radishes,

Ragout of mutton,
  of veal,

Railroad cake,

Raisins,

Ranges and stoves,

Raspberry ice cream,
  jam,
  sherbet,

Raspberries, frozen,
  Preserved,

Red vegetable salad,

Refrigerators,

Regatta cake,

Ribbon cake,

Rice, Boiled,
  border,
  cake,
  croquettes,
  muffins,
  pudding,

Richmond maids of honor,

Rissoles,

Roasting meats,

Robert sauce,

Rolled rib roast,

Royal cream,
  croquettes,
  diplomatic pudding,
  pudding,

Rusks, Sponge,

Rye meal,
  muffins,

SALAD DRESSING,
  Bacon,
  Boiled,
  Cream,
  French,
  made at the table,
  made with butter,
  Mayonnaise,
    Aspic,
    Green,
    Red,
  Sardine,
  Sour cream,
  without oil,

SALADS,
  Asparagus,
  Asparagus and salmon,
  Beef,
  Bouquet,
  Cabbage,
  Cauliflower,
  Celery,
  Chicken,
  Cucumber,
  Fish,
  Hot cabbage,
  Lettuce,
  Lobster,
  Meat and Potato,
  Oyster,
  Polish,
  Potato,
  Red vegetable,
  Salmon,
  Sardine,
  Shad roe,
  Tomato,
  Vegetable,

Salamander, To use a,

Sally Lunn,

Salmon,
  croquettes,
  salad,
  _Vol-au-vent_ of,

Sandwiches, Meat and potato,

Sardine dressing,
  salad,

SAUCES,
  Meat and fish,
    Allemande,
    Anchovy,
    Bechamel,
    _Beurre noir_,
    Bread,
    Brown,
    Butter,
    Caper,
    Celery,
    Champagne,
    Chestnut,
    Cream,
    Cream Bechamel,
    Currant jelly,
    Curry,
    Egg,
    Fine herbs,
    Flemish,
    _Hollandaise_,
    Lobster,
    _Maître d'hôtel_ butter
      sauce,
    Mushroom, Brown
      White,
    Mustard,
    Olive,
    Oyster,
    Piquant,
    Polish,
    Port wine,
    Robert,
    Shrimp,
    Supreme,
    Tartare,
    Tomato,
    Vinaigrette,
    White,
  Pudding,
    Apricot,
    Caramel,
    Cream,
    Creamy,
    Foaming,
    German,
    Lemon,
    Molasses,
    Quince,
    Rich wine,
    Vanilla,

Sausages,
  Breaded,

Scallops,

Scotch broth,

Scotch roll,

Seed cakes,

Serving, Hints on,

Shad,

Shad roe croquettes,
  salad,

Shell beans,

Shells,

Shepherd's pies,

Sherbet,
  Currant,
  Lemon,
  Orange,
  Pineapple,
  Raspberry,
  Strawberry,

Shrewsbury cakes,

Shrimp,
  sauce,

Silver cake,

Smelts,
  _à la Tartare_,
  as a garnish,
  Potted,

Snow-flake cake,

Snow pancakes,

Soda,

SOUPS,
  Asparagus,
  Black bean,
  Bouillon,
  Cheese,
  Consommé,
  _Consommé à la royal_,
  Corn,
  Corn chowder,
  Cream of barley,
    of celery,
    of rice,
  Duchess,
  Egg balls for,
  Fish chowder,
  French paste for,
  Fried bread for,
  Giblet,
  Glaze for,
  Green pea,
  Green turtle,
  Grouse,
  Lobster, with milk,
    with stock,
  Meg Merrillies',
  Mixed stock,
  Mock bisque,
  Mulligatawny,
  Okra,
  Onion,
  Philadelphia clam,
  _Potage à la reine_,
  Potato,
  Pumpkin,
  Scotch broth,
  Spring,
  Spring and Summer,
  Stock for clear,
  Tapioca cream,
  Thick vegetable,
  Tomato,
  White stock,
  Yacht oyster,

Sour cream dressing,

Spices,

Spinach,
  green, To make,
  Minced,

Spongecake,
  for charlotte russe,
  drops,
  rusks,

Sponges,
  Lemon,
  Orange,
  Peach,
  Pineapple,
  Strawberry,

Spring soup,

Spring and Summer soup,

Squabs,

Squash
  biscuit,
  pie,

Squashes, when in season,

Steak, stewed with oysters,

Steaks,
  Broiling

Stew, Beef
  Irish

Stewing,

Sticks,

Stock, for clear soups,
  Mixed,
  Remarks on,
  White,

Stoves and ranges,

Strawberry Bavarian cream,
  ice cream,
  jam,
  jelly,
  sherbet,
  short-cake,
  sponge,

Strawberries,
  Frozen,
  Preserved,

Sturgeon,

Sugar,
  To boil

Sunshine cake,

Supreme sauce,

Surprise _soufflé_,

Sweetbreads,
  Breaded,
  Broiled,
  in paper cases,
  larded and baked,
  _sauté_,
  To clean
  _Vol-au-vent_ of

Sweet herbs,
  To make a bouquet of

Sweet potatoes,

Sweet potato pie,

Swiss pudding,

Sword-fish,

Tapioca cream soup,
  pudding, Cold

Tartare sauce,

Tautog,

Taylor cake,

Tea,

Terrapin,
  Stewed

Toad in the hole,

Togus bread,

Tomato ketchup,
  salad,
  sauce,
  soup,

Tomatoes,
  Broiled,
  Escaloped,
  Fried,
  Pickled,
  Stuffed,
  Sweet,
  To peel,

Tongue,
  Boiled,
  Braised,
  Escaloped,
  Fillets of,
  in jelly,
  Potted,
  Stewed,

Tripe, Lyonnaise,

Turbot,
  _à la crème,_

Turkeys,

Turkey, Boiled,
  Boned,
  Galatine of,
  Roasted,

Utensils, Kitchen,

Vanilla _éclairs,_
  ice cream,

VEAL,
  and ham, Blanquette of,
  Curry of,
  cutlets, with white sauce,
  force-meat,
  Fricandeau of,
  Fricandelles of,
  Galatine of,
  Marbled,
  olives,
  patties,
  _quenelles,_
  Ragout of,
  Roasted fillet of,

VEGETABLES,
  See "Marketing" in Index.
  Asparagus with cream,
  Baked beans,
  Cabbage, Minced,
  Cauliflowers,
  Celery,
  Corn oysters,
    pudding,
  Egg plant, Fried
  Green peas, _à la française,_
  Macaroni,
  Okra,
  Onions,
  Parsnips,
  Pickled beets,
  Potatoes,
  Rice, Boiled
  salad,
  soup,
  Spinach,
  Time table for cooking,
  Tomatoes,

Viennois cakes,

Venison,
  Roast leg of,
  Saddle of,

Vinaigrette sauce,

_Vol-au-vent_ of chicken,
  of lobster,
  of oysters,
  of salmon,
  of sweetbreads,

Waffles,
  Indian,
  Raised,
  Rice,

Walnut ice cream,

Weak-fish,

Wedding cake,

Welch rare-bits,

Wheat, Cracked

White-fish,

White fruit cake,
  sauces.

Whortleberries,

Wine jelly,

Woodcock,

Yacht oyster soup,

Yeast,
  bread,

Yorkshire pudding,





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Written and maintained by
Ronald Hunter
           
  Copyright © Ronald Hunter, 2005. All rights reserved.
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