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The Jewish Manual;

OR

Practical Information in Jewish And Modern Cookery,

With a Collection of Valuable Recipes & Hints Relating to the
Toilette.



Edited by a Lady.



LONDON: 1846.




EDITOR'S PREFACE.

Among the numerous works on Culinary Science already in circulation,
there have been none which afford the slightest insight to the Cookery
of the Hebrew kitchen.

Replete as many of these are with information on various important
points, they are completely valueless to the Jewish housekeeper, not
only on account of prohibited articles and combinations being assumed
to be necessary ingredients of nearly every dish, but from the entire
absence of all the receipts peculiar to the Jewish people.

This deficiency, which has been so frequently the cause of
inconvenience and complaint, we have endeavoured in the present little
volume to supply. And in taking upon ourselves the responsibility of
introducing it to the notice of our readers, we have been actuated
by the hope that it will prove of some practical utility to those for
whose benefit it is more particularly designed.

It has been our earnest desire to simplify as much as possible the
directions given regarding the rudiments of the art, and to render the
receipts which follow, clear, easy, and concise. Our collection will
be found to contain all the best receipts, hitherto bequeathed only
by memory or manuscript, from one generation to another of the Jewish
nation, as well as those which come under the denomination of plain
English dishes; and also such French ones as are now in general use at
all refined modern tables.

A careful attention has been paid to accuracy and economy in the
proportions named, and the receipts may be perfectly depended upon, as
we have had the chief part of them tested in our own kitchen and under
our own _surveillance_.

All difficult and expensive modes of cookery have been purposely
omitted, as more properly belonging to the province of the
confectioner, and foreign to the intention of this little work; the
object of which is, to guide the young Jewish housekeeper in the
luxury and economy of "The Table," on which so much of the pleasure of
social intercourse depends.

The various acquirements, which in the present day are deemed
essential to female education, rarely leave much time or inclination
for the humble study of household affairs; and it not unfrequently
happens, that the mistress of a family understands little more
concerning the dinner table over which she presides, than the graceful
arrangement of the flowers which adorn it; thus she is incompetent to
direct her servant, upon whose inferior judgment and taste she is
obliged to depend. She is continually subjected to impositions from
her ignorance of what is required for the dishes she selects, while a
lavish extravagance, or parsimonious monotony betrays her utter
inexperience in all the minute yet indispensible details of elegant
hospitality.

However, there are happily so many highly accomplished and
intellectual women, whose example proves the compatability of uniting
the cultivation of talents with domestic pursuits, that it would be
superfluous and presumptuous were we here to urge the propriety and
importance of acquiring habits of usefulness and household knowledge,
further than to observe that it is the unfailing attribute of a
superior mind to turn its attention occasionally to the lesser objects
of life, aware how greatly they contribute to its harmony and its
happiness.

The _Cuisine_ of a woman of refinement, like her dress or her
furniture, is distinguished, not for its costliness and profusion, but
for a pervading air of graceful originality. She is quite sensible
of the regard due to the reigning fashion of the day, but her own
tasteful discrimination is always perceptible. She instinctively
avoids every thing that is hackneyed, vulgar, and common place,
and uniformly succeeds in pleasing by the judicious novelties she
introduces.

We hope, therefore, that this unpretending little work may not prove
wholly unacceptable, even to those ladies who are not of the Hebrew
persuasion, as it will serve as a sequel to the books on cookery
previously in their possession, and be the medium of presenting them
with numerous receipts for rare and exquisite compositions, which if
uncommemorated by the genius of Vatêl, Ude, or Carême, are delicious
enough not only to gratify the lovers of good cheer generally, but to
merit the unqualified approbation of the most fastidious epicures.

We ought, perhaps, to apologize for the apparent incongruity of
connecting the "Toilet" with the "Kitchen;" but the receipts and
suggestions comprised in the Second Part of the work before us,
will not, we trust, be considered misplaced in a volume addressed
exclusively to the ladies.

Many of the receipts are for articles in common use, but which, with
proper directions, are prepared with greater economy and in a superior
manner at home; the others are all original receipts, many of them
extremely ancient, and given to us by a person who can vouch for their
efficacy from personal experience and observation.

We must now conclude our preliminary remarks, but cannot take leave of
our patient readers without availing ourselves of the opportunity our
editorial capacity affords, to express our hope, that with all its
faults and deficiencies "The Jewish Manual" may prove to them a useful
assistant, and be fortunate enough to meet with their lenient, kind,
and favourable consideration.




CONTENTS.

       *       *       *       *       *

PART I.

INTRODUCTION.


MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS FOR THE USE OF THE COOK

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER I. SOUPS

CHAPTER II. SAUCES AND FORCEMEAT

CHAPTER III. FISH

CHAPTER IV. MEATS AND POULTRY COOKED IN VARIOUS WAYS

CHAPTER V. VEGETABLES, OMELETTES, FONDEAUX, CROQUETTES, RISOLES, &C.

CHAPTER VI. PASTRY

CHAPTER VII. SWEET DISHES, PUDDINGS, JELLIES, CREAMS, CHARLOTTES,
SOUFLES, GATEAUX, TRIFLES, CUSTARDS, CAKES, &C.

CHAPTER VIII. PRESERVES AND BOTTLING

CHAPTER IX. PICKLING

CHAPTER X. RECEIPTS FOR INVALIDS

APPENDIX


THE TOILETTE.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPTER I. THE COMPLEXION, &c., &c.

CHAPTER II. THE HAIR

CHAPTER III. THE TEETH

CHAPTER IV. THE HANDS AND NAILS

CHAPTER V. DRESS

CHAPTER VI. EFFECTS OF DIET ON THE COMPLEXION

CHAPTER VII. INFLUENCE OF THE MIND AS REGARDS BEAUTY




GLOSSARY.


_Aspie_, a term used for savoury jelly, in which cold poultry, meat,
&c., is often served.

_Bain-Marie_. This is a large pan filled with boiling water, in which
several saucepans can be placed when their contents are required to be
kept hot without boiling--this is a useful article in a kitchen, where
the manner in which sauces are prepared is considered deserving of
attention.

_Béchamel_, a superior kind of white sauce, used in French cookery.

_Blanquette_, a kind of fricassee with a white sauce.

_Bola-d'amour_, a very rich and expensive Spanish confection.

_Bolas_, a kind of rich cake or pudding.

_Cassereet_, a sauce prepared from the cassada, a West Indian
plant--it must be used with moderation.

_Casserole_, a name given to a crust formed of rice baked, and then
filled with mince, fricassee, or fruit.

_Chorissa_, a sausage peculiar to the Jewish kitchen, of delicate and
_piquante_ flavour.

_Consommé_, is a term now used for stock--it is a clear strong broth,
forming the basis of all soups, sauces, gravies, &c.

_Croquettes_ and _Risoles_; preparations of forcemeat, formed into
fancy shapes, and fried.

_Croutons_, sippets of bread or toast, to garnish hashes, salmis, &c.,
are so called.

_Doce_, a mixture of sugar with almonds _or_ cocoa-nut.

_Entrées_. These are side-dishes, for the first course, consisting
of cutlets, vol au vents, fricassees, fillets, sweetbreads, salmis,
scallops, &c., &c.

_Entremets_. These are side-dishes for the second course; they
comprise dressed vegetables, puddings, gateaux, pastries, fritters,
creams, jellies, timbales, &c.

_Farcie_, a French term for forcemeat; it is a mixture of savoury
ingredients, used for croquettes, balls, &c. Meat is by no means a
necessary ingredient, although the English word might seem to imply
the contrary.

_Fondeaux_, and Fondus, are savoury kinds of souflés.

_Fricandeaux_, a term for small well-trimmed pieces of meat, stewed in
various ways.

_Fricassee_. This is a name used for delicate stews, when the articles
are cut in pieces.

_Fricandelles_. These are very small fricandeaux, two or three of
which are served on one dish, and they sometimes also are delicate,
but highly-flavoured minces, formed into any approved shapes.

Flanks are large standing side-dishes.

_Gateaux_, is a kind of cake or pudding.

_Hors d'oeuvres._ These are light entrées in the first course; they
are sometimes called _assiettes_ volantes; they are handed during the
first course; they comprise anchovies, fish salads, patties of various
kinds, croquettes, risolles, maccaroni, &c.

_Maigre_, made without meat.

_Matso_, Passover cakes.

_Miroton_, a savoury preparation of veal or poultry, formed in a
mould.

_Nouilles_, a kind of vermicelli paste.

_Piqué_, a French term used to express the process of larding. The
French term is a preferable one, as it more clearly indicates what is
meant.

_Purée_ is a term given to a preparation of meat or vegetables,
reduced to a pulp, and mixed with any kind of sauce, to the
consistency of thick cream. _Purées_ of vegetables are much used in
modern cookery, to serve with cutlets, callops, &c.

_Ramekin_, a savoury and delicate preparation of cheese, generally
served in fringed paper cases.

_Releves_, or _Removes_, are top and bottom dishes, which replace the
soup and fish.

_Salmis_, a hash, only a superior kind, being more delicately
seasoned, and usually made of cold poultry.

_Souflés_, a term applied to a very light kind of pudding, made
with some farinaceous substance, and generally replaces the roast of a
second course.

_Timbale_, a shape of maccaroni or rice made in a mould.

_Vol-au-vent_. This is a sort of case, made of very rich puff paste,
filled with delicate fricassee of fish, meat, or poultry, or richly
stewed fruits.

_Vélouté_, an expensive white sauce.




OBSERVATIONS FOR THE USE OF THE COOK.


The receipts we have given are capable of being varied and modified by
an intelligent pains-taking cook, to suit the tastes of her employers.

Where _one_ receipt has been thought sufficient to convey the
necessary instruction for several dishes, &c., &c., it has not been
repeated for each respectively, which plan will tend to facilitate her
task.

We might, had we been inclined, have increased our collection
considerably by so doing, but have decided, from our own experience,
that it is preferable to give a limited number clearly and fully
explained, as these will always serve as guides and models for others
of the same kind.

The cook must remember it is not enough to have ascertained the
ingredients and quantities requisite, but great care and attention
must be paid to the manner of mixing them, and in watching their
progress when mixed and submitted to the fire.

The management of the oven and the fire deserve attention, and cannot
be regulated properly without practice and observation.

The art of seasoning is difficult and important.

Great judgment is required in blending the different spices or other
condiments, so that a fine flavour is produced without the undue
preponderance of either.

It is only in coarse cooking that the flavour of onions, pepper,
garlic, nutmeg, and eschalot is permitted to prevail. As a general
rule, salt should be used in moderation.

Sugar is an improvement in nearly all soups, sauces, and gravies; also
with stewed vegetables, but of course must be used with discretion.

Ketchups, Soy, Harvey's sauce, &c., are used too indiscrimately by
inferior cooks; it is better to leave them to be added at table by
those who approve of their flavour.

Any thing that is required to be warmed up a second time, should be
set in a basin placed in a _bain-marie_, or saucepan, filled with
boiling water, but which must not be allowed to boil; or the article
will become hardened and the sauce dried up.

To remove every particle of fat from the gravies of stews, &c., a
piece of white blotting-paper should be laid on the surface, and the
fat will adhere to it; this should be repeated two or three times.

It is important to keep saucepans well skimmed; the best prepared dish
will be spoiled by neglect on this point.

The difference between good and bad cookery is particularly
discernible in the preparation of forcemeats. A common cook is
satistified if she chops or minces the ingredients and moistens them
with an egg scarcely beaten, but this is a very crude and imperfect
method; they should be pounded together in a mortar until not a lump
or fibre is perceptible. Further directions will be given in the
proper place, but this is a rule which must be strictly attended to by
those who wish to attain any excellence in this branch of their art.

Eggs for forcemeats, and for every description of sweet dishes, should
be thoroughly beaten, and for the finer kinds should be passed through
a sieve.

A trustworthy zealous servant must keep in mind, that waste and
extravagance are no proofs of skill. On the contrary, GOOD COOKERY
is by no means expensive, as it makes the most of every thing, and
furnishes out of simple and economical materials, dishes which are at
once palatable and elegant.




CHAPTER I.


Soups.

STOCK OR CONSOMMÉ.

This is the basis of all kinds of soup and sauces. Shin of beef or
ox-cheek make excellent stock, although good gravy-beef is sometimes
preferred; the bones should always be broken, and the meat cut up, as
the juices are better extracted; it is advisable to put on, at first,
but very little water, and to add more when the first quantity is
nearly dried up. The time required for boiling depends upon the
quantity of meat; six pounds of meat will take about five hours; if
bones, the same quantity will require double the time.

Gravy beef with a knuckle of veal makes a fine and nutritious stock;
the stock for white soups should be prepared with veal or white
poultry. Very tolerable stock can be procured without purchasing meat
expressly for the purpose, by boiling down bones and the trimmings of
meat or poultry.

The liquor in which beef or mutton intended for the table has been
boiled, will also, with small additions and skilful flavoring, make an
excellent soup at a trifling expense.

To thicken soups, mix a little potatoe-flour, ground rice, or pounded
vermicelli, in a little water, till perfectly smooth; add a little of
the soup to it in a cup, until sufficiently thin, then pour it into
the rest and boil it up, to prevent the raw taste it would otherwise
have; the presence of the above ingredients should not be discovered,
and judgment and care are therefore requisite.

If colouring is necessary, a crust of bread stewed in the stock will
give a fine brown, or the common browning may be used; it is made in
the following manner:

Put one pound of coarse brown sugar in a stew-pan with a lump of
clarified suet; when it begins to froth, pour in a wine-glass of port
wine, half an ounce of black pepper, a little mace, four spoonsful
of ketchup or Harvey's sauce, a little salt, and the peel of a lemon
grated; boil all together, let it grow cold, when it must be skimmed
and bottled for use.

It may also be prepared as required, by putting a small piece of
clarified fat with one ounce of coarse sugar, in an iron spoon,
melting them together, and stirring in a little ketchup and pepper.

When good stock or consommé is prepared, it is very easy to form it
into any kind of soup or sauce that may be required.

       *       *       *       *       *

GRAVY SOUP.

Take about three quarts of any strong stock, seasoned with a bunch of
sweet herbs, a carrot, turnip, and a head of celery, which must not
be served in the soup. Vermicelli, maccaroni, or thin slices of carrot
and small sippets of fried bread cut in fancy shapes, are usually
served in this soup.

       *       *       *       *       *

MOCK TURTLE.

Half boil a well-cleaned calf's head, then cut off all the meat in
small square pieces, and break the bones; return it to the stew-pan,
with some good stock made of beef and veal; dredge in flour, add fried
shalot, pepper, parsley, tarragon, a little mushroom ketchup, and a
pint of white wine; simmer gently until the meat is perfectly soft and
tender. Balls of force-meat, and egg-balls, should be put in a
short time before serving; the juice of a lemon is considered an
improvement.

       *       *       *       *       *

MULIGATAWNY SOUP.

Take two chickens, cut them up small, as if for fricassee, flour
them well, put them in a saucepan with four onions shred, a piece of
clarified fat, pepper, salt, and two table spoonsful of curry powder;
let it simmer for an hour, then add three quarts of strong beef gravy,
and let it continue simmering for another hour; before sent to table
the juice of a lemon should be stirred in it; some persons approve of
a little rice being boiled with the stock, and a pinch of saffron is
also sometimes added.

       *       *       *       *       *

ENGLISH MULIGATAWNY.

Take a knuckle of veal, stew it till half done, then cut off the
greatest part of the meat, and continue to stew down the bone in
the stock, the meat must be cut into small pieces and fried with six
onions thinly sliced, and a table spoonful of curry powder, a desert
spoonful of cayenne pepper and salt, add the stock and let the whole
gently simmer for nearly an hour, flavouring it with a little Harvey's
sauce and lemon pickle.

       *       *       *       *       *

SOUP A LA JULIENNE.

Take a variety of vegetables: such as celery, carrots, turnips, leeks,
cauliflower, lettuce, and onions, cut them in shreds of small size,
place them in a stew-pan with a little fine salad oil, stew them
gently over the fire, adding weak broth from time to time; toast a
few slices of bread and cut them into pieces the size and shape of
shillings and crowns, soak them in the remainder of the broth, and
when the vegetables are well done add all together and let it simmer
for a few minutes; a lump of white sugar, with pepper and salt are
sufficient seasoning.

       *       *       *       *       *

SOUPE A LA TURQUE.

Make a good gravy from shin of beef, and cut up very small various
sorts of vegetables of whatever may be in season, add spices, pepper,
and salt; when it is all stewed well down together, set it to cool and
take off the fat, then place it again on the fire to boil, and add to
two quarts of soup, one quarter of a pound of rice, beat two yolks of
eggs with a little of the stock, and when the rice is quite tender,
stir them into the soup, taking the precaution not to let the soup
boil, and to stir always the same way.

       *       *       *       *       *

PEPPER POT.

Cut small pieces of any vegetables, and add pieces of smoked or salt
beef, and also of any cold poultry, roast beef or mutton, stew all
these together in two or three quarts of water, according to the
quantity of meat, &c. It must be seasoned highly with whole peppers,
allspice, mace, Jamaica pickles, and salt; it must be thoroughly
stewed, and served, without straining, in a tureen.

       *       *       *       *       *

POTATOE SOUP.

Grate a pound of fine potatoes in two quarts of water, add to it the
trimmings of any meat, amounting to about a pound in quantity, a cup
of rice, a few sweet herbs, and a head of celery, stew well till the
liquor is considerably reduced, then strain it through a sieve; if,
when strained, it is too thin and watery, add a little thickening; it
should be flavoured only with white pepper and salt.

       *       *       *       *       *

SOUP CRESSY.

Grate six carrots, and chop some onions with a lettuce, adding a few
sweet herbs, put them all into a stewpan, with enough of good broth
to moisten the whole, adding occasionally the remainder; when nearly
done, put in the crumb of a French roll, and when soaked, strain the
whole through a sieve, and serve hot in a tureen.

       *       *       *       *       *

CARROT SOUP.

Take a dozen carrots scraped clean, rasp them, but do not use the
core, two heads of celery, two onions thinly sliced, season to taste,
and pour over a good stock, say about two quarts, boil it, then pass
it through a sieve; it should be of the thickness of cream, return it
to the saucepan, boil it up and squeeze in a little lemon juice, or
add a little vinegar.

       *       *       *       *       *

PALESTINE SOUP.

Stew a knuckle of veal, and a calf's foot, and one pound of
_chorissa_, and a large fowl, in four quarts of water, add a piece of
fresh lemon peel, six Jerusalem artichokes, a bunch of sweet herbs,
a little salt and white pepper, and a little nutmeg, and a blade of
mace; when the fowl is thoroughly done, remove the white parts to
prepare for thickening, and let the rest continue stewing till the
stock is sufficiently strong, the white parts of the fowl must be
pounded and sprinkled with flower or ground rice, and stirred in the
soup after it has been strained, until it thickens.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SIMPLE WHITE SOUP.

Break a knuckle of veal, place it in a stewpan, also a piece of
_chorissa_, a carrot, two onions, three or four turnips, and a blade
of mace, pour over two or three quarts of water or weak broth,
season with salt, a sprig of parsley, and whole white pepper; when
sufficiently boiled, skim and strain it, and thicken with pounded
vermicelli.

       *       *       *       *       *

VERMICELLI SOUP.

Make a fine strong stock from the shin of beef, or any other part
preferred, and add, a short time before serving, a handful of
vermicelli, which should be broken, so that it may be in pieces of
convenient length, the stock should be more or less flavoured with
vegetables, and herbs, according to taste.

       *       *       *       *       *

MATSO SOUP.

Boil down half a shin of beef, four pounds of gravy beef, and a calf's
foot may be added, if approved, in three or four quarts of water;
season with celery, carrots, turnips, pepper and salt, and a bunch of
sweet herbs; let the whole stew gently for eight hours, then strain
and let it stand to get cold, when the fat must be removed, then
return it to the saucepan to warm up. Ten minutes before serving,
throw in the balls, from which the soup takes its name, and which are
made in the following manner:

Take half a pound of _matso_ flour, two ounces of chopped suet, season
with a little pepper, salt, ginger, and nutmeg; mix with this, four
beaten eggs, and make it into a paste, a small onion shred and browned
in a desert spoonful of oil is sometimes added; the paste should be
made into rather large balls, and care should be taken to make them
very light.

       *       *       *       *       *

TOMATA SOUP.

Take a dozen unpealed tomatas, with a bit of clarified suet, or a
little sweet oil, and a small Spanish onion; sprinkle with flour, and
season with salt and cayenne pepper, and boil them in a little gravy
or water; it must be stirred to prevent burning, then pass it through
a sieve, and thin it with rich stock to the consistency of winter
pea-soup; flavour it with lemon juice, according to taste, after it
has been warmed up and ready for serving.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALMONDEGOS SOUP: A SUPERIOR WHITE SOUP.

Put a knuckle of veal and a calf's foot into two quarts of water, with
a blade of mace and a bunch of sweet herbs, a turnip, a little white
pepper, and salt; when sufficiently done, strain and skim it, and
add balls of forced meat, and egg balls. A quarter of an hour before
serving beat up the yolks of four eggs with a desert spoonful of lemon
juice, and three ounces of sweet almonds blanched and beaten with a
spoonful of powdered white sugar. This mixture is to be stirred into
the soup till it thickens, taking care to prevent its curdling.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FINE VEGETABLE OR FRENCH SOUP.

Take two quarts of strong stock made of gravy beef, add to this,
carrots, turnips, leek, celery, brocoli, peas and French beans, all
cut as small as possible, add a few lumps of white sugar, pepper, and
salt, let it simmer till the vegetables are perfectly soft, and throw
in a few force-meat balls.

       *       *       *       *       *

ASPARAGUS SOUP.

Take eight pounds of gravy beef, with five pints of water, a few sweet
herbs, and an onion shred, with a little pepper and salt; when the
strength of the meat is sufficiently extracted, strain off the soup,
and add to it a bundle of asparagus, cut small, with a little chopped
parsley and mint; the asparagus should be thoroughly done. A few
minutes before serving, throw in some fried bread cut up the size
of dice; pound a little spinach to a pulp, and squeeze it through a
cloth, stir about a tea-cup full of this essence into the soup, let it
boil up after to prevent a raw taste.

       *       *       *       *       *

SOUP MAIGRE.

Chop three lettuces, a large handful of spinach, a little chervil, a
head of celery, two or three carrots, and four onions, put them on
the fire with half a pound of butter, and let them fry till slightly
browned, season with a little salt, sifted white sugar, and white
pepper, stew all gently in five pints of boiling water for about two
hours and a half, and just before serving the soup, thicken it with
the beaten yolks of four eggs, mixed first with a little of the soup,
and then stirred into the remainder.

       *       *       *       *       *

SUMMER PEA SOUP.

Take a peck of peas, separate the old from the young, boil the former
till they are quite tender in good stock, then pass them through a
sieve, and return them to the stock, add the young peas, a little
chopped lettuce, small pieces of cucumber fried to a light brown, a
little bit of mint, pepper, and salt; two or three lumps of sugar give
a fine flavor.

       *       *       *       *       *

WINTER PEA SOUP.

Soak a quart of white peas in water, boil them till soft, in as much
water as will cover them, pass them through a sieve, and add them to
any broth that may be ready, a little piece of _chorissa_ or smoked
beef will improve the flavour; this soup should be served with mint
and fried bread.

       *       *       *       *       *

GIBLET SOUP.

Add to a fine strong well-seasoned beef stock, of about three quarts,
two sets of giblets, which should be previously stewed separately in
one quart of water (the gizzards require scalding for some time before
they are put in with the rest); white pepper, salt, and the rind of
lemon should season them; when they are tender, add them with their
gravy to the stock, and boil for about ten minutes together, then stir
in a glass of white wine, a table spoonful of mushroom ketchup, and
the juice of half a lemon; it will require to be thickened with a
little flour browned; the giblets are served in the soup.

       *       *       *       *       *

BARLEY SOUP.

Put in a stew-pan, a knuckle of mutton, or four pounds of the neck,
with three quarts of water, boil it gently and keep it well skimmed;
a sprig of parsley, a couple of sliced turnips, a carrot, an onion or
more, if approved, with a little white pepper and salt, are sufficient
seasoning, a breakfast cup full of barley should be scalded and put in
the stew-pan with the meat, if when done, the soup is thin and watery,
a little prepared barley, mixed smoothly, should be stirred in.

       *       *       *       *       *

SOUP DE POISSON, OR FISH SOUP.

Make a good stock, by simmering a cod's-head in water, enough to cover
the fish; season it with pepper and salt, mace, celery, parsley, and
a few sweet herbs, with two or three onions, when sufficiently done,
strain it, and add cutlets of fish prepared in the following manner:
cut very small, well-trimmed cutlets from any fish, sole or brill are
perhaps best suited; stew them in equal quantities of water and wine,
but not more than will cover them, with a large lump of butter, and
the juice of a lemon; when they have stewed gently for about fifteen
or twenty minutes, add them to the soup, which thicken with cream and
flour, serve the soup with the cutlets in a tureen; force-meat balls
of cod's liver are sometimes added.

       *       *       *       *       *

OX TAIL SOUP.

Have two well cleaned tails and a neat's foot, cut them in small
joints and soak them in water, put them in a stew-pan with a large
piece of clarified suet or fat, and let them simmer for ten minutes,
then put to them between three and four quarts of cold water, four
onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, a carrot, a turnip, a head of celery,
and season with whole pepper, allspice, two or three cloves, and salt;
let it stew till the meat is tender enough to leave the bones, then
remove it from them, as the bones are unsightly in the soup; thicken
if necessary with browned flour, and just before serving, add a glass
or more of port wine, and a little mushroom ketchup.




CHAPTER II.


Sauces.

A RICH BROWN GRAVY.

Take a little good beef consommé, or stock, a small piece of smoked
beef, or _chorissa_, a lemon sliced, some chopped shalots, a couple
of onions shred, a bay leaf, two or three cloves, and a little oil;
simmer gently, and add a little minced parsley, and a few chopped
mushrooms: skim and strain.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAUCE PIQUANTE.

The above may be rendered a Sauce Piquante by substituting a little
vinegar, whole capers, allspice, and thyme, instead of the smoked
beef and lemon; a few onions and piccalilli chopped finely, is a great
addition when required to be very piquante.

A sauce like the above is very good to serve with beef that has been
boiled for broth.

       *       *       *       *       *

A GOOD GRAVY FOR ROAST FOWLS.

Take a little stock, squeeze in the juice of a lemon, add a little
mushroom powder, cayenne pepper and salt; thicken with flour.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANOTHER EXCELLENT RECEIPT.

Chop some mushrooms, young and fresh, salt them, and put them into a
saucepan with a little gravy, made of the trimmings of the fowl, or
of veal, a blade of mace, a little grated lemon peel, the juice of
one lemon; thicken with flour, and when ready to serve, stir in a
table-spoonful of white wine.

       *       *       *       *       *

EGG SAUCE: A FINE WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED CHICKENS, TURKEYS, OR WHITE
FRICASSEES.

Beat up the yolks of four eggs with the juice of a fine lemon, a
tea-spoonful of flour, and a little cold water, mix well together, and
set it on the fire to thicken, stirring it to prevent curdling. This
sauce will be found excellent, if not superior, in many cases where
English cooks use melted butter. If capers are substituted for the
lemon juice, this sauce will be found excellent for boiled lamb or
mutton.

       *       *       *       *       *

CELERY SAUCE.

Cut in small pieces from about four to five heads of celery, which if
not very young must be peeled, simmer it till tender in half a pint of
veal gravy, if intended for white sauce, then add a spoonful of flour,
the yolks of three eggs, white pepper, salt, and the juice of one
lemon, these should be previously mixed together with a little water
till perfectly smooth and thin, and be stirred in with the sauce;
cream, instead of eggs, is used in English kitchens.

       *       *       *       *       *

TOMATO SAUCE.

Skin a dozen fine tomatos, set them on the fire in a little water
or gravy, beat them up with a little vinegar, lemon juice, cayenne
pepper, and salt; some persons like the yolk of an egg, well beaten
added. Strain or not, as may be preferred.

       *       *       *       *       *

GRAVY FOR A FOWL, WHEN THERE IS NO STOCK TO MAKE IT WITH.

Take the feet, wash them, cut them small, also the neck and gizzard;
season them with pepper and salt, onion, and parsley, let them simmer
gently for some time, in about a breakfast-cup of water, then strain,
thicken with flour, and add a little browning, and if liked, a small
quantity of any store sauce at hand, and it will prove an excellent
sauce.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAVOURY JELLY, FOR COLD PIES, OR TO GARNISH COLD POULTRY.

Have a bare knuckle of veal, and a calf's foot or cow heel; put it
into a stew-pan with a thick slice of smoked beef, a few herbs, a
blade of mace, two or three onions, a little lemon peel, pepper
and salt, and three or four pints of water (the French add a little
tarragon vinegar). When it boils skim it, and when cold, if not clear,
boil it a few minutes with the white and shell of an egg, and pass it
through a jelly bag, this jelly with the juice of two or three lemons,
and poured into a mould, in which are put the yolks of eggs boiled
hard, forms a pretty supper dish.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FINE SAUCE FOR STEAKS.

Throw into a saucepan a piece of fat the size of an egg, with two
or three onions sliced, let them brown; add a little gravy, flour, a
little vinegar, a spoonful of mustard, and a little cayenne pepper,
boil it and serve with the steaks.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FISH SAUCE WITHOUT BUTTER.

Put on, in a small saucepan, a cup of water, well flavored with
vinegar, an onion chopped fine, a little rasped horse-radish, pepper,
and two or three cloves, and a couple of anchovies cut small, when it
has boiled, stir carefully in the beaten yolks of two eggs, and let it
thicken, until of the consistency of melted butter.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FINE FISH SAUCE.

One teacup full of walnut pickle, the same of mushroom ditto, three
anchovies pounded, one clove of garlic pounded, half a tea-spoonful of
cayenne pepper, all mixed well together, and bottled for use.

       *       *       *       *       *

A NICE SAUCE TO THROW OVER BROILED MEATS.

Beat up a little salad-oil with a table-spoonful of vinegar, mustard,
pepper and salt, and then stir in the yolk of an egg; this sauce
should be highly seasoned. A sauce of this description is sometimes
used to baste mutton while roasting, the meat should be scored in
different places to allow the sauce to penetrate.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAUCE FOR DUCKS.

A little good gravy, with a glass of port wine, the juice of a lemon,
highly seasoned with cayenne pepper.

       *       *       *       *       *

BREAD SAUCE.

Take a large onion and boil it, with a little pepper till quite soft,
in milk, then take it out, and pour the milk over grated stale bread,
then boil it up with a piece of butter, and dredge it with flour; it
should be well beaten up with a silver fork.

The above can be made without butter or milk: take a large onion,
slice it thin, put it into a little veal gravy, add grated bread,
pepper, &c., and the yolk and white of an egg well beaten.

       *       *       *       *       *

APPLE SAUCE FOR GOOSE.

Slice some apples, put them in a little water to simmer till soft,
beat them to a pulp; some consider a little powdered sugar an
improvement, but as the acid of the apples is reckoned a corrective to
the richness of the goose, it is usually preferred without.

       *       *       *       *       *

MINT SAUCE.

Mix vinegar with brown sugar, let it stand about an hour, then add
chopped mint, and stir together.

       *       *       *       *       *

ONION SAUCE.

Slice finely, and brown in a little oil, two or three onions; put them
in a little beef gravy, and add cayenne pepper, salt, and the juice of
a lemon. This is a nice sauce for steaks.

       *       *       *       *       *

OILED BUTTER.

Put some good butter into a cup or jar, and place it before the fire
till it becomes an oil, then pour it off, so that all sediment may be
avoided.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO DRAW GOOD GRAVY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cut some gravy beef into small pieces, put them in a jar, and set it
in a saucepan of cold water to boil gently for seven or eight hours,
adding, from time to time, more water as the original quantity boils
away. The gravy thus made will be the essence of the meat, and in
cases where nutriment is required in the smallest compass, will be
of great service. Soups are stronger when the meat is cut, and gravy
drawn before water is added.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRUFFLE SAUCE.

Peel and slice as many truffles as required, simmer them gently with
a little butter, when they are tender, add to them good white or brown
consommé, lemon juice, pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a very little white
wine.

       *       *       *       *       *

MUSHROOM SAUCE.

Take about a pint of fine young button mushrooms, let them stew gently
in a white veal gravy seasoned with salt, pepper, a blade of mace, and
if approved, the grated peel of half a lemon, it should be thickened
with flour and the yolk of an egg stirred in it, just before serving;
English cooks add cream to this sauce.

       *       *       *       *       *

SWEET SAUCE.

The usual way of making sauces for puddings, is by adding sugar
to melted butter, or thin egg sauce, flavoring it with white wine,
brandy, lemon peel, or any other flavor approved of.

       *       *       *       *       *

MELTED BUTTER.

Although this sauce is one of the most simple, it is very rarely that
it is well made. Mix with four ounces of butter, a desert spoonful
of flour, when well mixed, add three table spoonsful of water, put it
into a clean saucepan kept for the purpose, and stir it carefully
one way till it boils; white sauce to throw over vegetables served on
toast, is made in the same way, only putting milk and water, instead
of water only.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAUCE WITHOUT BUTTER FOR BOILED PUDDINGS.

Mix a table-spoonful of flour, with two of water, add a little wine,
lemon peel grated, a small bit of clarified suet, of the size of a
walnut, grated nutmeg, and sugar, put on in a saucepan, stirring one
way, and adding water if too thick, lemon juice, or essence of noyeau,
or almonds may be substituted to vary the flavour.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAUCE ROBERT FOR STEAKS.

Chop up some onions, throw them into a saucepan with a bit of
clarified fat, let them fry till brown, then add pepper, salt, a
little gravy, mustard, lemon juice, and vinegar; boil it all, and pour
over the steaks.

       *       *       *       *       *

CAPER SAUCE.

This is merely melted butter with a few pickled capers simmered in it,
or they may be put into a sauce made of broth thickened with egg, and
a little flour.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAVORY HERB POWDER.

It is useful to select a variety of herbs, so that they may always
be at hand for use: the following are considered to be an excellent
selection, parsley, savory, thyme, sweet majoram, shalot, chervil, and
sage, in equal quantities; dry these in the oven, pound them finely
and keep them in bottles well stopped.

       *       *       *       *       *

SEASONING FOR DUCKS AND GEESE.

Mix chopped onion with an equal quantity of chopped sage, three times
as much grated stale bread, a little shred suet, pepper, salt, and a
beaten egg to bind it, this is generally used for geese and ducks, the
onions are sometimes boiled first to render them less strong.

       *       *       *       *       *

ENGLISH EGG SAUCE.

Boil two eggs hard, chop them finely, and warm them up in finely made
melted butter, add a little white pepper, salt, a blade of mace, and a
very small quantity of nutmeg.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAUCE A LA TARTARE.

Mix the yolk of an egg with oil, vinegar, chopped parsley, mustard,
pepper, and salt; a spoonful of paté de diable or French mustard,
renders the sauce more piquante.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FINE SAUCE FOR ROAST MUTTON.

Mix a little port wine in some gravy, two table-spoonfuls of vinegar,
one of oil, a shalot minced, and a spoonful of mustard, just before
the mutton is served, pour the sauce over it, then sprinkle it with
fried bread crumbs, and then again baste the meat with the sauce; this
is a fine addition to the mutton.

       *       *       *       *       *

ASPARAGUS SAUCE, TO SERVE WITH LAMB CHOPS.

Cut some asparagus, or sprew, into half inch lengths, wash them, and
throw them into half a pint of gravy made from beef, veal, or mutton
thickened, and seasoned with salt, white pepper, and a lump of white
sugar, the chops should be delicately fried and the sauce served in
the centre of the dish.

       *       *       *       *       *

BROWN CUCUMBER SAUCE.

Peel and cut in thick slices, one or more fresh cucumbers, fry them
until brown in a little butter, or clarified fat, then add to them
a little strong beef gravy, pepper, salt, and a spoonful of vinegar;
some cooks add a chopped onion browned with the cucumbers.

       *       *       *       *       *

WHITE CUCUMBER SAUCE.

Take out the seeds of some fresh young cucumbers, quarter them, and
cut them into pieces of two inch lengths, let them lay for an hour in
vinegar and water, then simmer them till thoroughly soft, in a veal
broth seasoned with pepper, salt, and a little lemon juice; when ready
for serving, pour off the gravy and thicken it with the yolks of a
couple of eggs stirred in, add it to the saucepan; warm up, taking
care that it does not curdle.

       *       *       *       *       *

BROWNED FLOUR FOR MAKING SOUPS AND GRAVIES DARK AND THICK.

Spread flour on a tin, and place it in a Dutch oven before the fire,
or in a gentle oven till it browns; it must often be turned, that the
flour may be equally coloured throughout. A small quantity of this
prepared and laid by for use, will be found useful.

       *       *       *       *       *

BROWNED BREAD CRUMBS.

Grate into fine crumbs, about five or six ounces of stale bread,
and brown them in a gentle oven or before the fire; this is a more
delicate way of browning them than by frying.

       *       *       *       *       *

CRISPED PARSLEY.

Wash and drain a handful of fresh young sprigs of parsley, dry
them with a cloth, place them before the fire on a dish, turn them
frequently, and they will be perfectly crisp in ten minutes.

       *       *       *       *       *

FRIED PARSLEY.

When the parsley is prepared as above, fry it in butter or clarified
suet, then drain it on a cloth placed before the fire.

       *       *       *       *       *

BREAD CRUMBS FOR FRYING.

Cut slices of bread without crust, and dry them gradually in a cool
oven till quite dry and crisp, then roll them into fine crumbs, and
put them in a jar for use.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPINACH GREEN.

Pound to a pulp in a mortar a handful of spinach, and squeeze it
through a hair sieve; then put it into a cup or jar, and place it in
a basin of hot water for a few minutes, or it may be allowed to simmer
on the fire; a little of this stirred into spring soups, improve their
appearance.

       *       *       *       *       *

VELOUTÉ, BECHAMEL.

These preparations are so frequently mentioned in modern cookery, that
we shall give the receipts for them, although they are not appropriate
for the Jewish kitchen. Velouté is a fine white sauce, made by
reducing a certain quantity of well-flavoured consommé or stock,
over a charcoal fire, and mixing it with boiling cream, stirring it
carefully till it thickens.

Béchamel is another sort of fine white stock, thickened with cream,
there is more flavouring in this than the former, the stock is made of
veal, with some of the smoked meats used in English kitchens, butter,
mace, onion, mushrooms, bay leaf, nutmeg, and a little salt. An
excellent substitute for these sauces can in Jewish kitchens be made
in the following way:

Take some veal broth flavored with smoked beef, and the above named
seasonings, then beat up two or three yolks of eggs, with a little of
the stock and a spoonful of potatoe flour, stir this into the
broth, until it thickens, it will not be quite as white, but will be
excellent.

       *       *       *       *       *

FORCEMEAT OR FARCIE.

Under this head is included the various preparations used for balls,
tisoles, fritters, and stuffings for poultry and veal, it is a branch
of cooking which requires great care and judgment, the proportions
should be so blended as to produce a delicate, yet savoury flavor,
without allowing any particular herb or spice to predominate.

The ingredients should always be pounded well together in a mortar,
not merely chopped and moistened with egg, as is usually done by
inexperienced cooks; forcemeat can be served in a variety of forms,
and is so useful a resource, that it well repays the attention it
requires.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SUPERIOR FORCEMEAT FOR RISOLLES, FRITTERS, AND SAVORY MEAT BALLS.

Scrape half a pound of the fat of smoked beef, and a pound of lean
veal, free from skin, vein, or sinew, pound it finely in a mortar
with chopped mushrooms, a little minced parsley, salt and pepper,
and grated lemon peel, then have ready the crumb of two French rolls
soaked in good gravy, press out the moisture, and add the crumb to the
meat with three beaten eggs; if the forcemeat is required to be very
highly flavored, the gravy in which the rolls are soaked should be
seasoned with mushroom powder; a spoonful of ketchup, a bay leaf, an
onion, pepper, salt, and lemon juice, add this panada to the pounded
meat and eggs, form the mixture into any form required, and either fry
or warm in gravy, according to the dish for which it is intended.

Any cold meats pounded, seasoned, and made according to the above
method are excellent; the seasoning can be varied, or rendered simpler
if required.

       *       *       *       *       *

COMMON VEAL, STUFFING.

Have equal quantities of finely shred suet and grated crumbs of bread,
add chopped sweet herbs, grated lemon peel, pepper, and salt, pound it
in a mortar; this is also used for white poultry, with the addition
of a little grated smoked beef, or a piece of the root of a tongue
pounded and mixed with the above ingredients.

       *       *       *       *       *

FISH FORCEMEAT.

Chop finely any kind of fish, that which has been already dressed
will answer the purpose, then pound it in a mortar with a couple of
anchovies, or a little anchovy essence, the yolk of a hard boiled
egg, a little butter, parsley or any other herb which may be approved,
grated lemon peel, and a little of the juice, then add a little bread
previously soaked, and mix the whole into a paste, and form into
balls, or use for stuffing, &c.

The liver or roe of fish is well suited to add to the fish, as it is
rich and delicate.

       *       *       *       *       *

FORCEMEAT FOR DRESSING FISH FILLETS.

Pound finely anchovies, grated bread, chopped parsley, and the yolk of
a hard boiled egg, add grated lemon peel, a little lemon juice, pepper
and salt, and make into a paste with two eggs.

       *       *       *       *       *

FORCEMEAT FOR DRESSING CUTLETS, ETC.

Add to grated stale bread, an equal quantity of chopped parsley,
season it well, and mix it with clarified suet, then brush the cutlets
with beaten yolks of eggs, lay on the mixture thickly with a knife,
and sprinkle over with dry and fine bread crumbs.

       *       *       *       *       *

EGG BALLS.

Beat the hard yolks of eggs in a mortar, make it into a paste with
the yolk of a raw egg, form the paste into very small balls, and throw
them into boiling water for a minute or so, to harden them.

       *       *       *       *       *

PREPARATION FOR CUTLETS OF FOWL OR VEAL.

Make a smooth batter of flour, and a little salad oil, and two eggs,
a little white pepper, salt, and nutmeg, turn the cutlets well in
this mixture, and fry a light brown, garnish with slices of lemon,
and crisped parsley, this is done by putting in the parsley after the
cutlets have been fried, it will speedily crisp; it should then be
drained, to prevent its being greasy.




CHAPTER III.


Fish.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

When fish is to be boiled, it should be rubbed lightly over with salt,
and set on the fire in a saucepan or fish-kettle sufficiently large,
in hard cold water, with a little salt, a spoonful or two of vinegar
is sometimes added, which has the effect of increasing its firmness.

Fish for broiling should be rubbed over with vinegar, well dried in
a cloth and floured. The fire must be clear and free from smoke, the
gridiron made quite hot, and the bars buttered before the fish is put
on it. Fish to be fried should be rubbed in with salt, dried, rolled
in a cloth, and placed for a few minutes before the fire previous to
being put in the pan.

       *       *       *       *       *

FISH FRIED IN OIL.

Soles, plaice, or salmon, are the best kinds of fish to dress in
this manner, although various other sorts are frequently used. When
prepared by salting or drying, as above directed, have a dish ready
with beaten eggs, turn the fish well over in them, and sprinkle it
freely with flour, so that the fish may be covered entirely with it,
then place it in a pan with a good quantity of the best frying oil at
boiling heat; fry the fish in it gently, till of a fine equal brown
colour, when done, it should be placed on a cloth before the fire
for the oil to drain off; great care should be observed that the oil
should have ceased to bubble when the fish is put in, otherwise it
will be greasy; the oil will serve for two or three times if strained
off and poured into a jar. Fish prepared in this way is usually served
cold.

       *       *       *       *       *

FRIED SOLES IN THE ENGLISH WAY.

Prepare the soles as directed in the last receipt, brush them over
with egg, dredge them with stale bread crumbs, and fry in boiling
butter; this method is preferable when required to be served hot.

       *       *       *       *       *

ESCOBECHE.

Take some cold fried fish, place it in a deep pan, then boil half a
pint of vinegar with two table spoonsful of water, and one of oil,
a little grated ginger, allspice, cayenne pepper, two bay leaves, a
little salt, and a table spoonful of lemon juice, with sliced onions;
when boiling, pour it over the fish, cover the pan, and let it stand
twenty-four hours before serving.

       *       *       *       *       *

FISH STEWED WHITE.

Put an onion, finely chopped, into a stew-pan, with a little oil, till
the onion becomes brown, then add half a pint of water, and place
the fish in the stew-pan, seasoning with pepper, salt, mace, ground
allspice, nutmeg, and ginger; let it stew gently till the fish is
done, then prepare the beaten yolks of four eggs, with the juice of
two lemons, and a tea spoonful of flour, a table spoonful of cold
water, and a little saffron, mix well in a cup, and pour it into
the stew-pan, stirring it carefully one way until it thickens. Balls
should be thrown in about twenty minutes before serving; they are made
in the following way: take a little of the fish, the liver, and roe,
if there is any, beat it up finely with chopped parsley, and spread
warmed butter, crumbs of bread, and seasoning according to taste;
form this into a paste with eggs, and make it into balls of a moderate
size; this is a very nice dish when cold; garnish with sliced lemon
and parsley.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN EXCELLENT RECEIPT FOR STEWED FISH IN THE DUTCH FASHION.

Take three or four parsley roots, cut them into pieces, slice several
onions and boil in a pint of water till tender, season with lemon
juice, vinegar, saffron, pepper, salt, and mace, then add the fish,
and let it stew till nearly finished, when remove it, and thicken the
gravy with a little flour and butter, and the yolk of one egg, then
return the fish to the stew-pan, with balls made as directed in the
preceding receipt, and boil up.

       *       *       *       *       *

FISH STEWED BROWN.

Fry some fish of a light brown, either soles, slices of salmon,
halibut, or plaice, let an onion brown in a little oil, add to it a
cup of water, a little mushroom ketchup or powder, cayenne pepper,
salt, nutmeg, and lemon juice, put the fish into a stew-pan with the
above mixture, and simmer gently till done, then take out the fish and
thicken the gravy with a little browned flour, and stir in a glass of
port wine; a few truffles, or mushrooms, are an improvement.

       *       *       *       *       *

WATER SOUCHY.

Take a portion of the fish intended to be dressed, and stew it down
with three pints of water, parsley roots, and chopped parsley, and
then pulp them through a sieve, then add the rest of the fish, with
pepper, salt, and seasoning; and serve in a deep dish.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SUPERIOR RECEIPT FOR STEWED CARP.

Clean the fish thoroughly, put it into a saucepan, with a strong rich
gravy, season with onion, parsley roots, allspice, nutmegs, beaten
cloves, and ginger, let it stew very gently till nearly done, then
mix port wine and vinegar in equal quantities, coarse brown sugar and
lemon juice, a little flour, with some of the gravy from the saucepan,
mix well and pour over the fish, let it boil till the gravy thickens.
Pike is excellent stewed in this manner.

       *       *       *       *       *

FILLETS OF FISH.

Fillets of salmon, soles, &c., fried of a delicate brown according to
the receipt already given, and served with a fine gravy is a very nice
dish.

If required to be very savory, make a fish force-meat, and lay it
thickly on the fish before frying; fillets dressed in this way are
usually arranged round the dish, and served with a sauce made of good
stock, thickened and seasoned with cayenne pepper, lemon juice, and
mushroom essence; piccalilli are sometimes added cut small.

       *       *       *       *       *

BAKED HADDOCK.

Carefully clean a fresh haddock, and fill it with a fine forcemeat,
and sew it in securely; give the fish a dredging of flour, and pour on
warmed butter, sprinkle it with pepper and salt, and set it to bake
in a Dutch-oven before the fire, basting it, from time to time, with
butter warmed, and capers; it should be of a rich dark brown, and it
is as well to dredge two or three times with flour while at the fire,
the continual bastings will produce sufficient sauce to serve with it
without any other being added.

Mackarel and whiting prepared in this manner are excellent, the latter
should be covered with a layer of bread crumbs, and arranged in a
ring, and the forcemeat, instead of stuffing them, should be formed
into small balls, and served in the dish as a garnish.

The forcemeat must be made as for veal stuffing, with the addition of
a couple of minced anchovies, cayenne pepper, and butter instead of
suet.

       *       *       *       *       *

A NICE WAY OF DRESSING RED HERRINGS.

Open them, cut off the tails and heads, soak them in hot water for an
hour, then wipe them dry; mix with warmed butter one beaten egg, pour
this over the herrings, sprinkle with bread crumbs, flour, and white
pepper, broil them and serve them very hot.

       *       *       *       *       *

BAKED MACKAREL WITH VINEGAR.

Cut off the heads and tails, open and clean them, lay them in a
deep pan with a few bay leaves, whole pepper, half a tea-spoonful of
cloves, and a whole spoonful of allspice, pour over equal quantities
of vinegar and water, and bake for an hour and a half, in a gentle
oven; herrings and sprats are also dressed according to this receipt.

       *       *       *       *       *

FISH SALAD.

Cut in small pieces any cold dressed fish, turbot or salmon are the
best suited; mix it with half a pint of small salad, and a lettuce
cut small, two onions boiled till tender and mild, and a few truffles
thinly sliced; pour over a fine salad mixture, and arrange it into a
shape, high in the centre, and garnish with hard eggs cut in slices;
a little cucumber mixed with the salad is an improvement. The mixture
may either be a common salad mixture, or made as follows: take the
yolks of three hard boiled eggs, with a spoonful of mustard, and a
little salt, mix these with a cup of cream, and four table-spoonsful
of vinegar, the different ingredients should be added carefully and
worked together smoothly, the whites of the eggs may be trimmed and
placed in small heaps round the dish as a garnish.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPANADA.

Cut in small pieces halibut, plaice, or soles, place them in a deep
dish in alternate layers, with slices of potatoes and dumplings made
of short-crust paste, sweetened with brown sugar, season well with
small pickles, peppers, gerkins, or West India pickles; throw over a
little water and butter warmed, and bake it thoroughly.

       *       *       *       *       *

WHITE BAIT.

This is such a delicate fish that there are few cooks who attempt to
dress it without spoiling it; they should not be touched but thrown
from the dish into a cloth with a handful of flour; shake them
lightly, but enough to cover them well with the flour, then turn them
into a sieve expressly for bait to free them from too great a quantity
of the flour, then throw the fish into a pan with plenty of boiling
butter, they must remain but an instant, for they are considered
spoilt if they become the least brown; they should be placed lightly
on the dish piled up high in the centre, brown bread and butter is
always served with them; when devilled they are also excellent, and
are permitted to become brown; they are then sprinkled with cayenne
pepper, and a little salt, and served with lemon juice.

This receipt was given by a cook who dressed white bait to perfection.

       *       *       *       *       *

A DUTCH FRICANDELLE.

Take two pounds of dressed fish, remove the skin and bones, cut in
small pieces with two or three anchovies, and season well, soak the
crumb of a French roll in milk, beat it up with the fish and three
eggs: butter a mould, sprinkle it with raspings, place in the fish
and bake it; when done, turn out and serve either dry or with
anchovy sauce; if served dry, finely grated crumbs of bread should be
sprinkled thickly over it, and it should be placed for a few minutes
before the fire to brown.

       *       *       *       *       *

FISH FRITTERS.

Make a force-meat of any cold fish, form it into thin cakes, and fry
of a light brown, or enclose them first in thin paste and then fry
them. The roes of fish or the livers are particularly nice prepared in
this way.

       *       *       *       *       *

FISH OMELET.

Shred finely any cold fish, season it, and mix with beaten eggs; make
it into a paste, fry in thin cakes like pancakes, and serve hot on a
napkin; there should be plenty of boiling butter in the pan, as they
should be moist and rich; there should be more eggs in the preparation
for omelets than for fritters.

       *       *       *       *       *

SCALLOPED FISH.

Take any dressed fish, break it in small pieces, put it into tin
scallops, with a few crumbs of bread, a good piece of butter, a little
cream if approved, white pepper, salt, and nutmeg; bake in an oven for
ten minutes, or brown before the fire; two or three mushrooms mixed,
or an anchovy will be found an improvement.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANOTHER WAY.

Break the fish into pieces, pour over the beaten yolk of an egg,
sprinkle with pepper and salt, strew with bread crumbs, chopped
parsley, and grated lemon peel, and squeeze in the juice of lemon,
drop over a little warmed butter, and brown before the fire.




CHAPTER IV.


Directions for Various Ways of Dressing Meat and Poultry.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

Boiling is the most simple manner of cooking, the great art in
this process is to boil the article sufficiently, without its being
overdone, the necessity of slow boiling cannot be too strongly
impressed upon the cook, as the contrary, renders it hard and of a bad
color; the average time of boiling for fresh meat is half an hour to
every pound, salt meat requires half as long again, and smoked meat
still longer; the lid of the saucepan should only be removed for
skimming, which is an essential process.

Roasting chiefly depends on the skilful management of the fire, it is
considered that a joint of eight pounds requires two hours roasting;
when first put down it should be basted with fresh dripping, and
afterwards with its own dripping, it should be sprinkled with salt,
and repeatedly dredged with flour, which browns and makes it look rich
and frothy.

Broiling requires a steady clear fire, free from flame and smoke, the
gridiron should be quite hot before the article is placed on it, and
the bars should be rubbed with fat, or if the article is thin-skinned
and delicate, with chalk; the gridiron should be held aslant to
prevent the fat dripping into the fire; the bars of a gridiron should
be close and fine. Frying is easier than broiling, the fat, oil or
butter in which the article is fried must be boiling, but have ceased
to bubble before it is put in the pan, or it will be greasy and black:
there is now a new description of fryingpan, called a sauté pan, and
which will be found extremely convenient for frying small cutlets or
collops.

Stewing is a more elaborate mode of boiling; a gentle heat with
frequent skimmings, are the points to be observed.

Glazing is done by brushing melted jelly over the article to be glazed
and letting it cool, and then adding another coat, or in some cases
two or three, this makes any cold meats or poultry have an elegant
appearance.

Blanching makes the article plump and white. It should be set on the
fire in cold water, boil up and then be immersed in cold water,
where it should remain some little time. Larding (the French term is
_Piqué_, which the inexperienced Jewish cook may not be acquainted
with, we therefore use the term in common use) is a term given to
a certain mode of garnishing the surface of meat or poultry: it
is inserting small pieces of the fat of smoked meats, truffles, or
tongue, which are trimmed into slips of equal length and size, into
the flesh of the article at regular distances, and is effected by
means of larding pins.

Poelée and Blanc, are terms used in modern cookery for a very
expensive mode of stewing: it is done by stewing the article with
meat, vegetables, and fat of smoked meats, all well seasoned; instead
of placing it to stew in water it is placed on slices of meat covered
with slices of fat and the vegetables and seasoning added, then water
enough to cover the whole is added.

Blanc differs from Poelée, in having a quantity of suet added, and
being boiled down before the article is placed to stew in it.

Braising is a similar process to Poelée, but less meat and vegetable
is used.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO CLARIFY SUET.

Melt down with care fine fresh suet, either beef or veal, put it into
a jar, and set it in a stew-pan of water to boil, putting in a sprig
of rosemary, or a little orange flower water while melting, this is
a very useful preparation and will be found, if adopted in English
kitchens, to answer the purpose of lard and is far more delicate and
wholesome: it should be well beaten till quite light with a wooden
fork.

       *       *       *       *       *

OLIO.

Put eight pounds of beef in sufficient water to cover it, when the
water boils take out the meat, skim off the fat, and then return the
meat to the stew-pan, adding at the same time two fine white cabbages
without any of the stalk or hard parts; season with pepper, salt, and
a tea-spoonful of white sugar, let it simmer on a slow fire for
about five hours, about an hour before serving, add half a pound of
_chorisa_, which greatly improves the flavor.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN EXCELLENT RECEIPT FOR STEWING A RUMP OF BEEF.

Chop fine a large onion, four bay leaves, and a little parsley, add to
these half an ounce of ground ginger, a tea-spoonful of salt, a blade
of mace, a little ground allspice, some lemon sliced, and some of the
peel grated; rub all these ingredients well into the meat, then place
it into a stew-pan with three parts of a cup of vinegar, a calf's-foot
cut in small pieces and a pint of water, stew gently till tender,
when the fat must be carefully skimmed off the gravy, which must be
strained and poured over the meat.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALAMODE BEEF, OR SOUR MEAT.

Cover a piece of the ribs of beef boned and filletted, or a piece of
the round with vinegar diluted with water, season with onions, pepper,
salt, whole allspice, and three or four bay leaves, add a cup full
of raspings, and let the whole stew gently for three or four hours,
according to the weight of the meat; this dish is excellent when cold.
A rump steak stewed in the same way will be found exceedingly fine.

       *       *       *       *       *

KIMMEL MEAT.

Place a small piece of the rump of beef, or the under cut of a sirloin
in a deep pan with three pints of vinegar, two ounces of carraway
seeds tied in a muslin bag, salt, pepper, and spices, cover it down
tight, and bake thoroughly in a slow oven. This is a fine relish for
luncheons.

       *       *       *       *       *

BEEF AND BEANS.

Take a piece of brisket of beef, cover it with water, when boiling
skim off the fat, add one quarter of French beans cut small, two
onions cut in quarters, season with pepper and salt, and when nearly
done take a dessert-spoonful of flour, one of coarse brown sugar, and
a large tea-cup full of vinegar, mix them together and stir in with
the beans, and continue stewing for about half an hour longer.

       *       *       *       *       *

KUGEL AND COMMEAN.

Soak one pint of Spanish peas and one pint of Spanish beans all night
in three pints of water; take two marrow bones, a calf's-foot, and
three pounds of fine gravy-beef, crack the bones and tie them to
prevent the marrow escaping, and put all together into a pan; then
take one pound of flour, half a pound of shred suet, a little grated
nutmeg and ground ginger, cloves and allspice, one pound of coarse
brown sugar, and the crumb of a slice of bread, first soaked in water
and pressed dry, mix all these ingredients together into a paste,
grease a quart basin and put it in, covering the basin with a plate
set in the middle of the pan with the beans, meat, &c. Cover the pan
lightly down with coarse brown paper, and let it remain all the night
and the next day, (until required) in a baker's oven, when done, take
out the basin containing the pudding, and skim the fat from the gravy
which must be served as soup; the meat, &c., is extremely savory and
nutritious, but is not a very seemly dish for table. The pudding must
be turned out of the basin, and a sweet sauce flavored with lemon and
brandy is a fine addition.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAUER KRAUT.

Boil about seven or eight pounds of beef, either brisket or a fillet
off the shoulder, in enough water to cover it, when it has boiled for
one hour, add as much sauer kraut, which is a German preparation,
as may be approved, it should then stew gently for four hours and be
served in a deep dish. The Germans are not very particular in removing
the fat, but it is more delicate by so doing.

       *       *       *       *       *

BEEF WITH CELERY, AND WHITE BEANS AND PEAS.

Soak for twelve hours one pint of dried white peas, and half a pint of
the same kind of beans, they must be well soaked, and if very dry, may
require longer than twelve hours, put a nice piece of brisket of about
eight pounds weight in a stew-pan with the peas and beans, and three
heads of celery cut in small pieces, put water enough to cover, and
season with pepper and salt only, let it all stew slowly till the meat
is extremely tender and the peas and beans quite soft, then add four
large lumps of sugar and nearly a tea-cup of vinegar; this is a very
fine stew.

       *       *       *       *       *

BEEF COLLOPS.

Cut thin slices off from any tender part, divide them into pieces of
the size of a wine biscuit, flatten and flour them, and lightly fry
in clarified fat, lay them in a stew-pan with good stock, season to
taste, have pickled gherkins chopped small, and add to the gravy a few
minutes before serving.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO WARM COLD ROAST BEEF WHEN NOT SUFFICIENTLY DONE.

Cut it in slices, also slice some beetroot or cucumber and put them
in a saucepan with a little gravy which need not be strong, two
table-spoonsful of vinegar, one of oil, pepper, salt, a little chopped
lettuce and a few peas, simmer till the vegetables and meat are
sufficiently dressed.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO HASH BEEF.

The meat should be put on the fire in a little broth or gravy, with
a little fried onion, pepper, salt, and a spoonful of ketchup, or any
other sauce at hand, let it simmer for about ten minutes, then mix in
a cup a little flour with a little of the gravy, and pour it into the
stewpan to thicken the rest; sippets of toast should be served with
hashes, a little port wine, a pinch of saffron, or a piece _chorisa_
may be considered great improvements.

       *       *       *       *       *

STEAKS WITH CHESNUTS.

Take a fine thick steak, half fry it, then flour and place it in a
stewpan with a little good beef gravy, season with cayenne pepper and
salt, when it has simmered for about ten minutes, add a quarter of a
hundred good chesnuts, peeled and the inner skin scraped off, let them
stew with the steak till well done, this is a very nice dish, a little
Espagnole sauce heightens the flavor.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SIMPLE STEWED STEAK.

Put a fine steak in a stewpan with a large piece of clarified suet
or fat, and a couple of onions sliced, let the steak fry for a few
minutes, turning it several times; then cover the steak with gravy,
or even water will answer the purpose, with a tea-cup full of button
onions, or a Spanish onion sliced, a little lemon peel, pepper, salt,
and a little allspice; simmer till the steak is done, when the steak
must be removed and the gravy be carefully skimmed, then add to it a
little browning and a spoonful of mushroom ketchup; the steak must
be kept on a hot stove or returned to the stewpan to warm up. If the
gravy is not thick enough, stir in a little flour.

       *       *       *       *       *

BRISKET STEWED WITH ONIONS AND RAISINS.

Stew about five pounds of brisket of beef in sufficient water to
cover, season with allspice, pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and when nearly
done, add four large onions cut in pieces and half a pound of raisins
stoned, let them remain simmering till well done; and just before
serving, stir in a tea-spoonful of brown sugar and a table spoonful of
flour.

       *       *       *       *       *

BRISKET STEWED.

Take about six or seven pounds of brisket of beef, place it in a
stewpan with only enough water to cover it, season with a little spice
tied in a bag; when the meat is tender and the spices sufficiently
extracted to make the gravy rich and strong, part of it must be
removed to another saucepan; have ready a variety of vegetables cut
into small shapes, such as turnips, carrots, mushrooms, cauliflowers,
or whatever may be in season; stew them gently till tender in the
gravy, the meat must then be glazed and the gravy poured in the dish,
and the vegetables arranged round.

       *       *       *       *       *

BEEF RAGOUT.

Take a small well cut piece of lean beef, lard it with the fat
of smoked beef, and stew it with good gravy, highly seasoned with
allspice, cloves, pepper and salt; when the meat is well done remove
it from the gravy, which skim carefully and free from every particle
of fat, and add to it a glass of port wine, the juice of a lemon, half
a tea-spoonful of cayenne pepper, and a little mushroom ketchup; the
beef should be glazed when required to have an elegant appearance.

A few very small forcemeat balls must be poached in the gravy, which
must be poured over the meat, and the balls arranged round the dish;
this is a very savoury and pretty dish.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO SALT BEEF.

This may be done by mixing a pound of common salt, half an ounce of
saltpetre and one ounce of coarse brown sugar, and rubbing the meat
well with it, daily for a fortnight or less, according to the weather,
and the degree of salt that the meat is required to have. Or by
boiling eight ounces of salt, eight ounces of sugar, and half an ounce
of saltpetre in two quarts of water, and pouring it over the meat, and
letting it stand in it for eight or ten days.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPICED BEEF.

Take a fine thick piece of brisket of beef not fat, let it lay three
days in a pickle, as above, take it out and rub in a mixture of spices
consisting of equal quantities of ground all-spice, black pepper,
cloves, ginger and nutmegs, and a little brown sugar, repeat this
daily for a week, then cover it with pounded dried sweet herbs, roll
or tie it tightly, put it into a pan with very little water, and bake
slowly for eight hours, then take it out, untie it and put a heavy
weight upon it; this it a fine relish when eaten cold.

       *       *       *       *       *

SMOKED BEEF.

As there are seldom conveniences in private kitchens for smoking
meats, it will generally be the best and cheapest plan to have them
ready prepared for cooking. All kinds of meats smoked and salted,
are to be met with in great perfection at all the Hebrew butchers.

_Chorisa_, that most refined and savoury of all sausages, is to be
also procured at the same places. It is not only excellent fried in
slices with poached eggs or stewed with rice, but imparts a delicious
flavor to stews, soups, and sauces, and is one of the most useful
resources of the Jewish kitchen.

       *       *       *       *       *

A WHITE FRICANDEAU OF VEAL.

Take four or five pounds of breast of veal, or fillet from the
shoulder; stuff it with a finely flavoured veal stuffing and put it
into a stewpan with water sufficient to cover it, a calf's-foot cut
in pieces is sometimes added, season with one onion, a blade of mace,
white pepper and salt, and a sprig of parsley, stew the whole gently
until the meat is quite tender, then skim and strain the gravy and
stir in the beaten yolks of four eggs, and the juice of two lemons
previously mixed smoothly with a portion of the gravy, button
mushrooms, or pieces of celery stewed with the veal are sometimes
added by way of varying the flavor, egg and forcemeat balls garnish
the dish. When required to look elegant it should be piqué.

       *       *       *       *       *

A BROWN FRICASSEE.

Cut a breast of veal in pieces, fry them lightly and put them into a
stewpan with a good beef gravy, seasoned with white pepper, salt, a
couple of sliced onions (previously browned in a little oil), and a
piece of whole ginger, let it simmer very slowly for two hours taking
care to remove the scum or fat, have ready some rich forcemeat and
spread it about an inch thick over three cold hard boiled eggs, fry
these for a few moments and put them in the saucepan with the veal;
before serving, these balls should be cut in quarters, and the gravy
rendered more savory by the addition of lemon juice and half a glass
of white wine, or a table-spoonful of walnut liquor, if the gravy is
not sufficiently thick by long stewing, a little browned flour may be
stirred in.

       *       *       *       *       *

CALF'S HEAD STEWED.

Clean and soak the head till the cheek-bone can be easily removed,
then parboil it and cut it into pieces of moderate size, and place
them in about a quart of stock made from shin of beef, the gravy must
be seasoned highly with eschalots, a small head of celery, a small
bunch of sweet herbs, an onion, a carrot, a little mace, a dozen
cloves, a piece of lemon peel, and a sprig of parsley, salt and
pepper; it must be strained before the head is added, fine forcemeat
balls rolled in egg and fried are served in the dish, as well as small
fritters made with the brains; when ready for serving, a glass and
half of white wine and the juice of a lemon are added to the gravy.

       *       *       *       *       *

CALVES-FEET WITH SPANISH SAUCE.

Having cleaned, boiled and split two fine feet, dip them into egg
and bread crumbs mixed with chopped parsley and chalot, a few ground
cloves, a little nutmeg, pepper and salt, fry them a fine brown,
arrange them in the dish and pour the sauce over. Make the sauce in
the following manner: slice two fine Spanish onions, put them in a
saucepan, with some chopped truffles or mushrooms, a little suet,
cayenne and white pepper, salt, one or two small lumps of white sugar,
and let all simmer in some good strong stock till the gravy has nearly
boiled away, then stir in a wine glass of Madeira wine, and a little
lemon juice; it should then be returned to the saucepan, to be made
thoroughly hot before serving.

       *       *       *       *       *

CALF'S FEET AU FRITUR.

Simmer them for four hours in water till the meat can be taken easily
from the bone, then cut them in handsome pieces, season with pepper
and salt, dip them in egg, and sprinkle thickly with grated bread
crumbs, and fry of a fine even brown; they may be served dry or with
any sauce that may be approved.

The liquor should continue to stew with the bones, and can be used for
jelly.

       *       *       *       *       *

CALF'S FEET STEWED FOR INVALIDS.

Clean and soak a fine foot, put it on in very little water, let it
simmer till tender, then cut it in pieces, without removing the bone,
and continue stewing for three hours, till they become perfectly soft;
if the liquor boils away, add a little more water, but there should
not be more liquor than can be served in the dish with the foot; the
only seasoning requisite is a little salt and white pepper, and a
sprig of parsley, or a pinch of saffron to improve the appearance; a
little delicately-made thin egg sauce, with a flavor of lemon juice,
may be served in a sauce-tureen if approved; sippets of toast or well
boiled rice to garnish the dish, may also be added, and will not be an
unacceptable addition.

       *       *       *       *       *

TENDONS OF VEAL.

This is a very fine and nutritious dish; cut from the bones of a
breast of veal the tendons which are round the front, trim and blanch
them, put them with slices of smoked beef into a stewpan with some
shavings of veal, a few herbs, a little sliced lemon, two or three
onions, and a little broth; they must simmer for seven or eight hours;
when done, thicken the gravy and add white wine and mushrooms and
egg-balls; a few peas with the tendons will be found excellent, a
piece of mint and a little white sugar will then be requisite.

       *       *       *       *       *

FRICANDEAU OF VEAL.

Take a piece from the shoulder, about three to four pounds, trim it
and form it into a well shaped even piece, the surface of which should
be quite smooth; _piqué_ it thickly, put it into a stewpan with a
couple of onions, a carrot sliced, sweet herbs, two or three bay
leaves, a large piece of _chorissa_ or a slice of the root of a tongue
smoked, a little whole pepper and salt; cover it with a gravy made
from the trimmings of the veal, and stew till extremely tender, which
can be proved by probing it with a fine skewer, then reduce part of
the gravy to a glaze, glaze the meat with it and serve on a _pureé_ of
vegetables.

       *       *       *       *       *

COLLARED VEAL.

Remove the bones, gristle, &c., from a nice piece of veal, the breast
is the best part for the purpose; season the meat well with chopped
herbs, mace, pepper, and salt, then lay between the veal slices of
smoked tongue variegated with beetroot, chopped parsley, and hard
yolks of eggs, roll it up tightly in a cloth, simmer for some hours
till tender; when done, it should have a weight laid on it to press
out the liquor.

       *       *       *       *       *

CURRIED VEAL.

Cut a breast of veal into pieces, fry lightly with a chopped onion,
then rub the veal over with currie powder, put it into a good gravy of
veal and beef, season simply with pepper, salt, and lemon juice.

Fowls curried are prepared in the same way.

       *       *       *       *       *

CUTLETS.

Cut them into proper shape and beat them with a roller until the fibre
of the meat is entirely broken; if this is not done, they will be
hard; they must then be covered with egg and sprinkled with flour, or
a preparation for cutlets may be spread over them, and then fry them
of a fine brown, remove the cutlets to a hot dish, and add to the fat
in which the cutlets have been fried, a spoonful of flour, a small cup
of gravy, salt, pepper, and a little lemon juice or lemon pickle.

       *       *       *       *       *

CUTLETS A LA FRANÇAISE.

French cooks cut them thinner than the English, and trim them into
rounds of the size of a tea-cup; they must be brushed over with egg,
and sprinkled with salt, white pepper, mushroom powder, and grated
lemon peel; put them into a _sauté_ pan and fry of a very light brown;
pieces of bread, smoked meat or tongue cut of the same size as the
cutlets, and prepared in the same manner, are laid alternately in the
dish with them; they should be served without sauce and with a _purée_
of mushrooms or spinach in the centre of the dish.

       *       *       *       *       *

CUTLETS IN WHITE FRICASSEE.

Cut them in proper shapes, put them in a veal gravy made with the
trimmings enough to cover them; season delicately, and let them simmer
till quite tender, but not long enough to lose their shape; fresh
button mushrooms and a piece of lemon peel are essential to this dish;
when the meat is done remove it, take all fat from the gravy, and
thicken it with the yolks of two beaten eggs; small balls of forcemeat
in which mushrooms must be minced should be poached in the gravy when
about to be served; the meat must be returned to the saucepan to be
made hot, and when placed in the dish, garnish with thin slices of
lemon.

       *       *       *       *       *

CUTLETS IN BROWN FRICASSEE.

They must be trimmed as above, fried slightly and stewed in beef
gravy, and seasoned according to the directions given for a brown
fricassee of veal; balls or fritters are always an improvement to the
appearance of this dish.

       *       *       *       *       *

BLANQUETTE OF VEAL.

Cut into thin pieces of the size of shillings and half crowns, cold
veal or poultry, lay it in a small saucepan with a handful of fresh
well cleaned button mushrooms, pour over a little veal gravy, only
enough to cover them, with a piece of clarified veal fat about the
size of the yolk of a hard boiled egg; flavor with a piece of lemon
peel, very little white pepper and salt, one small lump of white
sugar, and a little nutmeg, stew all together for fifteen minutes,
then pour over a sauce prepared in a separate saucepan, made with veal
gravy, a little lemon juice, but not much, and the beaten yolks of two
eggs, let it simmer for an instant and then serve it up in the centre
of a dish prepared with a wall of mashed potatoes, delicately browned;
a few truffles renders this dish more elegant.

       *       *       *       *       *

MINCED VEAL.

Cut in small square pieces about the size of dice, cold dressed veal,
put it into a saucepan with a little water or gravy, season simply
with salt, pepper, and grated or minced lemon peel, the mince should
be garnished with sippets of toast.

       *       *       *       *       *

MIROTON OF VEAL.

Mince finely some cold veal or poultry, add a little grated tongue,
or smoked beef, a few crumbs of bread, sweet herbs, pepper, salt,
parsley, and if approved, essence of lemon, mix all well with two or
three eggs, and a very small quantity of good gravy; grease a mould,
put in the above ingredients and bake for three-quarters of an hour;
turn out with care, and serve with mushroom sauce.

       *       *       *       *       *

FRICONDELLES.

Prepare cold veal or poultry as in the last receipt, add instead of
crumbs of bread, a French roll soaked in white gravy, mix with it
the same ingredients, and form it into two shapes to imitate small
chickens or sweetbreads; sprinkle with crumbs of bread, and place in a
frying-pan as deep as a shallow saucepan; when they have fried
enough to become set, pour enough weak gravy in the pan to cover the
fricondelles, and let them stew in it gently, place them both in
the same dish, and pour over any well thickened sauce that may be
selected.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANOTHER SORT.

Prepare four small pieces of veal to serve in one dish, according to
the directions given for fricandeau of veal; these form a very pretty
_entrée_; the pieces of veal should be about the size of pigeons.

       *       *       *       *       *

SMOKED VEAL.

Take a fine fat thick breast of veal, bone it, lay it in pickle,
according to the receipt to salt meat, hang it for three or four weeks
in wood-smoke, and it will prove a very fine savoury relish, either
boiled and eaten cold, or fried as required.

       *       *       *       *       *

SWEETBREADS ROASTED.

First soak them in warm water, and then blanch them; in whatever
manner they are to be dressed, this is essential; they may be prepared
in a variety of ways, the simplest is to roast them; for this they
have only to be covered with egg and bread crumbs, seasoned with salt
and pepper, and finished in a Dutch oven or cradle spit, frequently
basting with clarified veal suet; they may be served either dry with a
_purée_ of vegetables, or with a brown gravy.

       *       *       *       *       *

SWEETBREADS STEWED WHITE.

After soaking and blanching, stew them in veal gravy, and season with
celery, pepper, salt, nutmeg, a little mace, and a piece of lemon
peel, they should be served with a fine white sauce, the gravy in
which they are stewed will form the basis for it, with the addition
of yolks of eggs and mushroom essence; French cooks would adopt the
_velouté_ or _bechamél_ sauce; Jerusalem artichokes cut the size of
button mushrooms, are a suitable accompaniment as a garnish.

       *       *       *       *       *

SWEETBREADS STEWED BROWN.

After soaking and blanching, fry them till brown, then simmer gently
in beef gravy seasoned highly with smoked meat, nutmeg, pepper, salt,
a small onion stuck with cloves, and a very little whole allspice;
the gravy must be slightly thickened, and morels and truffles are
generally added; small balls of delicate forcemeat are also
an improvement. The above receipts are adapted for sweetbreads
fricasseed, except that they must be cut in pieces for fricassees, and
pieces of meat or poultry are added to them; sweetbreads when dressed
whole look better _piqués_.

       *       *       *       *       *

A DELICATE RECEIPT FOR ROAST MUTTON.

Put the joint in a saucepan, cover it with cold water, let it boil for
half an hour, have the spit and fire quite ready, and remove the meat
from the saucepan, and place it immediately down to roast, baste it
well, dredge it repeatedly with flour, and sprinkle with salt;
this mode of roasting mutton removes the strong flavor that is so
disagreeable to some tastes.

       *       *       *       *       *

MUTTON STEWED WITH CELERY.

Take the best end of a neck of mutton, or a fillet taken from the leg
or shoulder, place it in a stewpan with just enough water to cover
it, throw in a carrot and turnip, and season, but not too highly; when
nearly done remove the meat and strain off the gravy, then return both
to the stewpan with forcemeat balls and some fine celery cut in small
pieces; let all stew gently till perfectly done, then stir in the
yolks of two eggs, a little flour, and the juice of half a lemon,
which must be mixed with a little of the gravy before pouring in the
stewpan, and care must be taken to prevent curdling.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SIMPLE WAY OF DRESSING MUTTON.

Take the fillet off a small leg or shoulder of mutton, rub it well
over with egg and seasoning, and partly roast it, then place it in a
stewpan with a little strong gravy, and stew gently till thoroughly
done; this dish is simple, but exceedingly nice; a few balls or
fritters to garnish will improve it.

       *       *       *       *       *

MAINTENON CUTLETS.

This is merely broiling or frying cutlets in a greased paper, after
having spread on them a seasoning prepared as follows: make a paste
of bread crumbs, chopped parsley, nutmeg, pepper, salt, grated lemon
peel, and thyme, with a couple of beaten eggs; a piquante sauce should
be served in a tureen.

       *       *       *       *       *

A HARRICOT.

Cut off the best end of a neck of mutton into chops, flour and partly
fry them, then lay them in a stewpan with carrots, sliced turnips cut
in small round balls, some button onions, and cover with water; skim
frequently, season with pepper and salt to taste, color the gravy with
a little browning and a spoonful of mushroom powder.

       *       *       *       *       *

IRISH STEW.

Is the same as above, excepting that the meat is not previously fried,
and that potatoes are used instead of turnips and carrots.

       *       *       *       *       *

MUTTON A L'HISPANIOLA.

Take a small piece of mutton, either part of a shoulder or a fillet
of the leg, partly roast it, then put it in a stewpan with beef gravy
enough to cover it, previously seasoned with herbs, a carrot and
turnip; cut in quarters three large Spanish onions, and place in the
stewpan round the meat; a stuffing will improve it, and care must be
taken to free the gravy from every particle of fat.

       *       *       *       *       *

MUTTON COLLOPS.

Take from a fine knuckle a couple of slices, cut and trim them in
collops the size of a tea cup, flatten them and spread over each side
a forcemeat for cutlets, and fry them; potatoe or Jerusalem artichokes
cut in slices of the same size and thickness, or pieces of bread
cut with a fluted cutter, prepared as the collops and fried, must be
placed alternately in the dish with them; they may be served with a
pure simple gravy, or very hot and dry on a napkin, garnished with
fried parsley and slices of lemon.

The knuckle may be used in the following manner: put it on with
sufficient water to cover it, season it and simmer till thoroughly
done, thicken the gravy with prepared barley, and flavor it with lemon
pickle, or capers; it should be slightly colored with saffron, and
celery sauce may be served as an accompaniment, or the mutton may be
served on a fine _purée_ of turnips.

       *       *       *       *       *

MUTTON CUTLETS.

Have a neck of mutton, cut the bones short, and remove the chine
bone completely; cut chops off so thin that every other one shall be
without bone, trim them carefully, that all the chops shall bear the
same appearance, then flatten them well; cover them with a cutlet
preparation, and fry of a delicate brown; a fine _purée_ of any
vegetable that may be approved, or any sauce that may be selected,
should be served with them; they may be arranged in various ways in
the dish, either round the dish or in a circle in the centre, so that
the small part of the cutlets shall almost meet; if the latter, the
_purée_ should garnish round them instead of being in the centre of
the dish.

       *       *       *       *       *

MUTTON HAM.

Choose a fine leg of mutton, rub it in daily with a mixture of three
ounces of brown sugar, two ounces of common salt, and half an ounce of
saltpetre, continue this process for a fortnight, then hang it to dry
in wood smoke for ten days longer.

       *       *       *       *       *

LAMB AND SPREW.

Take a fine neck or breast of lamb, put it in stewpan with as much
water as will cover it, add to it a bundle of sprew cut in pieces of
two inches in length, a small head of celery cut small, and one onion,
pepper, salt, and a sprig of parsley, let it simmer gently till the
meat and sprew are tender; a couple of lumps of sugar improves the
flavor; there should not be too much liquor, and all fat must be
removed; the sprew should surround the meat when served, and also be
thickly laid over it.

       *       *       *       *       *

LAMB AND PEAS.

Take the best end of a neck of lamb, either keep it whole or divide it
into chops as may be preferred, put it into a saucepan with a little
chopped onion, pepper, salt, and a small quantity of water; when half
done add half a peck of peas, half a lettuce cut fine, a little mint,
and a few lumps of sugar, and let it stew thoroughly; when done,
there must not be too much liquor; cutlets of veal or beef are also
excellent dressed as above. Although this is a spring dish it may be
almost equally well dressed in winter, by substituting small mutton
cutlets and preserved peas, which may be met with at any of the best
Italian warehouses; a breast or neck of lamb may also be stewed whole
in the same manner.

       *       *       *       *       *

LAMB CUTLETS WITH CUCUMBERS.

Take two fine cucumbers, peel and cut them lengthways, lay them in
vinegar for an hour, then stew them in good stock till tender, when
stir in the yolks of two or three eggs, a little flour and essence of
lemon, which must all be first mixed up together with a little of
the stock, have ready some cutlets trimmed and fried a light brown,
arrange them round the dish and pour the cucumbers in the centre.

       *       *       *       *       *

A NICE RECEIPT FOR SHOULDER OF LAMB.

Half boil it, score it and squeeze over lemon juice, and cover with
grated bread crumbs, egg and parsley, broil it over a clear fire
and put it to brown in a Dutch oven, or grill and serve with a sauce
seasoned with lemon pickle and chopped mint.

       *       *       *       *       *

A CASSEREET, AN EAST INDIA DISH.

Take two pounds of lamb chops, or mutton may be substituted, place
them in a stewpan, cover with water or gravy, season only with pepper
and salt, when the chops are half done, carefully skim off the fat
and add two table spoonsful of cassereet, stir it in the gravy which
should not be thickened, and finish stewing gently till done enough;
rice should accompany this dish.

       *       *       *       *       *

TURKEY BONED AND FORCED.

A turkey thus prepared may be either boiled or roasted; there are
directions for boning poultry which might be given, but it is always
better to let the poulterer do it; when boned it must be filled with a
fine forcemeat, which may be varied in several ways, the basis should
be according to the receipt given for veal stuffings, forcemeats,
sausage meat, tongue, and mushrooms added as approved. When boiled it
is served with any fine white sauce, French cooks use the velouté or
béchamel. When roasted, a cradle spit is very convenient, but if there
is not one the turkey must be carefully tied to the spit.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOWLS BONED AND FORCED.

The above directions serve also for fowls.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SAVOURY WAY OF ROASTING A FOWL.

Fill it with a fine seasoning, and just before it is ready for
serving, baste it well with clarified veal suet, and sprinkle it
thickly with very dry crumbs of bread, repeat this two or three times;
then place it in the dish, and serve with a fine brown gravy well
flavored with lemon juice; delicate forcemeat fritters should be also
served in the dish.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOILED FOWLS.

Are served with a fine white sauce, and are often garnished with
pieces of white cauliflower, or vegetable marrow, the chief object
is to keep them white; it is best to select white legged poultry for
boiling, as they prove whiter when dressed.

       *       *       *       *       *

AMNASTICH.

Stew gently one pint of rice in one quart of strong gravy till it
begins to swell, then add an onion stuck with cloves, a bunch of sweet
herbs, and a chicken stuffed with forcemeat, let it stew with the rice
till thoroughly done, then take it up and stir in the rice, the yolks
of four eggs, and the juice of a lemon; serve the fowl in the same
dish with the rice, which should be colored to a fine yellow with
saffron.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOWLS STEWED WITH RICE AND CHORISA.

Boil a fowl in sufficient water or gravy to cover it, when boiling for
ten minutes, skim off the fat and add half a pound of rice, and one
pound of _chorisa_ cut in about four pieces, season with a little
white pepper, salt, and a pinch of saffron to color it, and then stew
till the rice is thoroughly tender; there should be no gravy when
served, but the rice ought to be perfectly moist.

       *       *       *       *       *

CURRIED CHICKEN.

See curried veal. Undressed chicken is considered best for a curry,
it must be cut in small joints, the directions for curried veal are
equally adapted for fowls.

       *       *       *       *       *

A NICE METHOD OF DRESSING FOWL AND SWEETBREAD.

Take a fowl and blanch it, also a fine sweet bread, parboil them, then
cut off in smooth well shaped slices, all the white part of the fowl,
and slice the sweetbread in similar pieces, place them together in a
fine well-flavoured veal gravy; when done, serve neatly in the dish,
and pour over a fine white sauce, any that may be approved, the
remainder of the fowl must be cut up in small joints or pieces, not
separated from the bone, and fried to become brown, then place them in
a stew-pan with forcemeat balls, truffles, and morels; pour over half
or three quarters of a pint of beef gravy, and simmer till finished; a
little mushroom ketchup, or lemon-pickle may be added; in this manner
two very nice _entrées_ may be formed.

       *       *       *       *       *

BLANKETTE OF FOWL.

See blankette of veal.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO STEW DUCK WITH GREEN PEAS.

Stuff and half roast a duck, then put it into a stew-pan with an onion
sliced, a little mint and about one pint of beef gravy, add after it
has simmered half an hour, a quart of green peas, and simmer another
half hour; a little lump sugar is requisite.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO WARM COLD POULTRY.

Cut up the pieces required to be dressed, spread over them a seasoning
as for cutlets, and fry them; pour over a little good gravy, and
garnish with sippets of toast and sliced lemon, or place them in an
edging of rice or mashed potatoes.

       *       *       *       *       *

BROILED FOWL AND MUSHROOMS.

Truss a fine fowl as if for boiling, split it down the back, and broil
gently; when nearly done, put it in a stewpan with a good gravy, add
a pint of fresh button mushrooms, season to taste; a little mushroom
powder and lemon juice improve the flavour.

       *       *       *       *       *

PIGEONS.

To have a good appearance they should be larded and stuffed; glazing
is also an improvement, they form a nice _entrée_; they may be stewed
in a strong gravy; when done enough, remove the pigeons, thicken the
gravy, add a few forcemeat and egg balls, and serve in the dish with
the pigeons. Or they may be split down the back, broiled, and then
finished in the stew-pan.

       *       *       *       *       *

STEWED GIBLETS.

Scald one or more sets of giblets, set them on the fire with a little
veal or chicken, or both, in a good gravy; season to taste, thicken
the gravy, and color it with browning, flavor with mushroom powder
and lemon-juice and one glass of white wine; forcemeat balls should
be added a few minutes before serving, and garnish with thin slices of
hard boiled eggs.

       *       *       *       *       *

DUTCH TOAST.

Take the remains of any cold poultry or meat, mince it and season
highly; add to it any cold dressed vegetable, mix it up with one or
more eggs, and let it simmer till hot in a little gravy; have ready
a square of toast, and serve it on it; squeeze over a little
lemon-juice, and sprinkle with white pepper. Vegetables prepared
in this way are excellent; cauliflower simmered in chicken broth,
seasoned delicately and minced on toast, is a nutritive good luncheon
for an invalid.

       *       *       *       *       *

TIMBALE DE MACCARONI.

This is a very pretty dish. The maccaroni must be boiled in water till
it slightly swells, and is soft enough to cut; it must be cut into
short pieces about two inches in length. Grease a mould, and stick the
maccaroni closely together all over the mould; when this is done, and
which will require some patience, fill up the space with friccassee
of chicken, sweetbreads, or whatever may be liked; close the mould
carefully, and boil. Rich white sauce is usually served with it,
but not poured over the timbale, as it would spoil the effect of the
honeycomb appearance, which is very pretty.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SAVOURY PIE FOR PERSONS OF DELICATE DIGESTION.

Cut up fowl and sweetbread, lay in the dish in alternate layers with
meat, jelly, and the yolks of hard-boiled eggs without the whites,
and flavor with lemon-juice, white pepper, and salt; cover with rice
prepared as follows: boil half a pound of rice in sufficient water to
permit it to swell; when tender beat it up to a thick paste with the
yolk of one or two eggs, season with a little salt, and spread it over
the dish thickly. The fowl and sweetbread should have been previously
simmered till half done in a little weak broth; the pie must be baked
in a gentle oven, and if the rice will not brown sufficiently, finish
with a salamander.

       *       *       *       *       *

DESCAIDES.

Take the livers of chickens or any other poultry; stew it gently in
a little good gravy seasoned with a little onion, mushroom essence,
pepper, and salt; when tender, remove the livers, place them on a
paste board, and mince them; return them to the saucepan, and stir
in the yolks of one or two eggs, according to the quantity of liver,
until the gravy becomes thick; have a round of toast ready on a hot
plate, and serve it on the toast; this is a very nice luncheon or
supper dish.




CHAPTER V.


Vegetables and Sundries.

DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING AND BOILING VEGETABLES.

Vegetables are extremely nutritious when sufficiently boiled, but are
unwholesome and indigestible when not thoroughly dressed; still they
should not be over boiled, or they will lose their flavor.

Vegetables should be shaken to get out any insects, and laid in water
with a little salt.

Soft water is best suited for boiling vegetables, and they require
plenty of water; a little salt should be put in the saucepan with
them, and the water should almost invariably be boiling when they are
put in.

Potatoes are much better when steamed. Peas and several other
vegetables are also improved by this mode of cooking them, although it
is seldom adopted in England.

       *       *       *       *       *

MASHED POTATOES.

Boil till perfectly tender; let them be quite dry, and press them
through a cullender, or mash and beat them well with a fork; add a
piece of butter, and milk, or cream, and continue beating till they
are perfectly smooth; return them to the saucepan to warm, or they may
be browned before the fire. The chief art is to beat them sufficiently
long, which renders them light.

Potatoe balls are mashed potatoes formed into balls glazed with the
yolk of egg, and browned with a salamander.

       *       *       *       *       *

POTATO WALL, OR EDGING.

Raise a wall of finely-mashed potatoes, of two or three inches high,
round the dish; form it with a spoon to the shape required, brush it
over with egg, and put it in the oven to become hot and brown; if it
does not brown nicely, use the salamander. Rice is arranged the
same way to edge curries or fricassees; it must be first boiled till
tender.

       *       *       *       *       *

POTATOE SHAVINGS.

Take four fine large potatoes, and having peeled them, continue to cut
them up as if peeling them in ribbons of equal width; then throw the
shavings into a frying-pan, and fry of a fine brown; they must be
constantly moved with a silver fork to keep the pieces separate. They
should be laid on a cloth to drain, and placed in the dish lightly.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE FRENCH WAY OF DRESSING SPINACH.

Wash and boil till tender, then squeeze and strain it; press it in
a towel till almost dry; put it on a board, and chop it as finely as
possible; then return it to the saucepan, with butter, pepper, and
salt; stir it all the time, and let it boil fast.

       *       *       *       *       *

STEWED SPINACH.

Scald and chop some spinach small; cut up an onion; add pepper and
salt and brown sugar, with a little vinegar, stew all together gently;
serve with poached eggs or small forcemeat fritters. This forms a
pretty side-dish, and is also a nice way of dressing spinach to serve
in the same dish with cutlets.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO STEW SPANISH BEANS AND PEAS.

Soak the beans over night in cold water; they must be stewed in only
sufficient water to cover them, with two table spoonsful of oil, a
little pepper and salt, and white sugar. When done they should be
perfectly soft and tender.

       *       *       *       *       *

PEAS STEWED WITH OIL.

Put half a peck of peas into a stew-pan, half a lettuce chopped small,
a little mint, a small onion cut up, two table-spoonsful of oil, and a
dessert-spoonful of powdered sugar, with water sufficient to cover the
peas, watching, from time to time, that they do not become too
dry; let them stew gently, taking care that they do not burn, till
perfectly soft. When done they should look of a yellowish brown.

French beans, brocoli, and greens, stewed in the above manner will be
found excellent.

       *       *       *       *       *

CUCUMBER MANGO.

Cut a large cucumber in half, length ways, scoop out the seedy part,
and lay it in vinegar that has been boiled with mustard-seed, a little
garlic, and spices, for twenty-four hours, then fill the cucumber with
highly-seasoned forcemeat, and stew it in a rich gravy, the cucumber
must be tied to keep it together.

       *       *       *       *       *

CABBAGE AND RICE.

Scald till tender a fine summer white cabbage, then chop it up small,
and put it into a stewpan, with a large cup of rice, also previously
scalded, add a little water, a large piece of butter, salt and pepper;
let it stew gently till thoroughly done, stirring from time to time,
and adding water and butter to prevent its getting too thick; there
should be no gravy in the dish when served.

       *       *       *       *       *

PALESTINE SALAD.

Take a dozen fine Jerusalem artichokes, boil till tender, let the
water strain off, and when cold cut them in quarters, and pour over
a fine salad mixture; the artichokes should lay in the sauce half an
hour before serving. This salad is a very refreshing one, and has the
advantage of being extremely wholesome.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SPRING DISH.

Take one quart of young peas, a little mint, a few lumps of sugar, a
little salt and white pepper, simmer them gently in one pint of water,
when the peas are half done, throw in small dumplings made of paste,
as if for short crust, and sweetened with a little brown sugar, beat
up two eggs, and drop in a spoonful at a time, just before serving;
it will require a deep dish, as the liquor is not to be strained off.
Some prefer the eggs poached.

       *       *       *       *       *

CARROTS AU BEURRE.

Boil them enough to be perfectly tender, then cut them in quarters,
and again in lengths of three inches, drain them from the water, and
put to them a piece of butter, salt and pepper, and simmer them for a
few minutes without boiling; a large piece of butter must be used.

French beans are good dressed in the same way.

       *       *       *       *       *

PUREE OF VEGETABLES.

Take any vegetable that may be approved, boil till well done, drain
away all water, reduce the vegetable to a pulp, and add to it any fine
sauce, to make it of the consistency of a very thick custard.

       *       *       *       *       *

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES FRIED.

Cut in slices after parboiling them, dip in batter, and fry.

       *       *       *       *       *

STEWED RED CABBAGE.

Clean and remove the outer leaves, slice it as thinly as possible, put
it in a saucepan with a large piece of butter, and a tea cup full of
water, salt and pepper; let it stew slowly till very tender.

       *       *       *       *       *

MUSHROOMS AU NATUREL.

Clean some fine fresh mushrooms, put them in a saucepan with a large
piece of butter, pepper and salt; let them simmer until tender, and
serve them with no other sauce than that in which they have been
dressed. Also stewed in a veal gravy, and served with white sauce on a
toast, they form a nice and pretty dish.

The large flap mushrooms may be stewed in gravy, or simply broiled,
seasoned with cayenne pepper, salt, and lemon juice.

       *       *       *       *       *

DRY TOMATO SOUP.

Brown a couple of onions in a little oil, about two table-spoonsful
or more, according to the number of tomatos; when hot, add about six
tomatos cut and peeled, season with cayenne pepper and salt, and let
the whole simmer for a short time, then cut thin slices of bread, and
put as much with the tomatos as will bring them to the consistency
of a pudding; it must be well beaten up, stir in the yolks of two or
three eggs, and two ounces of butter warmed; turn the whole into a
deep dish and bake it very brown. Crumbs of bread should be strewed
over the top, and a little warmed butter poured over.

       *       *       *       *       *

DEVILLED BISCUITS.

Butter some biscuits on both sides, and pepper them well, make a paste
of either chopped anchovies, or fine cheese, and spread it on the
biscuit, with mustard and cayenne pepper, and grill them.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAVOURY EGGS.

Boil some eggs hard, put them into cold water, cut them into halves,
take out the yolks, beat them up in a mortar with grated hung beef,
fill the halves with this mixture, fry lightly, and serve with brown
gravy.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAVOURY CHEESE CAKES.

Grate finely an equal quantity of stale bread and good cheese, season
with a little pepper and salt, mix into a batter with eggs, form into
thin cakes and fry.

       *       *       *       *       *

SCALLOPED EGGS.

Poach lightly three or four eggs, place them in a dish, pour upon them
a little warm butter; sprinkle with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, strew
over with crumbs of bread, and brown before the fire.

       *       *       *       *       *

MACCARONI AND CHEESE.

Boil some maccaroni in milk or water until tender, then drain them and
place on a dish with bits of butter and grated Parmesan cheese; when
the dish is filled grate more cheese over it and brown before the
fire.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FINE RECEIPT FOR A SAVOURY OMELETTE.

Break four eggs, beat them up till thin enough to pass through a
hair sieve, then beat them up till perfectly smooth and thin; a small
omelette frying-pan is necessary for cooking it well. Dissolve in it
a piece of butter, about an ounce and a half, pour in the egg, and as
soon as it rises and is firm, slide it on to a warm plate and fold
it over; it should only be fried on one side, and finely minced herbs
should be sprinkled over the unfried side with pepper and salt. A
salamander is frequently held over the unfried side of the omelette to
take off the rawness it may otherwise have.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHORISA OMELETTE.

Add to the eggs, after they are well beaten as directed in the last
receipt, half a tea-cup full of finely minced _chorisa_; this omelette
must be lightly fried on both sides, or the salamander held over long
enough to dress the _chorisa_.

       *       *       *       *       *

RAMAKINS.

Mix together three eggs, one ounce of warmed butter, and two of fine
cheese grated, and bake in small patty pans.

       *       *       *       *       *

RISSOLES.

Make a fine forcemeat of any cold meat, poultry, or fish, enclose it
in a very rich puff paste, rolled out extremely thin. They may be made
into balls or small triangular turnovers, or into long narrow ribbons;
the edges must be pressed together, that they may not burst in frying.
They form a pretty dish.

       *       *       *       *       *

CROQUETTES.

Pound any cold poultry, meat, or fish, make it into a delicate
forcemeat; the flavor can be varied according to taste; minced
mushrooms, herbs, parsley, grated lemon peel, are suitable for poultry
and veal; minced anchovies should be used instead of mushrooms when
the croquettes are made of fish. Form the mixture into balls or oval
shapes the size of small eggs; dip them into beaten eggs, thickly
sprinkle with bread crumbs or pounded vermicelli, and fry of a
handsome brown.

       *       *       *       *       *

CASSEROLE AU RIZ.

Boil some rice till quite tender, make it into a firm paste with one
egg and a couple of tablespoons of strong gravy; then line the inside
of a mould with the paste of sufficient thickness to turn out without
breaking. Some cooks fill the mould instead of lining it only, and
scoop away the centre. After it is turned out the rice must stand till
cold, before it is removed from the mould; then fill the rice with
friccassee of fowl and sweetbread, with a rich white sauce, and place
it in the oven to become hot and brown. The mould used for a casserole
is oval and fluted, and resembles a cake mould. It is as well to
observe, it cannot be made in a jelly mould.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FONDU.

Make into a batter one ounce and a half of potatoe flour, with the
same quantity of grated cheese and of butter, and a quarter of a
pint of milk or cream; add a little salt, very little pepper, and the
well-beaten yolks of four fine fresh eggs; when all this is well mixed
together, pour in the whites of the eggs, well whisked to a froth;
pour the mixture into a deep soup plate or dish, used expressly for
the purpose, and bake in a moderate oven. The dish should be only half
filled with the _fondu_, as it will rise very high. It must be served
the moment it is ready, or it will fall. It is a good plan to hold a
salamander over it while being brought to table.

       *       *       *       *       *

PETITS FONDEAUS.

Make a batter as for a fondu, but use rice flour or arrow root instead
of potatoe flour; add the egg in the same manner as for a fondu, and
pour the mixture into small paper trays fringed round the top. The
mixture should only half fill the trays or cases.




CHAPTER VI.


Pastry.

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PASTE.

To make good light paste requires much practice; as it is not only
from the proportions, but from the manner of mixing the various
ingredients, that paste acquires its good or bad qualities.

Paste should be worked up very lightly, and no strength or pressure
used; it should be rolled out _from you_, as lightly as possible. A
marble slab is better than a board to make paste on.

The flour should be dried for some time before the fire previously to
being used. In forming it into paste it should be wetted as little as
possible, to prevent its being tough. It is a great mistake to imagine
_lard_ is better adapted for pastry than butter or clarified fat; it
may make the paste lighter, but neither the color nor the flavor will
be nearly so good, and the saving is extremely trifling.

To ensure lightness, paste should be set in the oven directly it is
made.

Puff paste requires a brisk oven.

Butter should be added to the paste in small pieces.

The more times the paste is folded and rolled, if done with a light
hand and the butter added with skill, the richer and lighter it will
prove. It is no longer customary to line the dish for pies and fruit
tarts.

       *       *       *       *       *

PLAIN PUFF PASTE.

Mix a pound of flour into a stiff paste with a little water, first
having rubbed into it about two ounces of butter, then roll it out;
add by degrees the remainder of the butter (there should be altogether
half a pound of butter), fold the paste and roll about two or three
times.

       *       *       *       *       *

VERY RICH PUFF PASTE.

Mix in the same manner equal quantities of butter and flour, taking
care to have the flour dried for a short time before the fire; it may
be folded and rolled five or six times. This paste is well suited to
vol-au-vents and tartlets; an egg well beaten and mixed with the paste
is sometimes added.

       *       *       *       *       *

PLAIN SHORT CRUST.

Put half a pound of fresh butter to a pound of flour, add the yolks of
two eggs and a little powdered sugar, mix into a paste with water, and
roll out once.

       *       *       *       *       *

EGG PASTE, CALLED IN MODERN COOKERY NOUILLES.

This is formed by making a paste of flour and beaten eggs, without
either butter or water; it must be rolled out extremely thin and left
to dry; it may then be cut into narrow strips or stamped with paste
cutters. It is more fashionable in soups than vermicelli.

       *       *       *       *       *

BEEF DRIPPING PASTE.

Mix half a pound of clarified dripping into one pound of flour; work
it into a paste with water, and roll out twice. This is a good paste
for a common meat pie.

       *       *       *       *       *

GLAZE FOR PASTRY.

When the pastry is nearly baked, brush it over with white of egg,
cover it thickly with sifted sugar, and brown it in the oven, or it
may be browned with a salamander.

For savory pies beat the yolk of an egg, dip a paste-brush into it,
and lay it on the crust before baking.

       *       *       *       *       *

FRUIT TARTS OR PIES.

A fruit tart is so common a sweet that it is scarcely necessary to
give any directions concerning it. Acid fruits are best stewed before
putting into a pie: the usual proportions are half a pound of sugar
to a quart of fruit--not quite so much if the fruit is ripe; the fruit
should be laid high in the middle of the dish, to make the pie a good
shape. It is the fashion to lay over the crust, when nearly baked,
an icing of the whites of eggs whisked with sugar; the tart or pie is
then replaced in the oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

A VERY FINE SAVOURY PIE.

Lay a fine veal cutlet, cut in pieces and seasoned, at the bottom of
the dish; lay over it a layer of smoked beef fat, then a layer of fine
cold jelly made from gravy-beef and veal, then hard boiled eggs in
slices, then chicken or sweetbread, and then again the jelly, and
so on till the dish is filled; put no water, and season highly with
lemon-juice, essence of mushroom, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; also,
if approved, a blade of mace: small cakes of fine forcemeat are an
improvement; cover with a fine puff paste, and brush over with egg,
and bake.

       *       *       *       *       *

TARTLETS.

Make a very rich light puff paste, and roll it out to half an inch of
thickness; it should be cut with fluted paste-cutters, lightly baked,
and the centre scooped out afterwards, and the sweetmeat or jam
inserted; a pretty dish of pastry may be made by cutting the paste in
ribbons of three inches in length, and one and a half in width; bake
them lightly, and pile them one upon another, with jam between each,
in the form of a cone.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHEESECAKES.

Warm four ounces of butter, mix it with the same quantity of
loaf-sugar sifted, grate in the rind of three lemons, squeeze in
the juice of one, add three well-beaten eggs, a little nutmeg, and
a spoonful of brandy; put this mixture into small tins lined with a
light puff paste, and bake.

Cheesecakes can be varied by putting almonds beaten instead of the
lemon, or by substituting Seville oranges, and adding a few slices of
candied orange and lemon peel.

       *       *       *       *       *

GIBLET PIE.

Prepare the giblets as for "_stewed giblets_" they should then be laid
in a deep dish, covered with a puff paste, and baked.

       *       *       *       *       *

MOLINA PIE.

Mince finely cold veal or chicken, with smoked beef or tongue; season
well, add lemon-juice and a little nutmeg, let it simmer in a small
quantity of good beef or veal gravy; while on the fire, stir in the
yolks of four eggs, put it in a dish to cool, and then cover with a
rich pastry, and bake it.

       *       *       *       *       *

VOL AU VENT.

This requires the greatest lightness in the pastry, as all depends
upon its rising when baked; it should be rolled out about an inch and
a half in thickness, cut it with a fluted tin of the size of the dish
in which it is to be served. Also cut a smaller piece, which must be
rolled out considerably thinner than an inch, to serve as a lid for
the other part; bake both pieces, and when done, scoop out the
crumb of the largest, and fill it with a white fricassee of chicken,
sweetbread, or whatever may be selected; the sauce should be well
thickened, or it would soften, and run through the crust.

       *       *       *       *       *

A VOL-AU-VENT OF FRUIT.

It is now the fashion to fill _vol-au-vents_ with fruits richly stewed
with sugar until the syrup is almost a jelly; it forms a very pretty
entremêt.

       *       *       *       *       *

PETITS VOL-AU-VENTS.

These are made in the same way, but cut in small rounds, the crumb
of the larger is scooped out, and the hollow filled with any of the
varieties of patty preparations or preserved fruits.

       *       *       *       *       *

MINCE PIES.

Grease and line tin patty-pans with a fine puff paste rolled out thin;
fill them with mince-meat, cover them with another piece of paste,
moisten the edges, close them carefully, cut them evenly round, and
bake them about half an hour in a well-heated oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

PATTY MEATS

May be prepared from any dressed materials, such as cold dressed veal,
beef and mutton, poultry, sweetbreads, and fish; the chief art is to
mince them properly, and give them the appropriate flavor and sauce;
for veal, sweetbreads, and poultry, which may be used together or
separately, the usual seasonings are mace, nutmeg, white pepper, salt,
mushrooms minced, or in powder, lemon-peel, and sometimes the juice also;
the mince is warmed in a small quantity of white sauce, not too thin,
and the patty crusts, when ready baked, are filled with it.

For beef and mutton the seasonings are salt, pepper, allspice, a few
sweet herbs powdered, with the addition, if approved, of a little
ketchup; the mince must be warmed in strong well-thickened beef gravy.

If the mince is of fish, season with anchovy sauce, nutmeg,
lemon-peel, pepper and salt; warm it, in a sauce prepared with butter,
flour, and milk or cream, worked together smoothly and stirred till
it thickens; the mince is then simmered in it for a few minutes, till
hot; the seasonings may be put with the sauces, instead of with the
mince.




CHAPTER VII.


Sweet Dishes, Puddings, Cakes, &c.

GENERAL REMARKS.

The freshness of all ingredients for puddings is of great importance.

Dried fruits should be carefully picked, and sometimes washed and
should then be dried. Rice, sago, and all kinds of seed should be
soaked and well washed before they are mixed into puddings.

Half an hour should be allowed for boiling a bread pudding in a half
pint basin, and so on in proportion.

All puddings of the custard kind require gentle boiling, and when
baked must be set in a moderate oven. By whisking to a solid froth the
whites of the eggs used for any pudding, and stirring them into it at
the moment of placing it in the oven, it will become exceedingly light
and rise high in the dish.

All baked puddings should be baked in tin moulds in the form of a deep
pie dish, but slightly fluted, it should be well greased by pouring
into it a little warmed butter, and then turned upside down for a
second, to drain away the superfluous butter; then sprinkle, equally
all over, sifted white sugar, or dried crumbs of bread, then pour the
pudding mixture into the mould; it should, when served, be turned
out of the mould, when it will look rich and brown, and have the
appearance of a cake.

To ensure the lightness of cakes, it is necessary to have all the
ingredients placed for an hour or more before the fire, that they may
all be warm and of equal temperature; without this precaution, cakes
will be heavy even when the best ingredients are employed. Great
care and experience are required in the management of the oven; to
ascertain when a cake is sufficiently baked, plunge a knife into it,
draw it instantly away, when, if the blade is sticky, return the cake
to the oven; if, on the contrary, it appears unsoiled the cake is
ready.

The lightness of cakes depends upon the ingredients being beaten
well together. All stiff cakes may be beaten with the hand, but pound
cakes, sponge, &c., should be beaten with a whisk or spoon.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOLA D'AMOR.

The recipe for this much celebrated and exquisite confection is
simpler than may be supposed from its elaborate appearance, it
requires chiefly care, precision, and attention. Clarify two pounds of
white sugar; to ascertain when it is of a proper consistency, drop a
spoonful in cold water, form it into a ball, and try if it sounds
when struck against a glass; when it is thus tested, take the yolks
of twenty eggs, mix them up gently and pass them through a sieve,
then have ready a funnel, the hole of which must be about the size of
vermicelli; hold the funnel over the sugar, while it is boiling over a
charcoal fire; pour the eggs through, stirring the sugar all the time,
and taking care to hold the funnel at such a distance from the sugar,
as to admit of the egg dropping into it. When the egg has been a few
minutes in the sugar, it will be hard enough to take out with a silver
fork, and must then be placed on a drainer; continue adding egg to
the boiling sugar till enough is obtained; there should be previously
prepared one pound of sweet almonds, finely pounded and boiled in
sugar, clarified with orange flower-water only; place in a dish a
layer of this paste, over which spread a layer of citron cut in thin
slices, and then a thick layer of the egg prepared as above; continue
working thus in alternate layers till high enough to look handsome.
It should be piled in the form of a cone, and the egg should form the
last layer. It must then be placed in a gentle oven till it becomes
a little set, and the last layer slightly crisp; a few minutes will
effect this. It must be served in the dish in which it is baked, and
is generally ornamented with myrtle and gold and silver leaf.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOLA TOLIEDO.

Take one pound of butter, and warm it over the fire with a little
milk, then put it into a pan with one pound of flour, six beaten eggs,
a quarter of a pound of beaten sweet almonds, and two table-spoonsful
of yeast; make these ingredients into a light paste, and set it before
the fire to rise; then grease a deep dish, and place in a layer of
the paste, then some egg prepared as for Bola d'Amor, then slices
of citron, and a layer of egg marmalade, sprinkle each layer with
cinnamon, and fill the dish with alternate layers. A rich puff paste
should line the dish, which ought to be deep; bake in a brisk oven,
after which, sugar clarified with orange flour-water must be poured
over till the syrup has thoroughly penetrated the Bola.

       *       *       *       *       *

A BOLA D'HISPANIOLA.

Take one pound and a half of flour, with three spoonsful of yeast, two
ounces of fresh butter, one table spoonful of essence of lemon, eight
eggs, and half a tea-cup full of water, and make it into a light
dough, set it to rise for about an hour, then roll it out and cut
it into three pieces; have previously ready, a quarter of a pound of
citron, and three quarters of a pound of orange and lemon peel, cut in
thin slices, mixed with powdered sugar and cinnamon; the Bola should
be formed with the pieces of dough, layers of the fruit being placed
between; it should not be baked in a tin. Powdered sweet almonds and
sugar, should be strewed over it before baking.

       *       *       *       *       *

SUPERIOR RECEIPT FOR ALMOND PUDDING.

Beat up the yolks of ten eggs, and the whites of seven; add half a
pound of sweet almonds pounded finely, half a pound of white sugar,
half an ounce of bitter almonds, and a table-spoonful of orange flower
water, when thoroughly mixed, grease a dish, put in the pudding and
bake in a brisk oven; when done, strew powdered sugar over the top,
or, which is exceedingly fine, pour over clarified sugar with orange
flower water.

       *       *       *       *       *

GERMAN OR SPANISH PUFFS.

Put a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, and a tea-cup full of cold
water into a saucepan, when the butter is melted, stir in, while on
the fire, four table spoonsful of flour; when thoroughly mixed, put
it in a dish to cool, and then add four well beaten eggs; butter some
cups, half fill them with the batter, bake in a quick oven and serve
with clarified sugar.

       *       *       *       *       *

A LUCTION, OR A RACHAEL.

Make a thin nouilles paste, cut into strips of about two inches wide,
leave it to dry, then boil the strips in a little water, and drain
through a cullender; when the water is strained off, mix it with
beaten eggs, white sugar, a little fresh butter, and grated lemon
peel; bake or boil in a shape lined with preserved cherries, when
turned out pour over a fine custard, or cream, flavored with brandy,
and sweetened to taste.

       *       *       *       *       *

PRENESAS.

Take one pint of milk, stir in as much flour as will bring it to the
consistency of hasty pudding; boil it till it becomes thick, let it
cool, and beat it up with ten eggs; when smooth, take a spoonful at a
time, and drop it into a frying-pan, in which there is a good quantity
of boiling clarified butter, fry of a light brown, and serve with
clarified sugar, flavored with lemon essence.

       *       *       *       *       *

SOPA D'ORO: OR GOLDEN SOUP.

Clarify a pound of sugar in a quarter of a pint of water, and the same
quantity of orange flower-water; cut into pieces the size of dice
a thin slice of toasted bread, or cut it into shapes with a paste
cutter, throw it, while hot, into the sugar, with an ounce of sweet
almonds pounded very finely, then take the beaten yolks of four eggs.
Pour over the sugar and bread, stir gently, and let it simmer a few
minutes. Serve in a deep glass dish, sprinkled over with pounded
cinnamon.

       *       *       *       *       *

POMMES FRITES.

This is a simple but very nice way of preparing apples. Peel and cut
five fine apples in half, dip them in egg and white powdered sugar,
and fry in butter; when done, strew a little white sugar over them.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHEJADOS.

Clarify a pound of sugar in half a pint of water; peel and grate a
moderately sized cocoa nut, add it to the syrup, and let it simmer
till perfectly soft, putting rose water occasionally to prevent its
becoming too dry; stir it continually to prevent burning. Let it cool,
and mix it with the beaten yolks of six eggs; make a thin nouilles
pastry, cut it into rounds of the size of a tea-cup; pinch up the
edges deep enough to form a shape, fill them with the sweet meat, and
bake of a light brown. A rich puff paste may be substituted for the
nouilles pastry if preferred.

       *       *       *       *       *

COCOA NUT DOCE.

This is merely the cocoa nut and sugar prepared as above, without egg,
and served in small glasses, or baked.

       *       *       *       *       *

COCOA NUT PUDDING.

Take about half a pound of finely grated cocoa nut; beat up to a cream
half a pound of fresh butter, add it to the cocoa nut, with half a
pound of white sugar, and six whites of eggs beaten to a froth; mix
the whole well together, and bake in a dish lined with a rich puff
paste.

       *       *       *       *       *

EGG MARMALADE.

Clarify one pound of sugar in half a pint of water till it becomes a
thick syrup. While clarifying, add one ounce of sweet almonds blanched
and pounded; let it cool, and stir in gently the yolks of twenty eggs
which have been previously beaten and passed through a sieve; great
care must be taken to stir it continually the same way; when well
mixed, place it over a slow fire till it thickens, stirring all the
time to prevent burning. Some cooks add vanilla, considering the
flavor an improvement.

       *       *       *       *       *

MACROTES.

Take one pound of French roll dough, six ounces of fresh butter, two
eggs, and as much flour as will be requisite to knead it together;
roll in into the form of a long French roll, and cut it in thin round
slices; set them at a short distance from the fire to rise, and then
fry in the best Florence oil; when nearly cold, dip them in clarified
sugar, flavored with essence of lemon.

       *       *       *       *       *

TART DE MOY.

Soak three-quarters of a pound of savoy biscuits in a quart of milk;
add six ounces of fresh butter, four eggs, one ounce of candid orange
peel, the same quantity of lemon peel, and one ounce of citron, mix
all well together; sweeten with white sugar, and bake in a quick oven;
when nearly done, spread over the top the whites of the eggs well
whisked, and return it to the oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

GRIMSTICH.

Make into a stiff paste one pint of biscuit powder, a little brown
sugar, grated lemon peel, six eggs, and three-quarters of a pound
of warmed fresh butter; then prepare four apples chopped finely, a
quarter of a pound of sweet almonds blanched and chopped, half a pound
of stoned raisins, a little nutmeg grated, half a pound of coarse
brown sugar, and a glass of white wine, or a little brandy; mix the
above ingredients together, and put them on a slow fire to simmer for
half an hour, and place in a dish to cool; make the paste into the
form of small dumplings, fill them with the fruit, and bake them; when
put in the oven, pour over a syrup of brown sugar and water, flavored
with lemon juice.

       *       *       *       *       *

FRENCH ROLL FRITTERS.

Take off the crust of a long round French roll; cut the crumb in thin
slices, soak them in boiling milk, taking care they do not break; have
a dish ready with several eggs beaten up, and with a fish slice remove
the bread from the milk, letting the milk drain off, dip them into the
dish of eggs, and half fry them in fine salad oil, they must then
be again soaked in the milk and dipped the egg, and then fried of a
handsome light brown; while hot, pour over clarified sugar, flavored
with cinnamon and orange flower water.

       *       *       *       *       *

HAMAN'S FRITTERS.

Take two spoonful of the best Florence oil, scald it, and when hot,
mix with it one pound of flour, add four beaten eggs and make it into
a paste, roll it out thin and cut it into pieces about four inches
square, let them dry and fry them in oil; the moment the pieces are
put in the frying pan, they must be drawn up with two silver skewers
into different forms according to fancy; a few minutes is sufficient
to fry them, they should be crisp when done.

       *       *       *       *       *

WAFLERS.

Mix a cup and a half of thick yeast with a little warm milk, and set
it with two pounds of flour before the fire to rise, then mix with
them one pound of fresh butter, ten eggs, a grated nutmeg, a quarter
of a pint of orange flower-water, a little powdered cinnamon, and
three pints of warm milk; when the batter is perfectly smooth, butter
the irons, fill them with it, close them down tightly, and put them
between the bars of a bright clear fire; when sufficiently done, they
will slip easily out of the irons.

Wafler irons are required and can be obtained at any good ironmongers
of the Hebrew persuasion.

       *       *       *       *       *

LAMPLICH.

Take half a pound of currants, the same quantity of raisins and sugar,
a little citron, ground cloves and cinnamon, with eight apples finely
chopped; mix all together, then have ready a rich puff paste cut into
small triangles, fill them with the fruit like puffs, and lay them in
a deep dish, let the pieces be placed closely, and when the dish is
full, pour over one ounce of fresh butter melted in a tea-cup full of
clarified sugar, flavoured with essence of lemon, and bake in an oven
not too brisk.

       *       *       *       *       *

STAFFIN.

This is composed of the fruit, &c., prepared as above, but the dish
is lined with the paste, and the fruit laid in alternate layers with
paste till the dish is filled; the paste must form the top layer,
clarified sugar is poured over before it is put into the oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

RICE FRITTERS.

Boil half a pound of rice, in a small quantity of water, to a jelly;
let it cool, and beat it up with six eggs, three spoonsful of flour, a
little grated lemon peel, fry like fritters, either in butter or oil,
and serve with white sugar sifted over them.

       *       *       *       *       *

LEMON TART.

Grate the peel of six lemons, add the juice of one, with a quarter of
a pound of pounded almonds, a quarter of a pound of preserved lemon
and orange peel, half a pound of powdered white sugar, and six eggs
well beaten, mix all together, and bake in a dish lined with a fine
pastry.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANOTHER WAY.

Slice six lemons and lay them in sugar all night, then mix with them
two savoy biscuits, three ounces of orange and lemon peel, three
ounces of ground almonds, one ounce of whole almonds blanched, and
bake in a dish lined with pastry. Orange tarts are prepared in the
same way, substituting oranges for the lemons.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALMOND RICE.

Boil half a pound of whole rice in milk until soft, beat it through
a sieve, set it on the fire, with sugar according to taste, a few
pounded sweet almonds and a few slices of citron; when it has simmered
a short time, let it cool; place it in a mould, and when sufficiently
firm turn it out, stick it with blanched almonds, and pour over a fine
custard. This may be made without milk, and by increasing the quantity
of almonds will be found exceedingly good.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALMOND PASTE.

Blanch half a pound of fine almonds, pound them to a paste, a few
drops of water are necessary to be added, from time to time, or they
become oily; then mix thoroughly with it half a pound of white sifted
sugar, put it into a preserving pan, and let them simmer very gently
until they become dry enough not to stick to a clean spoon when
touched; it must be constantly stirred.

       *       *       *       *       *

RICE FRUIT TARTS.

For persons who dislike pastry, the following is an excellent way of
preparing fruit. Boil in milk some whole rice till perfectly soft,
sweeten with white sugar, and when nearly cold, line a dish with it,
have ready some currants, raspberries, cherries, or any other fruit,
which must have been previously stewed and sweetened, fill the dish
with it; beat up the whites of three eggs to a froth, mixed with a
little white sugar, and lay over the top, and place it in the oven for
half an hour.

       *       *       *       *       *

BREAD FRUIT TARTS.

Line a dish with thin slices of bread, then lay the fruit with brown
sugar in alternate layers, with slices of bread; when the dish is
filled, pour over half a tea-cup full of water, and let the top be
formed of thin pieces of bread thickly strewed over with brown sugar,
bake until thoroughly done.

       *       *       *       *       *

RICE CUSTARD.

This is a very innocent and nutritive custard. Take two ounces of
whole rice and boil it in three pints of milk until it thickens, then
add half a pound of pounded sweet almonds, and sweeten to taste; a
stick of cinnamon and a piece of lemon peel should be boiled in it,
and then taken out.

       *       *       *       *       *

CREME BRUN.

Boil a large cup of cream, flavor with essence of almonds and
cinnamon, and then mix with it the yolk of three eggs, carefully
beaten and strained, stirring one way to keep it smooth; place it on a
dish in small heaps, strew over powdered sugar and beaten almonds, and
brown with a salamander.

       *       *       *       *       *

PANCAKES.

Mix a light batter of eggs with flour and milk or water, fry in
boiling butter or clarified suet; they may be fried without butter or
fat, by putting more eggs and a little cream, the pan must be very
dry and clean; those fried without butter are very delicate and
fashionable, they should be fried of the very lightest colour; they
are good also made of rice, which must be boiled in milk till quite
tender; then beat up with eggs, and flavoured according to taste, and
fried like other pancakes.

       *       *       *       *       *

PANCAKES FOR CHILDREN.

Take a pint of finely grated bread crumbs, simmer in a little milk
and water, flavour with cinnamon or lemon peel grated, add a couple of
beaten eggs, and sweeten to taste, drop a small quantity into the pan
and fry like pancakes.

       *       *       *       *       *

A NICE RICE PUDDING FOR CHILDREN.

Boil till tender half a pound of well picked rice in one quart of
fresh milk, sweeten with white sugar, and flavour with whole cinnamon,
lemon peel, and a bay leaf; when the rice is tender, place it in a
deep dish, pour over a very little butter warmed in a little milk,
and bake until brown; a slow oven is requisite unless the rice is
extremely soft before it is put in the oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

A RICH BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING.

Lay in a deep dish alternate layers of bread and butter cut from a
French roll, and the following mixture: the yolks of four eggs beaten,
four ounces of moist sugar, a few soaked ratafias, a table-spoonful
of brandy and a few currants; fill up the dish with these layers, and
pour over a little milk, the last layer should be of bread and butter,
the whites of the eggs beaten to a froth may, if an elegant appearance
is wished for, be laid over the top when the pudding is nearly baked.

       *       *       *       *       *

A CHERRY BATTER PUDDING.

Stone and pick some fine cherries, put them into a buttered mould,
and pour over them a fine batter well sweetened, tie over the mould
closely, and boil one hour and a half; serve with sweet sauce. This
is a delicious pudding; plums or damsons are sometimes used instead of
cherries.

       *       *       *       *       *

CUMBERLAND PUDDING.

Take equal quantities of bread crumbs, apples finely chopped, currants
and shred suet, sweeten with brown sugar, and mix all together with
three eggs, a little brandy, grated nutmeg, and lemon peel; boil in
a round mould from one to two hours, according to the size of the
pudding.

       *       *       *       *       *

COLLEGE PUDDING.

These are made in a similar way to Cumberland pudding, with the
omission of the apples, they are made in balls, and fried or baked in
cups. A sweet sauce is served with them.

       *       *       *       *       *

PLUM PUDDING.

To one pound of currants add one pound of raisins, one pound of shred
suet, one pound flour (or half a pound bread crumbs and half a pound
of flour), a quarter of a pound of candied orange and lemon peel,
a little citron cut thin, half a pound of moist sugar; mix all well
together as each article is added, then stir in six beaten eggs and a
glass of brandy, beat the pudding well for half an hour, let it stand
some time, then put it into a basin and boil six or seven hours in
plenty of water; it should be seasoned according to taste with ginger,
nutmeg, cloves, &c. Serve with sifted sugar or whites of eggs beaten
to a froth.

       *       *       *       *       *

RATAFIA PUDDING.

Soak the crumb of a French roll and half a pound of ratafia cakes in
milk or cream, then mix with them three ounces of warmed fresh butter,
the yolks of five and the whites of two eggs, sweeten to taste; add
one ounce of pounded almonds, and a few bitter almonds, boil in a
shape lined with dried cherries, or bake in a cake-tin first well
buttered, and sprinkled with bread crumbs.

       *       *       *       *       *

PASSOVER PUDDING.

Mix equal quantities of biscuit powder and shred suet, half the
quantity of currants and raisins, a little spice and sugar, with an
ounce of candied peels, and fine well beaten eggs; make these into
a stiff batter, and boil well, and serve with a sweet sauce. This
pudding is excellent baked in a pudding tin, it must be turned out
when served.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANOTHER SORT.

Mix the various ingredients above-named, substituting for the raisins,
apples minced finely, add a larger proportion of sugar, and either
boil or bake.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANOTHER SORT.

Mix into a batter a cup full of biscuit powder, with a little milk and
a couple of eggs, to which add three ounces of sugar, two of warmed
butter, a little shred of lemon peel, and a table-spoonful of rum;
pour the mixture into a mould, and boil or bake.

       *       *       *       *       *

PASSOVER FRITTERS.

Mix into a smooth batter a tea-cup of biscuit powder with beaten eggs,
and sweeten with white sifted sugar; add grated lemon peel, and a
spoonful of orange flower-water, and fry of a light brown; the flavor
may be varied by substituting a few beaten almonds, with one or two
bitter, instead of the orange flower-water.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SUPERIOR RECEIPT FOR PASSOVER FRITTERS.

Make a thin batter as already described in the former receipt; drop
it into a souflé pan, fry lightly, and strew over pounded cinnamon,
sifted sugar, and finely chopped almonds; hold over a salamander to
brown the upper side. Slide the fritter on to a hot dish, and fold;
pour over, when in the dish, clarified sugar.

       *       *       *       *       *

PASSOVER CURRANT FRITTERS.

Mix a thick batter, as before, add some well-washed and dried
currants, and fry of a rich brown; serve with a sweet sauce, flavored
with wine or shrub, and sweetened with moist sugar; these are often
made in the shape of small balls, and fried and served in the same
sauce.

       *       *       *       *       *

BATTER PUDDING.

Stir in three ounces of flour, four beaten eggs, and one pint of milk,
sweeten to taste, and mix to a smooth batter about the thickness of
good cream, and boil in a buttered basin.

       *       *       *       *       *

CUSTARD PUDDING.

To one desert spoonful of flour, add one pint of fresh milk and the
yolks of five eggs; flavor according to fancy, with sugar, nutmeg, or
lemon-peel; beat to a froth two whites of eggs and pour to the rest;
boil rather more than half an hour.

       *       *       *       *       *

BREAD PUDDING.

Grate stale bread, or soak the crumb of a French roll in milk, which
must be warmed; beat with it two or three eggs, flavor and sweeten
to taste, sometimes with a little wine or essence of lemon, or beaten
almonds; it will require to be boiled about half an hour. This pudding
is excellent made as above, with the addition of the peel of one whole
lemon grated, with its juice, and baked.

       *       *       *       *       *

VERMICELLI AND MACCARONI PUDDING.

Boil till tender four ounces of either of the above articles, in a
pint of milk; flavor as directed in the preceding receipt, and boil in
a mould, which may be lined with raisins. It should be served with any
sweet pudding sauce.

       *       *       *       *       *

MILLET, ARROWROOT, GROUND RICE, RICE, TAPIOCA, AND SAGO PUDDINGS.

Puddings of this sort are so similar and simple, that it is only
necessary to give one receipt, which will serve as a guide for
all;--they are all made with milk, all require to be thoroughly done,
all require to be mixed with eggs and sweetened with sugar, and
are good either boiled or baked. The cook must use her judgment in
adopting the quantities to the size of the pudding required, and the
taste of the family she serves.

       *       *       *       *       *

MINCED MEAT.

Take one pound of tender roasted meat, two pounds of shred suet, three
pounds of currants, six chopped apples, a quarter of a loaf grated,
nutmegs, cloves, pepper, salt, one pound of sugar, grated lemon and
orange peel, lemon juice, and two wine glasses of brandy, the same of
white wine, and two ounces of citron, and the same of candied lemon
peel; mix all well together; the ingredients ought to be added
separately. Minced meat should be kept a day or two before using. The
same proportions, as above, without meat, will be very good; a little
port wine is sometimes substituted for the brandy.

       *       *       *       *       *

BAKED SUET PUDDING.

Mix one pint of water, six ounces of flour, three of shred suet, and
two or three beaten eggs; sweeten to taste. Add raisins or currants if
approved, and bake in a brick oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

YORKSHIRE PUDDING.

Mix into a smooth batter half a pound of flour, four eggs, if intended
to be rich, otherwise two, a pint of milk, and a little salt, it
should be about an inch thick; it can be made with or without milk by
using a greater proportion of eggs, but it is not so good.

       *       *       *       *       *

GATEAU DE TOURS.

Take a pound-cake, cut it in slices about half an inch in thickness,
spread each slice with jam or preserve, then replace them to the
original form; cover the cake with whites of eggs and sugar, whisked
to a froth, and set it in a cool oven to dry.

       *       *       *       *       *

JAUMANGE.

Simmer half a pound of white sugar in three-quarters of a pint of
water, with the thinly cut peel of two lemons; when the sugar is
melted, add an ounce of dissolved isinglass, and the juice of three
lemons, a glass of brandy and three of sherry, beat up with this the
yolks of five or six eggs. Place the basin in which it is mixed into a
pan of boiling water to thicken it, then pour it into a mould and set
it to cool; if it does not thicken by being put in a pan of boiling
water, set the pan on the fire and stir it for a few minutes.

       *       *       *       *       *

GATEAU DE POMME.

Take ten or twelve fine baking apples, peel and take out the cores,
and let them simmer in milk and water; when soft drain them, and beat
them up with a wooden fork, with half an ounce of dissolved isinglass,
white sifted sugar, sufficient to sweeten, and grated lemon peel. Put
the mixture, when perfectly smooth, into a mould, set it in ice or
a very cool place, when it is turned out it should be covered with a
fine custard.

       *       *       *       *       *

APPLE CHARLOTTE.

Prepare the apples as in the last receipt; but instead of using a
jelly mould, put the apples into an oval cake tin about the size of a
small side dish, four or five inches high; when cold, turn it out
and cover the apple-shape with savoy cakes placed closely together
perpendicularly; all round the top of the charlotte should be covered
with whites of eggs and sugar, beaten to a stiff froth, and placed in
small balls; a salamander should be used to crisp them and to give
a slight peach-like colour; a tasteful cook will, after crisping the
first layer of these balls, add others over them to form a sort of
cone high in the centre, that will have a pretty effect if well done.
This is an easy and elegant _entremêt_, and by no means an expensive
one.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SOUFLE.

Take half a pint of cream and the same quantity of new milk, and warm
them together in a clean saucepan, meanwhile make a smooth batter with
four ounces of rice-flour or potatoe-flour, and stir into the milk,
let it simmer, stirring all the time till it thickens; then add two
to three ounces of fresh butter, and white sifted sugar enough to
sweeten, and a little grated lemon peel; then take it off the fire and
stir quickly to it the well-beaten yolks of six to eight eggs, butter
the pan and pour the mixture into it, when on the point of being
placed into the oven, add the whites of the eggs thoroughly whisked;
the pan must be only half filled, as it will rise very high; it must
be served immediately it is taken from the oven, even in passing to
the dinner table a salamander should be held over it, to prevent its
falling and becoming heavy and unsightly. The French flavour a souflé
with orange flour-water or vanilla, and the rind of a Seville orange
is sometimes substituted for the rind of a lemon; there are dishes
made expressly for souflés.

       *       *       *       *       *

A PLAIN SOUFLE.

Mix well together six ounces of rice-flour, arrowroot, or _tous les
mois_, with half a pint of milk flavoured with essence of almond
and lemon peel, or orange-flour water, let it thicken over the fire,
stirring to keep it smooth, sweeten with white sugar, add the beaten
yolks of five eggs, proceed as in the last receipt, adding the whisked
whites at the moment of placing the souflé into the oven; if
there happen to be no souflé dish, a cake-tin may make a tolerable
substitute, a paper fringed should then line the tin and a napkin
should be twisted round it when brought to table.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SWEET OMELET.

Beat up three or four eggs, pour them into an omelet pan, and sprinkle
a little white sugar over them while frying, hold a salamander or hot
shovel over the uppermost side of the omelet, as it must only be fried
on one side. As soon as it is set, slide it on to a hot dish, double
it, and sprinkle sugar over it and serve quickly.

       *       *       *       *       *

OMLETTE SOUFLEE.

Fry the eggs as directed for sweet omelet, using about five yolks and
two whites, all of which require being finely beaten and strained.
Soften a little preserve by holding it over the fire, or mixing a
little warm water with it, spread it slightly over the omelette, have
the remainder of the whites whisked to a froth with white sugar, and
lay it on the preserve; slide the omelette on to a hot dish, double
it, and serve directly.

       *       *       *       *       *

FANCY CREAMS.

Put into a basin a pint of cream, to which add four ounces of powdered
white sugar, and the rind of a lemon rubbed on a lump of sugar, and a
glass of sherry wine; whisk them well and mix with it half an ounce
of dissolved isinglass, beat it all thoroughly together, and fill the
mould, which should be set in ice till wanted. A table spoonful of
marasquino added to the above, will make _Italian cream_. A table
spoonful of fresh or preserved pine-apple will make _pine-apple
cream_; this will require the addition of a little lemon syrup. A
table spoonful of ratafia, will make it _ratifia cream_.

The juice of strawberries or raspberries make fine fruit creams;
_mille fruit cream_ is made by mixing with the cream any kind of small
preserved fruit.

       *       *       *       *       *

RICE SOUFLES.

Boil well some fine picked rice, in pure fresh milk, sweeten and
flavour with a bay leaf, lemon peel, and a stick of cinnamon, all
which must be taken out when the rice is done, then line with it
a round dish, or souflé dish, have ready apples previously boiled,
sweetened, and beat up smoothly, place the apple lightly in the centre
rather higher in the middle than at the sides, beat up the whites of
eggs to a froth, sweeten and flavour with lemon, or noyau essence;
place it in small heaps tastefully on the apple and rice, and brown
delicately with a salamander. This souflé may have stewed cherries or
any _other_ kind of fruit, instead of the apples if preferred.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOILED CUSTARD.

Take a pint of milk, let it simmer in a very clean saucepan, flavor
it with lemon-peel and a bay leaf, and sweeten to taste; while gently
boiling, add the beaten yolks of four eggs, and the whites of two,
continue stirring until the custard thickens, when it must be removed
from the fire, but it is requisite to stir it until it cools. It is
necessary to strain the milk before the eggs are added, and also to
pass the eggs through a sieve. Custards are flavoured sometimes
with essence of almonds; a little cream added to the milk is a great
improvement. The above mixture may be baked in small cups; they
require a quarter of an hour to bake.

       *       *       *       *       *

CALF'S FEET JELLY.

Boil two feet in two quarts, or five pints of water, till the water
has half wasted; strain, and when cold, take off the fat, then put it
in the saucepan with lump sugar, lemon juice, and white wine to taste,
also a little lemon peel; when simmered a few minutes, throw in the
whites of two eggs, and their shells broken, which will have the
effect of clarifying the jelly; let it boil about ten minutes after
the scum rises, then pour it through a flannel bag or thick cloth,
dipping the bag or cloth first into hot water; pass the jelly through
it until clear, then pour it into moulds and put them in a cool place
to set. One calf's foot and one cow heel will be more economical than
two calfs feet. If fruit is desired to be in the jelly, it must be put
in when the jelly begins to stiffen in the mould.

       *       *       *       *       *

ORANGE JELLY.

This can be made with calf's feet or without. One quart of water will
require one ounce of isinglass, simmer the isinglass in the water,
and add the peel of one lemon and one orange; when the isinglass is
dissolved, add the juice of a lemon and six fine oranges; although the
quantity must vary according to the season for them, sweeten with half
a pound of white sugar; a Seville orange is added if there should not
be much flavor in the others.

Lemon jelly is made in the same way; the peel of a Seville orange and
of a lemon is used, with the juice of five lemons; rather more sugar
will be required with this jelly than with the former.

Punch jelly is made in the same way. An equal quantity of brandy
and rum, with the juice of two or three lemons is mixed with the
isinglass, which is dissolved in one pint of water, the other pint of
liquid being made up by the lemon juice and spirits.

The essence of noyeau is reckoned to give an exquisite flavor, in this
case it requires to be coloured with a few drops of cochineal.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN EASY TRIFLE.

Soak three sponge cakes and half a pound of macaroons and ratafias
in one wine glass of brandy and three of white wine, lay them at the
bottom of the trifle dish, and pour over nearly a pint of thick rich
custard, made of equal portions of milk and cream, with seven eggs,
according to directions for "Custards;" before the custard is added,
jam and sweetmeats are sometimes spread over the cakes; a fine light
froth is prepared with cream and the whites of two eggs, flavored with
wine and sugar, heap it over the trifle lightly.

       *       *       *       *       *

A STILL MORE SIMPLE ONE, AND QUICKLY MADE.

Soak ratafia cakes in wine, with a little brandy; pour over a thick
custard, and cover with a froth of the white of eggs, flavored with
wine and sweetened with white sugar.

       *       *       *       *       *

BLANCMANGE.

To a quart of milk add half an ounce of fine isinglass, a handful
of beaten almonds, and two or three bitter almonds, a couple of bay
leaves, and a piece of lemon peel; when the isinglass is dissolved,
strain the milk into a basin; sweeten with four ounces of white sugar,
and pour into a mould.

The juice of fresh strawberries is a fine addition to blancmange.

       *       *       *       *       *

A JUDITHA.

Put some gooseberries into a saucepan with very little water, when
they are soft, pulp them through a sieve, and add several well-beaten
yolks of eggs, and sweeten with white sugar; have ready a shape of
biscuit ice, or any other cream ice that may be preferred, take off a
thick slice of the ice from the top carefully, and without breaking,
so that it may be replaced on the ice. Scoop out a large portion of
the ice which may be mixed with the gooseberry cream, and fill the
hollow with it. Cover the shape with the piece that was removed and
serve. This is an elegant dish, the ice should be prepared in a round
mould--brown-bread ice is particularly well adapted to a Juditha.

       *       *       *       *       *

TOURTE A LA CRÊME.

This is a fashionable and delicate description of tart. A couple of
round cutters about the size of a pie plate are required for it, one
of the cutters must be about two inches smaller than the other, if
they are fluted the tourte will have a better appearance.

Roll out some very rich puff paste to the thickness of one inch, and
cut two pieces with the larger tin cutter, then press the smaller
cutter through one of these pieces, and remove the border which will
be formed round it; this must be laid very evenly upon the other piece
of paste, and slightly pressed to make it adhere; place the tourte in
an oven to bake for about twenty minutes, then let it become cool, but
not cold, and fill it with a fine custard or with any rich preserves;
if the latter, a well whipped cream may be laid lightly over; the
pastry may be glazed if approved.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GROSVENOR PUDDING.

Beat half a pound of butter with the same quantity of white sugar
until it is like cream, then beat up five eggs and add them with half
a pound of flour, a quarter of a pound of currants, two ounces of
candied orange and lemon peel cut in thin slices, and a few drops
of lemon essence; when these ingredients are well mixed and beaten,
butter a pudding tin, pour in the mixture, and bake in a moderately
quick oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

CITRON PUDDING.

Cut in slices two ounces of citron, the same quantity of candied
orange and lemon peel, add to them four ounces of loaf sugar, and four
of fresh butter; line a dish with fine puff paste, and beat up to a
froth the yolks of four eggs and the whites of two, fill the dish with
these ingredients and bake half an hour. The dish should be shallow.

       *       *       *       *       *

STEWED PEARS.

Peel, core, and quarter a dozen fine large baking pears, put them into
a stewpan with half a pound of white sugar and sufficient cold water
to cover them; with a small quantity of the peelings, a few cloves,
and a little cochineal tied up in a muslin bag, let them stew gently,
and closely covered until tender.

       *       *       *       *       *

BAKED PEARS.

Peel them and stick a couple of cloves in each pear, place them in a
deep dish, with half a pound of brown sugar and a little water, let
them bake till quite tender.

       *       *       *       *       *

STEWED PIPPINS.

Peel the pippins and stew them gently with a little water, white
sugar, and a little lemon peel; preserve is usually used to ornament
the top of each apple; they should, when done, look white and rather
transparent.

       *       *       *       *       *

SIESTA CAKE.

Take one pound of butter, warm it over the fire with a little milk,
put it into a pan with a pound of flour, six eggs, a quarter of a
pound of sweet almonds finely pounded, and two table-spoonsful of
yeast; beat these ingredients well together into a light paste, and
set it before the fire to rise, butter the inside of a pan, and fill
it with alternate layers of the paste, and of pounded almonds, sugar,
citron, and cinnamon; when baked, and while hot, make holes through
the siesta with a small silver skewer, taking care not to break it,
and pour over clarified sugar till it is perfectly soaked through.

       *       *       *       *       *

A PLAIN BOLA.

Take three quarters of a pound of white sugar, three quarters of a
pound of fresh butter, two eggs, one pound and a half of flour, three
spoonsful of yeast, a little milk, and two ounces of citron cut thin,
and mix into a light paste; bake in a tin, and strew powdered sugar
and cinnamon over it before baking.

The above ingredients are often baked in small tins or cups.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALMOND TEA-CAKES.

Take half-a-pound of flour, three ounces of which are to be put aside
for rolling out the cakes, the other five ounces, with a quarter of
a pound of fresh butter, are to be set before the fire for a few
minutes; after which mix with it half a pound of sugar, a quarter of a
pound of sweet almonds, chopped fine, and a couple of eggs; make these
ingredients into thin cakes, and strew over them ground almonds and
white sugar, and bake in a brisk oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

OIL TWIST.

Take half a quartern of dough, one gill of the best Florence oil,
half a pound of currants, half a pound of moist sugar, and a little
cinnamon; mix all well together, make it up in the form of a twist,
and bake it.

       *       *       *       *       *

CINNAMON CAKES.

Rub half a pound of fresh butter into a pound of flour; work it well
together, then add half a pound of sifted sugar, and a tea-spoonful of
pounded cinnamon, and make it into a paste, with three eggs; roll it,
and cut into small cakes, with tin cutters.

       *       *       *       *       *

RICH PLUM CAKE.

Beat to a cream one pound of butter, to which add the same quantity of
sifted loaf sugar and of fine flour, the whites of ten eggs beaten to
a froth, and the yolks of the same also beaten till quite smooth
and thin, and half a nutmeg grated; lastly, work in one pound of
well-washed currants, half a pound of mixed candied peels, cut small,
and a glass of brandy; bake for two hours.

       *       *       *       *       *

DIET-BREAD CAKE.

Beat together five eggs and half a pound of white sugar, then add six
ounces of flour well dried and sifted, a little lemon-juice and grated
lemon-peel; bake in a moderate oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

DROP CAKES.

Mix one pound of flour with the same quantity of butter, sugar, and
currants; make these into a paste with a couple of eggs, add a little
orange flower-water and a little white wine; if the paste is likely
to be too thin when two eggs are used, omit the white of one; drop the
mixture when ready on a tin plate, and bake.

       *       *       *       *       *

A COMMON CAKE.

Rub in with one pound of flour six ounces of butter, and two
tea-spoonsful of yeast, to a paste; set it to rise, then mix in five
eggs, half a pound of sugar, and a quarter of a pint of milk; add
currants or carraways, and beat well together. If required to
be richer, put more butter and eggs, and add candied citron and
lemon-peel.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SODA CAKE.

Mix with the above ingredients one drachm of soda, which should be
rubbed in with the flour. This is reckoned a wholesome cake, and half
the quantity of eggs are required, or it may be rendered a fine rich
cake by increasing the quantity of eggs, butter, and fruit.

       *       *       *       *       *

A PLAIN CAKE.

Work into two pounds of dough a quarter of a pound of sugar, the same
of butter; add a couple of eggs, and bake in a tin.

       *       *       *       *       *

A POUND CAKE.

Beat to cream a pound of butter and a pound of sifted loaf sugar; add
eight beaten eggs, stir in lightly three quarters of a pound of flour,
beat well together, and bake for one hour in a brisk oven; currants
may be added if, approved.

       *       *       *       *       *

BUTTER CAKES.

Take equal quantities of butter and sugar, say half a pound of each,
grate the rind of a lemon, add a little cinnamon, and as much flour
as will form it into a paste, with spice and eggs; roll it out, cut
it into two small cakes, and bake. A piece of candied orange or
lemon-peel may be put on the top of each cake.

       *       *       *       *       *

LITTLE SHORT CAKES.

Rub into a pound of flour four ounces of butter, four ounces of white
powdered sugar, and two eggs; make it into a paste, roll it thin, and
cut into small cakes with tin cutters. A little orange flower-water or
sweet wine improve the flavour of these cakes.

       *       *       *       *       *

MATSO CAKES.

Make a stiff paste with biscuit powder and milk and water; add a
little butter, the yolk of an egg, and a little white sugar; cut into
pieces, and mould with the hand, and bake in a brisk oven. These cakes
should not be too thin.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANOTHER SORT.

Warm a quarter of a pint of water flavoured with a little salt, in
which mix four beaten eggs; then mix half a pound of matso flour, and
a couple of lumps of white sugar, and half a teacup of milk; mix all
well together, and bake in a tin.

       *       *       *       *       *

FRIED MATSOS.

Soak some of the thickest matsos in milk, taking care they do not
break; then fry in boiling fresh butter. This is a very nice method of
preparing them for breakfast or tea.

       *       *       *       *       *

MATSO DIET BREAD.

Simmer one pound of white sugar in a quarter of a pint of water, which
pour hot upon eight well-beaten eggs; beat till cold, when add one
pound of matso flour, a little grated lemon-peel, and bake in a
papered tin, or in small tins; the cake must be removed while hot.

       *       *       *       *       *

A CAKE WITHOUT BUTTER.

Beat well five eggs, to which add six ounces of flour; flavour with
beaten almonds, and add, if liked, thin slices of citron; bake in a
mould in a moderate oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPONGE CAKES.

Mix six eggs, half the whites, half a pound of lump sugar, half a
pound of flour, and a quarter of a pint of water, which should be
strongly flavoured by lemon peel having been in it for some hours;
the sugar and water should boil up together, and poured over the eggs
after they have been well whisked, which must be continued while the
liquid is being poured over them, and until they become quite thick
and white, then stir in the flour, which must be warm and dry. Pour
the mixture into a couple of cake tins, and bake in a gentle oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

A NICE BREAKFAST CAKE.

Make a paste of half a pound of flour, one ounce of butter, a very
little salt, two eggs, and a table-spoonful of milk, roll it out, but
first set it to rise before the fire; cut it into cakes the size of
small cheese plates, sprinkle with flour, and bake on a tin in a brisk
oven, or they may be fried in a clean frying pan; they should be cut
in half, buttered hot, and served quickly.

       *       *       *       *       *

ICING FOR CAKES.

Whisk half a pound of sifted white sugar, with one wine glass of
orange flower-water, and the whites of two eggs, well beaten and
strained; it must be whisked until it is quite thick and white; and
when the cake is almost cold, dip a soft camel's hair brush into it,
and cover the cake well, and set it in a cool oven to harden.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO CLARIFY SUGAR.

Take the proportion of one pound of sugar to half a pint of water,
with the whites of a couple of eggs; boil it up twice, then set it by
for the impurities to rise to the top, and skim it carefully.




CHAPTER VIII.


Preserving and Bottling.

Attention and a little practice will ensure excellence in such
preserves as are in general use in private families; and it will
always be found a more economical plan to purchase the more rare and
uncommon articles of preserved fruits than to have them made at home.

The more sugar that is added to fruit the less boiling it requires.

If jellies be over-boiled, much of the sugar will become candied, and
leave the jelly thin.

Every thing used for the purpose of preserving should be clean and
very dry, particularly bottles for bottled fruit.

Fruit should boil rapidly _before_ the sugar is added, and quietly
afterwards--when preserves seem likely to become mouldy, it is
generally a sign they have not been sufficiently boiled, and it will
be requisite to boil them up again--fruit for bottling should not be
too ripe, and should be perfectly fresh; there are various methods
adopted by different cooks: the fruit may be placed in the bottles,
and set in a moderate oven until considerably shrunken, when the
bottles should be removed and closely corked; or the bottles may be
set in a pan with cold water up to the necks, placed over the fire;
when the fruit begins to sink remove them, and when cold fill up each
bottle with cold spring water, cork the bottles, and lay them on their
sides in a dry place.

To bottle red currants--pick them carefully from the stalk, and add,
as the currants are put in, sifted white sugar; let the bottles
be well filled and rosin the corks, and keep them with their necks
downwards.

       *       *       *       *       *

BRANDIED CHERRIES.

Put into a large wide mouthed bottle very ripe black cherries, add to
them two pounds of loaf sugar, a quart of brandy, and a few cloves,
then bruise a few more cherries, and simmer with sugar, strain and add
the juice to the cherries in the bottle, cork closely, and keep in a
warm dry place.

       *       *       *       *       *

QUINCE MARMALADE.

Peel, cut into quarters, and core two pounds of sharp apples, and the
same quantity of quinces; put them into a jar, with one pound of white
sugar powdered and sprinkled over them; cover them with half a pint
of water, and put in also a little bruised cochineal tied in a muslin.
Set them in a slack oven till tender, take out the cochineal, and pulp
the fruit to a marmalade.

Some cooks prefer boiling the sugar and water first and scalding the
fruit till tender, and then adding them to the syrup.

       *       *       *       *       *

DAMSON MARMALADE.

Is made in the same manner as quince, as also apricot marmalade, which
is very fine; the fruit must be stoned, and some of the kernels put in
with the fruit, which are peeled, and apricots are cut in pieces; they
should be carefully pulped through a clean sieve.

       *       *       *       *       *

PRESERVED APRICOTS.

Halve and pare ripe apricots, or if not quite ripe, boil them till the
skin can easily be removed. Lay them in a dish hollow downwards,
sift over them their own weight of white sugar, let them lay for some
hours, then put the fruit, with the sugar and juice into a preserving
pan, and simmer till the fruit is clear, take it out, put it carefully
into pots, and pour over the syrup.

This receipt will serve as a guide for preserved nectarines, peaches,
plums, gages, &c. A few of the kernels should always be put in with
the fruit, as they improve the flavor of the preserve.

       *       *       *       *       *

STRAWBERRIES PRESERVED WHOLE.

Weigh an equal quantity of fruit and white sugar powdered, sift all
the sugar over the fruit, so that half of it shall equally be covered,
let it lay till the next day, when boil the remainder with red currant
juice, in which simmer the strawberries until the jelly hangs about
them. Put the strawberries into pots, taking care not to break them,
and pour over the syrup.

This receipt will serve for raspberries and cherries, which make a
fine preserve.

       *       *       *       *       *

STRAWBERRY JAM.

Bruise gently, with the back of a wooden spoon, six pounds of fine
fresh fruit, and boil them with very little water for twenty minutes,
stirring until the fruit and juice are well mixed; then put in
powdered loaf sugar of equal weight to the fruit, and simmer half an
hour longer. If the preserve is not required to be very rich, half the
weight of sugar in proportion to the quantity of fruit may be used;
but more boiling will be requisite. By this recipe also are made
raspberry, currant, gooseberry, apricot, and other jams.

       *       *       *       *       *

RED CURRANT JELLY.

Strip carefully from the stems some quite ripe currants, put them into
a preserving pan, stir them gently over a clear fire until the juice
flows freely from them, then squeeze the currants and strain the juice
through a folded muslin or jelly bag; pour it into a preserving pan,
adding, as it boils, white sugar, in the proportion of one pound of
sugar to one pint of juice.

If made with less sugar, more boiling will be required, by which much
juice and flavour are lost. A little dissolved isinglass is used by
confectioners, but it is much better without. Jams and jellies should
be poured into pots when in a boiling state.

Jellies should be continually skimmed till the scum ceases to rise,
so that they may be clear and fine. White currant jelly and black are
made in the same manner as red. By this receipt can be made raspberry
jelly, strawberry jelly, and all other kinds.

       *       *       *       *       *

APPLE JELLY.

Pare, core, and cut small any kind of fine baking apples--say six
pounds in weight; put them in a preserving pan with one quart of
water; boil gently till the apples are very soft and broken, then pass
the juice through a jelly bag; when, to each pint, add half a pound of
loaf sugar, set it on the fire to boil twenty minutes, skimming it as
the scum rises; it must not be over boiled, or the colour will be too
dark.

       *       *       *       *       *

PEAR-SYRUP OR JELLY.

This preparation, although little known in England, forms an important
article of economy in many parts of the Continent. The pears are first
heated in a saucepan over the fire until the pulp, skins, &c., have
separated from the juice, which is then strained, and boiled with
coarse brown sugar to the thickness of treacle; but it has a far
more agreeable flavour. It is cheaper than butter or treacle, and is
excellent spread upon bread for children.

       *       *       *       *       *

PLUM JAM.

This is a useful and cheap preserve. Choose the large long black plum;
to each gallon of which add three pounds of good moist sugar; bake
them till they begin to crack, when, put them in pots, of a size for
once using, as the air is apt to spoil the jam.




CHAPTER IX.


Pickling.

The best vinegar should always be used for pickling; in all cases it
should be boiled and strained.

The articles to be pickled should first be parboiled or soaked in
brine, which should have about six ounces of salt to one quart of
water.

The spices used for pickling are whole pepper, long peppers, allspice,
mace, mustard-seed, and ginger, the last being first bruised.

The following is a good proportion of spice: to one quart of vinegar
put half an ounce of ginger, the same quantity of whole-pepper and
allspice, and one ounce of mustard-seed; four shalots, and one clove
of garlic.

Pickles should be kept secure from the air, or they soon become
soft; the least quantity of water, or a wet spoon, put into a jar of
pickles, will spoil the contents.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PICKLE GHERKINS AND FRENCH BEANS.

These are, of all vegetables, the most difficult to pickle, so that
their green colour and freshness may be preserved. Choose some fine
fresh gherkins, and set them to soak in brine for a week; then drain
them, and pour over boiling vinegar, prepared with the usual spices,
first having covered them with fresh vine leaves. If they do not
appear to be of a fine green, pour off the vinegar, boil it up again,
cover the gherkins with fresh green vine leaves, and pour over the
vinegar again. French beans are pickled exactly the same.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PICKLE CAULIFLOWERS.

Remove the stalks and leaves, break the flower into pieces, parboil
them in brine, then drain them, and lay them in a jar, and pour over
boiling spiced vinegar.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PICKLE MELON MANGOES.

Cut the melons in half, remove the pulpy part and the seeds, soak
the halves for a week in strong brine, then fill them with the
usual spices, mustard-seed and garlic, and tie them together with
packthread; put them in jars, and pour over boiling spiced vinegar.
Large cucumbers may be pickled in the same way.

       *       *       *       *       *

PICCALILI.

Pickle gherkins, French beans, and cauliflower, separately, as already
directed; the other vegetables used are carrots, onions, capsicums,
white cabbage, celery, and, indeed almost any kind may be put into
this pickle, except walnuts and red cabbage. They must be cut in small
pieces, and soaked in brine, the carrots only, requiring to be boiled
in it to make them tender; then prepare a liquor as follows: into
half a gallon of vinegar put two ounces of ginger, one of whole black
pepper, one of whole allspice, and one of bruised chillies, three
ounces of shalots, and one ounce of garlic; boil together nearly
twenty minutes; mix a little of it in a basin, with two ounces of
flour of mustard and one ounce of turmeric, and stir it in gradually
with the rest; then pour the liquor over the vegetables.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PICKLE MUSHROOMS.

Choose small button mushrooms, clean and wipe them, and throw them
into cold water, then put into a stewpan with a little salt, and cover
them with distilled vinegar, and simmer a few minutes. Put them in
bottles with a couple of blades or so of mace, and when cold, cork
them closely.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PICKLE ONIONS.

Choose all of a size and soak in boiling brine, when cold, drain them
and put them in bottles, and fill up with hot distilled vinegar; if
they are to be _white_, use white wine vinegar; if they are to be
_brown_, use the best distilled vinegar, adding, in both cases, a
little mace, ginger, and whole pepper.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PICKLE WHITE AND RED CABBAGE.

Take off the outside leaves, cut out the stalk, and shred the cabbage
into a cullender, sprinkle with salt, let it remain for twenty-four
hours, then drain it. Put it into jars, and fill up with boiling
vinegar, prepared with the usual spices; if the cabbage is red, a
little cochineal powdered, or a slice or two of beet-root is necessary
to make the pickle a fine colour; if it is white cabbage, add instead,
a little turmeric powder.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PICKLE WALNUTS.

Soak in brine for a week, prick them, and simmer in brine, then let
them lay on a sieve to drain, and to turn black, after which place
them in jars, and pour over boiling spiced vinegar.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN OLD WAY OF PICKLING CUCUMBERS.

Cut the cucumbers in small pieces, length ways, with the peel left
on; lay them in salt for twenty-four hours, then dry the pieces with
a cloth, lay them in a deep dish, and pour over the following mixture:
some vinegar boiled with cayenne pepper, whole ginger, a little
whole pepper, and mustard seed, a few West India pickles are by some
considered an improvement. This mixture should stand till nearly cold
before covering the cucumbers, which should then be bottled. This
pickle is fit for eating a few days after it is made, and will also
keep good in a dry place as long as may be required.




CHAPTER X.


Receipts for Invalids.

BEEF TEA.

Cut one pound of fleshy beef in dice, or thin slices, simmer for a
short time without water, to extract the juices, then add, by degrees,
one quart of water, a little salt, a piece of lemon peel, and a
sprig of parsley, are the only necessary seasonings; if the broth is
required to be stronger put less water.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHICKEN PANADA.

Boil a chicken till rather more than half done in a quart of water,
take of the skin, cut off the white parts when cold, and pound it to
a paste in a mortar, with a small quantity of the liquor it was boiled
in, season with salt, a little nutmeg, and the least piece of lemon
peel; boil it gently, and make it with the liquor in which the fowl
has been boiled of the required consistency. It should be rather
thicker than cream.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHICKEN BROTH.

After the white parts have been removed for the panada, return the
rest of the chicken to the saucepan, with the liquid, add one blade
of mace, one slice only of onion, a little salt, and a piece of lemon
peel; carefully remove every particle of fat. Vermicelli is very well
adapted for this broth.

       *       *       *       *       *

RESTORATIVE JELLIES.

There are various kinds of simple restorative jellies suited to an
invalid, among the best are the following:--

       *       *       *       *       *

HARTSHORN JELLY.

Boil half a pound of hartshorn shavings in two quarts of water over a
gentle fire until it becomes thick enough to hang about a spoon, then
strain it into a clean saucepan and add half a pint of sherry wine,
and a quarter of a pound of white sugar, clear it by stirring in the
whites of a couple of eggs, whisked to a froth; boil it for about four
or five minutes, add the juice of three lemons, and stir all together,
when it is well curdled, strain it and pour into the mould, if the
color is required to be deeper than the wine will make it, a little
saffron may be boiled in it.

       *       *       *       *       *

BARLEY JELLY.

Boil in an iron saucepan, one tea-cup full of pearl barley, with one
quart of cold water, pour off the water when it boils, and add another
quart, let it simmer very gently for three hours over or near a slow
fire, stirring it frequently with a wooden spoon, strain it, and
sweeten with white sugar, add the juice of a lemon, a little white
wine, and a quarter of an ounce of isinglass dissolved in a little
water, and pour it into a mould. This is a very nourishing jelly.

       *       *       *       *       *

CAUDLE.

Make a fine smooth gruel of grits, with a few spices boiled in it,
strain it carefully and warm as required, adding white wine and a
little brandy, nutmeg, lemon peel, and sugar, according to taste, some
persons put the yolk of an egg.

       *       *       *       *       *

RICE CAUDLE.

Boil half a pint of milk, add a spoonful of ground rice mixed with a
little milk till quite smooth, stir it into the boiling milk, let
it simmer till it thickens, carefully straining it, and sweeten with
white sugar.

       *       *       *       *       *

BARLEY MILK.

Boil half a pound of pearl barley in one quart of new milk, taking
care to parboil it first in water, which must be poured off, sweeten
with white sugar. This is better made with pearl barley than the
prepared barley.

       *       *       *       *       *

RESTORATIVE MILK.

Boil a quarter of an ounce of isinglass in a pint of new milk till
reduced to half, and sweeten with sugar candy.

       *       *       *       *       *

MILK PORRIDGE.

Make a fine gruel with new milk without adding any water, strain
it when sufficiently thick, and sweeten with white sugar. This is
extremely nutritive and fattening.

       *       *       *       *       *

WINE WHEY.

Set on the fire in a saucepan a pint of milk, when it boils, pour in
as much white wine as will turn it into curds, boil it up, let the
curds settle, strain off, and add a little boiling water, and sweeten
to taste.

       *       *       *       *       *

TAMARIND WHEY.

Boil three ounces of tamarinds in two pints of milk, strain off the
curds, and let it cool. This is a very refreshing drink.

       *       *       *       *       *

PLAIN WHEY.

Put into boiling milk as much lemon juice or vinegar as will turn it,
and make the milk clear, strain, add hot water, and sweeten.

       *       *       *       *       *

ORGEAT.

Beat three ounces of almonds with a table-spoonful of orange-flour
water, and one bitter almond; then pour one pint of new milk, and one
pint of water to the paste, and sweeten with sifted white sugar; half
an ounce of gum-arabic is a good addition for those who have a tender
chest.

       *       *       *       *       *

IRISH MOSS.

Boil half an ounce of carrageen or Irish moss, in a pint and a half
of water or milk till it is reduced to a pint; it is a most excellent
drink for delicate persons or weakly children.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FINE SOFT DRINK FOR A COUGH.

Add to a quarter of a pint of new milk warmed, a beaten new laid egg,
with a spoonful of capillaire, and the same of rose water.

       *       *       *       *       *

A REFRESHING DRINK.

Cut four large apples in slices, and pour over a quart of boiling
water, let them stand till cold, strain the liquor, and sweeten with
white sugar; a little lemon peel put with the apples improves the
flavour.

       *       *       *       *       *

A VERY FINE EMMOLIENT DRINK.

Wash and rinse extremely well one ounce of pearl barley, then put to
it one ounce of sweet almonds beaten fine, and a piece of lemon
peel, boil together till the liquor is of the thickness of cream and
perfectly smooth, then put in a little syrup of lemon and capillaire.

       *       *       *       *       *

A COOLING DRINK IN FEVER.

Put a little tea-sage, and a couple of sprigs of balm into a jug, with
a lemon thinly sliced, and the peel cut into strips, pour over a quart
of boiling water, sweeten and let it cool.




APPENDIX.


FRENCH METHOD OF MAKING COFFEE.

Take in the proportion of one ounce of the berries to half a pint of
water, and grind them at the instant of using them. Put the powder
into a coffee biggin, press it down closely, and pour over a little
water sufficient to moisten it, and then add the remainder by degrees;
the water must be perfectly boiling all the time; let it run quite
through before the top of the percolator is taken off, it must be
served with an equal quantity of boiling milk. Coffee made in this
manner is much clearer and better flavored than when boiled, and it is
a much more economical method than boiling it.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FRENCH RECEIPT FOR MAKING CHOCOLATE.

Take one ounce of chocolate, cut it in small pieces, and boil it about
six or seven minutes with a small teacup full of water; stir it till
smooth, then add nearly a pint of good milk, give it another boil,
stirring or milling it well, and serve directly. If required very
thick, a larger proportion of chocolate must be used.

       *       *       *       *       *

EGG WINE.

Beat a fresh egg, and add it to a tumbler of white wine and water,
sweetened and spiced; set it on the fire, stir it gently one way until
it thickens; this, with toast, forms a light nutritive supper.

       *       *       *       *       *

MULLED WINE.

Boil a little spice, cinnamon, ginger, and cloves, in water, till the
flavor is gained, then add wine, as much as may be approved, sugar and
nutmeg; a strip or two of orange rind cut thin will be found a great
improvement.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO MAKE PUNCH.

To make one quart, provide two fine fresh lemons, and rub off the
outer peel upon a few lumps of sugar; put the sugar into a bowl with
four ounces of powdered sugar, upon which press the juice of the
lemons, and pour over one pint and a half of very hot water that
_has not boiled_, then add a quarter of a pint of rum, and the same
quantity of brandy; stir well together and strain it, and let it stand
a few minutes before it is drank.

Whiskey punch is made after the same method; the juice and thin peel
of a Seville orange add variety of flavor to punch, particularly of
whiskey punch.

       *       *       *       *       *

MILK PUNCH.

Put into a quart of new milk the thinly pared rind of a lemon, and
four ounces of lump sugar; let it boil slowly, remove the peel, and
stir in the yolks of two eggs, previously mixed with a little cold
milk; add by degrees a tea-cup full of rum, the same of brandy;
mill the punch to a fine froth, and serve immediately in quite warm
glasses. The punch must not be allowed to boil after the eggs have
been added.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FRENCH PLUM PIE.

Stew one pound of fine dried French plums until tender, in water,
rather more than enough to cover, with one glass of port wine, and
four ounces of white sugar, which must however not be added until
the plums are quite tender, then pour them with the liquor into a
pie-dish, and cover with a rich puff paste, and bake.

       *       *       *       *       *

ROASTED CHESTNUTS FOR DESSERTS.

Chestnuts are so frequently sent to table uneatable, that we will
give the French receipt for them. They should be first boiled for five
minutes, and then finish them in a pan over the fire; they will after
the boiling require exactly fifteen minutes roasting; the skin must be
slightly cut before they are cooked.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO ROAST PARTRIDGES AND PHEASANTS.

They may be either _piqué_ or not; partridges require roasting rather
more than half an hour, pheasants three-quarters, if small, otherwise
an hour; they are served with bread sauce.

Partridges may be stewed as pigeons.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO ROAST VENISON.

Wipe the venison dry, sprinkle with salt, and cover with writing paper
rubbed with clarified fat; cover this with a thick paste made of flour
and water, round which, tie with packthread white kitchen paper, so as
to prevent the paste coming off; set the venison before a strong
fire, and baste it directly and continue until it is nearly done, then
remove the paper, paste, &c.; draw the venison nearer the fire, dredge
it with flour, and continue basting; it should only take a light
brown, and should be rather under than over-done; a large haunch
requires from three to four hours roasting, a small one not above
three. Serve with the knuckle, garnished with a fringe of white paper,
and with gravy and red currant jelly, either cold or melted, in port
wine, and served hot.

       *       *       *       *       *

A VENISON PASTY.

Having baked or boiled two hours in broth, with a little seasoning,
any part selected, cut the meat in pieces, season with cayenne pepper,
salt, pounded mace, and a little allspice, place it into a deep dish;
lay over thin slices of mutton fat, and pour a little strong beef
gravy flavored with port wine into the dish; cover with a thick puff
paste, and bake.

       *       *       *       *       *

SALMON PIE.

Cut two pounds of fine fresh salmon in slices about three quarters of
an inch thick, and set them aside on a dish, clean and scrape five or
six anchovies and halve them, then chop a small pottle of mushrooms,
a handful of fresh parsley, a couple of shalots, and a little green
thyme. Put these together into a saucepan, with three ounces of
butter, a little pepper, salt, nutmeg, and tarragon; add the juice
of a lemon, and half a pint of good brown gravy, and let the whole
simmer, gently stirring it all the time; also slice six eggs boiled
hard, then line a pie-dish with good short paste, and fill it with
alternate layers of the slices of salmon, hard eggs, and fillets of
anchovies, spreading between each layer the herb sauce, then cover the
dish with the paste, and bake in a moderately heated oven.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHICKEN PUDDING.

Line a basin with a good beef-suet paste, and fill it with chicken,
prepared in the following way: cut up a small chicken, lightly fry the
pieces, then place them in a stew-pan, with thin slices of _chorissa_,
or, if at hand, slices of smoked veal, add enough good beef gravy to
cover them; season with mushroom essence or powder, pepper, salt, and
a very small quantity of nutmeg, and mace; simmer gently for a quarter
of an hour, and fill the pudding; pour over part of the gravy and keep
the rest to be poured over the pudding when served in the dish. The
pudding, when filled, must be covered closely with the paste, the
ends of which should be wetted with a paste brush to make it adhere
closely.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FINE BEEFSTEAK PIE.

Cut two pounds of beef steaks into large collops, fry them quickly
over a brisk fire, then place them in a dish in two or three layers,
strewing between each, salt, pepper, and mushroom powder; pour over a
pint of strong broth, and a couple of table-spoonsful of Harvey-sauce;
cover with a good beef suet paste, and bake for a couple of hours.

The most delicate manner of preparing suet for pastry is to clarify
it, and use it as butter; this will be found a very superior method
for meat pastry.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN EASY RECEIPT FOR A CHARLOTTE RUSSE.

Trim straitly about six ounces of savoy biscuits, so that they may fit
closely to each other; line the bottom and sides of a plain mould with
them, then fill it with a fine cream made in the following manner: put
into a stewpan three ounces of ratafias, six of sugar, the grated rind
of half an orange, the same quantity of the rind of a lemon, a small
piece of cinnamon, a wine-glass full of good maraschino, or fine
noyeau, one pint of cream, and the well beaten yolks of six eggs; stir
this mixture for a few minutes over a stove fire, and then strain it,
and add half a pint more cream, whipped, and one ounce of dissolved
isinglass. Mix the whole well together, and set it in a basin imbedded
in rough ice; when it has remained a short time in the ice fill the
mould with it, and then place the mould in ice, or in a cool place,
till ready to serve.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANOTHER EXCELLENT RECEIPT FOR A FRUIT CHARLOTTE.

Line a jelly mould with fine picked strawberries, which must first be
just dipped into some liquid jelly, to make them adhere closely, then
fill the mould with some strawberry cream, prepared as follows: take
a pottle of scarlet strawberries, mix them with half a pound of white
sugar, rub this through a sieve, and add to it a pint of whipped
cream, and one ounce and a half of dissolved isinglass; pour it into
the mould, which must be immersed in ice until ready to serve, and
then carefully turned out on the dish, and garnished according to
fancy.

       *       *       *       *       *

ICED PUDDING.

Parboil three quarters of a pound of Jordan almonds, and one quarter
of bitter almonds, remove the skins and beat them up to a paste, with
three quarters of a pound of white pounded sugar, add to this six
yolks of beaten eggs, and one quart of boiled cream, stir the whole
for a few minutes over a stove fire, strain it, and pour it into
a freezing pot, used for making ices; it should be worked with a
scraper, as it becomes set by freezing; when frozen sufficiently
firm, fill a mould with it, cover it with the lid, and let it remain
immersed in rough ice until the time for serving.

       *       *       *       *       *

ITALIAN SALAD.

Cut up the white parts of a cold fowl, and mix it with mustard and
cress, and a lettuce chopped finely, and pour over a fine salad
mixture, composed of equal quantities of vinegar and the finest salad
oil, salt, mustard, and the yolks of hard boiled eggs, and the yolk
of one raw egg, mixed smoothly together; a little tarragon vinegar is
then added, and the mixture is poured over the salad; the whites of
the eggs are mixed, and serve to garnish the dish, arranged in small
heaps alternately with heaps of grated smoked beef; two or three hard
boiled eggs are cut up with the chicken in small pieces and mixed with
the salad; this is a delicate and refreshing _entrée_; the appearance
of this salad may be varied by piling the fowl in the centre of the
dish, then pour over the salad mixture, and make a wall of any dressed
salad, laying the whites of the eggs (after the yolks have been
removed for the mixture), cut in rings on the top like a chain.




THE TOILETTE.




CHAPTER I.


The Complexion.

The various cosmetics sold by perfumers, assuming such miraculous
powers of beautifying the complexion, all contain, in different
proportions, preparations of mercury, alcohol, acids, and other
deleterious substances, which are highly injurious to the skin; and
their continual application will be found to tarnish it, and produce
furrows and wrinkles far more unsightly than those of age, beside
which they are frequently absorbed by the vessels of the skin, enter
the system, and seriously disturb the general health.

A fine fresh complexion is best ensured by the habitual use of soft
water, a careful avoidance of all irritants, such as harsh winds,
dust, smoke, a scorching sun, and fire heat; a strict attention to
diet, regular ablutions, followed by friction, frequent bathing,
and daily exercise, active enough to promote perspiration, which,
by carrying off the vicious secretions, purifies the system, and
perceptibly heightens the brilliancy of the skin.

These are the simple and rational means pursued by the females of
the east to obtain a smooth and perfect skin, which is there made an
object of great care and consideration. And it is a plan attended,
invariably, with the most complete success.

Cosmetic baths, composed of milk, combined with various emollient
substances are also in frequent use among the higher classes in the
East; and we have been informed that they are gradually gaining
favour in France and England. We shall give the receipt for one, as we
received it from the confidential attendant of an English lady, who is
in the habit of using it every week, and we can confidently recommend
it to the notice of our readers.

The luxurious ladies of ancient Rome, who sacrificed so much time and
attention to the adornment of their persons, always superintended the
preparation of their cosmetics, which were of the most innocent and
simple description--the first receipt we subjoin was one in general
use with them, and will be found efficacious in removing roughness,
or coarseness, arising from accidental causes, and imparting that
polished smoothness so essential to beauty.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN OLD ROMAN RECEIPT FOR IMPROVING THE SKIN.

Boil a dessert spoonful of the best wheaten flour with half a pint of
fresh asses milk; when boiling, stir in a table-spoonful of the best
honey, and a tea-spoonful of rose water, then mix smoothly, place in
small pots, and use a little of it after washing; it is better not to
make much at a time, as when stale it is liable to irritate the skin.

       *       *       *       *       *

A VALUABLE RECEIPT FOR THE SKIN.

Boil in half a pint of new milk a thick slice of stale bread, and a
tea-spoonful of gum arabic; when boiled, set it at a little distance
from the fire to simmer almost to a jelly, then pass it through a
folded muslin, and stir in a spoonful of oil of almonds, and the same
quantity of honey, with a pinch of common salt; when cold it will be a
stiff jelly. A little of this mixture warmed and spread upon the skin,
about the thickness of a crown piece, and left on till it cools, will
remove, like magic, all appearance of the dry scurf to which some of
the finest skins are subject.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN EMOLLIENT PASTE.

Blanch half a pound of sweet almonds, and two ounces of bitter
almonds, and pound them in a mortar, then make them into a paste with
rose water; this paste is a fine emollient.

       *       *       *       *       *

A SUPERIOR OINTMENT FOR CHAPS, ROUGHNESS, ETC.

Mix with a gill of fresh cream a spoonful of beaten almonds; when
perfectly smooth put it in toilette pots, and use as ointment for
chaps, &c.; it will keep for a week if a little spirit of camphor is
added to it.

       *       *       *       *       *

WASH FOR PIMPLES.

Dissolve half a dram of salt of tartar in three ounces of spirit
of wine, and apply with soft linen; this is an excellent wash for
pimples, but, as these are in general the result of some derangement
of the system, it will be wiser to discover and remedy the cause, than
merely attending to the result.

       *       *       *       *       *

LOTION FOR REMOVING FRECKLES.

Mix one dram of spirit of salts, half a pint of rain water, and half
a tea-spoonful of spirit of lavender, and bottle for use. This lotion
will often be efficacious in removing freckles.

       *       *       *       *       *

COLD CREAM.

Warm gently together four ounces of oil of almonds, and one ounce of
white wax, gradually adding four ounces of rose water; this is one of
the best receipts for making cold cream.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FINE SOAP.

Blanch and beat to a paste two ounces of bitter almonds, with a small
piece of camphor, and one ounce and a half of tincture of Benjamin;
add one pound of curd soap in shavings, and beat and melt well
together, and pour into moulds to get cool; the above is a very fine
soap.

       *       *       *       *       *

LIP SALVE.

Mix together one ounce of white wax, the same of beef marrow, with a
small piece of alkanet root tied up in muslin; perfume it according
to fancy, strain, and pot while hot; the above is a fine salve for
chapped lips.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHESNUT PASTE FOR RENDERING THE HANDS WHITE AND SOFT.

Boil a dozen fine large chesnuts, peeled and skinned, in milk; when
soft beat them till perfectly smooth with rose water; a tea-spoonful
of this mixture thrown into the water before washing the hands renders
them beautifully white and soft.

       *       *       *       *       *

SUPERIOR MILK OF ROSES.

Boil fresh rose leaves in asses milk, and bottle it off for immediate
use; it will be found far more efficacious than the milk of roses sold
by perfumers.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN EXCELLENT RECEIPT FOR LIP SALVE.

Melt one ounce of spermacetti, soften sufficiently with oil of
almonds, color it with two or three grains of powdered cochineal, and
pour while warm into small toilet pots. We mention the cochineal to
colour the salve, it being usual to make lip salve of a pale rose
colour, but we should consider it far more healing in its effects
without it.

       *       *       *       *       *

A COSMETIC BATH.

Boil slowly one pound of starwort in two quarts of water, with half a
pound of linseed, six ounces of the roots of the water lily, and one
pound of bean meal; when these have boiled for two hours, strain the
liquor, and add to it two quarts of milk, one pint of rose water, and
a wine glass of spirits of camphor; stir this mixture into a bath of
about ninety-eight degrees.

       *       *       *       *       *

SUPERIOR COLD CREAM.

Melt together one drachm of spermacetti, the same quantity of white
wax, and two fluid ounces of oil of almond; while these are still
warm, beat up with them as much rose water as they will absorb. This
is a very healing kind of cold cream. The usual cold cream sold by
perfumers is nothing more than lard, beat up with rose-water, which is
heating and irritating to the skin.

       *       *       *       *       *

PASTE FOR RENDERING THE SKIN SUPPLE AND SMOOTH (AN ENGLISH RECEIPT).

Mix half a pound of mutton or goose fat well boiled down and beaten up
well with two eggs, previously whisked with a glass of rose-water; add
a table-spoonful of honey, and as much oatmeal as will make it into a
paste. Constant use of this paste will keep the skin delicately soft
and smooth.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO REMOVE TAN.

Cut a cucumber into pieces after having peeled it, and let the juice
drain from it for twelve hours, pour it off, and add to it an equal
quantity of orange flower-water, with a small piece of camphor
dissolved in a wine-glass of soft water, bottle the mixture, and wash
the parts that have been exposed to the sun two or three times in the
twenty-four hours.

       *       *       *       *       *

EAU DE COLOGNE.

Mix together one ounce of essence of bergamot, the same quantity of
essence of lemon, lavender, and orange flower-water, two ounces of
rosemary and honey-water, with one pint of spirits of wine; let the
mixture stand a fortnight, after which put it into a glass retort, the
body of which immerse in boiling water contained in a vessel placed
over a lamp (a coffee lamp will answer the purpose), while the beak of
the retort is introduced into a large decanter; keep the water boiling
while the mixture distils into the decanter, which should be covered
with cold wet cloths, in this manner excellent Eau de Cologne may be
obtained at a very small expense.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRANSPARENT SOAP.

Put into a bottle, windsor soap in shavings, half fill it with spirits
of wine, set it near the fire till the soap is dissolved, when, pour
it into moulds to cool.

       *       *       *       *       *

MILK OF ROSES.

Put into a bottle one pint of rose-water, one ounce of oil of almonds;
shake well together, then add fifty drops of oil of tartar.

       *       *       *       *       *

HUNGARY WATER.

Put into a bottle one pint of spirits of wine, one gill of water, and
half an ounce of oil of rosemary; shake well together.

       *       *       *       *       *

LAVENDER WATER.

Take three drachms of English oil of lavender, spirits of wine
one pint; shake in a quart bottle, then add one ounce of orange
flower-water, one ounce of rose-water, and four ounces of distilled
water; those who approve of the musky odour which lavender water
sometimes has, may add three drachms of essence of ambergris or musk.

       *       *       *       *       *

ESSENCE OF ROSES.

Put into a bottle the petals of the common rose, and pour upon them
spirits of wine, cork the bottle closely, and let it stand for three
months, it will then be little inferior to otto of roses.

       *       *       *       *       *

ESSENCE OF LAVENDER.

Is prepared according to the above recipe, the lavender being
substituted for the roses.

       *       *       *       *       *

SCENT BAGS.

Small bags filled with iris root diffuses a delicate perfume over
drawers, &c. A good receipt for a scent-bag is as follows: two pounds
of roses, half a pound of cyprus powder, and half a drachm of essence
of roses; the roses must be pounded, and with the powder put into silk
bags, the essence may be dropped on the outside.

       *       *       *       *       *

ESSENCE OF MUSK.

Mix one dram of musk with the same quantity of pounded loaf sugar; add
six ounces of spirits of wine; shake together and pour off for use.

       *       *       *       *       *

OIL OF ROSES.

A few drops of otto of roses dissolved in spirits of wine forms the
_esprit de rose_ of the perfumers--the same quantity dropped in sweet
oil forms their _huile antique a la rose_.




CHAPTER II.


The Hair.

All stimulating lotions are injurious to the hair; it should be cut
every two months: to clean it, there is nothing better than an egg
beaten up to a froth, to be rubbed in the hair, and afterwards washed
off with elder flower-water; but clear soft water answers every
purpose of cleanliness, and is far better for the hair than is usually
imagined.

One tea-spoonful of honey, one of spirits of wine, one of rosemary,
mixed in half a pint of rose-water, or elder flower-water, and the
same quantity of soft water, forms an excellent lotion for keeping the
hair clean and glossy.

A fine pomatum is made by melting down equal quantities of mutton suet
and marrow, uncooked, and adding a little sweet oil to make it of a
proper consistency, to which any perfume may be added. If essence of
rosemary is the perfume used, it will be found to promote the growth
of the hair. Rum and oil of almonds will be of use for the same
purpose. A warm cloth to rub the hair after brushing imparts a fine
shiny smoothness.

As a bandoline to make the hair set close, the following will be found
useful and cheap: take a cupful of linseed, pour over it sufficient
boiling water to over, let it stand some hours, and then pour over
three table spoonsful of rose-water; stir the seeds well about, and
strain it off into a bottle and it will be ready for use; or take a
tea-spoonful of gum arabic with a little Irish moss, boil them in half
a pint of water till half is boiled away; strain and perfume.

To remove superfluous hairs, the following receipt will be found
effectual, although requiring time and perseverance: mix one ounce of
finely powdered pumice-stone with one ounce of powdered quick-lime,
and rub the mixture on the part from which the hair is to be removed,
twice in twenty-four hours; this will destroy the hair, and is an
innocent application. In the East, a depilatory is in use, which
we subjoin, but which requires great care in employing, as the
ingredients are likely to injure the skin if applied too frequently,
or suffered to remain on too long: mix with one ounce of quick-lime,
one ounce of orpiment; put the powder in a bottle with a glass
stopper; when required for use, mix it into a paste with barley-water;
apply this over the part, and let it remain some minutes, then gently
take it off with a silver knife, and the hairs will be found perfectly
removed; the part should then be fomented to prevent any of the powder
being absorbed by the skin, and a little sweet oil or cold cream
should be wiped over the surface with a feather.




CHAPTER III.


Teeth.

Water is not always sufficient to clean the teeth, but great caution
should be used as to the dentifrices employed.

Charcoal, reduced to an impalpable powder, and mixed with an equal
quantity of magnesia, renders the teeth white, and stops putrefaction.

Also two ounces of prepared chalk, mixed with half the quantity of
powdered myrrh, may be used with confidence.

Or, one ounce of finely powdered charcoal, one ounce of red kino, and
a table spoonful of the leaves of sage, dried and powdered.

A most excellent dentifrice, which cleans and preserves the teeth,
is made by mixing together two ounces of brown rappee snuff, one of
powder of bark, and one ounce and a half of powder of myrrh. When the
gums are inclined to shrink from the teeth, cold water should be used
frequently to rinse the mouth; a little alum, dissolved in a pint of
water, a tea-cup full of sherry wine, and a little tincture of myrrh
or bark, will be found extremely beneficial in restoring the gums to a
firm and healthy state. This receipt was given verbally by one of our
first dentists.

Every precaution should be used to prevent the accumulation of
tartar upon the teeth; this is best done by a regular attention to
cleanliness, especially during and after illness. "Prevention is
always better than cure," and the operation of scaling often leaves
the teeth weak and liable to decay.

Acids of all sorts are injurious to the teeth, and very hot or cold
liquids discolour them.

The best toothpick is a finely-pointed stick of cedar. Toothbrushes
should not be too hard, and should be used, not only to the teeth,
but to the gums, as friction is highly salutary to them. To polish the
front teeth, it is better to use a piece of flannel than a brush.

Toothache is a very painful malady, and the sufferer often flies
to the most powerful spirits to obtain relief; but they afford only
temporary ease, and lay the foundation for increased pain. A poultice
laid on the gum not too hot takes off inflammation, or laudanum
and spirits of camphor applied to the cheek externally; or mix with
spirits of camphor an equal quantity of myrrh, dilute it with warm
water, and hold it in the mouth; also a few drops of laudanum and oil
of cloves applied to decayed teeth often affords instantaneous relief.

Powdered cloves and powdered alum, rubbed on the gum and put in the
diseased tooth will sometimes lessen the pain.

Toothache often proceeds from some irritation in the digestive organs
or the nervous system: in such cases pain can only be removed by
proper medical treatment.




CHAPTER IV.


Hands.

Nothing contributes more to the elegance and refinement of a lady's
appearance than delicate hands; and it is surprising how much it is
in the power of all, by proper care and attention, to improve
them. Gloves should be worn at every opportunity, and these should
invariably be of kid; silk gloves and mittens, although pretty and
tasteful, are far from fulfilling the same object. The hands should
be regularly washed in tepid water, as cold water hardens, and renders
them liable to chap, while hot water wrinkles them. All stains of ink,
&c., should be immediately removed with lemon-juice and salt: every
lady should have a bottle of this mixture on her toilette ready
prepared for the purpose. The receipts which we have already given
as emollients for the skin are suitable for softening the hands and
rendering them smooth and delicate. The nails require daily attention:
they should be cut every two or three days in an oval form. A piece of
flannel is better than a nail-brush to clean them with, as it does not
separate the nail from the finger.

When dried, a little pummice-stone, finely powdered, with powdered
orris-root, in the proportion of a quarter of a tea-spoonful to a
tea-spoonful of the former, mixed together, and rubbed on the nails
gently, gives them a fine polish, and removes all inequalities.

A piece of sponge, dipped in oil of roses and emery, may be used for
the same purpose.

When the nails are disposed to break, a little oil or cold cream
should be applied at night.

Sand-balls are excellent for removing hardness of the hands. Palm
soap, Castille soap, and those which are the least perfumed, should
always be preferred. Night-gloves are considered to make the hands
white and soft, but they are attended with inconvenience, besides
being very unwholesome; and the hands may be rendered as white as the
nature of the complexion will allow, by constantly wearing gloves in
the day-time, and using any of the emollients we have recommended for
softening and improving the skin.




CHAPTER V.


Dress.

In dress, simplicity should be preferred to magnificence: it is
surely more gratifying to be admired for a refined taste, than for an
elaborate and dazzling splendour;--the former always produces pleasing
impressions, while the latter generally only provokes criticism.

Too costly an attire forms a sort of fortification around a woman
which wards off the admiration she might otherwise attract. The true
art of dress is to make it harmonize so perfectly with the style
of countenance and figure as to identify it, as it were, with the
character of the wearer.

All ornaments and trimmings should be adopted sparingly; trinkets and
jewellery should seldom appear to be worn merely for display; they
should be so selected and arranged as to seem necessary, either for
the proper adjustment of some part of the dress, or worn for the sake
of pleasing associations.

Fashion should never be followed too closely, still less should
a singularity of style be affected; the prevailing mode should be
modified and adapted to suit individual peculiarity. The different
effect of colours and the various forms of dress should be duly
considered by every lady, as a refined taste in dress indicates a
correct judgment.

A short stout figure should avoid the loose flowing robes and ample
drapery suitable for tall slight women; while these again should
be cautious of adopting fashions which compress the figure, give
formality, or display angles. The close-fitting corsage and tight
sleeve, becoming to the short, plump female, should be modified with
simple trimmings, to give fullness and width across the shoulders and
bust, and a rounded contour to the arms. Flounces and tucks, which
rise high in the skirt, are not suitable to short persons; they cut
the figure and destroy symetry. To tall women, on the contrary,
they add grace and dignity. Dresses made half high are extremely
unbecoming; they should either be cut close up to the throat or low.
It is, however, in bad taste to wear them very low on the shoulders
and bosom: in youth, it gives evidence of the absence of that modesty
which is one of its greatest attractions; and in maturer years it is
the indication of a depraved coquetry, which checks the admiration it
invites.

It is always requisite for a lady to exert her own taste in the choice
of form, colour, and style, and not leave it to the fancy of her
dress-maker, as although the person she employs may be eminently
qualified for her profession, a lady who possesses any discernment can
best judge of what is suitable to her style of countenance and figure.

In dress there should be but one prevailing colour, to which all
others should be adapted, either by harmonising with it, or by
contrast; in the latter case the relieving color should be in small
quantity, or it would overpower the other in effect, as a general
rule, sombre negative colours show off a woman to the greatest
advantage, just as the beauties of a painting are enhanced by being
set in a dull frame; still, there are some occasions with which the
gayer tints accord better, and as propriety and fitness are matters of
high consideration, the woman of taste must be guided in the selection
of her apparel by the knowledge of the purport for which it is
intended, always endeavouring to fix on that shade of colour which
best becomes her complexion.




CHAPTER VI.


Effect of Diet on Complexion.

As the color of the skin depends upon the secretions of the _rete
mucuosum_, or skin, which lies immediately beneath the _epedirmis_, or
scarf skin, and as diet is capable of greatly influencing the nature
of these secretions, a few words respecting it may not be here
entirely misplaced.

All that is likely to produce acrid humours, and an inflamatory or
impoverished state of the blood, engenders vicious secretions, which
nature struggles to free herself from by the natural outlet of the
skin, for this organ is fitted equally, to _excrete and secrete_.
Fermented and spirituous liquors, strong tea and coffee should
be avoided, for they stimulate and exhaust the vital organs, and
interrupt the digestive functions, thereby producing irritation of
the internal linings of the stomach, with which the skin sympathises.
Water, on the other hand, is the most wholesome of all beverages, it
dilutes and corrects what is taken into the stomach, and contributes
to the formation of a perfect chyle.

Milk is very nutritious, it produces a full habit of body, and
promotes plumpness, restores vigour and freshness, besides possessing
the property of calming the passions, and equalising the temper.

Eggs are, in general, considered bilious, except in a raw state, when
they are precisely the reverse; this is a fact, now so universally
acknowledged, that they are always recommended in cases of jaundice
and other disorders of the bile.

Spices, and highly seasoned meats import a dryness to the skin, and
render the body thin and meagre.

Animal food taken daily requires constant exercise, or it is apt to
render the appearance coarse and gross. It should be combined with
farinaceous and vegetable food, in order to correct the heating
effects of a concentrated animal diet.

Excess as to quantity should be strictly guarded against. When the
stomach is overloaded it distributes a badly digested mass throughout
the system, which is sure to be followed by irritation and disease,
and by undermining the constitution, is one of the most certain
methods of destroying beauty.




CHAPTER VII.


Influence of the Mind as regards Beauty.

All passions give their corresponding expression to the countenance;
if of frequent occurrence they mark it with lines as indelible as
those of age, and far more unbecoming. To keep these under proper
_control_ is, therefore, of high importance to beauty. Nature has
ordained that passions shall be but passing acts of the mind, which,
serving as natural stimulants, quicken the circulation of the blood,
and increase the vital energies; consequently, when tempered and
subdued by reason, they are rather conducive than otherwise, both to
beauty and to health.

It is the _habitual frame of mind, the hourly range of thought_ which
render the countenance pleasing or repulsive; we should not forget
that "the face is the index of the mind."

The exercise of the intellect and the development of noble sentiments
is as essential for the perfection of the one, as of the other,
fretful, envious, malicious, ill humoured feelings must never be
indulged by those who value their personal appearance, for the
existence of these chronic maladies of the mind, _cannot be
concealed_.

"On peut tromper un autre, mais pas tous les autres."

In the same way candour, benevolence, pity, and good temper, exert the
most happy influence over the whole person;--shine forth in every
look and every movement with a fascination which wins its way to all
hearts.

Symmetry of form is a rare and exquisite gift, but there are other
conditions quite as indispensable to beauty. Let a woman possess but
a very moderate share of personal charms, if her countenance is
expressive of intellect and kind feelings, her figure buoyant with
health, and her attire distinguished by a tasteful simplicity, she
cannot fail to be eminently attractive, while ill health--a silly or
unamiable expression, and a vulgar taste--will mar the effect of form
and features the most symetrical. A clever writer has said, "Beauty
is but another name for that expression of the countenance which is
indicative of sound health, intelligence, and good feeling." If
so, how much of beauty is attainable to all! Health, though often
dependant upon circumstances beyond our control, can, in a great
measure, be improved by a rational observance of the laws which nature
has prescribed, to regulate the vital functions.

Over intellect we have still more power. It is capable of being so
trained as to approach daily nearer and nearer to perfection. The
thoughts are completely under our own guidance and must never be
allowed to wander idly or sinfully; they should be encouraged to
dwell on subjects which elevate the mind and shield it from the petty
trivialities which irritate and degrade it.

Nothing is more likely to engender bitter thoughts than idleness and
_ennui_. Occupations should be selected with a view to improve and
amuse; they should be varied, to prevent the lassitude resulting from
monotony; serious meditations and abstract studies should be relieved
by the lighter branches of literature; music should be assiduously
cultivated; nothing more refines and exalts the mind; not the mere
performance of mechanical difficulties, either vocal or instrumental,
for these, unless pursued with extreme caution, enlarge the hand and
fatigue the chest, without imparting the advantages we allude to.

Drawing is highly calculated to enhance feminine beauty; the thoughts
it excites are soothing and serene, the gentle enthusiasm that is felt
during this delightful occupation not only dissipates melancholy
and morbid sensibility, but by developing the judgment and feeling,
imparts a higher tone of character to the expression of the
countenance.

Indolent persons are apt to decide that they have "no taste" for such
or such pursuits, forgetting that tastes may be acquired by the mind
as well as by the palate, and only need a judicious direction.

Frivolous employment, and vitiated sentiments would spoil the
finest face ever created. Body and mind are, in fact, so intimately
connected, that it is futile, attempting to embellish the one, while
neglecting the other, especially as the highest order of all beauty
is _the intellectual._ Let those females, therefore, who are the
most solicitous about their beauty, and the most eager to produce
a favourable impression, cultivate the _moral, religious, and
intellectual attributes_, and in this advice consists the recipe for
the finest cosmetic in the world, viz.--CONTENT.




INDEX.

Almondegos soup, 11.
Almond pudding, 117.
  rice, 126.
  paste, 127.
  tea-cakes, 152.
Amnastich, 83.
Apple charlotte, 139, 140.
  jelly, 166.
  sauce, 23.
Apricot jam, 165.
  preserve, 164.
 marmalade, 163.
Arrowroot pudding, 136.
Asparagus sauce, 28.
  soup, 12.

Barley milk, 178.
  jelly, 177.
  soup, 14.
Batter pudding, 135.
Beans, French, to stew with oil, 93.
  _au beurre_, 96.
  to pickle, 170.
Béchamel, 32.
Beef, rump, to stew, 53.
  à la mode, or sour meat, 53, 54.
  of, an olio, 52.
Beef, stewed with French beans, 54.
  with white dried peas and beans, and celery, 56.
  collops, 57.
  cold roast, to warm, 57.
  steak, with chesnuts, 58.
  steak, stewed simply, 58.
  hash of, 57.
  brisket of, with vegetables, 59, 60.
  brisket, with onions and raisins, 59.
  tea, 171.
  ragout of, 60.
  steak pie, 188.
  to salt, 61.
  to spice, 61.
  to smoke, 62.
 _Blanc_, 51.
Blanching, directions for, 57.
Blancmange, 147.
Blanquette of veal, 70, 71.
  of chicken, 71.
Boiling, rules for, 49.
Bola d'Amor, 114.
  Toliedo, 115, 116.
  d'Hispaniola, 116.
Bola, plain, 152.
  small do. 152.
Bottling fruit, rules for, 161.
Braising, directions for, 52.
Brandy cherries, 162.
Bread crumbs for frying, 36.
  and butter pudding, 130.
  fruit-tart, 128.
  pudding, 135.
  sauce, 22.
Brocali, stewed, 93.
Broiling, directions on, 50.
Broth, chicken, 176.
Browned bread crumbs, 30.
  flour, for colouring and thickening soups, sauces, and gravies, 30.
Butter cakes, 156.
  melted, 25.
  oiled, 24.

Cabbage and rice stewed, 94.
  red, stewed, 96.
  to pickle, 172.
Cakes, observations respecting, 113, 114.
  almond tea, 152.
  rich plum, 153, 154.
  siesta, 151.
  sponge, 158.
  pound, 156.
  soda, 155.
  diet bread, 154.
  for Passover, 158.
  a bola, 152.
  a very plain, 155.
  a plain lunch, without butter, 156.
  breakfast, 159.
  drop, 154.
  cinnamon, 153.
  butter, 156.
  short, 156.
  _matso_, 157.
  icing for, 159.
Calf's head to stew, 64.
  feet, stewed with Spanish sauce, 64.
  au fritur, 65.
  stewed simply, 65, 66.
  jelly, 145.
Caper sauce, 27, 19.
Carrots, _au beurre_, 95.
Carp, stewed, 41, 42.
Cassereet, a, 81.
Casserole au riz, 101.
Caudle, 178.
  rice, 178.
Cauliflower, to pickle, 170.
Celery, stewed with mutton, 75
Celery sauce, 19.
Charlotte Russe, 189.
  a fruit, 190.
  apple, 139.
Chestnuts, stewed with steaks, 58.
  to roast, 185.
Cheesecakes, 108.
  savoury, 98.
Cherry batter pudding, 131.
  preserved whole, 165.
Chejados, 119.
Chicken broth, 176.
  pudding, 188.
  panado, 175.
Chocolate, to make, 182.
Chorissa, 62.
  omelette, 109.
  stewed with rice and fowl, 83.
Cinnamon cakes, 153.
Citron pudding, 150.
Clarify to, suet, 52.
  sugar, 160.
Cocoa nut pudding, 120.
  doce, 120.
Coffee, French method of making, 120.
Collard veal, 67.
Collops, beef, 57.
College pudding, 131.
Colouring for soups and sauces, 2, 3, 30, 31.
Commeen, 55.
Consommé, 1, 2, 3.
Cooling, drink a, in fever, 94.
Creams, directions for making, 143, 189.
Crême brun, 128.
Cressy soup, 7.
Croquettes, 100.
Cucumbers, to pickle, 173.
  sauce, 29.
  mango, 94.
Cumberland pudding, 131.
Currant jelly, 165, 166.
  jam, 165.
Curried veal, 68.
  chicken, 68.
Custard pudding, 135.
Custards, 144.
Cutlets, veal, 68.
  à la Française, 69.
  in white sauce, 69.
  in brown sauce, 70.
  mutton, 78, 79.
  lamb, with cucumbers, 81.

Damson marmalade, 163.
Descaides, 89.
Devilled biscuits, 98.
Diet bread cake, 154.
  for Passover, 158.
Doce, cocoa nut, 120.
Drink for a cough, 180.
  an emollient, 181.
  a cooling, in fever, 181.
  a refreshing, 181.
Drop cakes, 154.
Duck stewed with peas, 85.
  seasoning for, 27.
Dutch, stew of fish, 40.
Dutch toast, 87.

Edgings of Potatoes, 91.
  of rice, 91.
Egg paste, 105.
  wine, 183.
  balls, 36.
  marmalade, 121.
  sauce, 18.
  English, do., 28.
Eggs, scallopped, 98.
  savoury, 98.
  _See_ omelette.
Escobeche, 34.

Farcie, _see_ forcemeat.
Fish, directions for boiling and broiling, 37.
  fried in oil, 38.
  in butter, 39.
  a soup, 15.
  sauce without butter, 21.
  sauce to bottle, 22.
  stewed white, 39,
  brown, 41.
  stewed in Dutch fashion, 40.
  salad, 44, 40.
  fritters, 47.
  omelette, 47.
  scallopped, 58.
  baked haddocks, 43.
  herrings, 43, 44.
  mackarel, 44.
  escobeche, 34.
  stewed carp, 41, 42.
  of, fillets, 42.
  water souchy, 41.
  impanado, 55.
  white bait, 45, 46.
  fricandelle, 46.
Fondeaux, 102.
Fondu, 102.
Forcemeat, directions for making, 33.
  for risoles, fritters, balls, &c., 33, 34.
  of fish for croquettes, &c., 35.
  for dressing fish fillets, 35.
  for dressing cutlets, 35, 36.
Fowls, a savoury way of roasting, 82.
  forced and boned, 82.
  boiled, 83.
  blanquette of, 85.
  curried, 84.
  stewed with rice, 83.
  a nice way of dressing with sweetbread, 84.
  broiled with mushrooms, 86.
Fricandelle, Dutch, 46.
Fricandelles, 72.
Fricandeux, a, white, 62.
  brown,63.
  a, superior receipt, 67.
Fricassee of veal, 63.
  of sweetbreads, 74.
Fritters of rice, 125.
  of French roll, 123.
Fruit pies, 106.
Frying, directions for, 50.

Gateau de tours, 138.
  de pomme, 139.
Geese, seasoning for, 27.
German puffs, 117.
Gherkins, to pickle, 170.
Giblet soup, 14.
  stewed, 86.
  pie, 108.
Glazing, directions for, 51.
Gloucester jelly, 177.
Gooseberry jam, 165.
Gravy soup, 3.
Gravy, a rich brown, 17.
  for roast fowls, 18.
  another for ditto, 18.
  ditto, when there is no meat to make it with, 20.
  to draw strong, 24.
Green, colouring for soups, &c., 31.
Grimstich, 122.
Grosvenor pudding, 149.

Haddocks, to roast or bake, 33.
Haman's fritters, 123.
Harricot, a, 76.
Hartshorn jelly, 176.
Hash a, to make, 57.
Herbs, savoury, for seasoning soups, &c., 27.
Herrings smoked, a nice way of dressing, 43.

Iced pudding, 190.
Iceing for cakes, 159.
Impanado, 45.
Irish stew, 77.
  moss, 180.
Italian salad, 191.
Italian cream, 143.

Jams, to make, 165.
Jaumange, 138.
Jerusalem artichokes, 96.
Jelly, savoury, 20.
Jellies, calf's-feet, 145.
  orange, 146.
  lemon, 146.
  hartshorn, 176.
Jellies, Gloucester, 177.
  punch, 146.
  bread, 177.
  noyeau, 146.
  apple, 166.
  barley, 177.
  currant, 165.
Juditha, a, 148.
Julienne, soup à la, 5.

Kimmel meat, 54.
Kugel and commeen, 55.

Lamb, stewed with sprew, 79.
  with peas, 80.
  cutlets and cucumbers, 80, 81.
  shoulder of, a nice receipt for, 81.
Lamplich, 124.
Larding, 51.
Lemon tarts, 126.
  jelly, 146.
Luction, 118.

Maccaroni with cheese, 99.
  pudding, 136.
Mackarel, baked, 44.
Macrotes, 121.
Malagatany soup, 4.
  English do. 5.
Maigre soup, 12.
Maintenont cutlets, 76.
Marmalades, 163.
Melon mango, 171.
Milk, barley, 179.
  porridge, 178.
  restorative, 179.
Mince meat, 121.
  pies, 110.
Minced veal, 71.
Miroton, a, 71, 72.
Mint sauce, 23.
Mock turtle soup, 3.
Melina pie, 109.
Matso cakes, 157.
  fried, 157.
  diet bread, 158.
Mushrooms _au naturel_, 96.
  large flap, 97.
  to pickle, 172.
  sauce, 25.
Mutton, a French receipt for roasting, 75.
  stewed with celery, 75.
  a simple way of dressing, 76.
  cutlets maintenant, 76.
  a haricot, 76.
  Irish stew, 77.
  a l'Hispaniola, 77.
  collops, 77, 78.
  cutlets, 78, 79.
  smoked, 79.

Nouilles paste, 105.
Noyeau cream, 143.
  jelly, 146.

Oil twist, 153.
Olio, 52.
Omelet sweet, 142.
  souflé, 142.
  savoury, 99.
  chorissa, 109.
Onion sauce, 23.
  to pickle, 172.
Orange jelly, 146.
Orgeat, 180.
Ox-tail soup, 16.

Palestine soup, 8.
  salad, 99.
Pancakes, 129.
  for children, 129.
Parsley crisped, 30.
Parsley fried, 31.
Partridges, 185.
Passover pudding, 133.
  ditto, 133.
  ditto, 133.
  fritters, 134.
  a superior kind, 134.
  ditto with currants, 134.
  balls for soup, 9,10.
  diet bread, 158.
  cakes, 157.
Pastry, directions for making, 103.
  plain puff paste, 104.
  rich, ditto, 105.
  short crust, 105.
  nouilles or egg paste, 105.
  beef dripping paste, 106.
  glaize for, 106.
Patty meats, 110.
Peas-soup, summer, 13, 14.
  winter, 13.
  stewed with oil, 93.
Pears to stew, 150
  to bake, 151.
  syrup of, 160.
Pepper pot, 6.
Pheasants, to roast, 185.
Piccalili, 171.
Pickling, rules for, 169.
Pie a fruit, 106.
  giblet, 108.
  a savoury, 107
  a ditto for persons of delicate digestion, 88.
  a beef steak, 188.
  a French plum, 185.
  salmon, 187.
Pigeons, 86.
Pippins, stewed, 151,
Piqué, _see_ larding.
Plum cake, 153.
  jam, 167.
  pudding, 132.
 _Poelée_, 51.
Pommes frites, 13.
Porridge, 179.
Potatoes, to mash, 91.
  balls, 91.
  wall, 91, 92.
  shavings, 92.
  soup of, 7.
Poultry cold, to warm, 85.
Pound cake, 156.
Prenesas, 118.
Preparation for cutlets, 36.
Preserving, observations on, 161.
Puddings, directions for, 112.
  plum, 132.
  millet, arrowroot, ground rice, tapioca, sago, 136.
  Passover for, 133.
  iced, 190.
  almond, 117.
  cocoa nut, 120.
  citron, 150.
  Grosvenor, 149.
  Yorkshire, 136.
  suet, 137.
  bread, 135.
  rice, 130.
  custard, 135.
  batter, 135.
  cherry batter, 131.
  ratafia, 132.
  college, 131.
  Cumberland, 131.
  rich bread and butter, 130.
Punch, 183.
  jelly, 144.
  whiskey, 184.
  milk, 184.
_Pureé_ of vegetables, 96.

Quince marmalade, 163.

Rachael, a, 118.
Ragout of beef, 60.
Ramakins, 100.
Raspberries preserved whole, 165.
  jam, 165.
  jelly, 166.
Ratafia pudding, 132.
Restorative milk, 176.
  jelly, 179.
Rice fritters, 125.
  pudding for children, 130.
  fruit tart, 127.
  souflé, 143.
  custard, 128.
  caudle, 178.
  wall, 91.
Risoles, 33, 34, 100.
Roasting, rules for, 50.
Rump of beef stewed, 53.
Russe, a charlotte, 139.

Salmon cutlets, 42.
  pie, 187.
Sauces, piquante, 17.
  egg, 18.
  English, do., 28.
  celery, 19.
  tomato, 19.
  for steaks, 21.
  without butter for fish, 21.
  for fish to keep, 22.
  to serve with ducks, 22.
  oiled butter, 24.
  bread, 22.
  apple, 23.
  onions, 23.
  melted butter, 25.
  mushroom, 24.
  white, to throw over vegetables, 26.
  for puddings without butter, 26.
  Robert, 26.
  caper, 27, 19.
  à la Tartare, 28.
  for roast mutton, 28.
  asparagus, 28.
  cucumber, white, 29.
  brown, 29.
  velouté, 31.
  béchamel, 32.
Sauer krout, 56.
Savoury jelly, 20.
  herb powder, 27.
Seasoning for poultry, 27.
Siesta, a, 151.
Soda cake, 155.
Sopa d'ora, 119.
Souflè, 140, 141.
  omelette, 142.
  rice, 143.
Soups, almondegos, a superior white soup, 11.
  asparagus, 12.
  cressy, 7.
  malagatany, 4.
  English do., 5.
  gravy, 3.
  barley, 14.
  carrot, 8.
  giblet, 14.
  Julienne, 5.
  mock turtle, 3.
  matso, 9.
  Palestine, 8.
  de poisson, or fish, 15.
  ox tail, 16.
  peas, summer, 13.
  winter, 14.
  potatoe, 7.
  à la turque, 6.
  vermicelli, 9.
  white, a, 9.
  tomato, 10.
  vegetable, or French, 11.
Spanish beans and peas, 29.
Spinach à la Française, 92.
Sponge cakes, 158.
Spring dish, a, 95.
Staffin, 125.
Steak stewed with chestnuts, 58.
  stewed simply, 58.
Stewing, rules for, 50.
Stock--see _consommé_.
Strawberries preserved whole, 164.
  jam, 165.
  jelly, 166.
Suet to clarify, 52.
Sugar to clarify, 160.
Sweetbreads roasted, 73.
  stewed white, 73.
  brown, 74.
  fricasseed, 73.

Tart de moy, 122.
Tartlets, 107.
Tendons of veal, 66.
Thickening for soups and sauces, 2.
Timbale of maccaroni, 87.
Tomato soup, 10.
  sauce, 17.
  dry soup, a, 97.
Tourte à la creme, 149.
Trifle, an easy one, 137.
  a still more simple and quickly made, 147.
Truffle sauce, 20.
Turke soup, à la, 6.
Turkey boned and forced, 82.

Veal, a white fricandeaux of, 62.
  brown, do. 63.
  tendons of, 66.
  fricandeaux, 67.
  collard, 67.
  curried, 68.
  cutlets, 68, 69. 70.
  blanquette of, 70.
  minced, 71.
  stuffing, 34.
  miroton of, 71, 72.
  smoked, 73.
Vegetable or French soup, 11.
  observations on, 90.
Velouté, 31.
Venison to roast, 186.
  a pasty, 186.
Vermicelli pudding, 136.
  soup, 9.
Vol-au-vent, 109.
  de fruit, 110.
  petits, 110.

Waflers, 126.
Walnuts, to pickle, 173.
Water souchy, 41.
Whey wine, 179.
  tamarind, 179.
  plain, 180.
White bait, 45, 46.
White soup, 9.
  superior, do., 11.
Wine, mulled, 183.
  egg, 183.

Yorkshire pudding, 138.





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