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MANUAL OF GARDENING

MANUAL OF GARDENING 2

A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE MAKING OF HOME GROUNDS AND THE GROWING OF
FLOWERS, FRUITS, AND VEGETABLES FOR HOME USE

SECOND EDITION

BY L. H. BAILEY

1910








[Illustration: I. The open center.]





EXPLANATION

It has been my desire to reconstruct the two books, "Garden-Making" and
"Practical Garden-Book"; but inasmuch as these books have found a
constituency in their present form, it has seemed best to let them stand
as they are and to continue their publication as long as the demand
maintains itself, and to prepare a new work on gardening. This new work
I now offer as "A Manual of Gardening." It is a combination and revision
of the main parts of the other two books, together with much new
material and the results of the experience of ten added years.

A book of this kind cannot be drawn wholly from one's own practice,
unless it is designed to have a very restricted and local application.
Many of the best suggestions in such a book will have come from
correspondents, questioners, and those who enjoy talking about gardens;
and my situation has been such that these communications have come to me
freely. I have always tried, however, to test all such suggestions by
experience and to make them my own before offering them to my reader. I
must express my special obligation to those persons who collaborated in
the preparation of the other two books, and whose contributions have
been freely used in this one: to C.E. Hunn, a gardener of long
experience; Professor Ernest Walker, reared as a commercial florist;
Professor L.R. Taft and Professor F.A. Waugh, well known for their
studies and writings in horticultural subjects.

In making this book, I have had constantly in mind the home-maker
himself or herself rather than the professional gardener. It is of the
greatest importance that we attach many persons to the land; and I am
convinced that an interest in gardening will naturally take the place of
many desires that are much more difficult to gratify, and that lie
beyond the reach of the average man or woman.

It has been my good fortune to have seen amateur and commercial
gardening in all parts of the United States, and I have tried to express
something of this generality in the book; yet my experience, as well as
that of my original collaborators, is of the northeastern states, and
the book is therefore necessarily written from this region as a base.
One gardening book cannot be made to apply in its practice in all parts
of the United States and Canada unless its instructions are so general
as to be practically useless; but the principles and points of view may
have wider application. While I have tried to give only the soundest and
most tested advice, I cannot hope to have escaped errors and
shortcomings, and I shall be grateful to my reader if he will advise me
of mistakes or faults that he may discover. I shall expect to use such
information in the making of subsequent editions.

Of course an author cannot hold himself responsible for failures that
his reader may suffer. The statements in a book of this kind are in the
nature of advice, and it may or it may not apply in particular
conditions, and the success or failure is the result mostly of the
judgment and carefulness of the operator. I hope that no reader of a
gardening book will ever conceive the idea that reading a book and
following it literally will make him a gardener. He must always assume
his own risks, and this will be the first step in his personal progress.

I should explain that the botanical nomenclature of this book is that of
the "Cyclopedia of American Horticulture," unless otherwise stated. The
exceptions are the "trade names," or those used by nurserymen and
seedsmen in the sale of their stock.

I should further explain the reason for omitting ligatures and using
such words as peony, spirea, dracena, cobea. As technical Latin
formularies, the compounds must of course be retained, as in _Pæonia
officinali,_ _Spiræa Thunbergi,_ _Dracæna fragrans,_ _Coboea
scandens;_ but as Anglicized words of common speech it is time to follow
the custom of general literature, in which the combinations æ and oe
have disappeared. This simplification was begun in the "Cyclopedia of
American Horticulture" and has been continued in other writings.

L. H. BAILEY.

ITHACA, NEW YORK, January 20, 1910.



CONTENTS


CHAPTER I

THE POINT OF VIEW
_What a garden is_


CHAPTER II

THE GENERAL PLAN OR THEORY OF THE PLACE
 _The plan of the grounds_
 _The picture in the landscape_
 _Birds; and cats_
 _The planting is part of the design or picture_
 _The flower-growing should be part of the design_
   Defects in flower-growing
   Lawn flower-beds
   Flower-borders
   The old-fashioned garden
   Contents of the flower-borders
 _The value of plants may lie in foliage and form rather than in bloom_
   Odd and formal trees
   Poplars and the like
   Plant-forms
 _Various specific examples_
   An example
   Another example
   A third example
   A small back yard
   A city lot
   General remarks
 _Review_


CHAPTER III

EXECUTION OF SOME OF THE LANDSCAPE FEATURES
 _The grading_
 _The terrace_
 _The bounding lines_
 _Walks and drives_
   The question of drainage, curbing, and gutters
   The materials
 _Making the borders_
 _Making the lawn_
   Preparing the ground
   The kind of grass
   When and how to sow the seed
   Securing a firm sod
   The mowing
   Fall treatment
   Spring treatment
   Watering lawns
   Sodding the lawn
   A combination of sodding and seeding
   Sowing with sod
   Other ground covers


CHAPTER IV

THE HANDLING OF THE LAND
 _The draining of the land_
 _Trenching and subsoiling_
 _Preparation of the surface_
 _The saving of moisture_
 _Hand tools for weeding and subsequent tillage and other hand work_
   The hoe
   Scarifiers
   Hand-weeders
   Trowels and their kind
   Rollers
   Markers
 _Enriching the land_


CHAPTER V

THE HANDLING OF THE PLANTS
 _Sowing the seeds_
 _Propagating by cuttings_
   Dormant stem-cuttings
   Cuttings of roots
   Green cuttings
   Cuttings of leaves
   General treatment
 _Transplanting young seedlings_
 _Transplanting established plants and trees_
   Tub-plants
   When to transplant
   Depth to transplant
   Making the rows straight
   Cutting-back; filling
   Removing very large trees
 _Winter protection of plants_
 _Pruning_
 _Tree surgery and protection_
   Tree guards
   Mice and rabbits
   Girdled trees
   Repairing street trees
 _The grafting of plants_
 _Keeping records of the plantation_
 _The storing of fruits and vegetables_
 _The forcing of plants_
   Coldframes
   Hotbeds
   Management of hotbeds

CHAPTER VI

PROTECTING PLANTS FROM THINGS THAT PREY ON THEM
 _Screens and covers_
 _Fumigating_
 _Soaking tubers and seeds_
 _Spraying_
 _Insecticide spraying formulas_
 _Fungicide spraying formulas_
 _Treatment for some of the common insects_
 _Treatment for some of the common plant diseases_

CHAPTER VII

THE GROWING OF THE ORNAMENTAL PLANTS--THE CLASSES OF PLANTS, AND LISTS
 _Planting for immediate effect_
 _The use of "foliage" trees and shrubs_
 _Windbreaks and screens_
 _The making of hedges_
 _The borders_
 _The flower-beds_
   Bedding effects
   Plants for subtropical effects
 _Aquatic and bog plants_
 _Rockeries and alpine plants_

1. PLANTS FOR CARPET-BEDS
 _Lists for carpet-beds_

2. THE ANNUAL PLANTS
 _List of annuals by color of flowers_
 _Useful annuals for edgings of beds and walks, and for ribbon-beds_
 _Annuals that continue to bloom after frost_
 _List of annuals suitable for bedding_ (_that is, for
    "mass-effects" of color_)
 _List of annuals by height_
 _Distances for planting annuals_

3. HARDY HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS
 _Perennial herbs suitable for lawn and "planting" effects_
 _A brief seasonal flower-garden or border list of herbaceous perennials_
 _One hundred extra-hardy perennial herbs_

4. BULBS AND TUBERS
 _Fall-planted bulbs_
 _List of outdoor fall-planted bulbs for the North_
 _Winter bulbs_
 _Summer bulbs_

5. THE SHRUBBERY
 _List of shrubbery plants for the North_
 _Shrubs for the South_

6. CLIMBING PLANTS
 _Annual herbaceous climbers_
 _Perennial herbaceous climbers_
 _Woody perennial climbers_
 _Climbing roses_

7. TREES FOR LAWNS AND STREETS
 _List of hardy deciduous trees for the North_
 _Non-coniferous trees for the South_

8. CONIFEROUS EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND TREES
 _List of shrubby conifers_
 _Arboreous conifers_
 _Conifers for the South_

9. WINDOW-GARDENS
 _The window-box for outside effect_
 _The inside window-garden, or "house plants"_
 _Bulbs in the window-garden_
 _Watering house plants_
 _Hanging baskets_
 _Aquarium_

CHAPTER VIII

THE GROWING OF THE ORNAMENTAL PLANTS--INSTRUCTIONS OF PARTICULAR KINDS
   Abutilons;
   agapanthus;
   alstremeria;
   amaryllis;
   anemone;
   aralia;
   araucaria;
   auricula;
   azaleas;
   begonias;
   cactus;
   caladium;
   calceolaria;
   calla;
   camellias;
   cannas;
   carnations;
   century plants;
   chrysanthemums;
   cineraria;
   clematis;
   coleus;
   crocus;
   croton;
   cyclamen;
   dahlia;
   ferns;
   freesia;
   fuchsia;
   geranium;
   gladiolus;
   gloxinia;
   grevillea;
   hollyhocks;
   hyacinths;
   iris; lily;
   lily-of-the-valley;
   mignonette;
   moon-flowers;
   narcissus;
   oleander;
   oxalis;
   palms;
   pandanus;
   pansy;
   pelargonium;
   peony;
   phlox;
   primulas;
   rhododendrons;
   rose;
   smilax;
   stocks;
   sweet pea;
   swainsona;
   tuberose;
   tulips;
   violet;
   wax plant.

CHAPTER IX

THE GROWING OF THE FRUIT PLANTS
 _Dwarf fruit-trees_
 _Age and size of trees_
 _Pruning_
 _Thinning the fruit_
 _Washing and scrubbing the trees_
 _Gathering and keeping fruit_
   Almond;
   apples;
   apricot;
   blackberry;
   cherry;
   cranberry;
   currant;
   dewberry;
   fig;
   gooseberry;
   grape;
   mulberry;
   nuts;
   orange;
   peach;
   pear;
   plum;
   quince;
   raspberry;
   strawberry;

CHAPTER X

THE GROWING OF THE VEGETABLE PLANTS
 _Vegetables for six_
 _The classes of vegetables_
 _The culture of the leading vegetables_
   Asparagus;
   artichoke;
   artichoke;
   Jerusalem;
   bean;
   beet;
   broccoli;
   brussels sprouts;
   cabbage;
   carrot;
   cauliflower;
   celeriac;
   celery;
   chard;
   chicory;
   chervil;
   chives;
   collards;
   corn salad;
   corn;
   cress;
   cucumber;
   dandelion;
   egg-plant;
   endive;
   garlic;
   horseradish;
   kale;
   kohlrabi;
   leek;
   lettuce;
   mushroom;
   mustard;
   muskmelon;
   okra;
   onion;
   parsley;
   parsnip;
   pea;
   pepper;
   potato;
   radish;
   rhubarb;
   salsify;
   sea-kale;
   sorrel;
   spearmint;
   spinach;
   squash;
   sweet-potato;
   tomato;
   turnips and rutabagas;
   watermelon.

CHAPTER XI

SEASONAL REMINDERS For the North For the South

INDEX



LIST OF PLATES

PLATE

I. The open center.

II. The plan of the place.

III. Open-center treatment in a semi-tropical country.

IV. Subtropical bedding against a building. Caladiums, cannas,
abutilons, permanent rhododendrons, and other large stuff, with tuberous
begonias and balsams between.

V. A subtropical bed. Center of cannas, with border of _Pennisetum
longistylum_ (a grass) started in late February or early March.

VI. A tree that gives character to a place.

VII. Bedding with palms. If a bricked-up pit is made about the porch,
pot palms may be plunged in it in spring and tub conifers in winter; and
fall bulbs in tin cans (so that the receptacles will not split with
frost) may be plunged among the evergreens.

VIII. A well-planted entrance. Common trees and bushes, with Boston ivy.
on the post, and _Berberis Thunbergii_ in front.

IX. A rocky bank covered with permanent informal planting.

X. A shallow lawn pond, containing water-lilies, variegated sweet flag,
iris, and subtropical bedding at the rear; fountain covered with
parrot's feather (_Myriophyllum proserpinacoides_).

XI. A back yard with summer house, and gardens beyond.

XII. A back yard with heavy flower-garden planting.

XIII. The pageant of summer. Gardens of C.W. Dowdeswell, England, from a
painting by Miss Parsons.

XIV. Virginia creeper screen, on an old fence, with wall-flowers and
hollyhocks in front.

XV. Scuppernong grape, the arbor vine of the South. This plate shows the
noted scuppernongs on Roanoke Island, of which the origin is unknown,
but which were of great size more than one hundred years ago.

XVI. A flower-garden of China asters, with border of one of the dusty
millers (_Centaurea_).

XVII. The peony. One of the most steadfast of garden flowers.

XVIII. Cornflower or bachelor's button. _Centaurea Cyanus._

XIX. Pyracantha in fruit. One of the best ornamental-fruited plants for
the middle and milder latitudes.

XX. A simple but effective window-box, containing geraniums, petunias,
verbenas, heliotrope, and vines.

XXI. The king of fruits. Newtown as grown in the Pacific country.

XXII. Wall-training of a pear tree.

XXIII. Cherry currant.

XXIV. Golden Bantam sweet corn.

XXV. The garden radish, grown in fall, of the usual spring sorts.



A MANUAL OF GARDENING



CHAPTER I

THE POINT OF VIEW

Wherever there is soil, plants grow and produce their kind, and all
plants are interesting; when a person makes a choice as to what plants
he shall grow in any given place, he becomes a gardener or a farmer; and
if the conditions are such that he cannot make a choice, he may adopt
the plants that grow there by nature, and by making the most of them may
still be a gardener or a farmer in some degree.

Every family, therefore, may have a garden. If there is not a foot of
land, there are porches or windows. Wherever there is sunlight, plants
may be made to grow; and one plant in a tin-can may be a more helpful
and inspiring garden to some mind than a whole acre of lawn and flowers
may be to another.

The satisfaction of a garden does not depend on the area, nor, happily,
on the cost or rarity of the plants. It depends on the temper of the
person. One must first seek to love plants and nature, and then to
cultivate the happy peace of mind that is satisfied with little.

In the vast majority of cases a person will be happier if he has no
rigid and arbitrary notions, for gardens are moodish, particularly with
the novice. If plants grow and thrive, he should be happy; and if the
plants that thrive chance not to be the ones that he planted, they are
plants nevertheless, and nature is satisfied with them.

We are wont to covet the things that we cannot have; but we are happier
when we love the things that grow because they must. A patch of lusty
pigweeds, growing and crowding in luxuriant abandon, may be a better and
more worthy object of affection than a bed of coleuses in which every
spark of life and spirit and individuality has been sheared out and
suppressed. The man who worries morning and night about the dandelions
in the lawn will find great relief in loving the dandelions. Each
blossom is worth more than a gold coin, as it shines in the exuberant
sunlight of the growing spring, and attracts the insects to its bosom.
Little children like the dandelions: why may not we? Love the things
nearest at hand; and love intensely. If I were to write a motto over the
gate of a garden, I should choose the remark that Socrates is said to
have made as he saw the luxuries in the market, "How much there is in
the world that I do not want!"

I verily believe that this paragraph I have just written is worth more
than all the advice with which I intend to cram the succeeding pages,
notwithstanding the fact that I have most assiduously extracted this
advice from various worthy but, happily, long-forgotten authors.
Happiness is a quality of a person, not of a plant or a garden; and the
anticipation of joy in the writing of a book may be the reason why so
many books on garden-making have been written. Of course, all these
books have been good and useful. It would be ungrateful, at the least,
for the present writer to say otherwise; but books grow old, and the
advice becomes too familiar. The sentences need to be transposed and the
order of the chapters varied, now and then, or interest lags. Or, to
speak plainly, a new book of advice on handicraft is needed in every
decade, or perhaps oftener in these days of many publishers. There has
been a long and worthy procession of these handbooks,--Gardiner &
Hepburn, M'Mahon, Cobbett--original, pungent, versatile
Cobbett!--Fessenden, Squibb, Bridgeman, Sayers, Buist, and a dozen
more, each one a little richer because the others had been written. But
even the fact that all books pass into oblivion does not deter another
hand from making still another venture.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. The ornamental burdock]

I expect, then, that every person who reads this book will make a
garden, or will try to make one; but if only tares grow where roses are
desired, I must remind the reader that at the outset I advised pigweeds.
The book, therefore, will suit everybody,--the experienced gardener,
because it will be a repetition of what he already knows; and the
novice, because it will apply as well to a garden of burdocks as
of onions.

       *       *       *       *       *

_What a garden is._

A garden is the personal part of an estate, the area that is most
intimately associated with the private life of the home. Originally, the
garden was the area inside the inclosure or lines of fortification, in
distinction from the unprotected area or fields that lay beyond; and
this latter area was the particular domain of agriculture. This book
understands the garden to be that part of the personal or home premises
devoted to ornament, and to the growing of vegetables and fruits. The
garden, therefore, is an ill-defined demesne; but the reader must not
make the mistake of defining it by dimensions, for one may have a garden
in a flower-pot or on a thousand acres. In other words, this book
declares that every bit of land that is not used for buildings, walks,
drives, and fences, should be planted. What we shall plant--whether
sward, lilacs, thistles, cabbages, pears, chrysanthemums, or
tomatoes--we shall talk about as we proceed.

The only way to keep land perfectly unproductive is to keep it moving.
The moment the owner lets it alone, the planting has begun. In my own
garden, this first planting is of pigweeds. These may be followed, the
next year, by ragweeds, then by docks and thistles, with here and there
a start of clover and grass; and it all ends in June-grass and
dandelions.

Nature does not allow the land to remain bare and idle. Even the banks
where plaster and lath were dumped two or three years ago are now
luxuriant with burdocks and sweet clover; and yet persons who pass those
dumps every day say that they can grow nothing in their own yard because
the soil is so poor! Yet I venture that those same persons furnish most
of the pigweed seed that I use on my garden.

The lesson is that there is no soil--where a house would be built--so
poor that something worth while cannot be grown on it. If burdocks will
grow, something else will grow; or if nothing else will grow, then I
prefer burdocks to sand and rubbish.

The burdock is one of the most striking and decorative of plants, and a
good piece of it against a building or on a rough bank is just as useful
as many plants that cost money and are difficult to grow. I had a good
clump of burdock under my study window, and it was a great comfort; but
the man would persist in wanting to cut it down when he mowed the lawn.
When I remonstrated, he declared that it was nothing but burdock; but I
insisted that, so far from being burdock, it was really Lappa major,
since which time the plant and its offspring have enjoyed his utmost
respect. And I find that most of my friends reserve their appreciation
of a plant until they have learned its name and its family connections.

The dump-place that I mentioned has a surface area of nearly one hundred
and fifty square feet, and I find that it has grown over two hundred
good plants of one kind or another this year. This is more than my
gardener accomplished on an equal area, with manure and water and a man
to help. The difference was that the plants on the dump wanted to grow,
and the imported plants in the garden did not want to grow. It was the
difference between a willing horse and a balky horse. If a person wants
to show his skill, he may choose the balky plant; but if he wants fun
and comfort in gardening, he would better choose the willing one.

I have never been able to find out when the burdocks and mustard were
planted on the dump; and I am sure that they were never hoed or watered.
Nature practices a wonderfully rigid economy. For nearly half the summer
she even refused rain to the plants, but still they thrived; yet I staid
home from a vacation one summer that I might keep my plants from dying.
I have since learned that if the plants in my hardy borders cannot take
care of themselves for a time, they are little comfort to me.

The joy of garden-making lies in the mental attitude and in the
sentiments.



CHAPTER II

THE GENERAL PLAN OR THEORY OF THE PLACE

Having now discussed the most essential elements of gardening, we may
give attention to such minor features as the actual way in which a
satisfying garden is to be planned and executed.

Speaking broadly, a person will get from a garden what he puts into it;
and it is of the first importance, therefore, that a clear conception of
the work be formulated at the outset. I do not mean to say that the
garden will always turn out what it was desired that it should be; but
the failure to turn out properly is usually some fault in the first plan
or some neglect in execution.

Sometimes the disappointment in an ornamental garden is a result of
confusion of ideas as to what a garden is for. One of my friends was
greatly disappointed on returning to his garden early in September to
find that it was not so full and floriferous as when he left it in July.
He had not learned the simple lesson that even a flower-garden should
exhibit the natural progress of the season. If the garden begins to show
ragged places and to decline in late August or early September, it is
what occurs in all surrounding vegetation. The year is maturing. The
garden ought to express the feeling of the different months. The failing
leaves and expended plants are therefore to be looked on, to some extent
at least, as the natural order and destiny of a good garden.

These attributes are well exhibited in the vegetable-garden. In the
spring, the vegetable-garden is a model of neatness and precision. The
rows are straight. There are no missing plants. The earth is mellow and
fresh. Weeds are absent. One takes his friends to the garden, and he
makes pictures of it. By late June or early July, the plants have begun
to sprawl and to get out of shape. The bugs have taken some of them. The
rows are no longer trim and precise. The earth is hot and dry. The weeds
are making headway. By August and September, the garden has lost its
early regularity and freshness. The camera is put aside. The visitors
are not taken to it: the gardener prefers to go alone to find the melon
or the tomatoes, and he comes away as soon as he has secured his
product. Now, as a matter of fact, the garden has been going through its
regular seasonal growth. It is natural that it become ragged. It is not
necessary that weeds conquer it; but I suspect that it would be a very
poor garden, and certainly an uninteresting one, if it retained the
dress of childhood at the time when it should develop the
personalities of age.

There are two types of outdoor gardening in which the progress of the
season is not definitely expressed,--in the carpet-bedding kind, and in
the subtropical kind. I hope that my reader will get a clear distinction
in these matters, for it is exceedingly important. The carpet-bedding
gardening is the making of figure-beds in house-leeks and achyranthes
and coleus and sanitalia, and other things that can be grown in compact
masses and possibly sheared to keep them within place and bounds; the
reader sees these beds in perfection in some of the parks and about
florists' establishments; he will understand at once that they are not
meant in any way to express the season, for the difference between them
in September and June is only that they may be more perfect in
September. The subtropical gardening (plates IV and V) is the planting
out of house-grown stuff, in order to produce given effects, of such
plants as palms, dracenas, crotons, caladiums, papyrus, together with
such luxuriant things as dahlias and cannas and large ornamental
grasses and castor beans; these plants are to produce effects quite
foreign to the expression of a northern landscape, and they are usually
at their best and are most luxuriant when overtaken by the fall frosts.

Now, the home gardener usually relies on plants that more or less come
and go with the seasons. He pieces out and extends the season, to be
sure; but a garden with pansies, pinks, sweet william, roses, sweet
peas, petunias, marigolds, salpiglossis, sweet sultan, poppies, zinnias,
asters, cosmos, and the rest, is a progress-of-the-season garden,
nevertheless; and if it is a garden of herbaceous perennials, it still
more completely expresses the time-of-year.

My reader will now consider, perhaps, whether he would have his garden
accent and heighten his natural year from spring to fall, or whether he
desires to thrust into his year a feeling of another order of
vegetation. Either is allowable; but the gardener should distinguish at
the outset.

I wish to suggest to my reader, also, that it is possible for the garden
to retain some interest even in the winter months. I sometimes question
whether it is altogether wise to clear out the old garden stems too
completely and too smoothly in the fall, and thereby obliterate every
mark of it for the winter months; but however this may be, there are two
ways by which the garden year may be extended: by planting things that
bloom very late in fall and others that bloom very early in spring; by
using freely, in the backgrounds, of bushes and trees that have
interesting winter characters.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The plan of the grounds_ (see Plate II).

[Illustration II.: The plan of the place. The arrangement of the
property (which is in New York) is determined by an existing woodland to
the left or southeast of the house and a natural opening to the
southwest of the house. The house is colonial, and the entire treatment
is one of considerable simplicity. Wild or woodland gardens have been
developed to the right and left of the entrance, the latter or entrance
lawns being left severely simple and plain in their treatment. To the
rear of the house a turf terrace raised three steps above the general
grade of the lawn leads to a general lawn terminated by a small garden
exedra or teahouse with a fountain in its center, and to two shrub
gardens forming interesting and closed pockets of lawn. The stable and
vegetable gardens are located to the south of the house in a natural
opening in the woodland. The design is made by a professional landscape
architect.]

One cannot expect satisfaction in the planting and developing of a home
area unless he has a clear conception of what is to be done. This
necessarily follows, since the pleasure that one derives from any
enterprise depends chiefly on the definiteness of his ideals and his
ability to develop them. The homemaker should develop his plan before
he attempts to develop his place. He must study the various subdivisions
in order that the premises may meet all his needs. He should determine
the locations of the leading features of the place and the relative
importance to be given to the various parts of it,--as of the landscape
parts, the ornamental areas, the vegetable-garden, and the fruit
plantation.

The details of the planting may be determined in part as the place
develops; it is only the structural features and purposes that need to
be determined beforehand in most small properties. The incidental
modifications that may be made in the planting from time to time keep
the interest alive and allow the planter to gratify his desire to
experiment with new plants and new methods.

It must be understood that I am now speaking of ordinary home grounds
which the home-maker desires to improve by himself. If the area is large
enough to present distinct landscape features, it is always best to
employ a landscape architect of recognized merit, in the same spirit
that one would employ an architect. The details, however, may even then
be filled in by the owner, if he is so inclined, following out the plan
that the landscape architect makes.

It is desirable to have a definite plan on paper (drawn to scale) for
the location of the leading features of the place. These features are
the residence, the out-houses, the walks and drives, the service areas
(as clothes yards), the border planting, flower-garden,
vegetable-garden, and fruit-garden. It should not be expected that the
map plan can be followed in every detail, but it will serve as a general
guide; and if it is made on a large enough scale, the different kinds of
plants can be located in their proper positions, and a record of the
place be kept. It is nearly always unsatisfactory, for both owner and
designer, if a plan of the place is made without a personal inspection
of the area. Lines that look well on a map may not adjust themselves
readily to the varying contours of the place itself, and the location of
the features inside the grounds will depend also in a very large measure
on the objects that lie outside it. For example, all interesting and
bold views should be brought into the place, and all unsightly objects
in the immediate vicinity should be planted out.

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Diagram of a back yard.]

A plan of a back yard of a narrow city lot is given in Fig. 2, showing
the heavy border planting of trees and shrubs, with the skirting border
of flowers. In the front are two large trees, that are desired for
shade. It will readily be seen from this plan how extensive the area for
flowers becomes when they are placed along such a devious border. More
color effect can be got from such an arrangement of the flowers than
could be secured if the whole area were planted to flower-beds.

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Plan of a rough area.]

A contour map plan of a very rough piece of ground is shown in Fig. 3.
The sides of the place are high, and it becomes necessary to carry a
walk through the middle area; and on either side of the front, it skirts
the banks. Such a plan is usually unsightly on paper, but may
nevertheless fit special cases very well. The plan is inserted here for
the purpose of illustrating the fact that a plan that will work on the
ground does not necessarily work on a map.

In charting a place, it is important to locate the points from which the
walks are to start, and at which they are to emerge from the grounds.
These two points are then joined by direct and simple curves; and
alongside the walks, especially in angles or bold curves, planting may
be inserted.

A suggestion for school premises on a four-corners, and which the pupils
enter from three directions, is made in Fig. 4. The two playgrounds are
separated by a broken group of bushes extending from the building to the
rear boundary; but, in general, the spaces are kept open, and the heavy
border-masses clothe the place and make it home-like. The lineal extent
of the group margins is astonishingly large, and along all these margins
flowers may be planted, if desired.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Suggestion for a school-ground on a
four-corners.]

If there is only six feet between a schoolhouse and the fence, there is
still room for a border of shrubs. This border should be between the
walk and the fence,--on the very boundary,--not between the walk and the
building, for in the latter case the planting divides the premises and
weakens the effect. A space two feet wide will allow of an irregular
wall of bushes, if tall buildings do not cut out the light; and if the
area is one hundred feet long, thirty to fifty kinds of shrubs and
flowers can be grown to perfection, and the school-grounds will be
practically no smaller for the plantation.

One cannot make a plan of a place until he knows what he wants to do
with the property; and therefore we may devote the remainder of this
chapter to developing the idea in the layout of the premises rather than
to the details of map-making and planting.

Because I speak of the free treatment of garden spaces in this book it
must not be inferred that any reflection is intended on the "formal"
garden. There are many places in which the formal or "architect's
garden" is much to be desired; but each of these cases should be treated
wholly by itself and be made a part of the architectural setting of the
place. These questions are outside the sphere of this book. All formal
gardens are properly individual studies.

All very special types of garden design are naturally excluded from a
book of this kind, such types, for example, as Japanese gardening.
Persons who desire to develop these specialties will secure the services
of persons who are skilled in them; and there are also books and
magazine articles to which they may go.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The picture in the landscape._

The deficiency in most home grounds is not so much that there is too
little planting of trees and shrubs as that this planting is
meaningless. Every yard should be a picture. That is, the area should be
set off from other areas, and it should have such a character that the
observer catches its entire effect and purpose without stopping to
analyze its parts. The yard should be one thing, one area, with every
feature contributing its part to one strong and homogeneous effect.

These remarks will become concrete if the reader turns his eye to Figs.
5 and 6. The former represents a common type of planting of front yards.
The bushes and trees are scattered promiscuously over the area. Such a
yard has no purpose, no central idea. It shows plainly that the planter
had no constructive conception, no grasp of any design, and no
appreciation of the fundamental elements of the beauty of landscape.
Its only merit is the fact that trees and shrubs have been planted; and
this, to most minds, comprises the essence and sum of the ornamentation
of grounds. Every tree and bush is an individual alone, unattended,
disconnected from its environments, and, therefore, meaningless. Such a
yard is only a nursery.

[Illustration: Fig 5. The common or nursery way of planting]

[Illustration: Fig. 6. The proper or pictorial type of planting]

The other plan (Fig. 6) is a picture. The eye catches its meaning at
once. The central idea is the residence, with a free and open greensward
in front of it The same trees and bushes that were scattered haphazard
over Fig. 5 are massed into a framework to give effectiveness to the
picture of home and comfort. This style of planting makes a landscape,
even though the area be no larger than a parlor. The other style is only
a collection of curious plants. The one has an instant and abiding
pictorial effect, which is restful and satisfying: the observer
exclaims, "What a beautiful home this is!" The other piques one's
curiosity, obscures the residence, divides and distracts the attention:
the observer exclaims, "What excellent lilac bushes are these!"

An inquiry into the causes of the unlike impressions that one receives
from a given landscape and from a painting of it explains the subject
admirably. One reason why the picture appeals to us more than the
landscape is because the picture is condensed, and the mind becomes
acquainted with its entire purpose at once, while the landscape is so
broad that the individual objects at first fix the attention, and it is
only by a process of synthesis that the unity of the landscape finally
becomes apparent. This is admirably illustrated in photographs. One of
the first surprises that the novice experiences in the use of the camera
is the discovery that very tame scenes become interesting and often even
spirited in the photograph. But there is something more than mere
condensation in this vitalizing and beautifying effect of the photograph
or the painting: individual objects are so much reduced that they no
longer appeal to us as distinct subjects, and however uncouth they may
be in the reality, they make no impression in the picture; the thin and
sere sward may appear rather like a closely shaven lawn or a new-mown
meadow. And again, the picture sets a limit to the scene; it frames it,
and thereby cuts off all extraneous and confusing or irrelevant
landscapes.

These remarks are illustrated in the aesthetics of landscape gardening.
It is the artist's one desire to make pictures in the landscape. This is
done in two ways: by the form of plantations, and by the use of vistas.
He will throw his plantations into such positions that open and yet more
or less confined areas of greensward are presented to the observer at
various points. This picture-like opening is nearly or quite devoid of
small or individual objects, which usually destroy the unity of such
areas and are meaningless in themselves. A vista is a narrow opening or
view between plantations to a distant landscape. It cuts up the broad
horizon into portions that are readily cognizable. It frames parts of
the country-side. The verdurous sides of the planting are the sides of
the frame; the foreground is the bottom, and the sky is the top. It is
of the utmost importance that good views be left or secured from the
best windows of the house (not forgetting the kitchen window); in fact,
the placing of the house may often be determined by the views that may
be appropriated.

If a landscape is a picture, it must have a canvas. This canvas is the
greensward. Upon this, the artist paints with tree and bush and flower
as the painter does upon his canvas with brush and pigments. The
opportunity for artistic composition and design is nowhere so great as
in the landscape garden, because no other art has such a limitless field
for the expression of its emotions. It is not strange, if this be true,
that there have been few great landscape gardeners, and that, falling
short of art, the landscape gardener too often works in the sphere of
the artisan. There can be no rules for landscape gardening, any more
than there can be for painting or sculpture. The operator may be taught
how to hold the brush or strike the chisel or plant the tree, but he
remains an operator; the art is intellectual and emotional and will not
confine itself in precepts.

The making of a good and spacious lawn, then, is the very first
practical consideration in a landscape garden.

The lawn provided, the gardener conceives what is the dominant and
central feature in the place, and then throws the entire premises into
subordination to this feature. In home grounds this central feature is
the house. To scatter trees and bushes over the area defeats the
fundamental purpose of the place,--the purpose to make every part of
the grounds lead up to the home and to accentuate its homelikeness.

A house must have a background if it is to become a home. A house that
stands on a bare plain or hill is a part of the universe, not a part of
a home. Recall the cozy little farm-house that is backed by a wood or an
orchard; then compare some pretentious structure that stands apart from
all planting. Yet how many are the farm-houses that stand as stark and
cold against the sky as if they were competing with the moon! We would
not believe it possible for a man to live in a house twenty-five years
and not, by accident, allow some tree to grow, were it not that it
is so!

Of course these remarks about the lawn are meant for those countries
where greensward is the natural ground cover. In the South and in arid
countries, greensward is not the prevailing feature of the landscape,
and in these regions the landscape design may take on a wholly different
character, if the work is to be nature-like. We have not yet developed
other conceptions of landscape work to any perfect extent, and we inject
the English greensward treatment even into deserts. We may look for the
time when a brown landscape garden may be made in a brown country, and
it may be good art not to attempt a broad open center in regions in
which undergrowth rather than sod is the natural ground cover. In parts
of the United States we are developing a good Spanish-American
architecture, perhaps we may develop a recognized comparable landscape
treatment as an artistic expression.

[Illustration: Fig. 7 A house]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Birds, and cats_

The picture in the landscape is not complete without birds, and the
birds should comprise more species than English sparrows. If one is to
have birds on his premises, he must (1) attract them and (2)
protect them.

One attracts birds by providing places in which they may nest. The free
border plantings have distinct advantages in attracting chipping
sparrows, catbirds, and other species. The bluebirds, house wrens, and
martins may be attracted by boxes in which they can build.

One may attract birds by feeding them and supplying water. Suet for
woodpeckers and others, grain and crumbs for other kinds, and taking
care not to frighten or molest them, will soon win the confidence of the
birds. A slowly running or dripping fountain, with a good rim on which
they may perch, will also attract them, and it is no mean enjoyment to
watch the birds at bathing. Or, if one does not care to go to the
expense of a bird fountain, he may supply their wants by means of a
shallow dish of water set on the lawn.

[Illustration: Fig. 8 A home]

The birds will need protection from cats. There is no more reason why
cats should roam at will and uncontrolled than that dogs or horses or
poultry should be allowed unlimited license. A cat away from home is a
trespasser and should be so treated. A person has no more right to
inflict a cat on a neighborhood than to inflict a goat or rabbits or any
other nuisance. All persons who keep cats should feel the same
responsibility for them that they feel for other property; and they
should be willing to forfeit their property right when they forfeit
their control. The cats not only destroy birds, but they break the
peace. The caterwauling at night will not be permitted in well-governed
communities any more than the shooting of fire-arms or vicious talking
will be allowed: all night-roaming cats should be gathered in, just as
stray dogs and tramps are provided for.

I do not dislike cats, but I desire to see them kept at home and within
control. If persons say that they cannot keep them on their own
premises, then these persons should not be allowed to have them. A bell
on the cat will prevent it from capturing old birds, and this may answer
a good purpose late in the season; but it will not stop the robbing of
nests or the taking of young birds, and here is where the greatest havoc
is wrought.

It is often asserted that cats must roam in order that rats and mice may
be reduced; but probably few house mice and few rats are got by
wandering cats; and, again, many cats are not mousers. There are other
ways of controlling rats and mice; or if cats are employed for this
purpose, see that they are restricted to the places where the house rats
and mice are to be found.

Many persons like squirrels about the place, but they cannot expect to
have both birds and squirrels unless very special precautions are taken.

The English or house sparrow drives away the native birds, although he
is himself an attractive inhabitant in winter, particularly where native
birds are not resident. The English sparrow should be kept in reduced
numbers. This can be easily accomplished by poisoning them in winter
(when other birds are not endangered) with wheat soaked in strychnine
water. The contents of one of the eighth-ounce vials of strychnine that
may be secured at a drug store is added to sufficient water to cover a
quart of wheat. Let the wheat stand in the poison water twenty-four to
forty-eight hours (but not long enough for the grains to sprout), then
dry the wheat thoroughly. It cannot be distinguished from ordinary
wheat, and sparrows usually eat it freely, particularly if they are in
the habit of eating scattered grain and crumbs. Of course, the greatest
caution must be exercised that in the use of such highly poisonous
materials, accidents do not occur with other animals or with
human beings.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The planting is part of the design or picture._

If the reader catches the full meaning of these pages, he has acquired
some of the primary conceptions in landscape gardening. The suggestion
will grow upon him day by day; and if he is of an observing turn of
mind, he will find that this simple lesson will revolutionize his habit
of thought respecting the planting of grounds and the beauty of
landscapes. He will see that a bush or flower-bed that is no part of any
general purpose or design--that is, which does not contribute to the
making of a picture--might better never have been planted. For myself, I
would rather have a bare and open pasture than such a yard as that shown
in Fig. 9, even though it contained the choicest plants of every land.
The pasture would at least be plain and restful and unpretentious; but
the yard would be full of effort and fidget.

Reduced to a single expression, all this means that the greatest
artistic value in planting lies in the effect of the mass, and not in
the individual plant. A mass has the greater value because it presents a
much greater range and variety of forms, colors, shades, and textures,
because it has sufficient extent or dimensions to add structural
character to a place, and because its features are so continuous and so
well blended that the mind is not distracted by incidental and
irrelevant ideas. Two pictures will illustrate all this. Figures 10, 11
are pictures of natural copses. The former stretches along a field and
makes a lawn of a bit of meadow which lies in front of it. The landscape
has become so small and so well defined by this bank of verdure that it
has a familiar and personal feeling. The great, bare, open meadows are
too ill-defined and too extended to give any domestic feeling; but here
is a part of the meadow set off into an area that one can compass with
his affections.

[Illustration: Fig. 10 A native fence-row]

[Ilustration: Fig. 11 Birds build their nests here]

[Illustration: Fig. 12. A free-and-easy planting of things wild and
tame.]

These masses in Figs. 10, 11, and 12 have their own intrinsic merits, as
well as their office in defining a bit of nature. One is attracted by
the freedom of arrangement, the irregularity of sky-line, the bold
bays and promontories, and the infinite play of light and shade. The
observer is interested in each because it has character, or features,
that no other mass in all the world possesses. He knows that the birds
build their nests in the tangle and the rabbits find it a covert.

[Illustration: Fig. 13. An open treatment of a school-ground. More trees
might be placed in the area, if desired.]

Now let the reader turn to Fig. 9, which is a picture of an "improved"
city yard. Here there is no structural outline to the planting, no
defining of the area, no continuous flow of the form and color. Every
bush is what every other one is or may be, and there are hundreds like
them in the same town. The birds shun them. Only the bugs find any
happiness in them. The place has no fundamental design or idea, no lawn
upon which a picture may be constructed. This yard is like a sentence or
a conversation in which every word is equally emphasized.

In bold contrast with this yard is the open-center treatment in Fig. 13.
Here there is pictorial effect; and there is opportunity along the
borders to distribute trees and shrubs that may be desired as individual
specimens.

The motive that shears the trees also razes the copse, in order that the
gardener or "improver" may show his art. Compare Figs. 14 and 15. Many
persons seem to fear that they will never be known to the world unless
they expend a great amount of muscle or do something emphatic or
spectacular; and their fears are usually well founded.

[Illustration: Fig. 14. A rill much as nature made it.]

[Illustration: Fig. 15. A rill "improved," so that it will not look
"ragged" and unkempt.]

It is not enough that trees and bushes be planted in masses. They must
be kept in masses by letting them grow freely in a natural way. The
pruning-knife is the most inveterate enemy of shrubbery. Pictures 16 and
17 illustrate what I mean. The former represents a good group of bushes
so far as arrangement is concerned; but it has been ruined by the
shears. The attention of the observer is instantly arrested by the
individual bushes. Instead of one free and expressive object, there are
several stiff and expressionless ones. If the observer stops to
consider his own thoughts when he comes upon such a collection, he will
likely find himself counting the bushes; or, at least, he will be making
mental comparisons of the various bushes, and wondering why they are not
all sheared to be exactly alike. Figure 17 shows how the same "artist"
has treated two deutzias and a juniper. Much the same effect could have
been secured, and with much less trouble, by laying two flour barrels
end to end and standing a third one between them.

[Illustration: 16. The making of a good group, but spoiled by the
pruning shears.]

[Illustration: 17. The three guardsmen.]

I must hasten to say that I have not the slightest objection to the
shearing of trees. The only trouble is in calling the practice art and
in putting the trees where people must see them (unless they are part of
a recognized formal-garden design). If the operator simply calls the
business shearing, and puts the things where he and others who like them
may see them, objection could not be raised. Some persons like painted
stones, others iron bulldogs in the front yard and the word "welcome"
worked into the door-mat, and others like barbered trees. So long as
these likes are purely personal, it would seem to be better taste to put
such curiosities in the back yard, where the owner may admire them
without molestation.

[Illustration: Fig. 18 A bit of semi-rustic work built into a native
growth]

There is a persistent desire among workmen to shear and to trim: it
displays their industry. It is a great thing to be able to allow the
freedom of nature to remain. The artist often builds his structures into
a native planting (as in Fig. 18) rather than to trust himself to
produce a good result by planting on razed surfaces.

In this discussion, I have tried to enforce the importance of the open
center in non-formal home grounds in greensward regions. Of course this
does not mean that there may not be central planting in particular cases
where the conditions distinctly call for it nor that there may not be
trees on the lawn. If one has the placing of the trees, he may see that
they are not scattered aimlessly; but if good trees are already growing
on the place, it would be folly to think of removing them merely because
they are not in the best ideal positions; in such case, it may be very
necessary to adapt the treatment of the area to the trees. The
home-maker should always consider, also, the planting of a few trees in
such places as to shade and protect the residence: the more closely they
can be made a part of the general design or handling of the place, the
better the results will be.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The flower-growing should be part of the design._

I do not mean to discourage the use of brilliant flowers and bright
foliage and striking forms of vegetation; but these things are never
primary considerations in a good domain. The structural elements of the
place are designed first. The flanking and bordering masses are then
planted. Finally the flowers and accessories are put in, as a house is
painted after it is built. Flowers appear to best advantage when seen
against a background of foliage, and they are then, also, an integral
part of the picture. The flower-garden, as such, should be at the rear
or side of a place, as all other personal appurtenances are; but flowers
and bright leaves may be freely scattered along the borders and near the
foliage masses.

It is a common saying that many persons have no love or appreciation of
flowers, but it is probably nearer to the truth to say that no person is
wholly lacking in this respect. Even those persons who declare that they
care nothing for flowers are generally deceived by their dislike of
flower-beds and the conventional methods of flower-growing. I know many
persons who stoutly deny any liking for flowers, but who, nevertheless,
are rejoiced with the blossoming of the orchards and the purpling of the
clover fields. The fault may not lie so much with the persons themselves
as with the methods of growing and displaying the flowers.

Defects in flower-growing.

The greatest defect with our flower-growing is the stinginess of it. We
grow our flowers as if they were the choicest rarities, to be coddled in
a hotbed or under a bell-jar, and then to be exhibited as single
specimens in some little pinched and ridiculous hole cut in the turf, or
perched upon an ant-hill that some gardener has laboriously heaped oh a
lawn. Nature, on the other hand, grows many of her flowers in the most
luxurious abandon, and one can pick an armful without offense. She grows
her flowers in earnest, as a man grows a crop of corn. One can revel in
the color and the fragrance and be satisfied.

The next defect with our flower-growing is the flower-bed. Nature has no
time to make flower-bed designs: she is busy growing flowers. And, then,
if she were given to flower-beds, the whole effect would be lost, for
she could no longer be luxurious and wanton, and if a flower were picked
her whole scheme might be upset. Imagine a geranium-bed or a coleus-bed,
with its wonderful "design," set out into a wood or in a free and open
landscape! Even the birds would laugh at it!

What I want to say is that we should grow flowers freely when we make a
flower-garden. We should have enough of them to make the effort worth
the while. I sympathize with the man who likes sunflowers. There are
enough of them to be worth looking at. They fill the eye. Now show this
man ten feet square of pinks or asters, or daisies, all growing free and
easy and he will tell you that he likes them. All this has a particular
application to the farmer, who is often said to dislike flowers. He
grows potatoes and buckwheat and weeds by the acre: two or three unhappy
pinks or geraniums are not enough to make an impression.

Lawn flower-beds.

The easiest way to spoil a good lawn is to put a flower-bed in it; and
the most effective way in which to show off flowers to the least
advantage is to plant them in a bed in the greensward. Flowers need a
background. We do not hang our pictures on fence-posts. If flowers are
to be grown on a lawn, let them be of the hardy kind, which can be
naturalized in the sod and which grow freely in the tall unmown grass;
or else perennials of such nature that they make attractive clumps by
themselves. Lawns should be free and generous, but the more they are cut
up and worried with trivial effects, the smaller and meaner they look.

[Illustration: Fig. 19 Hole-in-the-ground gardening]

But even if we consider these lawn flower-beds wholly apart from their
surroundings, we must admit that they are at best unsatisfactory. It
generally amounts to this, that we have four months of sparse and
downcast vegetation, one month of limp and frost-bitten plants, and
seven months of bare earth (Fig 19) I am not now opposing the
carpet-beds which professional gardeners make in parks and other
museums. I like museums, and some of the carpet-beds and set pieces are
"fearfully and wonderfully made" (see Fig 20) I am directing my remarks
to those humble home-made flower-beds that are so common in lawns of
country and city homes alike. These beds are cut from the good fresh
turf, often in the most fantastic designs, and are filled with such
plants as the women of the place may be able to carry over in cellars or
in the window. The plants themselves may look very well in pots, but
when they are turned out of doors, they have a sorry time for a month
adapting themselves to the sun and winds, and it is generally well on
towards midsummer before they begin to cover the earth. During all these
weeks they have demanded more time and labor than would have been
needed to care for a plantation of much greater size and which would
have given flowers every day from the time the birds began to nest in
the spring until the last robin had flown in November.

[Illustration: 20. Worth paying admittance price to see!]

Flower-borders.

We should acquire the habit of speaking of the flower-border. The border
planting of which we have spoken sets bounds to the place, and makes it
one's own. The person lives inside his place, not on it. Along these
borders, against groups, often by the corners of the residence or in
front of porches--these are places for flowers. Ten flowers against a
background are more effective than a hundred in the open yard.

[Illustration: Fig. 21 An artist's flower border]

I have asked a professional artist, Mr. Mathews, to draw me the kind of a
flower-bed that he likes. It is shown in Fig. 21. It is a border,--a
strip of land two or three feet wide along a fence. This is the place
where pigweeds usually grow. Here he has planted marigolds, gladiolus,
golden rod, wild asters, China asters, and--best of all--hollyhocks. Any
one would like that flower-garden It has some of that local and
indefinable charm that always attaches to an "old-fashioned garden"
with its medley of form and color Nearly every yard has some such strip
of land along a rear walk or fence or against a building It is the
easiest thing to plant it,--ever so much easier than digging the
characterless geranium bed into the center of an inoffensive lawn. The
suggestions are carried further in 22 to 25.

[Illustration: 22. Petunias against a background of osiers.]

[Illustration: 23. A sowing of flowers along a marginal planting.]

[Illustration: Fig. 24. An open back yard. Flowers may be thrown in
freely along the borders, but they would spoil the lawn if placed in
its center.]

[Illustration: Fig. 25. A flower garden at the rear or one side of the
place.]

The old-fashioned garden.

Speaking of the old-fashioned garden recalls one of William Falconer's
excellent paragraphs ("Gardening," November 15, 1897, p. 75): "We tried
it in Schenley Park this year. We needed a handy dumping ground, and hit
on the head of a deep ravine between two woods; into it we dumped
hundreds upon hundreds of wagon loads of rock and clay, filling it near
to the top, then surfaced it with good soil. Here we planted some
shrubs, and broadcast among them set out scarlet poppies,
eschscholtzias, dwarf nasturtiums, snapdragons, pansies, marigolds, and
all manner of hardy herbaceous plants, having enough of each sort to
make a mass of its kind and color, and the effect was fine. In the
middle was a plantation of hundreds of clumps of Japan and German irises
interplanted, thence succeeded by thousands of gladioli, and banded with
montbretias, from which we had flowers till frost. The steep face of
this hill was graded a little and a series of winding stone steps set
into it, making the descent into the hollow quite easy; the stones were
the rough uneven slabs secured in blasting the rocks when grading in
other parts of the park, and both along outer edges of the steps and the
sides of the upper walk a wide belt of moss pink was planted; and the
banks all about were planted with shrubs, vines, wild roses, columbines,
and other plants. More cameras and kodaks were leveled by visitors at
this piece of gardening than at any other spot in the park, and still we
had acres of painted summer beds."

Contents of the flower-borders.

There is no prescribed rule as to what one should put into these
informal flower-borders. Put in them the plants you like. Perhaps the
greater part of them should be perennials that come up of themselves
every spring, and that are hardy and reliable. Wild flowers are
particularly effective. Every one knows that many of the native herbs
of woods and glades are more attractive than some of the most prized
garden flowers. The greater part of these native flowers grow readily in
cultivation, sometimes even in places which, in soil and exposure, are
much unlike their native haunts. Many of them make thickened roots, and
they may be safely transplanted at any time after the flowers have
passed. To most persons the wild flowers are less known than many
exotics that have smaller merit, and the extension of cultivation is
constantly tending to annihilate them. Here, then, in the informal
flower-border, is an opportunity to rescue them. Then one may sow in
freely of easy-growing annuals, as marigolds, China asters, petunias and
phloxes, and sweet peas.

One of the advantages of these borders lying at the boundary is that
they are always ready to receive more plants, unless they are full. That
is, their symmetry is not marred if some plants are pulled out and
others are put in. And if the weeds now and then get a start, very
little harm is done. Such a border half full of weeds is handsomer than
the average hole-in-the-lawn geranium bed. An ample border may receive
wild plants every month in the year when the frost is out of the ground.
Plants are dug in the woods or fields, whenever one is on an excursion,
even if in July. The tops are cut off, the roots kept moist until they
are placed in the border; most of these much-abused plants will grow. To
be sure, one will secure some weeds; but then, the weeds are a part of
the collection! Of course, some plants will resent this treatment, but
the border may be a happy family, and be all the better and more
personal because it is the result of moments of relaxation. Such a
border has something new and interesting every month of the growing
season; and even in the winter the tall clumps of grasses and
aster-stems hold their banners above the snow and are a source of
delight to every frolicsome bevy of snowbirds.

I have spoken of a weedland to suggest how simple and easy a thing it
is to make an attractive mass-plantation. One may make the most of a
rock (Fig. 26) or bank, or other undesirable feature of the place. Dig
up the ground and make it rich, and then set plants in it. You will not
get it to suit you the first year, and perhaps not the second or the
third; you can always pull out plants and put more in. I should not want
a lawn-garden so perfect that I could not change it in some character
each year; I should lose interest in it.

[Illustration: 26. Making the most of a rock.]

It must not be understood that I am speaking only for mixed borders. On
the contrary, it is much better in most cases that each border or bed be
dominated by the expression of one kind of flower or bush. In one place
a person may desire a wild aster effect, or a petunia effect, or a
larkspur effect, or a rhododendron effect; or it may be desirable to run
heavily to strong foliage effects in one direction and to light flower
effects in another. The mixed border is rather more a flower-garden idea
than a landscape idea; when it shall be desirable to emphasize the one
and when the other, cannot be set down in a book.

_The value of plants may lie in foliage and form rather than in bloom._

What kinds of shrubs and flowers to plant is a wholly secondary and
largely a personal consideration. The main plantings are made up of
hardy and vigorous species; then the things that you like are added.
There is endless choice in the species, but the arrangement or
disposition of the plants is far more important than the kinds; and the
foliage and form of the plant are usually of more importance than
its bloom.

The appreciation of foliage effects in the landscape is a higher type of
feeling than the desire for mere color. Flowers are transitory, but
foliage and plant forms are abiding. The common roses have very little
value for landscape planting because the foliage and habit of the
rose-bush are not attractive, the leaves are inveterately attacked by
bugs, and the blossoms are fleeting. Some of the wild roses and the
Japanese _Rosa rugosa,_ however, have distinct merit for mass effects.

Even the common flowers, as marigold, zinnias, and gaillardias, are
interesting as plant forms long before they come into bloom. To many
persons the most satisfying epoch in the garden is that preceding the
bloom, for the habits and stature of the plants are then unobscured. The
early stages of lilies, daffodils, and all perennials are most
interesting; and one never appreciates a garden until he realizes that
this is so.

[Illustration: 27. The plant-form in a perennial salvia.]

Now let the reader, with these suggestions in mind, observe for one week
the plant-forms in the humble herbs that he meets, whether these herbs
are strong garden plants or the striking sculpturing of mulleins,
burdocks, and jimson-weed. Figures 27 to 31 will be suggestive.

[Illustration: 28. Funkia, or day-lily. Where lies the chief
interest,--in the plant-form or in the bloom?]

[Illustration: 29. A large-leaved nicotiana.]

[Illustration: 30. The awkward century plant that has been laboriously
carried over winter year by year in the cellar: compare with other
plants here shown as to its value as a lawn subject.]

Wild bushes are nearly always attractive in form and habit when planted
in borders and groups. They improve in appearance under cultivation
because they are given a better chance to grow. In wild nature there is
such fierce struggle for existence that plants usually grow to few or
single stems, and they are sparse and scraggly in form; but once given
all the room they want and a good soil, they become luxurious, full, and
comely. In most home grounds in the country the body of the planting may
be very effectively composed of bushes taken from the adjacent woods and
fields. The masses may then be enlivened by the addition here and there
of cultivated bushes, and the planting of flowers and herbs about the
borders. It is not essential that one know the names of these wild
bushes, although a knowledge of their botanical kinships will add
greatly to the pleasure of growing them. Neither will they look common
when transferred to the lawn. There are not many persons who know even
the commonest wild bushes intimately, and the things change so much in
looks when removed to rich ground that few home-makers recognize them.

[Illustration: Fig. 31. Making a picture with rhubarb.]

Odd and formal trees.

It is but a corollary of this discussion to say that plants which are
simply odd or grotesque or unusual should be used with the greatest
caution, for they introduce extraneous and jarring effects. They are
little in sympathy with a landscape garden. An artist would not care to
paint an evergreen that is sheared into some grotesque shape. It is only
curious, and shows what a man with plenty of time and long pruning
shears can accomplish. A weeping tree (particularly of a small-growing
species) is usually seen to best advantage when it stands against a
group or mass of foliage (Fig. 32), as a promontory, adding zest and
spirit to the border; it then has relation with the place.

[Illustration: Fig 32. A weeping tree at one side of the grounds and
supported by a background.]

This leads me to speak of the planting of the Lombardy poplar, which may
be taken as a type of the formal tree, and as an illustration of what I
mean to express. Its chief merits to the average planter are the
quickness of its growth and the readiness with which it multiplies by
sprouts. But in the North it is likely to be a short-lived tree, it
suffers from storms, and it has few really useful qualities. It may be
used to some advantage in windbreaks for peach orchards and other
short-lived plantations; but after a few years a screen of Lombardies
begins to fail, and the habit of suckering from the root adds to its
undesirable features. For shade it has little merit, and for timber
none. Persons like it because it is striking, and this, in an artistic
sense, is its gravest fault. It is unlike anything else in our
landscape, and does not fit into our scenery well. A row of Lombardies
along a roadside is like a row of exclamation points!

[Illustration: IV. Subtropical bedding against a building. Caladiums,
cannas, abutilons, permanent rhododendrons, and other large stuff, with
tuberous begonias and balsams between.]

But the Lombardy can often be used to good effect as one factor in a
group of trees, where its spire-like shape, towering above the
surrounding foliage, may lend a spirited charm to the landscape. It
combines well in such groups if it stands in visual nearness to chimneys
or other tall formal objects. Then it gives a sort of architectural
finish and spirit to a group; but the effect is generally lessened, if
not altogether spoiled, in small places, if more than one Lombardy is in
view. One or two specimens may often be used to give vigor to heavy
plantations about low buildings, and the effect is generally best if
they are seen beyond or at the rear of the building. Note the use that
the artist has made of them in the backgrounds in Figs. 12, 13, and 43.

Poplars and the like.

Another defect in common ornamental planting, which is well illustrated
in the use of poplars, is the desire for plants merely because they grow
rapidly. A very rapid-growing tree nearly always produces cheap effects.
This is well illustrated in the common planting of willows and poplars
about summer places or lake shores. Their effect is almost wholly one of
thinness and temporariness. There is little that suggests strength or
durability in willows and poplars, and for this reason they should
usually be employed as minor or secondary features in ornamental or home
grounds. When quick results are desired, nothing is better to plant
than these trees; but better trees, as maples, oaks, or elms, should be
planted with them, and the poplars and willows should be removed as
rapidly as the other species begin to afford protection. When the
plantation finally assumes its permanent characters, a few of the
remaining poplars and willows, judiciously left, may afford very
excellent effects; but no one who has an artist's feeling would be
content to construct the framework of his place of these rapid-growing
and soft-wooded trees.

[Illustration: Fig. 33. A spring expression worth securing. Catkins of
the small poplar.]

I have said that the legitimate use of poplars in ornamental grounds is
in the production of minor or secondary effects. As a rule, they are
less adapted to isolated planting as specimen trees than to using in
composition,--that is, as parts of general groups of trees, where their
characters serve to break the monotony of heavier forms and heavier
foliage. The poplars are gay trees, as a rule, especially those, like
the aspens, that have a trembling foliage. Their leaves are bright and
the tree-tops are thin. The common aspen or "popple," _Populus
tremuloides,_ of our woods, is a meritorious little tree for certain
effects. Its dangling catkins (Fig. 33), light, dancing foliage, and
silver-gray limbs, are always cheering, and its autumn color is one of
the purest golden-yellows of our landscape. It is good to see a tree of
it standing out in front of a group of maples or evergreens.

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Plant-form in cherries.--Reine Hortense.]

Plant-forms.

Before one attains to great sensitiveness in the appreciation of
gardens, he learns to distinguish plants by their forms. This is
particularly true for trees and shrubs. Each species has its own
"expression," which is determined by the size that is natural to it,
mode of branching, form of top, twig characters, bark characters,
foliage characters, and to some extent its flower and fruit characters.
It is a useful practice for one to train his eye by learning the
difference in expression of the trees of different varieties of cherries
or pears or apples or other fruits, if he has access to a plantation of
them. The differences in cherries and pears are very marked (Figs.
34-36). He may also contrast and compare carefully the kinds of any
tree or shrub of which there are two or three species in the
neighborhood, learning to distinguish them without close examination; as
the sugar maple, red maple, soft maple, and Norway maple (if it is
planted); the white or American elm, the cork elm, the slippery elm, the
planted European elms; the aspen, large-toothed poplar, cottonwood, balm
of gilead, Carolina poplar, Lombardy poplar; the main species of oaks;
the hickories; and the like.

[Illustration: Fig. 35. Morello cherry.]

It will not be long before the observer learns that many of the tree and
shrub characters are most marked in winter; and he will begin
unconsciously to add the winter to his year.

[Illustration: Fig. 36. May Duke cherry.]

_Various specific examples._

The foregoing remarks will mean more if the reader is shown some
concrete examples. I have chosen a few cases, not because they are the
best, or even because they are always good enough for models, but
because they lie in my way and illustrate what I desire to teach.

A front yard example.

[Illustration: 37. The planting in a simple front yard.]

We will first look at a very ordinary front yard. It contained no
plants, except a pear tree standing near the corner of the house. Four
years later sees the yard as shown in Fig. 37. An exochorda is the large
bush in the very foreground, and the porch foundation is screened and a
border is thereby given to the lawn. The length of this planting from
end to end is about fourteen feet, with a projection towards the front
on the left of ten feet. In the bay at the base of this projection the
planting is only two feet wide or deep, and from here it gradually
swings out to the steps, eight feet wide. The prominent large-leaved
plant near the steps is a bramble, _Rubus odoratus,_ very common in the
neighborhood, and it is a choice plant for decorative planting, when it
is kept under control. The plants in this border in front of the porch
are all from the wild, and comprise a prickly ash, several plants of two
wild osiers or dogwoods, a spice bush, rose, wild sunflowers and asters
and golden-rods. The promontory at the left is a more ambitious but less
effective mass. It contains an exochorda, a reed, variegated elder,
sacaline, variegated dogwood, tansy, and a young tree of wild crab. At
the rear of the plantation, next the house, one sees the pear tree. The
best single part of the planting is the reed (_Arundo Donax_)
overtopping the exochorda. The photograph was taken early in summer,
before the reed had become conspicuous.

[Illustration: Fig. 38. Plan of the planting shown in Fig. 37.]

A ground plan of this planting is shown in Fig. 38. At A is the walk and
B the steps. An opening at D serves as a passage. The main planting, in
front of the porch, fourteen feet long, received twelve plants, some of
which have now spread into large clumps. At 1 is a large bush of osier,
_Cornus Baileyi,_ one of the best red-stemmed bushes. At 2 is a mass of
_Rubus odoratus;_ at 5 asters and golden-rods; at 3 a clump of wild
sunflowers. The projecting planting on the left comprises about ten
plants, of which 4 is exochorda, 6 is arundo or reed, at the back of
which is a large clump of sacaline, and 7 is a variegated-leaved elder.

Another example.

A back yard is shown in Fig. 39. The owner wanted a tennis court, and
the yard is so small as not to allow of wide planting at the borders.
However, something could be done. On the left is a weedland border,
which formed the basis of the discussion of wild plants on page 35. In
the first place, a good lawn was made. In the second place, no walks or
drives were laid in the area. The drive for grocers' wagons and coal is
seen in the rear, ninety feet from the house. From I to J is the
weedland, separating the area from the neighbor's premises. Near I is a
clump of roses. At K is a large bunch of golden-rods. H marks a clump of
yucca. G is a cabin, covered with vines on the front. From G to F is an
irregular border, about six feet wide, containing barberries,
forsythias, wild elder, and other bushes. D E is a screen of Russian
mulberry, setting off the clothes yard from the front lawn. Near the
back porch, at the end of the screen, is an arbor covered with wild
grapes, making a play-house for the children. A clump of lilacs stands
at A. At B is a vine-covered screen, serving as a hammock support. The
lawn made and the planting done, it was next necessary to lay the walks.
These are wholly informal affairs, made by sinking a plank ten inches
wide into the ground to a level with the sod. The border plantings of
this yard are too straight and regular for the most artistic results,
but such was necessary in order not to encroach upon the central space.
Yet the reader will no doubt agree that this yard is much better than it
could be made by any system of scattered and spotted planting. Let him
imagine how a glowing carpet-bed would look set down in the center of
this lawn!

[Illustration: Fig. 39. Diagram of a back-yard planting. 50 x 90 feet.]

[Illustration: Fig. 40. The beginning of a landscape garden.]

A third example.

The making of a landscape picture is well illustrated in Figs. 40, 41.
The former shows a small clay field (seventy-five feet wide, and three
hundred feet deep), with a barn at the rear. In front of the barn is a
screen of willows. The observer is looking from the dwelling-house. The
area has been plowed and seeded for a lawn. The operator has then marked
out a devious line upon either border with a hoe handle, and all the
space between these borders has been gone over with a garden roller to
mark the area of the desired greensward.

The borders are now planted with a variety of small trees, bushes, and
herbs. Five years later the view shown in Fig. 41 was taken.

[Illustration: Fig. 41. The result in five years.]

A small back yard.

A back yard is shown in Fig. 42. It is approximately sixty feet square.
At present it contains a drive, which is unnecessary, expensive to keep
in repair, and destructive of any attempt to make a picture of the area.
The place could be improved by planting it somewhat after the manner
of Fig. 43.

[Illustration: Fig. 42. A meaningless back-yard planting, and an
unnecessary drive.]

[Illustration: Fig. 43. Suggestions for improving Fig. 42.]

A city lot.

A plan of a city lot is given in Fig. 44. The area is fifty by one
hundred, and the house occupies the greater part of the width. It is
level, but the surrounding land is higher, resulting in a sharp terrace,
three or four feet high, on the rear, E D. This terrace vanishes at C on
the right, but extends nearly the whole length of the other side,
gradually diminishing as it approaches A. There is a terrace two feet
high extending from A to B, along the front. Beyond the line E D is the
rear of an establishment which it is desired to hide. Since the terraces
set definite borders to this little place, it is desirable to plant
the boundaries rather heavily. If the adjoining lawns were on the same
level, or if the neighbors would allow one area to be merged into the
other by pleasant slopes, the three yards might be made into one
picture; but the place must remain isolated.

[Illustration: V. A subtropical bed. Center of cannas, with border of
_Pennisetum longistylum_ (a grass) started in late February or
early March.]

There are three problems of structural planting in the place: to provide
a cover or screen at the rear; to provide lower border masses on the
side terraces; to plant next the foundations of the house. Aside from
these problems, the grower is entitled to have a certain number of
specimen plants, if he has particular liking for given types, but these
specimens must be planted in some relation to the structural masses, and
not in the middle of the lawn.

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Present outline of a city back yard, desired to
be planted.]

The owner desired a mixed planting, for variety. The following shrubs
were actually selected and planted. The place is in central New York:--

_Shrubs for the tall background_

2 Barberry, _Berberis vulgaris_ and var. _purpurea._

1 Cornus Mas.

2 Tall deutzias.

3 Lilacs.

2 Mock oranges, _Philadelphus grandiflorus_ and _P. coronarius._

2 Variegated elders.

2 Eleagnus, _Eloeagnus hortensis_ and _E. longipes._

1 Exochorda.

2 Hibiscuses.

1 Privet.

3 Viburnums.

1 Snowball.

1 Tartarian honeysuckle.

1 Silver Bell, _Halesia tetraptera._

These were planted on the sloping bank of the terrace, from E to D. The
terrace has an incline, or width, of about three feet. Figure 45 shows
this terrace after the planting was completed, looking from the point C.

[Illustration: Fig. 45. The planting of the terrace in Fig. 44.]

_Shrubs of medium size, suitable for side plantings and groups in the
foregoing example_

3 Barberries, _Berberis Thunbergii._

3 Osier dogwoods, variegated.

2 Japanese quinces, _Cydonia Japonica_ and _C. Maulei._

4 Tall deutzias.

1 Variegated elder.

7 Weigelas, assorted colors.

1 Rhodotypos.

9 Spireas of medium growth, assorted.

1 Rubus odoratus.

1 Lonicera fragrantissima.

Most of these shrubs were planted in a border two feet wide, extending
from B to C D, the planting beginning about ten feet back from the
street. Some of them were placed on the terrace at the left, extending
from E one-fourth of the distance to A. The plants were set about two
feet apart. A strong clump was placed at N to screen the back yard. In
this back yard a few small fruit trees and a strawberry bed
were planted.

_Low informal shrubs for front of porch and banking against house_

3 Deutzia gracilis.

6 Kerrias, green and variegated.

3 Daphne Mezereum.

3 Lonicera Halliana.

3 Rubus phoenicolasius.

3 Symphoricarpus vulgaris.

4 Mahonias.

1 Ribes aureum.

1 Ribes sanguineum.

1 Rubus cratægifolius.

1 Rubus fruticosus var. laciniatus.

These bushes were planted against the front of the house (a porch on a
high foundation extends to the right from O), from the walk around to P,
and a few of them were placed at the rear of the house.

_Specimen shrubs for mere ornament, for this place_

Azalea.

Rhododendron.

Rose.

2 Hydrangeas.

1 Snowball.

1 each Forsythia suspensa and F. viridissima.

2 Flowering almonds.

These were planted in conspicuous places here and there against the
other masses.

Here are one hundred excellent and interesting bushes planted in a yard
only fifty feet wide and one hundred feet deep, and yet the place has as
much room in it as it had before. There is abundant opportunity along
the borders for dropping in cannas, dahlias, hollyhocks, asters,
geraniums, coleuses, and other brilliant plants. The bushes will soon
begin to crowd, to be sure, but a mass is wanted, and the narrowness of
the plantations will allow each bush to develop itself laterally to
perfection. If the borders become too thick, however, it is an easy
matter to remove some of the bushes; but they probably will not. Picture
the color and variety and life in that little yard. And if a pigweed now
and then gets a start in the border, it would do no harm to let it
alone: it belongs there! Then picture the same area filled with
disconnected, spotty, dyspeptic, and unspirited flower-beds and
rose bushes!

[Illustration: Fig. 46. Said to have been planted.]

[Illustration: Fig. 47. An area well filled. Compare Fig. 46.]

Various examples.

Strong and bare foundations should be relieved by heavy planting. Fill
the corners with snow-drifts of foliage. Plant with a free hand, as if
you meant it (compare Figs. 46 and 47). The corner by the steps is a
perennial source of bad temper. The lawn-mower will not touch it, and
the grass has to be cut with a butcher-knife. If nothing else comes to
hand, let a burdock grow in it (Fig. 1).

[Illustration: Fig. 48. The screening of the tennis-screen.]

The tennis-screen may be relieved by a background (Fig. 48), and a clump
of ribbon-grass or something else is out of the way against a post
(Fig. 49).

[Illustration: Fig. 49. At the bottom of the clothes-post.]

Excellent mass effects may be secured by cutting well-established plants
of sumac, ailanthus, basswood, and other strong-growing things, to the
ground each year, for the purpose of securing the stout shoots. Figure
50 will give the hint.

But if one has no area which he can make into a lawn and upon which he
can plant such verdurous masses, what then may he do? Even then there
may be opportunity for a little neat and artistic planting. Even if one
lives in a rented house, he may bring in a bush or an herb from the
woods, and paint a picture with it. Plant it in the corner by the steps,
in front of the porch, at the corner of the house,--almost anywhere
except in the center of the lawn. Make the ground rich, secure a strong
root, and plant it with care; then wait. The little clump will not only
have a beauty and interest of its own, but it may add immensely to the
furniture of the yard.

[Illustration: Fig. 50. Young shoots of ailanthus (and sunflowers for
variety).]

About these clumps one may plant bulbs of glowing tulips or dainty
snowdrops and lilies-of-the-valley; and these may be followed with
pansies and phlox and other simple folk. Very soon one finds himself
deeply interested in these random and detached pictures, and almost
before he is aware he finds that he has rounded off the corners of the
house, made snug little arbors of wild grapes and clematis, covered the
rear fence and the outhouse with actinidia and bitter-sweet, and has
thrown in dashes of color with hollyhocks, cannas, and lilies, and has
tied the foundations of the buildings to the greensward by low strands
of vines or deft bits of planting. He soon comes to feel that flowers
are most expressive of the best emotions when they are daintily dropped
in here and there against a background of foliage, or else made a
side-piece in the place. There is no limit to the adaptations; Figs. 51
to 58 suggest some of the backyard possibilities.

[Illustration: Fig. 51. A backyard cabin.]

Presently he rebels at the bold, harsh, and impudent designs of some of
the gardeners, and grows into a resourceful love of plant forms and
verdure. He may still like the weeping and cut-leaved and party-colored
trees of the horticulturist, but he sees that their best effects are to
be had when they are planted sparingly, as borders or promontories of
the structural masses.

[Illustration: Fig. 52. A garden path with hedgerows, trellis, and
bench, in formal treatment.]

The best planting, as the best painting and the best music, is possible
only with the best and tenderest feeling and the closest living with
nature. One's place grows to be a reflection of himself, changing as he
changes, and expressing his life and sympathies to the last.

_Review_

We have now discussed some of the principles and applications of
landscape architecture or landscape gardening, particularly in reference
to the planting. The object of landscape gardening is _to make a
picture._ All the grading, seeding, planting, are incidental and
supplemental to this one central idea. The greensward is the canvas, the
house or some other prominent point is the central figure, the planting
completes the composition and adds the color.

[Illustration: Fig. 53. An enclosure for lawn games.]

The second conception is the principle that _the picture should have a
landscape effect._ That is, it should be nature-like. Carpet-beds are
masses of color, not pictures. They are the little garnishings and
reliefs that are to be used very cautiously, as little eccentricities
and conventionalisms in a building should never be more than very
minor features.

[Illustration: Fig. 54. Sunlight and shadow.]

Every other concept in landscape gardening is subordinate to these two.
Some of the most important of these secondary yet underlying
considerations are as follows:--

The place is to be conceived of as _a unit._ If a building is not
pleasing, ask an architect to improve it. The real architect will study
the building as a whole, grasp its design and meaning, and suggest
improvements that will add to the forcefulness of the entire structure.
A dabbler would add a chimney here, a window there, and apply various
daubs of paint to the building. Each of these features might be good in
itself. The paints might be the best of ochre, ultramarine, or paris
green, but they might have no relation to the building as a whole and
would be only ludicrous. These two examples illustrate the difference
between landscape gardening and the scattering over the place of mere
ornamental features.

[Illustration: Fig. 55. An upland garden, with grass-grown steps,
sundial, and edge of foxgloves.]

[Illustration: Fig. 56. A garden corner.]

There should be _one central and emphatic point in the picture._ A
picture of a battle draws its interest from the action of a central
figure or group. The moment the incidental and lateral figures are made
as prominent as the central figures, the picture loses emphasis, life,
and meaning. The borders of a place are of less importance than its
center. Therefore:

_Keep the center of the place open;_

_Frame and mass the sides; Avoid scattered effects._

[Illustration: Fig. 57. An old-fashioned doorway.]

In a landscape picture _flowers are incidents._ They add emphasis,
supply color, give variety and finish; they are the ornaments, but the
lawn and the mass-plantings make the framework. One flower in the
border, and made an incident of the picture, is more effective than
twenty flowers in the center of the lawn.

More depends on _the positions that plants occupy with reference to each
other and to the structural design of the place,_ than on the intrinsic
merits of the plants themselves.

[Illustration: Fig. 58. An informally treated stream.]

Landscape gardening, then, is the embellishment of grounds in such a way
that they will have a nature-like or landscape effect. The flowers and
accessories may heighten and accelerate the effect, but they should not
contradict it.



CHAPTER III

EXECUTION OF SOME OF THE LANDSCAPE FEATURES

The general lay-out of a small home property having now been considered,
we may discuss the practical operations of executing the plan. It is not
intended in this chapter to discuss the general question of how to
handle the soil: that discussion comes in Chapter IV; nor in detail how
to handle plants: that occurs in Chapters V to X; but the subjects of
grading, laying out of walks and drives, executing the border plantings,
and the making of lawns, may be briefly considered.

Of course the instructions given in a book, however complete, are very
inadequate and unsatisfactory as compared with the advice of a good
experienced person. It is not always possible to find such a person,
however; and it is no little satisfaction to the homemaker if he can
feel that he can handle the work himself, even at the expense of
some mistakes.

_The grading._

The first consideration is to grade the land. Grading is very expensive,
especially if performed at a season when the soil is heavy with water.
Every effort should be made, therefore, to reduce the grading to a
minimum and still secure a pleasing contour. A good time to grade, if
one has the time, is in the fall before the heavy rains come, and then
allow the surface to settle until spring, when the finish may be made.
All filling will settle in time unless thoroughly tamped as it proceeds.

The smaller the area the more pains must be taken with the grading; but
in any plat that is one hundred feet or more square, very considerable
undulations may be left in the surface with excellent effect. In lawns
of this size, or even half this size, it is rarely advisable to have
them perfectly flat and level. They should slope gradually away from the
house; and when the lawn is seventy-five feet or more in width, it may
be slightly crowning with good effect. A lawn should never be
hollow,--that is, lower in the center than at the borders,--and broad
lawns that are perfectly flat and level often appear to be hollow. A
slope of one foot in twenty or thirty is none too much for a pleasant
grade in lawns of some extent.

In small places, the grading may be done by the eye, unless there are
very particular conditions to meet. In large or difficult areas, it is
well to have the place contoured by instruments. This is particularly
desirable if the grading is to be done on contract. A basal or datum
line is established, above or below which all surfaces are to be shaped
at measured distances. Even in small yards, such a datum line is
desirable for the best kind of work.

_The terrace._

In places in which the natural slope is very perceptible, there is a
tendency to terrace the lawn for the purpose of making the various parts
or sections of it more or less level and plane. In nearly all cases,
however, a terrace in a main lawn is objectionable. It cuts the lawn
into two or more portions, and thereby makes it look smaller and spoils
the effect of the picture. A terrace always obtrudes a hard and rigid
line, and fastens the attention upon itself rather than upon the
landscape. Terraces are also expensive to make and to keep in order; and
a shabby terrace is always distracting.

When formal effects are desired, their success depends, however, very
largely on the rigidity of the lines and the care with which they are
maintained. If a terrace is necessary, it should be in the form of a
retaining wall next the street, or else it should lie next the
building, giving as broad and continuous a lawn as possible. It should
be remembered, however, that a terrace next a building should not be a
part of the landscape, but a part of the architecture; that is, it
should serve as a base to the building. It will at once be seen,
therefore, that terraces are most in place against those buildings that
have strong horizontal lines, and they are little suitable against
buildings with very broken lines and mixed or gothic features. In order
to join the terrace to the building, it is usually advisable to place
some architectural feature upon its crown, as a balustrade, and to
ascend it by means of architectural steps. The terrace elevation,
therefore, becomes a part of the base of the building, and the top of it
is an esplanade.

[Illustration: Fig. 59. A terrace in the distance; in the foreground an
ideal "running out" of the bank.]

A simple and gradually sloping bank can nearly always be made to take
the place of a terrace. For example, let the operator make a terrace,
with sharp angles above and below, in the fall of the year; in the
spring, he will find (if he has not sodded it heavily) that nature has
taken the matter in hand and the upper angle of the terrace has been
washed away and deposited in the lower angle, and the result is the
beginning of a good series of curves. Figure 59 shows an ideal slope,
with its double curve, comprising a convex curve on the top of the bank,
and a concave curve at the lower part. This is a slope that would
ordinarily be terraced, but in its present condition it is a part of the
landscape picture. It may be mown as readily as any other part of the
lawn, and it takes care of itself.

[Illustration: Fig. 60. Treatment of a sloping lawn.]

[Illustration: Fig. 61. Treatment of a very steep bank.]

The diagrams in Fig. 60 indicate poor and good treatment of a lawn. The
terraces are not needed in this case; or if they are, they should never
be made as at 1. The same dip could be taken up in a single curved bank,
as at 3, but the better way, in general, is to give the treatment shown
in 2. Figure 61 shows how a very high terrace, 4, can be supplaced by a
sloping bank 5. Figure 62 shows a terrace that falls away too suddenly
from the house.

_The bounding lines._

In grading to the borders of the place, it is not always necessary, nor
even desirable, that a continuous contour should be maintained,
especially if the border is higher or lower than the lawn. A somewhat
irregular line of grade will appear to be most natural, and lend itself
best to effective planting. This is specially true in the grade to
watercourses, which, as a rule, should be more or less devious or
winding; and the adjacent land should, therefore, present various
heights and contours. It is not always necessary, however, to make
distinct banks along water-courses, particularly if the place is small
and the natural lay of the land is more or less plane or flat. A very
slight depression, as shown in Fig. 63, may answer all the purposes of a
water grade in such places.

[Illustration: Fig. 62. A terrace or slope that falls too suddenly away
from a building. There should be a level place or esplanade next the
building, if possible.]

[Illustration: 63. Shaping the land down to a water-course.]

If it is desirable that the lawn be as large and spacious as possible,
then the boundary of it should be removed. Take away the fences,
curbing, and other right lines. In rural places, a sunken fence may
sometimes be placed athwart the lawn at its farther edge for the
purpose of keeping cattle off the place, and thereby bring in the
adjacent landscape. Figure 64 suggests how this may be done. The
depression near the foot of the lawn, which is really a ditch and
scarcely visible from the upper part of the place because of the slight
elevation on its inner rim, answers all the purposes of a fence.

[Illustration: Fig. 64. A sunken fence athwart a foreground.]

[Illustration: Fig. 65. Protecting a tree in filled land.]

Nearly all trees are injured if the dirt is filled about the base to the
depth of a foot or more. The natural base of the plant should be exposed
so far as possible, not only for protection of the tree, but because the
base of a tree trunk is one of its most distinctive features. Oaks,
maples, and in fact most trees will lose their bark near the crown if
the dirt is piled against them; and this is especially true if the water
tends to settle about the trunks. Figure 65 shows how this difficulty
may be obviated. A well is stoned up, allowing a space of a foot or two
on all sides, and tile drains are laid about the base of the well, as
shown in the diagram at the right. A grating to cover a well is also
shown. It is often possible to make a sloping bank just above the tree,
and to allow the ground to fall away from the roots on the lower side,
so that there is no well or hole; but this is practicable only when the
land below, the tree is considerably lower than that above it.

If much of the surface is to be removed, the good top earth should be
saved, and placed back on the area, in which to sow the grass seed and
to make the plantings. This top soil may be piled at one side out of the
way while the grading is proceeding.

_Walks and drives._

So far as the picture in the landscape is concerned, walks and drives
are blemishes. Since they are necessary, however, they must form a part
of the landscape design. They should be as few as possible, not only
because they interfere with the artistic composition, but also because
they are expensive to make and to maintain.

Most places have too many, rather than too few, walks and drives. Small
city areas rarely need a driveway entrance, not even to the back door.
The back yard in Fig. 39 illustrates this point. The distance from the
house to the street on the back is about ninety feet, yet there is no
driveway in the place. The coal and provisions are carried in; and,
although the deliverymen may complain at first, they very soon accept
the inevitable. It is not worth the while to maintain a drive in such a
place for the convenience of truckmen and grocers. Neither is it often
necessary to have a drive in the front yard if the house is within
seventy-five or one hundred feet of the street. When a drive is
necessary, it should enter, if possible, at the side of the residence,
and not make a circle in the front lawn. This remark may not apply to
areas of a half acre or more.

The drives and walks should be direct. They should go where they appear
to go, and should be practically the shortest distances between the
points to be reached. Figure 66 illustrates some of the problems
connected with walks to the front door. A common type of walk is _a,_
and it is a nuisance. The time that one loses in going around the
cameo-set in the center would be sufficient, if conserved, to lengthen a
man's life by several months or a year. Such a device has no merit in
art or convenience. Walk _b_ is better, but still is not ideal, inasmuch
as it makes too much of a right-angled curve, and the pedestrian desires
to cut across the corner. Such a walk, also, usually extends too far
beyond the corner of the house to make it appear to be direct. It has
the merit, however, of leaving the center of the lawn practically
untouched. The curve in walk _d_ is ordinarily unnecessary unless the
ground is rolling. In small places, like this, it is better to have a
straight walk directly from the sidewalk to the house. In fact, this is
true in nearly all cases in which the lawn is not more than forty to
seventy-five feet deep. Plan _c_ is also inexcusable. A straight walk
would answer every purpose better. Any walk that passes the house, and
returns to it, _e,_ is inexcusable unless it is necessary to make a very
steep ascent. If most of the traveling is in one direction from the
house, a walk like _f_ may be the most direct and efficient. It is known
as a direct curve, and is a compound of a concave and a convex curve.

[Illustration: Fig. 66. Forms of front walks.]

It is essential that any service walk or drive, however long, should be
continuous in direction and design from end to end. Figure 67
illustrates a long drive that contradicts this principle.

It is a series of meaningless curves. The reason for these curves is
the fact that the drive was extended from time to time as new houses
were added to the villa. The reader will easily perceive how all the
kinks might be taken out of this drive and one direct and bold curve be
substituted.

The question of drainage, curbing, and gutters.

[Illustration: Fig. 67. A patched-up drive, showing meaningless crooks.]

Thorough drainage, natural or artificial, is essential to hard and
permanent walks and drives. This point is too often neglected. On the
draining and grading of residence streets a well-known landscape
gardener, O.C. Simonds, writes as follows in "Park and Cemetery ":

[Illustration: Fig. 68. Treatment of walk and drive in a suburban
region. There are no curbs.]

"The surface drainage is something that interests us whenever it rains
or when the snow melts. It has been customary to locate catch-basins for
receiving the surface water at street intersections. This arrangement
causes most of the surface water from both streets to run past the
crossings, making it necessary to depress the pavement, so that one must
step down and up in going from one side of a street to the other, or
else a passageway for the water must be made through the crossing. It
may be said that a step down to the pavement and up again to the
sidewalk at the street intersections is of no consequence, but it is
really more elegant and satisfactory to have the walk practically
continuous (Fig. 68). With the catch-basin at the corner, the stoppage
of the inlet, or a great fall of rain, sometimes covers the crossing
with water, so one must either wade or go out of his way. With
catch-basins placed in the center of the blocks, or, if the blocks are
long, at some distance from the crossing, the intersections can be kept
relatively high and dry. Roadways are generally made crowning in the
center so that water runs to the sides, but frequently the fall
lengthwise of the roadway is less than it should be. City engineers are
usually inclined to make the grade along the length of a street as
nearly level as possible. Authorities who have given the subject of
roads considerable study recommend a fall lengthwise of not less than
one foot in one hundred and twenty-five, nor more than six feet in one
hundred. Such grades are not always feasible, but a certain amount of
variation in level can usually be made in a residence street which will
make it much more pleasing in appearance, and have certain practical
advantages in keeping the street dry. The water is usually confined to
the edge of the pavement by curbing, which may rise anywhere from four
to fourteen inches above the surface. This causes all the water falling
on the roadway to seek the catch-basin and be wasted, excepting for its
use in flushing the sewer. If the curbing, which is really unnecessary
in most cases, were omitted, much of the surface water would soak into
the ground between the sidewalk and the pavement, doing much good to
trees, shrubs, and grass. The roots of the trees naturally extend as
far, or farther, than their branches, and for their good the ground
under the pavement and sidewalk should be supplied with a certain amount
of moisture.

[Illustration: VI. A tree that gives character to a place.]

[Illustration: Fig. 69. A common form of edge for walk or drive.]

[Illustration: Fig. 70. A better form.]

"The arrangement made for the removal of surface water from the street
must also take care of the surplus water from adjacent lots, so there
is a practical advantage in having the level of the street lower than
that of the ground adjoining. The appearance of houses and home grounds
is also much better when they are higher than the street, and for this
reason it is usually desirable to keep the latter as low as possible and
give the underground pipes sufficient covering to protect them from
frost. Where the ground is high and the sewers very deep, the grades
should, of course, be determined with reference to surface conditions
only. It sometimes happens that this general arrangement of the grades
of home grounds, which is desirable on most accounts, causes water from
melting snow to flow over the sidewalk in the winter time, where it may
freeze and be dangerous to pedestrians. A slight depression of the lot
away from the sidewalk and then an ascent toward the house would usually
remedy this difficulty, and also make the house appear higher.
Sometimes, however, a pipe should be placed underneath the sidewalk to
allow water to reach the street from inside of the lot line. The aim in
surface drainage should always be to keep the traveled portions of the
street in the most perfect condition for use. The quick removal of
surplus water from sidewalks, crossings, and roadways will help insure
this result."

These remarks concerning the curbings and hard edges of city streets may
also be applied to walks and drives in small grounds. Figure 69, for
example, shows the common method of treating the edge of a walk, by
making a sharp and sheer elevation. This edge needs constant trimming,
else it becomes unshapely; and this trimming tends to widen the walk.
For general purposes, a border, like that shown in Fig. 70, is better.
The sod rolls over until it meets the walk, and the lawn-mower is able
to keep it in condition. If it becomes more or less rough and irregular,
it is pounded down.

If it is thought necessary to trim the edges of walks and drives, then
one of the various kinds of sod-cutters that are sold by dealers may be
used for the purpose, or an old hoe may have its shank straightened and
the corners of the blade rounded off, as shown in Fig. 71, and this will
answer all purposes of the common sod-cutter; or, a sharp,
straight-edged spade may sometimes be used. The loose overhanging grass
on these edges is ordinarily cut by large shears made for the purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 71. Sod cutter.]

Walks and drives should be laid in such direction that they will tend to
drain themselves; but if it is necessary to have gutters, these should
be deep and sharp at the bottom, for the water then draws together and
tends to keep the gutter clean. A shallow and rounded brick or cobble
gutter does not clean itself; it is very likely to fill with weeds, and
vehicles often drive in it. The best gutters and curbs are now made of
cement. Figure 72 shows a catch basin at the left of a walk or drive,
and the tile laid underneath for the purpose of carrying away the
surface water.

[Illustration: Fig. 72. Draining the gutter and the drive.]

The materials.

The best materials for the main walks are cement and stone flagging. In
many soils, however, there is enough binding material in the land to
make a good walk without the addition of any other material. Gravel,
cinders, ashes, and the like, are nearly always inadvisable, for they
are liable to be loose in dry weather and sticky in wet weather. In the
laying of cement it is important that the walk be well drained by a
layer of a foot or two of broken stone or brickbats, unless the walk is
on loose and leachy land or in a frostless country.

In back yards it is often best not to have any well-defined walk. A
ramble across the sod may be as good. For a back walk, over which
delivery men are to travel, one of the very best means is to sink a
foot-wide plank into the earth on a level with the surface of the sod;
and it is not necessary that the walk be perfectly straight. These walks
do not interfere with the work of the lawn-mower, and they take care of
themselves. When the plank rots, at the expiration of five to ten years,
the plank is taken up and another one dropped in its place. This
ordinarily makes the best kind of a walk alongside a rear border. (Plate
XI.) In gardens, nothing is better for a walk than tanbark.

[Illustration: Fig. 73. Planting alongside a walk.]

The sides of walks and drives may often be planted with shrubbery. It is
not necessary that they always have prim and definite borders. Figure 73
illustrates a bank of foliage which breaks up the hard line of a walk,
and serves also as a border for the growing of flowers and interesting
specimens. This walk is also characterized by the absence of high and
hard borders. Figure 68 illustrates this fact, and also shows how the
parking between the walk and the street may be effectively planted.

_Making the borders._

The borders and groups of planting are laid out on the paper plan. There
are several ways of transferring them to the ground. Sometimes they are
not made until after the lawn is established, when the inexperienced
operator may more readily lay them out. Usually, however, the planting
and lawn-making proceed more or less simultaneously. After the shaping
of the ground has been completed, the areas are marked off by stakes, by
a limp rope laid on the surface, or by a mark made with a rake handle.
The margin once determined, the lawn may be seeded and rolled (Fig. 40),
and the planting allowed to proceed as it may; or the planting may all
be done inside the borders, and the seeding then be applied to the lawn.
If the main dimensions of the borders and beds are carefully measured
and marked by stakes, it is an easy matter to complete the outline by
making a mark with a stick or rakestale.

[Illustration: Fig. 74. A bowered pathway.]

[Illustration: Fig. 75. Objects for pity.]

The planting may be done in spring or fall,--in fall preferably if the
stock is ready (and of hardy species) and the land in perfect condition
of drainage; usually, however, things are not ready early enough in the
fall for any extended planting, and the work is commonly done as soon as
the ground settles in spring (see Chapter V). Head the bushes back. Dig
up the entire area. Spade up the ground, set the bushes thick, hoe them
at intervals, and then let them go. If you do not like the bare earth
between them, sow in the seeds of hardy annual flowers, like phlox,
petunia, alyssum, and pinks. Never set the bushes in holes dug in the
old sod (Fig. 75). The person who plants his shrubs in holes in the
sward does not seriously mean to make any foliage mass, and it is likely
that he does not know what relation the border mass has to artistic
planting. The illustration, Fig. 76, shows the office that a shrubbery
may perform in relation to a building; this particular building was
erected in an open field.

[Illustration: 76. A border group, limiting the space next the residence
and separating it from the fields and the clothes-yards.]

I have said to plant the bushes thick. This is for quick effect. It is
an easy matter to thin the plantation if it becomes too thick. All
common bushes may usually be planted as close as two to three feet apart
each way, especially if one gets many of them from the fields, so that
he does not have to buy them. If there are not sufficient of the
permanent bushes for thick planting, the spaces may be tilled
temporarily by cheaper or commoner bushes: but do not forget to remove
the fillers as rapidly as the others need the room.

_Making the lawn._

The first thing to be done in the making of a lawn is to establish the
proper grade. This should be worked out with the greatest care, from the
fact that when a lawn is once made, its level and contour should never
be changed.

Preparing the ground.

The next important step is to prepare the ground deeply and thoroughly.
The permanence of the sod will depend very largely on the fertility and
preparation of the soil in the beginning. The soil should be deep and
porous, so that the roots will strike far into it, and be enabled
thereby to withstand droughts and cold winters. The best means of
deepening the soil, as explained in Chapter IV, is by tile-draining; but
it can also be accomplished to some extent by the use of the subsoil
plow and by trenching. Since the lawn cannot be refitted, however, the
subsoil is likely to fall back into a hard-pan in a few years if it has
been subsoiled or trenched, whereas a good tile-drain affords a
permanent amelioration of the under soil. Soils that are naturally loose
and porous may not need this extra attention. In fact, lands that are
very loose and sandy may require to be packed or cemented rather than
loosened. One of the best means of doing this is to fill them with
humus, so that the water will not leach through them rapidly. Nearly all
lands that are designed for lawns are greatly benefited by heavy
dressings of manure thoroughly worked into them in the beginning,
although it is possible to get the ground too rich on the surface at
first; it is not necessary that all the added plant-food be immediately
available.

The lawn will profit by an annual application of good chemical
fertilizer. Ground bone is one of the best materials to apply, at the
rate of three hundred to four hundred pounds to the acre. It is usually
sown broadcast, early in spring. Dissolved South Carolina rock may be
used instead, but the application will need to be heavier if similar
results are expected. Yellow and poor grass may often be reinvigorated
by an application of two hundred to three hundred pounds to the acre of
nitrate of soda. Wood ashes are often good, particularly on soils that
tend to be acid. Muriate of potash is not so often used, although it may
produce excellent results in some cases. There is no invariable rule.
The best plan is for the lawn-maker to try the different treatments on a
little piece or corner of the lawn; in this way, he should secure more
valuable information than can be got otherwise.

The first operation after draining and grading is the plowing or spading
of the surface. If the area is large enough to admit a team, the surface
is worked down by means of harrows of various kinds. Afterwards it is
leveled by means of shovels and hoes, and finally by garden rakes. The
more finely and completely the soil is pulverized, the quicker the lawn
may be secured, and the more permanent are the results.

The kind of grass.

The best grass for the body or foundation of lawns in the North is
June-grass or Kentucky blue-grass (_Poa pratensis_), not Canada
blue-grass (_Poa compressa_).

Whether white clover or other seed should be sown with the grass seed is
very largely a personal question. Some persons like it, and others do
not. If it is desired, it may be sown directly after the grass seed is
sown, at the rate of one to four quarts or more to the acre.

For special purposes, other grasses may be used for lawns. Various kinds
of lawn mixtures are on the market, for particular uses, and some of
them are very good.

A superintendent of parks in one of the Eastern cities gives the
following experience on kinds of grass: "For the meadows on the large
parks we generally use extra recleaned Kentucky blue-grass, red-top,
and white clover, in the proportion of thirty pounds of blue-grass,
thirty pounds of red-top, and ten pounds of white clover to the acre.
Sometimes we use for smaller lawns the blue-grass and red-top without
the white clover. We have used blue-grass, red-top, and Rhode Island
bent in the proportion of twenty pounds each, and ten pounds of white
clover to the acre, but the Rhode Island bent is so expensive that we
rarely buy it. For grass in shady places, as in a grove, we use Kentucky
blue-grass and rough-stalked meadow-grass (_Poa trivialis_) in equal
parts at the rate of seventy pounds to the acre. On the golf links we
use blue-grass without any mixture on some of the putting greens;
sometimes we use Rhode Island bent, and on sandy greens we use red-top.
We always buy each kind of seed separately and mix them, and are
particular to get the best extra recleaned of each kind. Frequently we
get the seed of three different dealers to secure the best."

In most cases, the June-grass germinates and grows somewhat slowly, and
it is usually advisable to sow four or five quarts of timothy grass to
the acre with the June-grass seed. The timothy comes on quickly and
makes a green the first year, and the June-grass soon crowds it out. It
is not advisable to sow grain in the lawn as a nurse to the grass. If
the land is well prepared and the seed is sown in the cool part of the
year, the grass ought to grow much better without the other crops than
with them. Lands that are hard and lacking in nitrogen may be benefited
if crimson clover (four or five quarts) is sown with the grass seed.
This will make a green the first year, and will break up the subsoil by
its deep roots and supply nitrogen, and being an annual plant it does
not become troublesome, if mown frequently enough to prevent seeding.

In the southern states, where June-grass does not thrive, Bermuda-grass
is the leading species used for lawns; although there are two or three
others, as the goose-grass of Florida, that may be used in special
localities. Bermuda-grass is usually propagated by roots, but imported
seed (said to be from Australia) is now available. The Bermuda-grass
becomes reddish after frost; and English rye-grass may be sown on the
Bermuda sod in August or September far south for winter green; in spring
the Bermuda crowds it out.

When and how to sow the seed.

The lawn should be seeded when the land is moist and the weather
comparatively cool. It is ordinarily most advisable to grade the lawn in
late summer or early fall, because the land is then comparatively dry
and can be moved cheaply. The surface can also be got in condition,
perhaps, for sowing late in September or early in October in the North;
or, if the surface has required much filling, it is well to leave it in
a somewhat unfinished state until spring, in order that the soft places
may settle and then be refilled before the seeding is done. If the seed
can be sown early in the fall, before the rains come, the grass should
be large enough, except in northernmost localities, to withstand the
winter; but it is generally most desirable to sow in very early spring.
If the land has been thoroughly prepared in the fall, the seed may be
sown on one of the late light snows in spring and as the snow melts the
seed is carried into the land, and germinates very quickly. If the seed
is sown when the land is loose and workable, it should be raked in; and
if the weather promises to be dry or the sowing is late, the surface
should be rolled.

The seeding is usually done broadcast by hand on all small areas, the
sower going both ways (at right angles) across the area to lessen the
likelihood of missing any part. Steep banks are sometimes sown with seed
that is mixed in mold or earth to which water is added until the
material will just run through the spout of a watering-can; the material
is then poured on the surface, which is first made loose.

Inasmuch as we desire to secure many very fine stalks of grass rather
than a few large ones, it is essential that the seed be sown very
thick. Three to five bushels to the acre is the ordinary application of
grass seed (page 79).



Securing a firm sod.

The lawn will ordinarily produce a heavy crop of weeds the first year,
especially if much stable manure has been used. The weeds need not be
pulled, unless such vicious intruders as docks or other perennial plants
gain a foothold; but the area should be mown frequently with a
lawn-mower. The annual weeds die at the approach of cold, and they are
kept down by the use of the lawn-mower, while the grass is not injured.

It rarely happens that every part of the lawn will have an equal catch
of grass. The bare or sparsely seeded places should be sown again every
fall and spring until the lawn is finally complete. In fact, it requires
constant attention to keep a lawn in good sod, and it must be
continuously in the process of making. It is not every lawn area, or
every part of the area, that is adapted to grass; and it may require
long study to find out why it is not. Bare or poor places should be
hetcheled up strongly with an iron-toothed rake, perhaps fertilized
again, and then reseeded. It is unusual that a lawn does not need
repairing every year. Lawns of several acres which become thin and mossy
may be treated in essentially the same way by dragging them with a
spike-tooth harrow in early spring as soon as the land is dry enough to
hold a team. Chemical fertilizers and grass seed are now sown liberally,
and the area is perhaps dragged again, although this is not always
essential; and then the roller is applied to bring the surface into a
smooth condition. To plow up these poor lawns is to renew all the battle
with weeds, and really to make no progress; for, so long as the contour
is correct, the lawn may be repaired by these surface applications.

The stronger the sward, the less the trouble with weeds; yet it is
practically impossible to keep dandelions and some other weeds out of
lawns except by cutting them out with a knife thrust underground (there
are good spuds manufactured for this purpose, Figs. 108 to 111). If the
sod is very thin after the weeds are removed, sow more grass seed.

The mowing.

The mowing of the lawn should begin as soon as the grass is tall enough
in the spring and continue at the necessary intervals throughout the
summer. The most frequent mowings are needed early in the season, when
the grass is growing rapidly. If it is mown frequently--say once or
twice a week--in the periods of most vigorous growth, it will not be
necessary to rake off the mowings. In fact, it is preferable to leave
the grass on the lawn, to be driven into the surface by the rains and to
afford a mulch. It is only when the lawn has been neglected and the
grass has got so high that it becomes unsightly on the lawn, or when the
growth is unusually luxurious, that it is necessary to take it off. In
dry weather care should be taken not to mow the lawn any more than
absolutely necessary. The grass should be rather long when it goes into
the winter. In the last two months of open weather the grass makes small
growth, and it tends to lop down and to cover the surface densely, which
it should be allowed to do.

Fall treatment.

As a rule, it is not necessary to rake all the leaves off lawns in the
fall. They afford an excellent mulch, and in the autumn months the
leaves on the lawn are among the most attractive features of the
landscape. The leaves generally blow off after a time, and if the place
has been constructed with an open center and heavily planted sides, the
leaves will be caught in these masses of trees and shrubs and there
afford an excellent mulch. The ideal landscape planting, therefore,
takes care of itself to a very large extent. It is bad economy to burn
the leaves, especially if one has herbaceous borders, roses, and other
plants that need a mulch. When the leaves are taken off the borders in
the spring, they should be piled with the manure or other refuse and
there allowed to pass into compost (pages 110, 111).

If the land has been well prepared in the beginning, and its life is not
sapped by large trees, it is ordinarily unnecessary to cover the lawn
with manure in the fall. The common practice of covering grass with raw
manure should be discouraged because the material is unsightly and
unsavory, and the same results can be got with the use of commercial
fertilizers combined with dressings of very fine and well-rotted compost
or manure, and by not raking the lawn too clean of the mowings of
the grass.

Spring treatment.

Every spring the lawn should be firmed by means of a roller, or, if the
area is small, by means of a pounder, or the back of a spade in the
hands of a vigorous man. The lawn-mower itself tends to pack the
surface. If there are little irregularities in the surface, caused by
depressions of an inch or so, and the highest places are not above the
contour-line of the lawn, the surface may be brought to level by
spreading fine, mellow soil over it, thereby filling up the depressions.
The grass will quickly grow through this soil. Little hummocks may be
cut off, some of the earth removed, and the sod replaced.

Watering lawns.

The common watering of lawns by means of lawn sprinklers usually does
more harm than good. This results from the fact that the watering is
generally done in clear weather, and the water is thrown through the air
in very fine spray, so that a considerable part of it is lost in vapor.
The ground is also hot, and the water does not pass deep into the soil.
If the lawn is watered at all, it should be soaked; turn on the hose at
nightfall and let it run until the land is wet as deep as it is dry,
then move the hose to another place. A thorough soaking like this, a
few times in a dry summer, will do more good than sprinkling every day.
If the land is deeply prepared in the first place, so that the roots
strike far into the soil, there is rarely need of watering unless the
place is arid, the season unusually dry, or the moisture sucked out by
trees. The surface sprinkling engenders a tendency of roots to start
near the surface, and therefore the more the lawn is lightly watered,
the greater is the necessity for watering it.

Sodding the lawn.

[Illustration: Fig. 77. Cutting sod for a lawn.]

Persons who desire to secure a lawn very quickly may sod the area rather
than seed it, although the most permanent results are usually secured by
seeding. Sodding, however, is expensive, and is to be used only about
the borders of the place, near buildings, or in areas in which the owner
can afford to expend considerable money. The best sod is that which is
secured from an old pasture, and for two or three reasons. In the first
place, it is the right kind of grass, the June-grass (in the North)
being the species that oftenest runs into pastures and crowds out other
plants. Again, it has been so closely eaten down, especially if it has
been pastured by sheep, that it has made a very dense and well-filled
sod, which can be rolled up in thin layers. In the third place, the soil
in old pastures is likely to be rich from the droppings of animals.

In taking sod, it is important that it be cut very thin. An inch and a
half thick is usually ample. It is ordinarily rolled up in strips a foot
wide and of any length that will allow the rolls to be handled by one or
two men. A foot-wide board is laid upon the turf, and the sod cut along
either edge of it. One person then stands upon the strip of sod and
rolls it towards himself, while another cuts it loose with a spade, as
shown in Fig. 77. When the sod is laid, it is unrolled on the land and
then firmly beaten down. Land that is to be sodded should be soft on
top, so that the sod can be well pounded into it. If the sod is not well
pounded down, it will settle unevenly and present a bad surface, and
will also dry out and perhaps not live through a dry spell. It is almost
impossible to pound down sod too firm. If the land is freshly plowed, it
is important that the borders that are sodded be an inch or two lower
than the adjacent land, because the land will settle in the course of a
few weeks. In a dry time, the sod may be covered from a half inch to an
inch with fine, mellow soil as a mulch. The grass should grow through
this soil without difficulty. Upon terraces and steep banks, the sod may
be held in place by driving wooden pegs through it.

A combination of sodding and seeding.

[Illustration: Fig. 78. Economical sodding, the spaces being seeded.]

An "economical sodding" is described in "American Garden" (Fig. 78): "To
obtain sufficient sod of suitable quality for covering terrace-slopes or
small blocks that for any reason cannot well be seeded is often a
difficult matter. In the accompanying illustration we show how a surface
of sod may be used to good advantage over a larger area than its real
measurement represents. This is done by laying the sods, cut in strips
from six to ten inches wide, in lines and cross-lines, and after
filling the spaces with good soil, sowing these spaces with grass-seed.
Should the catch of seed for any reason be poor, the sod of the strips
will tend to spread over the spaces between them, and failure to obtain
a good sward within a reasonable time is almost out of the question.
Also, if one needs sod and has no place from which to cut it except the
lawn, by taking up blocks of sod, leaving strips and cross-strips, and
treating the surface as described, the bare places are soon covered
with green."

Sowing with sod.

Lawns may be sown with pieces of sods rather than with seeds. Sods may
be cut up into bits an inch or two square, and these may be scattered
broadcast over the area and rolled into the land. While it is preferable
that the pieces should lie right side up, this is not necessary if they
are cut thin, and sown when the weather is cool and moist. Sowing pieces
of sod is good practice when it is difficult to secure a catch
from seed.

If one were to maintain a permanent sod garden, at one side, for the
selecting and growing of the very best sod (as he would grow a stock
seed of corn or beans), this method should be the most rational of all
procedures, at least until the time that we produce strains of lawn
grass that come true from seeds.

Other ground covers.

Under trees, and in other shady places, it may be necessary to cover the
ground with something else than grass. Good plants for such uses are
periwinkle (_Vinca minor,_ an evergreen trailer, often called "running
myrtle"), moneywort (_Lysimachia nummularia_), lily-of-the-valley, and
various kinds of sedge or carex. In some dark or shady places, and under
some kinds of trees, it is practically impossible to secure a good lawn,
and one may be obliged to resort to decumbent bushes or other forms
of planting.



CHAPTER IV

THE HANDLING OF THE LAND

Almost any land contains enough food for the growing of good crops, but
the food elements may be chemically unavailable, or there may be
insufficient water to dissolve them. It is too long a story to explain
at this place,--the philosophy of tillage and of enriching the
land,--and the reader who desires to make excursions into this
delightful subject should consult King on "The Soil," Roberts on "The
Fertility of the Land," and recent writings of many kinds. The reader
must accept my word for it that tilling the land renders it productive.

I must call my reader's attention to the fact that this book is on the
making of gardens,--on the planning and the doing of the work from the
year's end to end,--not on the appreciation of a completed garden. I
want the reader to know that a garden is not worth having unless he
makes it with his own hands or helps to make it. He must work himself
into it. He must know the pleasure of preparing the land, of contending
with bugs and all other difficulties, for it is only thereby that he
comes into appreciation of the real value of a garden.

I am saying this to prepare the reader for the work that I lay out in
this chapter. I want him to know the real joy that there is in the
simple processes of breaking the earth and fitting it for the seed. The
more pains he takes with these processes, naturally the keener will be
his enjoyment of them. No one can have any other satisfaction than that
of mere manual exercise if he does not know the reasons for what he does
with his soil. I am sure that my keenest delight in a garden comes in
the one month of the opening season and the other month of the closing
season. These are the months when I work hardest and when I am nearest
the soil. To feel the thrust of the spade, to smell the sweet earth, to
prepare for the young plants and then to prepare for the closing year,
to handle the tools with discrimination, to guard against frost, to be
close with the rain and wind, to see the young things start into life
and then to see them go down into winter,--these are some of the best of
the joys of gardening. In this spirit we should take up the work of
handling the land.

_The draining of the land._

The first step in the preparation of land, after it has been thoroughly
cleared and subdued of forest or previous vegetation, is to attend to
the drainage. All land that is springy, low, and "sour," or that holds
the water in puddles for a day or two following heavy rains, should be
thoroughly underdrained. Draining also improves the physical condition
of the soil even when the land does not need the removal of superfluous
water. In hard lands, it lowers the water-table, or tends to loosen and
aerate the soil to a greater depth, and thereby enables it to hold more
water without injury to plants. Drainage is particularly useful in dry
but hard garden lands, because these lands are often in sod or
permanently planted, and the soil cannot be broken up by deep tillage.
Tile drainage is permanent subsoiling.

[Illustration: Fig 79. Ditching tools.]

Hard-baked cylindrical tiles make the best and most permanent drains.
The ditches usually should not be less than two and one-half feet deep,
and three or three and one-half feet is often better. In most garden
areas, drains may be laid with profit as often as every thirty feet.
Give all drains a good and continuous fall. For single drains and for
laterals not over four hundred or five hundred feet long, a two and
one-half inch tile is sufficient, unless much water must be carried from
swales or springs. In stony countries, flat stones may be used in place
of tiles, and persons who are skillful in laying them make drains as
good and permanent as those constructed of tiles. The tiles or stones
are covered with sods, straw, or paper, and the earth is then filled in.
This temporary cover keeps the loose dirt out of the tiles, and by the
time it is rotted the earth has settled into place.

[Illustration: Fig. 80. How to use a spade.]

In small places, ditching must ordinarily be done wholly with hand
tools. A common spade and pick are the implements usually employed,
although a spade with a long handle and narrow blade, as shown in Fig.
79, is very useful for excavating the bottom of the ditch.

In most cases, much time and muscle are wasted in the use of the pick.
If the digging is properly done, a spade can be used to cut the soil,
even in fairly hard clay land, with no great difficulty. The essential
point in the easy use of the spade is to manage so that one edge of the
spade always cuts a free or exposed surface. The illustration (Fig. 80)
will explain the method. When the operator endeavors to cut the soil in
the method shown at A, he is obliged to break both edges at every
thrust of the tool; but when he cuts the slice diagonally, first
throwing his spade to the right and then to the left, as shown at B, he
cuts only one side and is able to make progress without the expenditure
of useless effort. These remarks will apply to any spading of the land.

In large areas, horses may be used to facilitate the work of ditching.
There are ditching plows and machines, which, however, need not be
discussed here; but three or four furrows may be thrown out in either
direction with a strong plow, and a subsoil plow be run behind to break
up the hard-pan, and this may reduce the labor of digging as much as
one-half. When the excavating is completed, the bottom of the ditch is
evened up by means of a line or level, and the bed for the tiles is
prepared by the use of a goose-neck scoop, shown in Fig. 79. It is very
important that the outlets of drains be kept free of weeds and litter.
If the outlet is built up with mason work, to hold the end of the tile
intact, very much will be added to the permanency of the drain.

_Trenching and subsoiling._

[Illustration: 81. Trenching with a spade.]

Although underdraining is the most important means of increasing the
depth of the soil, it is not always practicable to lay drains through
garden lands. In such cases, recourse is had to very deep preparation of
the land, either every year or every two or three years.

[Illustration: VII. Bedding with palms. If a bricked-up pit is made
about the porch, pot palms may be plunged in it in spring and pot
conifers in winter; and fall bulbs in tin cans (so that the receptacles
will not split with frost) may be plunged among the evergreens.]

In small garden areas, this deep preparation will ordinarily be done by
trenching with a spade. This operation of trenching consists in breaking
up the earth two spades deep. Figure 81 explains the operation. The
section at the left shows a single spading, the earth being thrown over
to the right, leaving the subsoil exposed the whole width of the bed.
The section at the right shows a similar operation, so far as the
surface spading is concerned, but the subsoil has also been cut as fast
as it has been exposed. This under soil is not thrown out on the
surface, and usually it is not inverted; but a spadeful is lifted and
then allowed to drop so that it is thoroughly broken and pulverized in
the manipulation.

[Illustration: Fig. 82. Home-made subsoil plow.]

In all lands that have a hard and high subsoil, it is usually essential
to practice trenching if the best results are to be secured; this is
especially true when deep-rooted plants, as beets, parsnips, and other
root-crops, are to be grown; it prepares the soil to hold moisture; and
it allows the water of heavy rainfall to pass to greater depths rather
than to be held as puddles and in mud on the surface.

In places that can be entered with a team, deep and heavy plowing to the
depth of seven to ten inches may be desirable on hard lands, especially
if such lands cannot be plowed very often; and the depth of the
pulverization is often extended by means of the subsoil plow. This
subsoil plow does not turn a furrow, but a second team draws the
implement behind the ordinary plow, and the bottom of the furrow is
loosened and broken. Figure 82 shows a home-made subsoil plow, and Fig.
83 two types of commercial tools. It must be remembered that it is the
hardest lands that need subsoiling and that, therefore, the subsoil plow
should be exceedingly strong.

[Illustration: Fig. 83. Forms of subsoil plows.]

_Preparation of the surface._

Every pains should be taken to prevent the surface of the land from
becoming crusty or baked, for the hard surface establishes a capillary
connection with the moist soil beneath, and is a means of passing off
the water into the atmosphere. Loose and mellow soil also has more free
plant-food, and provides the most congenial conditions for the growth of
plants. The tools that one may use in preparing the surface soil are now
so many and so well adapted to the work that the gardener should find
special satisfaction in handling them.

If the soil is a stiff clay, it is often advisable to plow it or dig it
in the fall, allowing it to lie rough and loose all winter, so that the
weathering may pulverize and slake it. If the clay is very tenacious,
it may be necessary to throw leafmold or litter over the surface before
the spading is done, to prevent the soil from running together or
cementing before spring. With mellow and loamy lands, however, it is
ordinarily best to leave the preparation of the surface until spring.

In the preparation of the surface, the ordinary hand tools, or spades
and shovels, may be used. If, however, the soil is mellow, a fork is a
better tool than a spade, from the fact that it does not slice the soil,
but tends to break it up into smaller and more irregular masses. The
ordinary spading-fork, with strong flat tines, is a most serviceable
tool; a spading-fork for soft ground may be made from an old manure fork
by cutting down the tines, as shown in Fig. 84.

[Illustration: Fig. 84. Improvising a spading-fork.]

It is important that the soil should not be sticky when it is prepared,
as it is likely to become hard and baked and the physical condition be
greatly injured. However, land that is too wet for the reception of
seeds may still be thrown up loose with a spade or fork and allowed to
dry, and after two or three days the surface preparation may be
completed with the hoe and the rake. In ordinary soils the hoe is the
tool to follow the spading-fork or the spade, but for the final
preparation of the surface a steel garden-rake is the ideal implement.

In areas, large enough to admit horse tools, the land can be fitted more
economically by means of the various types of plows, harrows, and
cultivators that are to be had of any dealer in agricultural implements.
Figure 85 shows various types of model surface plows. The one shown at
the upper left-hand is considered by Roberts, in his "Fertility of the
Land," to be the ideal general-purpose plow, as respects shape and
method of construction.

[Illustration: Fig. 85. Excellent types of surface plows.]

The type of machine to be used must be determined wholly by the
character of the land and the purposes for which it is to be fitted.
Lands that are hard and cloddy may be reduced by the use of the disk or
Acme harrows, shown in Fig. 86; but those that are friable and mellow
may not need such heavy and vigorous tools. On these mellower lands, the
spring-tooth harrow, types of which are shown in Fig. 87, may follow the
plow. On very hard lands, these spring-tooth harrows may follow the disk
and Acme types. The final preparation of the land is accomplished by
light implements of the pattern shown in Fig. 88. These spike-tooth
smoothing-harrows do for the field what the hand-rake does for the
garden-bed.

[Illustration: Fig. 86. Disk and Acme harrows, for the first working of
hard or cloddy land.]

[Illustration: Fig. 87. Spring-tooth harrows.]

If it is desired to put a very fine finish on the surface of the ground
by means of horse tools, implements like the Breed or Wiard weeder may
be used. These are constructed on the principle of a spring-tooth horse
hay-rake, and are most excellent, not only for fitting loose land for
ordinary seeding, but also for subsequent tillage.

[Illustration: Fig. 88. Spike-tooth harrow.]

In areas that cannot be entered with a team, various one-horse
implements may do the work that is accomplished by heavier tools in the
field. The spring-tooth cultivator, shown at the right in Fig. 89, may
do the kind of work that the spring-tooth harrows are expected to do on
larger areas; and various adjustable spike-tooth cultivators, two of
which are shown in Fig. 89, are useful for putting a finish on the land.
These tools are also available for the tilling of the surface when crops
are growing. The spring-tooth cultivator is a most useful tool for
cultivating raspberries and blackberries, and other strong-rooted crops.

[Illustration: Fig. 89. Spike-tooth and spring-tooth cultivators.]

[Illustration: Fig. 90. Good type of wheel-hoe.]

[Illustration: Fig. 91. A single-blade wheel-hoe.]

[Illustration: Fig. 92. Double wheel-hoe, useful in straddling the row.]

For still smaller areas, in which horses cannot be used and which are
still too large for tilling wholly by means of hoes and rakes, various
types of wheel-hoes may be used. These implements are now made in great
variety of patterns, to suit any taste and almost any kind of tillage.
For the best results, it is essential that the wheel should be large and
with a broad tire, that it may override obstacles. Figure 90 shows an
excellent type of wheel-hoe with five blades, and Fig. 91 shows one with
a single blade and that may be used in very narrow rows. Two-wheeled
hoes (Fig. 92) are often used, particularly when it is necessary to have
the implement very steady, and the wheels may straddle the rows of low
plants. Many of these wheel-hoes are provided with various shapes of
blades, so that the implement may be adjusted to many kinds of work.
Nearly all the weeding of beds of onions and like plants can be done by
means of these wheel-hoes, if the ground is well prepared in the
beginning; but it must be remembered that they are of comparatively
small use on very hard and cloddy and stony lands.

_The saving of moisture._

The garden must have a liberal supply of moisture. The first effort
toward securing this supply should be the saving of the rainfall water.

Proper preparation and tillage put the land in such condition that it
holds the water of rainfall. Land that is very hard and compact may shed
the rainfall, particularly if it is sloping and if the surface is bare
of vegetation. If the hard-pan is near the surface, the land cannot hold
much water, and any ordinary rainfall may fill it so full that it
overflows, or puddles stand on the surface. On land in good tilth, the
water of rainfall sinks away, and is not visible as free water.

As soon as the moisture begins to pass from the superincumbent
atmosphere, evaporation begins from the surface of the land. Any body
interposed between the land and the air checks this evaporation; this is
why there is moisture underneath a board. It is impracticable, however,
to floor over the garden with boards, but any covering will have similar
effect, but in different degree. A covering of sawdust or leaves or dry
ashes will prevent the loss of moisture. So will a covering of dry
earth. Now, inasmuch as the land is already covered with earth, it only
remains to loosen up a layer or stratum on top in order to secure
the mulch.

All this is only a roundabout way of saying that frequent shallow
surface tillage conserves moisture. The comparatively dry and loose
mulch breaks up the capillary connection between the surface soil and
the under soil, and while the mulch itself may be useless as a foraging
ground for roots, it more than pays its keep by its preventing of the
loss of moisture; and its own soluble plant-foods are washed down into
the lower soil by the rains.

As often as the surface becomes compact, the mulch should be renewed or
repaired by the use of the rake or cultivator or harrow. Persons are
deceived by supposing that so long as the surface remains moist, the
land is in the best possible condition; a moist surface may mean that
water is rapidly passing off into the atmosphere. A dry surface may mean
that less evaporation is taking place, and there may be moister earth
beneath it; and moisture is needed below the surface rather than on top.
A finely raked bed is dry on top; but the footprints of the cat remain
moist, for the animal packed the soil wherever it stepped and a
capillary connection was established with the water reservoir beneath.
Gardeners advise firming the earth over newly planted seeds to hasten
germination. This is essential in dry times; but what we gain in
hastening germination we lose in the more rapid evaporation of moisture.
The lesson is that we should loosen the soil as soon as the seeds have
germinated, to reduce evaporation to the minimum. Large seeds, as beans
and peas, may be planted deep and have the earth firmed about them, and
then the rake may be applied to the surface to stop the rise of moisture
before it reaches the air.

Two illustrations, adapted from Roberts's "Fertility," show good and
poor preparation of the land. Figure 93 is a section of land twelve
inches deep. The under soil has been finely broken and pulverized and
then compacted. It is mellow but firm, and is an excellent water
reservoir. Three inches of the surface is a mulch of loose and dry
earth. Figure 94 shows an earth-mulch, but it is too shallow; and the
under soil is so open and cloddy that the water runs through it.

[Illustration: Fig. 93. To illustrate good preparation of ground.]

When the land is once properly prepared, the soil-mulch is maintained by
surface-working tools. In field practice, these tools are harrows and
horse cultivators of various kinds; in home garden practice they are
wheel-hoes, rakes, and many patterns of hand hoes and scarifiers, with
finger-weeders and other small implements for work directly among
the plants.

[Illustration: 94. To illustrate poor preparation of ground.]

A garden soil is not in good condition when it is hard and crusted on
top. The crust may be the cause of wasting water, it keeps out the air,
and in general it is an uncongenial physical condition; but its
evaporation of water is probably its chief defect. Instead of pouring
water on the land, therefore, we first attempt to keep the moisture in
the land. If, however, the soil becomes so dry in spite of you that the
plants do not thrive, then water the bed. Do not _sprinkle_ it, but
_water_ it. Wet it clear through at evening. Then in the morning, when
the earth begins to dry, loosen the surface again to keep the water from
getting away. Sprinkling the plants every day or two is one of the
surest ways of spoiling them. We may water the ground with a
garden-rake.

_Hand tools for weeding and subsequent tillage and other hand work._

Any of the cultivators and wheel-hoes are as useful for the subsequent
tilling of the crop as for the initial preparation of the land, but
there are other tools also that greatly facilitate the keeping of the
plantation in order. Yet wholly aside from the value of a tool as an
implement of tillage and as a weapon for the pursuit of weeds, is its
merit merely as a shapely and interesting instrument. A man will take
infinite pains to choose a gun or a fishing-rod to his liking, and a
woman gives her best attention to the selecting of an umbrella; but a
hoe is only a hoe and a rake only a rake. If one puts his personal
choice into the securing of plants for a garden, so should he
discriminate in the choice of hand tools, to secure those that are
light, trim, well made, and precisely adapted to the work to be
accomplished. A case of neat garden tools ought to be a great joy to a
joyful gardener. So I am willing to enlarge on the subject of hoes and
their kind.



The hoe.

[Illustration: 95. Useful forms of hoe-blades.]

The common rectangular-bladed hoe is so thoroughly established in the
popular mind that it is very difficult to introduce new patterns, even
though they may be intrinsically superior. As a general-purpose tool, it
is no doubt true that a common hoe is better than any of its
modifications, but there are various patterns of hoe-blades that are
greatly superior for special uses, and which ought to appeal to any
quiet soul who loves a garden.

[Illustration: Fig. 96. A stack of gardening weapons, comprising some of
Tarryer's weeding spuds and thimbles.]

The great width of the common blade does not admit of its being used in
very narrow rows or very close to delicate plants, and it does not allow
of the deep stirring of the soil in narrow spaces. It is also difficult
to enter hard ground with such a broad face. Various pointed blades have
been introduced from time to time, and most of them have merit. Some
persons prefer two points to the hoe, as shown in Marvin's blades, in
Fig. 95. These interesting shapes represent the suggestions of
gardeners who will not be bound by what the market affords, but who have
blades cut and fitted for their own satisfaction.

Persons who followed the entertaining writings of one who called himself
Mr. A.B. Tarryer, in "American Garden," a few years back, will recall
the great variety of implements that he advised for the purpose of
extirpating his hereditary foes, the weeds. A variety of these blades
and tools is shown in Figs. 96 and 97. I shall let Mr. Tarryer tell his
story at some length in order to lead my reader painlessly into a new
field of gardening pleasures.

Mr. Tarryer contends that the wheel-hoe is much too clumsy an affair to
allow of the pursuit of an individual weed. While the operator is busy
adjusting his machine and manipulating it about the corners of the
garden, the quack-grass has escaped over the fence or has gone to seed
at the other end of the plantation. He devised an expeditious tool for
each little work to be performed on the garden,--for hard ground and
soft, for old weeds and young (one of his implements was denominated
"infant-damnation").

[Illustration: Fig. 97. Some of the details of the Tarryer tools.]

"Scores of times during the season," Mr. Tarryer writes, "the ten or
fifteen minutes one has to enjoy in the flower, fruit, and vegetable
garden--and that would suffice for the needful weeding with the hoes we
are celebrating--would be lost in harnessing horses or adjusting and
oiling squeaky wheel-hoes, even if everybody had them. The 'American
Garden' is not big enough, nor my patience long enough, to give more
than an inkling of the unspeakable merits of these weapons of society
and civilization. When Mrs. Tarryer was showing twelve or fifteen acres
of garden with never a weed to be seen, she valued her dozen or more of
these light implements at five or ten dollars daily; whether they were
in actual use or adorning the front hall, like a hunter's or angler's
furniture, made no difference. But where are these millennial tools made
and sold? Nowhere. They are as unknown as the Bible was in the dark
ages, and we must give a few hints towards manufacturing them.

"First, about the handles. The ordinary dealer or workman may say these
knobs can be formed on any handles by winding them with leather; but
just fancy a young maiden setting up her hoe meditatively and resting
her hands and chin upon an old leather knob to reflect upon something
that has been said to her in the garden, and we shall perceive that a
knob by some other name would smell far sweeter. Moreover, trees grow
large enough at the butt to furnish all the knobs we want--even for
broom-sticks--though sawyers, turners, dealers, and the public seem not
to be aware of it; yet it must be confessed we are so far gone in
depravity that there will be trouble in getting those handles....

"In a broadcast prayer of this public nature, absolute specifications
would not be polite. Black walnut and butternut are fragrant as well as
beautiful timber. Cherry is stiff, heavy, durable, and, like maple,
takes a slippery polish. For fine, light handles, that the palm will
stick to, butt cuts of poplar or cottonwood cannot be excelled, yet
straight-grained ash will bear more careless usage.

"The handles of Mrs. Tarryer's hoes are never perfectly straight. All
the bayonet class bend downward in use half an inch or more; all the
thrust-hoe handles bend up in a regular curve (like a fiddle-bow turned
over) two or three inches. Unless they are hung right, these hoes are
very awkward things. When perfectly fit for one, they may not fit
another; that is, a tall, keen-sighted person cannot use the hoe that is
just fit for a very short one.... Curves in the handles throw centers of
gravity where they belong. Good timber generally warps in a handle about
right, only implement makers and babes in weeding may not know when it
is made fast right side up in the hoe.

"There are plenty of thrust-hoes in market, such as they are. Some have
malleable iron sockets and bows--heavier to the buyer and cheaper to the
dealer--instead of wrought-iron and steel, such as is required for
true worth."

Scarifiers.

[Illustration: 98. A scarifier.]

[Illustration: 99. Home-made scarifier.]

[Illustration: 100. Home-made scarifier or scraper.]

For many purposes, tools that scrape or scarify the surface are
preferable to hoes that dig up the ground. Weeds may be kept down by
cutting them off, as in walks and often in flower-beds, rather than by
rooting them out. Figure 98 shows such a tool, and a home-made implement
answering the same purpose is illustrated in Fig. 99. This latter tool
is easily made from strong band-iron. Another type is suggested in Fig.
100, representing a slicing-hoe made by fastening a sheet of good metal
to the tines of a broken fork. The kind chiefly in the market is shown
in Fig. 101.

[Illustration: 101. The common scarifier.]



Hand-weeders.

[Illustration: 102. Good hand-weeders.]

[Illustration: 103. A hand-weeder.]

[Illustration: 104. A finger-weeder.]

[Illustration: 105. A small hand-weeder.]

For small beds of flowers or vegetables, hand-weeders of various
patterns are essential to easy and efficient work. One of the best
patterns, with long and short handles, is shown in Fig. 102. Another
style, that may be made at home of hoop-iron, is drawn in Fig. 103. A
finger-weeder is illustrated in Fig. 104. In Fig. 105 a common form is
shown. Many patterns of hand-weeders are in the market, and other forms
will suggest themselves to the operator.



Trowels and their kind.

Small hand-tools for digging, as trowels, dibbers, and spuds, may be had
of dealers. In buying a trowel it is economy to pay an extra price and
secure a steel blade with a strong shank that runs through the entire
length of the handle. One of these tools will last several years and
may be used in hard ground, but the cheap trowels are generally hardly
worth the buying. A solid wrought-iron trowel all in one piece is also
manufactured, and is the most durable pattern. A steel trowel may be
secured to a long handle; or the blade of a broken trowel may be
utilized in the same way (Fig. 106). A very good trowel may also be made
from a discarded blade of a mowing machine (Fig. 107), and it answers
the purpose of a hand-weeder.

[Illustration: Fig. 106. Long-handled trowel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 107. Improvised trowel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 108. Weed-spud.]

[Illustration: Fig. 109. A good weed-spud.]

[Illustration: Fig. 110. Weed-cutter.]

[Illustration: Fig. 111. A weed-spud that lifts the weed.]

Weed-spuds are shown in Figs. 108 to 111. The first is particularly
serviceable in cutting docks and other strong weeds from lawns and
pastures. It is provided with a brace to allow it to be thrust into the
ground with the foot. It is seldom necessary to dig out perennial weeds
to the tips of their deep roots, if the crown is severed a short
distance below the surface.

Rollers.

It is often essential that the land be compacted after it has been
spaded or hoed, and some kind of hand-roller is then useful. Very
efficient iron rollers are in the market, but a good one can be made
from a hard chestnut or oak log, as shown in Fig. 112. (It should be
remembered that when the surface is hard and compact, water escapes from
it rapidly, and plants may suffer for moisture on arrival of warm
weather.) The roller is useful in two ways--to compact the
under-surface, in which case the surface should be again loosened as
soon as the rolling is done; and to firm the earth about seeds (page 98)
or the roots of newly set plants.

[Illustration: Fig. 112. Hand-roller.]

[Illustration: Fig. 113. Roller and marker.]

Markers.

[Illustration: Fig. 114. Roller and marker.]

[Illustration: Fig. 115. Marking-stick.]

A marker may often be combined with the roller to good advantage, as in
Fig. 113. Ropes are secured about the cylinder at proper intervals, and
these mark the rows. Knots may be placed in the ropes to indicate the
places where plants are to be set or seeds dropped. An extension of the
same idea is seen in Fig. 114, which shows iron or wooden pegs that make
holes in which very small plants may be set. An L-shaped rod projects at
one side to mark the place of the next row.

[Illustration: Fig. 116. Tool for spacing plants.]

[Illustration: Fig. 117. Barrow rigged with a marker.]

[Illustration: Fig. 118. Hand sled-marker.]

In most cases the best and most expeditious method of marking out the
garden is by the use of the garden line, which is secured to a reel
(Fig. 96), but various other devices are often useful. For very small
beds, drills or furrows may be made by a simple marking-stick (Fig.
115). A handy marker is shown in Fig. 116. A marker can be rigged to a
wheel-barrow, as in Fig. 117. A rod is secured underneath the front
truss, and from its end an adjustable trailer, B, is hung. The wheel of
the barrow marks the row, and the trailer indicates the place of the
next row, thereby keeping the rows parallel. A hand sled-marker is shown
in Fig. 118, and a similar device may be secured to the frame of a sulky
cultivator (Fig. 119) or other wheel tool. A good adjustable sled-marker
is outlined in Fig. 120.

[Illustration: Fig. 119. Trailing sled-marker.]

[Illustration: Fig. 120. Adjustable sled-marker.]

_Enriching the land._

Two problems are involved in the fertilizing of the land: the direct
addition of plant-food, and the improvement of the physical structure of
the soil. The latter office is often the more important.

Lands that, on the one hand, are very hard and solid, with a tendency to
bake, and, on the other, that are loose and leachy, are very greatly
benefited by the addition of organic matter. When this organic
matter--as animal and plant remains--decays and becomes thoroughly
incorporated with the soil, it forms what is called humus. The addition
of this humus makes the land mellow, friable, retentive of moisture, and
promotes the general chemical activities of the soil. It also puts the
soil in the best physical condition for the comfort and well-being of
the plants. Very many of the lands that are said to be exhausted of
plant-food still contain enough potash, phosphoric acid, and lime, and
other fertilizing elements, to produce good crops; but they have been
greatly injured in their physical condition by long-continued cropping,
injudicious tillage, and the withholding of vegetable matter. A part of
the marked results secured from the plowing under of clover is due to
the incorporation of vegetable matter, wholly aside from the addition of
fertilizing material; and this is emphatically true of clover because
its deep-growing roots penetrate and break up the subsoil.

Muck and leafmold are often very useful in ameliorating either very hard
or very loose lands. Excellent humous material may be constantly at hand
if the leaves, garden refuse, and some of the manure are piled and
composted (p. 114). If the pile is turned several times a year, the
material becomes fine and uniform in texture.

The various questions associated with the fertilizing of the land are
too large to be considered in detail here. Persons who desire to
familiarize themselves with the subject should consult recent books. It
may be said, however, that, as a rule, most lands contain all the
elements of plant-food in sufficient quantities except potash,
phosphoric acid, and nitrogen. In many cases, lime is very beneficial to
land, usually because it corrects acidity and has a mechanical effect in
pulverizing and flocculating clay and in cementing sands.

The chief sources of commercial potash are muriate of potash, sulfate of
potash, and wood ashes. For general purposes, the muriate of potash is
now recommended, because it is comparatively cheap and the composition
is uniform. A normal application of muriate of potash is 200 to 300
pounds to the acre; but on some lands, where the greatest results are
demanded, sometimes as much as twice this application may be made.

Phosphoric acid is got in dissolved South Carolina and Florida rock and
in various bone preparations. These materials are applied at the rate of
200 to 400 pounds to the acre.

Commercial nitrogen is secured chiefly in the form of animal refuse, as
blood and tankage, and in nitrate of soda. It is more likely to be lost
by leaching through the land than the mineral substances are, especially
if the land lacks humus. Nitrate of soda is very soluble, and should be
applied in small quantities at intervals. Nitrogen, being the element
which is mostly conducive to vegetative growth, tends to delay the
season of maturity if applied heavily or late in the season. From 100 to
300 pounds of nitrate of soda may be applied to the acre, but it is
ordinarily better to make two or three applications at intervals of
three to six weeks. Fertilizing materials may be applied either in fall
or spring; but in the case of nitrate of soda it is usually better not
to apply in the fall unless the land has plenty of humus to prevent
leaching, or on plants that start very early in the spring.

Fertilizing material is sown broadcast, or it may be scattered lightly
in furrows underneath the seeds, and then covered with earth. If sown
broadcast, it may be applied either after the seeds are sown or before.
It is usually better to apply it before, for although the rains carry it
down, nevertheless the upward movement of water during the dry weather
of the summer tends to bring it back to the surface. It is important
that large lumps of fertilizer, especially muriate of potash and nitrate
of soda, do not fall near the crowns of the plants; otherwise the plants
may be seriously injured. It is a general principle, also, that it is
best to use more sparingly of fertilizers than of tillage. The tendency
is to make fertilizers do penance for the sins of neglect, but the
results do not often meet one's expectations.

If one has only a small garden or a home yard, it ordinarily will not
pay him to buy the chemicals separately, as suggested above, but he may
purchase a complete fertilizer that is sold under a trademark or brand,
and has a guaranteed analysis. If one is raising plants chiefly for
their foliage, as rhubarb and ornamental bushes, he should choose a
fertilizer comparatively rich in nitrogen; but if he desires chiefly
fruit and flowers, the mineral elements, as potash and phosphoric acid,
should usually be high. If one uses the chemicals, it is not necessary
that they be mixed before application; in fact, it is usually better not
to mix them, because some plants and some soils need more of one element
than of another. Just what materials, and how much, different soils and
plants require must be determined by the grower himself by observation
and experiment; and it is one of the satisfactions of gardening to
arrive at discrimination in such matters.

Muriate of potash costs $40 and upwards per ton, sulfate about $48,
dissolved boneblack about $24, ground bone about $30, kainit about $13,
and nitrate of soda about 2-1/4 cents per pound. These prices vary, of
course, with the composition or mechanical condition of materials, and
with the state of the market. The average composition of unleached wood
ashes in the market is about as follows: Potash, 5.2 per cent;
phosphoric acid, 1.70 per cent; lime, 34 per cent; magnesia, 3.40 per
cent. The average composition of kainit is 13.54 per cent potash, 1.15
per cent lime.

The fact that the soil itself is the greatest storehouse of plant-food
is shown by the following average of thirty-five analyses of the total
content of the first eight inches of surface soils, per acre: 3521
pounds of nitrogen, 4400 pounds of phosphoric acid, 19,836 pounds of
potash. Much of this is unavailable, but good tillage, green-manuring,
and proper management tend to unlock it and at the same time to save it
from waste.

Every careful gardener will take satisfaction in saving leaves and
trimmings and stable refuse and making compost of it to supplement the
native supplies in the soil. Some out-of-the-way corner will be found
for a permanent pile, with room for piling it over from time to time.
The pile will be screened by his garden planting. (Figure 121 suggests a
useful cart for collecting such materials.) He will also save the power
of his land by changing his crops to other parts of the garden, year by
year, not growing his China asters or his snap-dragons or his potatoes
or strawberries continuously on the same area; and thus, also, will his
garden have a new face every year.

[Illustration: Fig 121. A good cart for collecting leaves and other
materials.]

Lest the reader may get the idea that there is no limit to be placed on
the enriching of the soil, I will caution him at the end of my
discussion that he may easily make the place so rich that some plants
will overgrow and will not come into flowering or fruiting before frost,
and flowers may lack brilliancy. On very rich land, scarlet sage will
grow to great size but will not bloom in the northern season; sweet peas
will run to vine; gaillardias and some other plants will break down;
tomatoes and melons and peppers may be so late that the fruit will not
ripen. Only experience and good judgment will safeguard the gardener as
to how far he should or should not go.



CHAPTER V

THE HANDLING OF THE PLANTS

There is a knack in the successful handling of plants that it is
impossible to describe in print. All persons can improve their practice
through diligent reading of useful gardening literature, but no amount
of reading and advice will make a good gardener of a person who does not
love to dig in a garden or who does not have a care for plants just
because they are plants.

To grow a plant well, one must learn its natural habits. Some persons
learn this as if by intuition, acquiring the knowledge from close
discrimination of the behavior of the plant. Often they are themselves
unconscious of this knack of knowing what will make the plant to thrive;
but it is not at all necessary to have such an intuitive judgment to
enable one to be even more than a fairly good gardener. Diligent
attention to the plant's habits and requirements, and a real regard for
the plant's welfare, will make any person a successful plant-grower.

Some of the things that a person should know about any plant he would
grow are these:--

Whether the plant matures in the first, second, third, or subsequent
years; and when it naturally begins to fail.

The time of the year or season in which it normally grows, blooms, or
fruits; and whether it can be forced at other seasons.

Whether it prefers a situation dry or moist or wet, hot or cool, sunny
or shady.

Its preferences as to soil, whether very rich or only moderately rich,
sand or loam, or peat or clay.

Its hardiness as to frost, wind, drought, heat.

Whether it has any special requirements as to germination, and whether
it transplants well.

Whether it is specially liable to attack by insects or disease.

Whether it has a special inability to grow two years in succession on
the same land.

Having suited the situation to the plant, and having prepared the ground
well and made a resolution to keep it well, special attention must be
given to such matters as these:--

Guarding from all insects and diseases; and also from cats and chickens
and dogs; and likewise from rabbits and mice.

Protecting from weeds.

Pruning, in the case of fruit trees and bushes, and also of ornamental
woody plants on occasion, and sometimes even of annual herbs.

Staking and tying, particularly of sprawly garden flowers.

Persistent picking of seed pods or dead flowers from flower plants, in
order to conserve the strength of the plant and to prolong its season
of bloom.

Watering in dry weather (but not sprinkling or dribbling).

Thorough winter protecting of plants that need it.

Removing dead leaves, broken branches, weak and sickly plants, and
otherwise keeping the place tidy and trim.

_Sowing the seeds._

Prepare the surface earth well, to make a good seed-bed. Plant when the
ground is moist, if possible, and preferably just before a rain if the
soil is of such character that it will not bake. For shallow-planted
seeds, firm the earth above them by walking over the row or by patting
it down with a hoe. Special care should be exercised not to sow very
small and slow-germinating seeds, as celery, carrot, onion, in poorly
prepared soil or in ground that bakes. With such seeds it is well to
sow seeds of radish or turnip, for these germinate quickly and break the
crust, and also mark the row so that tillage may be begun before the
regular-crop seeds are up.

Land may be prevented from baking over the seeds by scattering a very
thin layer of fine litter, as chaff, or of sifted moss or mold, over the
row. A board is sometimes laid on the row to retain the moisture, but it
must be lifted gradually just as soon as the plants begin to break the
ground, or the plants will be greatly injured. Whenever practicable,
seed-beds of celery and other slow-germinating seeds should be shaded.
If the beds are watered, be careful that the soil is not packed by the
force of the water or baked by the sun. In thickly sown seed-beds, thin
or transplant the plants as soon as they have made their first
true leaves.

For most home-grounds, seeds may be sown by hand, but for large areas of
one crop, one of the many kinds of seed-sowers may be used. The
particular methods of sowing seeds are usually specified in the seed
catalogues, if other than ordinary treatment is required. The
sled-markers (already described, p. 108) open a furrow of sufficient
depth for the planting of most seeds. If marker furrows are not
available, a furrow may be opened with a hoe for such deep-planted seeds
as peas and sweet peas, or by a trowel or end of a rakestale for smaller
seeds. In narrow beds or boxes, a stick or ruler (Fig. 115) may be used
for opening creases to receive the seeds.

The depth at which seeds are to be planted varies with the kind, the
soil and its preparation, the season, and whether they are planted in
the open or in the house. In boxes and under glass, it is a good rule
that the seed be sown at a depth equal to twice its own diameter, but
deeper sowing is usually necessary out of doors, particularly in hot and
dry weather. Strong and hardy seeds, as peas, sweet peas, large
fruit-tree seeds, may be planted three to six inches deep. Tender seeds,
that are injured by cold and wet, may be planted after the ground is
settled and warm at a greater depth than before that season. As a rule,
nothing is gained by sowing tender seeds before the weather is
thoroughly settled and the ground warm.

_Propagating by cuttings._

Many common plants are propagated by cuttings rather than by seeds,
particularly when it is desired to increase a particular variety.

Cuttings are parts of plants inserted in soil or water with the
intention that they shall grow and make new plants. They are of various
kinds. They may be classified, with reference to the age of the wood or
tissue, into two classes; viz. those made from perfectly hard or dormant
wood (taken from the winter twigs of trees and bushes), and those made
from more or less immature or growing wood. They may be classified again
in respect to the part of the plants from which they are taken, as
root-cuttings, tuber-cuttings (as the ordinary "seed" planted for
potatoes), stem-cuttings, and leaf-cuttings.

Dormant stem-cuttings.

Dormant-wood cuttings are used for grapes (Fig. 122), currants,
gooseberries, willows, poplars, and many other kinds of soft-wooded
trees and shrubs. Such cuttings are ordinarily taken in fall or winter,
but cut into the proper lengths and then buried in sand or moss where
they do not freeze, in order that the lower end may heal over or
callous. In the spring these cuttings are set in the ground, preferably
in a rather sandy and well-drained place.

[Illustration: Fig. 122. The planting of the dormant-wood cuttings.]

Usually, hardwood cuttings are made with two to four joints or buds, and
when they are planted, only the upper bud projects above the ground.
They may be planted erect, as Fig. 122 shows, or somewhat slanting. In
order that the cutting may reach down to moist earth, it is desirable
that it should not be less than 6 in. long; and it is sometimes better
if it is 8 to 12 in. If the wood is short-jointed, there may be several
buds on a cutting of this length; and in order to prevent too many
shoots from arising from these buds the lowermost buds are often cut
out. Roots will start as readily if the lower buds are removed, since
the buds grow into shoots and not into roots.

[Illustration: Fig. 123. Carnation cutting.]

Cuttings of currants, grapes, gooseberries, and the like may be set in
rows that are far enough apart to admit of easy tillage either with
horse or hand tools, and the cuttings may be placed 3 to 8 in. apart in
the row. The English varieties of gooseberries, considerably grown in
this country, do not propagate readily from cuttings.

After the cuttings have grown one season, the plants are usually
transplanted and given more room for the second year's growth, after
which time they are ready to be set in permanent plantations. In some
cases, the plants are set at the end of the first year; but two-year
plants are stronger and usually preferable.

Cuttings of roots.

Root-cuttings are used for blackberries, raspberries, and a few other
things. They are ordinarily made of roots from the size of a lead pencil
to one's little finger, and are cut in lengths from 3 to 5 in. long. The
cuttings are stored the same as stem-cuttings and allowed to callous. In
the spring they are planted in a horizontal or nearly horizontal
position in moist sandy soil, being entirely covered to a depth of 1
or 2 in.

Green cuttings.

Softwood or greenwood cuttings are usually made of wood that is mature
enough to break when it is bent sharply. When the wood is so soft that
it will bend and not break, it is too immature, in the majority of
plants, for the making of good cuttings.

[Illustration: Fig. 124. Verbena cutting.]

One to two joints is the proper length of a greenwood cutting. If of two
joints, the lower leaves should be cut off and the upper leaves cut in
two so that they do not present their entire surface to the air and
thereby evaporate the plant juices too rapidly. If the cutting is of
only one joint, the lower end is usually cut just above a joint. In
either case, the cuttings are usually inserted in sand or well-washed
gravel, nearly or quite up to the leaves. Keep the bed uniformly moist
throughout its depth, but avoid any soil which holds so much moisture
that it becomes muddy and sour. These cuttings should be shaded until
they begin to emit their roots. Coleus, geraniums, fuchsias, carnations,
and nearly all the common greenhouse and house plants, are propagated by
these cuttings or slips (Figs. 123, 124).

Cuttings of leaves.

Leaf-cuttings are often used for the fancy-leaved begonias, gloxinias,
and a few other plants. The young plant usually arises most readily from
the leaf-stalk or petiole. The leaf, therefore, is inserted into the
ground much as a green cutting is. Begonia leaves will throw out young
plants from the main ribs when these veins or ribs are cut. Therefore,
well-grown and firm begonia leaves are sometimes laid flat on the sand
and the main veins cut; then the leaf is weighted down with pebbles or
pegs so that these cut surfaces come into intimate contact with the soil
beneath. The usual way, however, is to cut a triangular piece of the
leaf (Fig. 125) and insert the tip in sand. So long as the cutting is
alive, do not be discouraged, even if it do not start.

[Illustration: VIII. A well-planted entrance. Common trees and bushes,
with Boston ivy on the post, and _Berberis Thunbergii_ in front.]

General treatment of cuttings.

In the growing of all greenwood and leaf-cuttings, it is well to
remember that they should have a gentle bottom heat; the soil should be
such that it will hold moisture and yet not remain wet; the air about
the tops should not become close and stagnant, else the plants will damp
off; and the tops should be shaded for a time. In order to control all
the conditions, such cuttings are grown under cover, as in a greenhouse,
coldframe, or a box in the residence window.

[Illustration: Fig. 125. Leaf-cutting.]

[Illustration: Fig. 126. Cuttings inserted in a double pot.]

An excellent method of starting cuttings in the living room is to make a
double pot, as shown in Fig. 126. Inside a 6-in. pot set a 4-in. pot.
Fill the bottom, _a,_ with gravel or bits of brick, for drainage. Plug
the hole in the inside pot. Fill the spaces between, _c,_ with earth,
and in this set the cuttings. Water may be poured into the inner pot,
_b,_ to supply the moisture.

_Transplanting young seedlings._

In the transplanting of cabbages, tomatoes, flowers, and all plants
recently started from seeds, it is important that the ground be
thoroughly fined and compacted. Plants usually live better if
transplanted into ground that has been freshly turned. If possible,
transplant in cloudy or rainy weather, particularly if late in the
season. Firm the earth snugly about the roots with the hands or feet, in
order to bring up the soil moisture; but it is generally best to rake
the surface in order to reëstablish the earth-mulch, unless the plants
are so small that their roots cannot reach through the mulch (p. 98).

[Illustration: Fig. 127. To check evaporation at transplanting.]

If the plants are taken from pots, water the pots some time in advance,
and the ball of earth will fall out when the pot is inverted and tapped
lightly. In taking up plants from the ground, it is advisable, also, to
water them well some time before removing; the earth may then be held on
the roots. See that the watering is done far enough in advance to allow
the water to settle away and distribute itself; the earth should not be
muddy when the plants are removed.

[Illustration: Fig. 128. Plants sheared and not sheared when
transplanted.]

In order to reduce the evaporation from the plant, shingles may be stuck
into the ground to shade the plant; or a screen may be improvised with
pieces of paper (Fig. 122), tin cans, inverted flower-pots, coverings of
brush, or other means.

It is nearly always advisable to remove some of the foliage,
particularly if the plant has several leaves and if it has not been
grown in a pot, and also if the transplanting is done in warm weather.
Figure 128 shows a good treatment for transplanted plants. With the
foliage all left on, the plants are likely to behave as in the upper
row; but with most of it cut off, as in the lower row, there is little
wilting, and new leaves soon start. Figure 129 also shows what part of
the leaves may be cut off on transplanting. If the ground is freshly
turned and the transplanting is well done, it rarely will be necessary
to water the plants; but if watering is necessary, it should be done at
nightfall, and the surface should be loosened the next morning or as
soon as it becomes dry.

[Illustration: Fig. 129. Where to shear the tops of young plants.]

[Illustration: Fig. 130. Trowel dibber.]

[Illustration: Fig. 131. The dibber.]

[Illustration: Fig. 132. Home-made padded dibber.]

In the transplanting of young plants, some kind of a dibber should be
used to make the holes. Dibbers make holes without removing any of the
earth. A good form of dibber is shown in Fig. 130, which is like a flat
or plane trowel. Many persons prefer a cylindrical and conical dibber,
like that shown in Fig. 131. For hard soils and larger plants, a strong
dibber may be made from a limb that has a right-angled branch to serve
as a handle. This handle may be softened by slipping a piece of rubber
hose on it (Fig. 132). A long iron dibber, which may also be used as a
crow-bar, is shown in Fig. 133. In transplanting with the dibber, a hole
is first made by a thrust of the tool, and the earth is then pressed
against the root by means of the foot, hand, or the dibber itself (as in
Fig. 131). The hole is not filled by putting in dirt at the top.

[Illustration: Fig. 133. Dibber and crow-bar combined.]

[Illustration: Fig. 134. Strawberry planter.]

For large plants, a broader dibber may be used. An implement like that
shown in Fig. 134 is useful for setting strawberries and other plants
with large roots. It is made of two-inch plank, with a block on top to
act as foot-rest and to prevent the blade from going too deep. In order
to provide space for the foot and easily to direct the thrust, the
handle may be placed at one side of the middle. For plunging pots, a
dibber like that shown in Fig. 135 is useful, particularly when the soil
is so hard that a long-pointed tool is necessary. The bottom of the hole
may be filled with earth before the pot is inserted; but it is often
advisable to leave the vacant space below (as in _b_) to provide
drainage, to keep the plant from rooting, and to prevent earth-worms
from entering the hole in the bottom of the pot. For smaller pots, the
tool may be inserted a less depth (as at _c_).

[Illustration: Fig. 135. The plunging of pots.]

_Transplanting established plants and trees._

In setting potted plants out of doors, it is nearly always advisable to
plunge them,--that is to set the pots into the earth,--unless the place
is very wet. The pots are then watered by the rainfall, and demand
little care. If the plants are to be returned to the house in the fall,
they should not be allowed to root through the hole in the pot, and the
rooting may be prevented by turning the pot around every few days. Large
decorative plants may be made to look as if growing naturally in the
lawn by sinking the pot or box just below the surface and rolling the
sod over it, as suggested in Fig. 136. A space around and below the tub
may be provided to insure drainage.

[Illustration: Fig. 136. Setting large tub-plants in the lawn.]

Tub-plants.

[Illustration: Fig. 137. Plant-box with a movable side.]

For the shifting of very large tub-plants, a box or tub with movable
sides, as in Fig. 137, is handy and efficient. The plant-box recommended
to parties who grew plants for exhibition at the World's Fair is shown
in Fig. 138. It is made of strong boards or planks. At A is shown the
inside of one of two opposite sections or sides, four feet wide at top,
three feet wide at bottom, and three feet high. The cleats are
two-by-four scantlings, through which holes are bored to admit the bolts
with which the box is to be held together. B is an outside view of one
of the alternating sections, three feet four inches wide at top, two
feet four inches at bottom, and three feet deep. A one-by-six strip is
nailed through the center to give strength. C is an end view of A,
showing the bolts and also a two-by-four cleat to which the bottom is to
be nailed. This box was used mostly for transporting large growing
stock to the exposition, the stock having been dug from the open and the
box secured around the ball of earth.

[Illustration: Fig. 138. Box for transporting large transplanted stock.]

When to transplant.

In general, it is best to set hardy plants in the fall, particularly if
the ground is fairly dry and the exposure is not too bleak. To this
class belong most of the fruit trees and ornamental trees and shrubs;
also hardy herbs, as columbines, peonies, lilies, bleeding-hearts, and
the like. They should be planted as soon as they are thoroughly mature,
so that the leaves begin to fall naturally. If any leaves remain on the
tree or bush at planting time, strip them off, unless the plant is an
evergreen. It is generally best not to cut back fall-planted trees to
the full extent desired, but to shorten them three-fourths of the
required amount in the fall, and take off the remaining fourth in the
spring, so that no dead or dry tips are left on the plant. Evergreens,
as pines and spruces, are not headed-in much, and usually not at all.

All tender and very small plants should be set in the spring, in which
case very early planting is desirable; and spring planting is always to
be advised when the ground is not thoroughly drained and well prepared.

Depth to transplant.

In well-compacted land, trees and shrubs should be set at about the same
depth as they stood in the nursery, but if the land has been deeply
trenched or if it is loose from other causes, the plants should be set
deeper, because the earth will probably settle. The hole should be
filled with fine surface earth. It is generally not advisable to place
manure in the hole, but if it is used, it should be of small amount and
very thoroughly mixed with the earth, else it will cause the soil to dry
out. In lawns and other places where surface tillage cannot be given, a
light mulch of litter or manure may be placed about the plants; but the
earth-mulch (page 98), when it can be secured, is much the best
conserver of moisture.

Making the rows straight.

[Illustration: Fig. 139. A planting board.]

In order to set trees in rows, it is necessary to use a garden line
(Fig. 96), or to mark out the ground with some of the devices already
described (Figs. 113-120); or in large areas, the place may be staked
out. In planting orchards, the area is laid out (preferably by a
surveyor) with two or more rows of stakes so placed that a man may sight
from one fixed point to another. Two or three men work to best advantage
in such planting.

[Illustration: Fig. 140. Device for placing the tree.]

There are various devices for locating the place of the stake after the
stake has been removed and the hole dug, in case the area is not
regularly staked out in such a way that sighting across the area may be
employed. One of the simplest is shown in Fig. 139. It is a narrow and
thin board with a notch in the center and a peg in either end, one of
the pegs being stationary. The implement is so placed that the notch
meets the stake, then one end of it is thrown out of the way until the
hole is dug. When the implement is brought again to its original
position, the notch mark's the place of the stake and the tree. Figure
140 is a device with a lid, in the end of which is a notch to mark the
place of the stake. This lid is thrown back, as shown by the dotted
lines, when the hole is being dug. Figure 141 shows a method of bringing
trees in row by measuring from a line.

[Illustration: Fig. 141. Lining a tree from a stake.]

Cutting-back; filling.

In the planting of any tree or bush, the roots should be cut back beyond
all breaks and serious bruises, and fine earth should be thoroughly
filled in and firmed about them, as in Fig. 142. No implement is so good
as the fingers for working the soil about the roots. If the tree has
many roots, work it up and down slightly several times during the
filling of the hole, to settle the earth in place. When the earth is
thrown in carelessly, the roots are jammed together, and often an empty
place is left beneath the crown, as in Fig. 143, which causes the roots
to dry out.

[Illustration: Fig. 142: Proper planting of a tree.]

[Illustration: Fig. 143: Careless planting of a tree.]

The marks on the tops of these trees in Figs. 142 and 143 show where the
branches may be cut. See also Fig. 152. Figures 144 and 145 show the
tops of trees after pruning. Strong branchy trees, as apples, pears, and
ornamental trees, are usually headed back in this way, upon planting. If
the tree has one straight leader and many or several slender branches
(Fig. 146), it is usually pruned, as in Fig. 147, each branch being cut
back to one or two buds. If there are no branches, or very few of
them,--in which case there will be good buds upon the main stem,--the
leader may be cut back a third or half its length, to a mere whip.
Ornamental bushes with long tops are usually cut back a third or a half
when set, as shown in Fig. 45.

[Illustration: Fig. 144. Pruned young tree.]

Always leave a little of the small bud-making growth. The practice of
cutting back shade trees to mere long clubs, or poles, with no small
twigs, is to be discouraged. The tree in such case is obliged to force
out adventitious buds from the old wood, and it may not have vigor
enough to do this; and the process may be so long delayed as to allow
the tree to be overtaken by drought before it gets a start.

[Illustration: Fig. 145. Pruned young tree.]

Removing very large trees.

Very large trees can often be moved with safety. It is essential that
the transplanting be done when the trees are perfectly dormant,--winter
being preferable,--that a large mass of earth and roots be taken with
the tree, and that the top be vigorously cut back. Large trees are often
moved in winter on a stone-boat, by securing a large ball of earth
frozen about the roots. This frozen ball is secured by digging about
the tree for several days in succession, so that the freezing progresses
with the excavation. A good device for moving such trees is shown in
Fig. 148. The trunk of the tree is securely wrapped with burlaps or
other soft material, and a ring or chain is then secured about it. A
long pole, _b,_ is run over the truck of a wagon and the end of it is
secured to the chain or ring upon the tree. This pole is a lever for
raising the tree out of the ground. A team is hitched at _a,_ and a man
holds the pole _b._

[Illustration: Fig. 146: Peach tree.]

[Illustration: Fig. 147: Peach tree pruned for planting.]

Other and more elaborate devices are in use, but this explains the idea
and is therefore sufficient for the present purpose; for when a person
desires to remove a very large tree he should secure the services of
an expert.

[Illustration: Fig. 148: Moving a large tree.]

The following more explicit directions for moving large trees are by
Edward Hicks, who has had much experience in the business, and who made
this report to the press a few years ago: "In moving large trees, say
those ten to twelve inches in diameter and twenty-five to thirty feet
high, it is well to prepare them by trimming and cutting or sawing off
the roots at a proper distance from the trunks, say six to eight feet,
in June. The cut roots heal over and send out fibrous roots, which
should not be injured more than is necessary in moving the trees next
fall or spring. Young, thrifty maples and elms, originally from the
nursery, do not need such preparation nearly as much as other and older
trees. In moving a tree, we begin by digging a wide trench six to eight
feet from it, leaving all possible roots fast to it. By digging under
the tree in the wide trench, and working the soil out of the roots by
means of round or dull-pointed sticks, the soil falls into the cavity
made under the tree. Three or four men in as many hours could get so
much of the soil away from the roots that it would be safe to attach a
rope and tackle to the upper part of the trunk and to some adjoining
post or tree for the purpose of pulling the tree over. A good quantity
of bagging must be put around the tree under the rope to prevent injury,
and care should be taken that the pulling of the rope does not split off
or break a limb. A team is hitched to the end of the draft rope, and
slowly driven in the proper direction to pull the tree over. If the tree
does not readily tip over, dig under and cut off any fast root. While it
is tipped over, work out more of the soil with the sticks. Now pass a
large rope, double, around a few large roots close to the tree, leaving
the ends of the rope turned up by the trunk to be used in lifting the
tree at the proper time. Tip the tree in the opposite direction and put
another large rope around the large roots close to the trunk; remove
more soil and see that no roots are fast to the ground. Four guy-ropes
attached to the upper parts of the tree, as shown in the cut (Fig. 149),
should be put on properly and used to prevent the tree from tipping over
too far as well as to keep it upright. A good deal of the soil can be
put back in the hole without covering the roots to get it out of the way
of the machine. The latter can now be placed about the tree by removing
the front part, fastened by four bolts, placing the frame with the hind
wheels around the tree and replacing the front parts. Two timbers,
three-by-nine inches, and twenty feet long, are now placed on the ground
under the hind wheels, and in front of them, parallel to each other for
the purpose of keeping the hind wheels up out of the big hole when
drawing the tree away; and they are also used while backing the hind
wheels across the new hole in which the tree is to be planted. The
machine (Figs. 149, 150) consists of a hind axle twelve feet long, and
broad-tired wheels. The frame is made of spruce three-by-eight inches
and twenty feet long. The braces are three-by-five inches and ten feet
long, and upright three-by-nine inches and three feet high; these are
bolted to the hind axle and main frame. The front axle has a set of
blocks bolted together and of sufficient height to support the front end
of the frame. Into the top timbers, three-by-six inches, hollows are cut
at the proper distances to receive the ends of two locust rollers. A
windlass or winch is put at each end of the frame, by which trees can
easily and steadily be lifted and lowered, the large double ropes
passing over the rollers to the windlasses. A locust boom is put across
the machine under the frame and above the braces; iron pins hold it in
place. The side guy-ropes are made fast to the ends of this boom. The
other guy-ropes are made fast to the front and rear parts of the
machine. Four rope loops are made fast inside of the frame, and are so
placed that by passing a rope around the trunk of the tree and through
the loops two or three times, a rope ring is made around the tree that
will keep the trunk in the middle of the frame and not allow it to hit
either the edges or the rollers--a very necessary safeguard. As the tree
is slowly lifted by the windlasses, the guy-ropes are loosened, as
needed. The tree will pass obstructions, such as trees by the roadside,
but in doing so it is better to lean the tree backward. When the tree
has arrived at its new place, the two timbers are placed along the
opposite edges of the hole so that the hind wheels can be backed over
it. The tree is then lowered to the proper depth, and made plumb by the
guy-ropes, and good, mellow soil is thrown in and packed well into all
the cavities under the roots. When the hole is half filled, several
barrels of water should be poured in; this will wash the soil into the
cavities under the center of the tree much better. When the water has
settled away, fill in and pack the soil till the hole is little more
than full. Leave a depression, so that all the rain that may fall will
be retained. The tree should now be judiciously trimmed and the machine
removed. Five men can take up, move, and plant a tree in a day, if the
distance is short and the digging not too hard. The tree should be
properly wired to stakes to prevent the wind from blowing it over. The
front part of the machine is a part of our platform spring market-wagon,
while the hind wheels are from a wood-axle wagon. A tree ten inches in
diameter, with some dirt adhering to its roots, will weigh a ton
or more."

[Illustration: Fig. 149. The tree ready to lift.]

[Illustration: 150. The tree ready to move.]

_Winter protection of plants._

[Illustration: Fig. 151. Trees heeled-in for winter.]

If the ground is not ready for planting in the fall, or if it is desired
for any reason to delay until spring, the trees or bushes may be
heeled-in, as illustrated in Fig. 151. The roots are laid in a furrow or
trench, and are covered with well-firmed earth. Straw or manure may be
thrown over the earth still further to protect the roots, but if it is
thrown over the tops, mice may be attracted by it and the trees be
girdled. Tender trees or bushes may be lightly covered to the tips with
earth. Plants should be heeled-in only in loose, warm, loamy or sandy
ground and in a well-drained place.

Fall-planted trees should generally be mounded up, sometimes even as
high as shown in Fig. 152. This hilling holds the plant in position,
carries off the water, prevents too deep freezing, and holds the earth
from heaving. The mound is taken away in the spring. It is sometimes
advisable to mound-up established trees in the fall, but on well-drained
land the practice is usually not necessary. In hilling trees, pains
should be taken not to leave deep holes, from which the earth was dug,
close to the tree, for water collects in them. Roses and many other
bushes may be mounded in the fall with profit.

[Illustration: Fig. 152. Tree earthed up for winter.]

It is always advisable to mulch plants that are set in the fall. Any
loose and dry material--as straw, manure, leaves, leafmold, litter from
yards and stables, pine boughs--may be used for this purpose. Very
strong or compact manures, as those in which there is little straw or
litter, should be avoided. The ground may be covered to a depth of five
or six inches, or even a foot or more if the material is loose. Avoid
throwing strong manure directly on the crown of the plants, especially
of herbs, for the materials that leach from the manure sometimes injure
the crown buds and the roots.

This protection may also be given to established plants, particularly to
those which, like roses and herbaceous plants, are expected to give a
profusion of bloom the following year. This mulch affords not only
winter protection, but is an efficient means of fertilizing the land. A
large part of the plant-food materials have leached out of the mulch by
spring, and have become incorporated in the soil, where the plant makes
ready use of them.

Mulches also serve a most useful purpose in preventing the ground from
packing and baking by the weight of snows and rains, and the cementing
action of too much water in the surface soil. In the spring, the
coarser parts of the mulch may be removed, and the finer parts spaded or
hoed into the ground.

[Illustration: Fig. 153: Covering plants in a box.]

Tender bushes and small trees may be wrapped with straw, hay, burlaps,
or pieces of matting or carpet. Even rather large trees, as bearing
peach trees, are often baled up in this way, or sometimes with corn
fodder, although the results in the protection of fruit-buds are not
often very satisfactory. It is important that no grain is left in the
baling material, else mice may be attracted to it. (The danger of
gnawing by mice that nest in winter coverings is always to be
anticipated.) It should be known, too, that the object in tying up or
baling plants is not so much to protect from direct cold as to mitigate
the effects of alternate freezing and thawing, and to protect from
drying winds. Plants may be wrapped so thick and tight as to
injure them.

[Illustration: Fig. 154: Covering plants in a barrel.]

The labor of protecting large plants is often great and the results
uncertain, and in most cases it is a question whether more satisfaction
could not be attained by growing only hardy trees and shrubs.

The objection to covering tender woody plants cannot be urged with equal
force against tender herbs or very low bushes, for these are protected
with ease. Even the ordinary mulch may afford sufficient protection; and
if the tops kill back, the plant quickly renews itself from near the
base, and in many plants--as in most hybrid perpetual roses--the best
bloom is on these new growths of the season. Old boxes or barrels may
be used to protect tender low plants (Figs. 153, 154). The box is filled
with leaves or dry straw and either left open on top or covered with
boards, boughs, or even with burlaps (Fig. 154).

Connoisseurs of tender roses and other plants sometimes go to the pains
of erecting a collapsible shed over the bush, and filling with leaves or
straw. Whether this is worth while depends wholly on the degree of
satisfaction that one derives from the growing of choice plants (see
_Roses,_ in Chap. VIII).

[Illustration: Fig. 155. Laying down of trellis-grown blackberries.]

The tops of plants may be laid down for the winter. Figure 155 shows a
method of laying down blackberries, as practiced in the Hudson River
valley. The plants were tied to a trellis, as the method is in that
country, two wires (_a, b_) having been run on either side of the row.
The posts are hinged on a pivot to a short post (_c_), and are held in
position by a brace (_d_). The entire trellis is then laid down on the
approach of winter, as shown in the illustration. The blackberry tops
are so strong that they hold the wires up from the ground, even when the
trellis is laid down. To hold the wires close to the earth, stakes are
thrust over them in a slanting position, as shown at _n n._ The snow
that drifts through the plants ordinarily affords sufficient protection
for plants which are as hardy as grapes and berries. In fact, the
species may be uninjured even without cover, since, in their prostrate
position, they escape the cold and drying winds.

In severe climates, or in the case of tender plants, the tops should be
covered with straw, boughs, or litter, as recommended for regular
mulch-covers. Sometimes a V-shaped trough made from two boards is placed
over the stems of long or vine-like plants that have been laid down. All
plants with slender or more or less pliant stems can be laid down with
ease. With such protection, figs can be grown in the northern states.
Peach and other fruit trees may be so trained as to be tipped over
and covered.

Laid-down plants are often injured if the covering remains too late in
the spring. The ground warms up early, and may start the buds on parts
of the buried plants, and these tender buds may be broken when the
plants are raised, or injured by sun, wind, or frost. The plants should
be raised while the wood and buds are still hard and dormant.

_Pruning._

Pruning is necessary to keep plants in shape, to make them more
floriferous and fruitful, and to hold them within bounds.

Even annual plants often may be pruned to advantage. This is true of
tomatoes, from which the superfluous or crowding shoots may be removed,
especially if the land is so rich that they grow very luxuriantly;
sometimes they are trained to a single stem and most of the side shoots
are taken away as they appear. If plants of marigold, gaillardia, or
other strong and spreading growers are held by stakes or wire-holders (a
good practice), it may be advisable to remove the weak and sprawling
shoots. Balsams give better results when side shoots are taken off. The
removing of the old flowers, which is to be advised with flower-garden
plants (page 116), is also a species of pruning.

Distinction should be made between pruning and shearing. Plants are
sheared into given shapes. This may be necessary in bedding-plants, and
occasionally when a formal effect is desired in shrubs and trees; but
the best taste is displayed, in the vast majority of cases, in allowing
the plants to assume their natural habits, merely keeping them shapely,
cutting out old or dead wood, and, in some cases, preventing such
crowding of shoots as will reduce the size of the bloom. The common
practice of shearing shrubbery is very much to be reprehended; this
subject is discussed from another point of view on page 24.

The pruner should know the flower-bearing habit of the plant that he
prunes,--whether the bloom is on the shoots of last season or on the new
wood of the present season, and whether the flower-buds of
spring-blooming plants are separate from the leaf-buds. A very little
careful observation will determine these points for any plant. (1) The
spring-blooming woody plants usually produce their flowers from buds
perfected the fall before and remaining dormant over winter. This is
true of most fruit-trees, and such shrubs as lilac, forsythia, tree
peony, wistaria, some spireas and viburnums, weigela, deutzia. Cutting
back the shoots of these plants early in spring or late in fall,
therefore, removes the bloom. The proper time to prune such plants
(unless one intends to reduce or thin the bloom) is just after the
flowering season. (2) The summer-blooming woody plants usually produce
their flowers on shoots that grow early in the same season. This is true
of grapes, quince, hybrid perpetual roses, shrubby hibiscus, crape
myrtle, mock orange, hydrangea (paniculata), and others. Pruning in
winter or early spring to secure strong new shoots is, therefore, the
proper procedure in these cases.

Remarks on pruning may be found under the discussion of roses and other
plants in subsequent chapters, when the plants need any special or
peculiar attention.

Fruit-trees and shade-trees are usually pruned in winter, preferably
late in winter, or in very early spring. However, there is usually no
objection to moderate pruning at any time of the year; and moderate
pruning every year, rather than violent pruning in occasional years, is
to be advised. It is an old idea that summer pruning tends to favor the
production of fruit-buds and therefore to make for fruitfulness; there
is undoubtedly truth in this, but it must be remembered that
fruitfulness is not the result of one treatment or condition, but of all
the conditions under which the plant lives.

All limbs should be removed close to the branch or trunk from which they
arise, and the surface of the wound should be practically parallel with
such branch or trunk, rather than to be cut back to stubs. The stubs do
not heal readily.

All wounds much above an inch across may be protected by a coat of good
linseed-oil paint; but smaller wounds, if the tree is vigorous, usually
require no protection. The object of the paint is to protect the wound
from cracking and decay until the healing tissue covers it.

Superfluous and interfering branches should be removed from fruit-trees,
so that the top will be fairly open to sun and to the pickers.
Well-pruned trees allow of an even distribution and uniform development
of the fruit. Watersprouts and suckers should be removed as soon as they
are discovered. How open the top may be, will depend on the climate. In
the West, open trees suffer from sun-scald.

The fruit-bearing habit of the fruit-tree must be considered in the
pruning. The pruner should be able to distinguish fruit-buds from
leaf-buds in such species as cherries, plums, apricot, peach, pear,
apple, and so prune as to spare these buds or to thin them
understandingly. The fruit-buds are distinguished by their position on
the tree and by their size and shape. They may be on distinct "spurs"
or short branches, in all the above fruits; or, as in the peach, they
may be chiefly lateral on the new shoots (in the peach, the fruit-buds
are usually two at a node and with a leaf-bud between them), or, as
sometimes in apples and pears, they may be at the ends of last year's
growths. Fruit-buds are usually thicker, or "fatter," than leaf-buds,
and often fuzzy. Heading-back the tree of course tends to concentrate
the fruit-buds and to keep them nearer the center of the tree-top; but
heading-back must be combined with intelligent saving and thinning of
the interior shoots. Heading-back of pears and peaches and plums is
usually a very desirable practice.

_Tree surgery and protection._

Aside from the regular pruning to develop the tree into its best form to
enable it to do its best work, there are wounds and malformations to be
treated. Recently, the treating of injured and decayed trees has
received much attention, and "tree doctors" and "tree surgeons" have
engaged in the business. If there are quacks among these people, there
are also competent and reliable men who are doing useful service in
saving and prolonging the life of trees; one should choose a tree doctor
with the same care that he would choose any other doctor. The liability
of injury to street trees in the modern city and the increasing regard
for trees, render the services of good experts increasingly necessary.

Street trees are injured by many causes: as, starving because of poor
soil and lack of water under pavements; smoke and dust; leakage from gas
mains and from electric installation; gnawing by horses; butchering by
persons stringing wires; carelessness of contractors and builders; wind
and ice storms; overcrowding; and the blundering work of persons who
think that they know how to prune. Well-enforced municipal regulations
should be able to control most of these troubles.

Tree guards.

[Illustration: Fig. 156. Lath tree guard.]

[Illustration: Fig. 157. Wire-and-post tree guard]

Along roadsides and other exposed places it is often necessary to
protect newly set trees from horses, boys, and vehicles. There are
various kinds of tree guards for this purpose. The best types are those
that are more or less open, so as to allow the free passage of air and
which are so far removed from the body of the tree that its trunk may
expand without difficulty. If the guards are very tight, they may shade
the trunk so much that the tree may suffer when the guard is removed,
and they prevent the discovery of insects and injuries. It is important
that the guard does not fill with litter in which insects may harbor. As
soon as the tree is old enough to escape injury, the guards should be
removed. A very good guard, made of laths held together with three
strips of band-iron, and secured to iron posts, is shown in Fig. 156.
Figure 157. shows a guard made by winding fencing wire upon three posts
or stakes. When there is likely to be danger from too great shading of
the trunk, this latter form of guard is one of the best. There are good
forms of tree guards on the market. Of course hitching-posts should be
provided, wherever horses are to stand, to remove the temptation of
hitching to trees. Figure 158, however, shows a very good device when a
hitching post is not wanted. A strong stick, four or five feet long, is
secured to the tree by a staple and at the lower end of the stick is a
short chain with a snap in the end. The snap is secured to the bridle,
and the horse is not able to reach the tree.

[Illustration: Fig 158. How a horse may be hitched to a tree.]

Mice and rabbits.

Trees and bushes are often seriously injured by the gnawing of mice and
rabbits. The best preventive is not to have the vermin. If there are no
places in which rabbits and mice can burrow and breed, there will be
little difficulty. At the approach of winter, if mice are feared, the
dry litter should be removed from about the trees, or it should be
packed down very firm, so that the mice cannot nest in it. If the
rodents are very abundant, it may be advisable to wrap fine wire netting
about the base of the tree. A boy who is fond of trapping or hunting
will ordinarily solve the rabbit difficulty. Rags tied on sticks which
are placed at intervals about the plantation will often frighten
rabbits away.

Girdled trees.

Trees that are girdled by mice should be wrapped up as soon as
discovered, so that the wood shall not become too dry. When warm
weather approaches, shave off the edges of the girdle so that the
healing tissue may grow freely, smear the whole surface with
grafting-wax, or with clay, and bind the whole wound with strong cloths.
Even though the tree is completely girdled for a distance of three or
four inches, it usually may be saved by this treatment, unless the
injury extends into the wood. The water from the roots rises through the
soft wood and not between the bark and the wood, as commonly supposed.
When this sap water has reached the foliage, it takes part in the
elaboration of plant-food, and this food is distributed throughout the
plant, the path of transfer being in the inner layers of bark. This food
material, being distributed back to the girdle, will generally heal over
the wound if the wood is not allowed to become dry.

[Illustration: Fig. 159. Bridge-grafting a girdle.]

In some cases, however, it is necessary to join the bark above and below
the girdle by means of cions, which are whittled to a wedge-shape on
either end, and inserted underneath the two edges of the bark (Fig.
159). The ends of the cions and the edges of the wound are held by a
bandage of cloth, and the whole work is protected by melted grafting-wax
poured upon it. [Footnote: A good grafting-wax is made as follows: Into
a kettle place one part by weight of tallow, two parts of beeswax, four
parts of rosin. When completely melted, pour into a tub or pail of cold
water, then work it with the hands (which should be greased) until it
develops a grain and becomes the color of taffy candy. The whole
question of the propagation of plants is discussed in "The
Nursery-Book."]

Repairing street trees.

The following advice on "tree surgery" is by A.D. Taylor (Bulletin 256,
Cornell University, from which the accompanying illustrations are
adapted):--

"Tree surgery includes the intelligent protection of all mechanical
injuries and cavities. Pruning requires a previous intimate knowledge of
the habits of growth of trees; surgery, on the other hand, requires in
addition a knowledge of the best methods for making cavities air-tight
and preventing decay. The filling of cavities in trees has not been
practiced sufficiently long to warrant making a definite statement as to
the permanent success or failure of the operation; the work is still in
an experimental stage. The caring for cavities in trees must be urged as
the only means of preserving affected specimens, and the preservation of
many noble specimens has been at least temporarily assured through the
efforts of those practicing this kind of work.

[Illustration: Fig. 160. A cement-filled cavity at the base of a tree.]

"Successful operation depends on two important factors: first, that all
decayed parts of the cavity be wholly removed and the exposed surface
thoroughly washed with an antiseptic; second, that the cavity, when
filled, must be air tight and hermetically sealed if possible. Trees are
treated as follows: The cavity is thoroughly cleaned by removing all
decayed wood and washing the interior surface with a solution of copper
sulfate and lime, in order to destroy any fungi that may remain. The
edges of the cavity are cut smooth in order to allow free growth of the
cambium after the cavity is filled. Any antiseptic, such as corrosive
sublimate, creosote, or even paint, may answer the purpose; creosote,
however, possesses the most penetrating powers of any. The method of
filling the cavities depends to a great extent on their size and form.
Very large cavities with great openings are generally bricked on the
outside, over the opening, and filled on the inside with concrete, the
brick serving the purpose of a retaining wall to hold the concrete in
place. Concrete used for the main filling is usually made in the
proportion of one part good Portland cement, two parts sand, and four
parts crushed stone, the consistency of the mixture being such that it
may be poured into the cavity and require little or no tamping to make
the mass solid. (Fig. 160.)

[Illustration: Fig. 161. A wound, made by freezing, trimmed out and
filled with cement.]

"Fillings thus made are considered by expert tree surgeons to be a
permanent preventive of decay. The outside of the filling is always
coated with a thin covering of concrete, consisting of one part cement
to two parts fine sand. Cavities resulting from freezing, and which,
though large on the inside, show only a long narrow crack on the
outside, are most easily filled by placing a form against the entire
length of the opening, having a space at the top through which the
cement may be poured (Fig. 161). Another method of retaining the
concrete is to reinforce it from the outside by driving rows of spikes
along the inner surface of either side of the cavity and lacing a stout
wire across the face of the cavity. For best results, all fillings must
come flush with the inner bark when finished. During the first year,
this growing tissue will spread over the outer edge of the filling, thus
forming an hermetically sealed cavity. In the course of time, the
outside of small or narrow openings should be completely covered with
tissue, which buries the filling from view.

[Illustration: Fig. 162. Bridge-grafting or in-arching from saplings
planted about the tree.]

"It has been found that there is a tendency for portland cement to
contract from the wood after it dries, leaving a space between the wood
and the cement through which water and germs of decay may enter. A
remedy for this defect has been suggested in the use of a thick coat of
tar, or an elastic cement which might be spread over the surface of the
cavity before filling. The cracking of portland cement on the surface of
long cavities is caused by the swaying of trees during heavy storms, and
should not occur if the filling is correctly done.

"In addition to the preservation of decayed specimens by filling the
cavities, as above outlined, it has been proposed to strengthen the tree
by treating it as shown in Fig. 162. Young saplings of the same species,
after having become established as shown, are grafted by approach to the
mature specimen.

[Illustration: Fig. 163. Faulty methods of bracing a crotched tree. The
lower method is wholly wrong. The upper method is good if the bolt-heads
are properly counter-sunk and the bolts tightly fitted; but if the
distance between the branches is great, it is better to have two bolts
and join them by hooks, to allow of wind movements.]

"Injury frequently results from error in the method of attempting to
save broken, or to strengthen and support weak branches that are
otherwise healthy. The means used for supporting cracked, wind-racked,
and overladen branches which show a tendency to split at the forks are
bolting and chaining. The practice of placing iron bands around large
branches in order to protect them has resulted in much harm; as the tree
grows and expands, such bands tighten, causing the bark to be broken and
resulting after a few years in a partial girdling (Fig. 163).

[Illustration: Fig. 164. Trees ruined to allow of the passage of
wires.]

[Illustration: Fig. 165. Accommodating a wall to a valuable tree.]

[Illustration: Fig. 166. The death of a long stub.]

[Illustration: Fig. 167. Bungling pruning.]

"To bolt a tree correctly is comparatively inexpensive. The safest
method consists in passing a strong bolt through a hole bored in the
branch for this purpose, and fastening it on the outside by means of a
washer and a nut. Generally the washer has been placed against the bark
and the nut then holds it in place. A better method of bolting, and one
which insures a neat appearance of the branch in addition to serving as
the most certain safeguard against the entrance of disease, is to
counter-sink the nut in the bark and imbed it in portland cement. The
hole for the sinking of the nut and washer is thickly coated with lead
paint and then with a layer of cement, on which are placed the nut and
washer, both of which are then imbedded in cement. If the outer surface
of the nut be flush with the plane of the bark, within a few years it
will be covered by the growing tissue.

[Illustration: Fig. 168. The proper way to saw off a large limb. A cut
is first made on the under side to prevent splitting down; then it is
cut on the upper side. Then the entire "stub" is removed close to
the trunk.]

[Illustration: Fig. 169. A weak-bodied young tree well supported;
padding is placed under the bandages.]

[Illustration: Fig. 170. The wrong way of attaching a guy rope.]

[Illustration: Fig. 171. An allowable way of attaching a guy rope.]

[Illustration: Fig. 172. The best way of attaching a guy rope, if a tree
must be used as support.]

"The inner ends of the rods in the two branches may be connected by a
rod or chain. The preference for the chain over the rod attachment is
based on the compressive and tensile stresses which come on the
connection during wind storms. Rod connections are preferred, however,
when rigidity is required, as in unions made close to the crotch; but
for tying two branches together before they have shown signs of
weakening at the fork, the chain may best be used, as the point of
attachment may be placed some distance from the crotch, where the
flexibility factor will be important and the strain comparatively small.
Elms in an advanced stage of maturity, if subjected to severe climatic
conditions, often show this tendency to split. These trees,
especially, should be carefully inspected and means taken to preserve
them, by bolting if necessary."

[Illustration: IX. A rocky bank covered with permanent informal
planting.]

[Illustration: Fig. 173. A method of saving valuable trees along streets
on which heavy lowering of grade has been made.]

The illustrations, Figs. 164-173, are self-explanatory, and show poor
practice and good practice in the care of trees.

_The grafting of plants._

Grafting is the operation of inserting a piece of a plant into another
plant with the intention that it shall grow. It differs from the making
of cuttings in the fact that the severed part grows in another plant
rather than in the soil.

There are two general kinds of grafting--one of which inserts a piece of
branch in the stock (grafting proper), and one which inserts only a bud
with little or no wood attached (budding). In both cases the success of
the operation depends on the growing together of the cambium of the cion
(or cutting) and that of the stock. The cambium is the new and growing
tissue lying underneath the bark and on the outside of the growing wood.
Therefore, the line of demarcation between the bark and the wood should
coincide when the cion and stock are joined.

The plant on which the severed piece is set is called the stock. The
part which is removed and set into the stock is called a cion if it is a
piece of a branch, or a "bud" if it is only a single bud with a bit of
tissue attached.

The greater part of grafting and budding is performed when the cion or
bud is nearly or quite dormant. That is, grafting is usually done late
in winter and early in spring, and budding may be performed then, or
late in summer, when the buds have nearly or quite matured.

The chief object of grafting is to perpetuate a kind of plant which will
not reproduce itself from seed, or of which seed is very difficult to
obtain. Cions or buds are therefore taken from this plant and set into
whatever kind of plant is obtainable on which they will grow. Thus, if
one wants to propagate the Baldwin apple, he does not for that purpose
sow seeds thereof, but takes cions or buds from a Baldwin tree and
grafts them into some other apple tree. The stocks are usually obtained
from seeds. In the case of the apple, young plants are raised from seeds
which are secured mostly from cider factories, without reference to the
variety from which they came. When the seedlings have grown to a certain
age, they are budded or grafted, the grafted part making the entire top
of the tree; and the top bears fruit like that of the tree from which
the cions were taken.

[Illustration: Fig. 174. Budding. The "bud"; the opening to receive it;
the bud tied.]

There are many ways in which the union between cion and stock is made.
Budding may be first discussed. It consists in inserting a bud
underneath the bark of the stock, and the commonest practice is that
which is shown in the illustrations. Budding is mostly performed in
July, August, and early September, when the bark is still loose or in
condition to peel. Twigs are cut from the tree which it is desired to
propagate, and the buds are cut off with a sharp knife, a shield-shaped
bit of bark (with possibly a little wood) being left with them (Fig.
174). The bud is then shoved into a slit made in the stock, and it is
held in place by tying with a soft strand. In two or three weeks the bud
will have "stuck" (that is, it will have grown fast to the stock), and
the strand is cut to prevent its strangling the stock. Ordinarily the
bud does not grow until the following spring, at which time the entire
stock or branch in which the bud is inserted is cut off an inch above
the bud; and the bud thereby receives all the energy of the stock.
Budding is the commonest grafting operation in nurseries. Seeds of
peaches may be sown in spring, and the plants which result will be ready
for budding that same August. The following spring, or a year from the
planting of the seed, the stock is cut off just above the bud (which is
inserted near the ground), and in the fall of that year the tree is
ready for sale; that is, the top is one season old and the root is two
seasons old, but in the trade it is known as a one-year-old tree. In the
South, the peach stock may be budded in June or early July of the year
in which the seed is planted, and the bud grows into a saleable tree the
same year: this is known as June budding. In apples and pears the stock
is usually two years old before it is budded, and the tree is not sold
until the top has grown two or three years. Budding may be performed
also in the spring, in which case the bud will grow the same season.
Budding is always done on young growths, preferably on those not more
than one year old.

[Illustration: Fig. 175. Whip-graft.]

Grafting is the insertion of a small branch (or cion), usually bearing
more than one bud. If grafting is employed on small stocks, it is
customary to employ the whip-graft (Fig. 175). Both stock and cion are
cut across diagonally, and a split made in each, so that one fits into
the other. The graft is tied securely with a string, and then, if it is
above ground, it is also waxed carefully.

In larger limbs or stocks, the common method is to employ the
cleft-graft (Fig. 176). This consists in cutting off the stock,
splitting it, and inserting a wedge-shaped cion in one or both sides of
the split, taking care that the cambium layer of the cion matches that
of the stock. The exposed surfaces are then securely covered with wax.

[Illustration: Fig. 176. Cleft-graft before waxing.]

Grafting is usually performed early in the spring, just before the buds
swell. The cions should have been cut before this time, when they were
perfectly dormant. Cions may be stored in sand in the cellar or in the
ice-house, or they may be buried in the field. The object is to keep
them fresh and dormant until they are wanted.

If it is desired to change the top of an old plum, apple, or pear tree
to some other variety, it is usually accomplished by means of the
cleft-graft. If the tree is very young, budding or whip-grafting may be
employed. On an old top the cions should begin to bear when three to
four years old. All the main limbs should be grafted. It is important to
keep down the suckers or watersprouts from around the grafts, and part
of the remaining top should be cut away each year until the top is
entirely changed over (which will result in two to four years).

A good wax for covering the exposed parts is described in the footnote
on page 145.

_Keeping records of the plantation._

If one has a large and valuable collection of fruit or ornamental
plants, it is desirable that he have some permanent record of them. The
most satisfactory method is to label the plants, and then to make a
chart or map on which the various plants are indicated in their proper
positions. The labels are always liable to be lost and to become
illegible, and they are often misplaced by careless workmen or
mischievous boys.

For vegetables, annuals, and other temporary plants, the best labels
are simple stakes, like that shown in Fig. 177. Garden stakes a foot
long, an inch wide, and three-eighths inch thick may be bought of label
manufacturers for three to five dollars a thousand. These take a soft
pencil very readily, and if the labels are taken up in the fall and
stored in a dry place, they will last two or three years.

[Illustration: Fig. 177. The common stake label.]

For more permanent herbaceous plants, as rhubarb and asparagus, or even
for bushes, a stake that is sawed from clear pine or cypress, eighteen
inches long, three inches wide, and an inch or more thick, affords a
most excellent label. The lower end of the stake is sawed to a point,
and is dipped in coal tar or creosote, or other preservative. The top of
the stake is painted white, and the legend is written with a large and
soft pencil. When the writing becomes illegible or the stake is needed
for other plants, a shaving is taken off the face of the label with a
plane, a fresh coat of paint added, and the label is as good as ever.
These labels are strong enough to withstand shocks from whiffletrees and
tools, and should last ten years.

[Illustration: Fig. 178. A good stake label, with the legend covered.]

Whenever a legend is written with a lead pencil, it is advisable to use
the pencil when the paint (which should be white lead) is still fresh or
soft. Figure 178 shows a very good device for preserving the writing on
the face of the label. A block of wood is secured to the label by means
of a screw, covering the legend completely and protecting it from
the weather.

If more ornamental stake labels are desired, various types can be bought
in the market, or one can be made after the fashion of Fig. 179. This is
a zinc plate that can be painted black, on which the name is written
with white paint. Many persons, however, prefer to paint the zinc white,
and write or stamp the label with black ink or black type. Two strong
wire legs are soldered to the label, and these prevent it from turning
around. These labels are, of course, much more expensive than the
ordinary stake labels, and are usually not so satisfactory, although
more attractive.

[Illustration: Fig. 179. Metal stake label.]

[Illustration: Fig. 180. Zinc tallies.]

[Illustration: Fig. 181. Common zinc tally.]

For labeling trees, various kinds of zinc tallies are in common use, as
shown in Figs. 180 and 181. Fresh zinc takes a lead pencil readily, and
the writing often becomes more legible as it becomes older, and it will
usually remain three or four years. These labels are attached either by
wires, as _a, b,_ Fig. 180, or they are wound about the limb as shown in
_c, d,_ and _e,_ in Fig. 180. The type of zinc label most in use is a
simple strip of zinc, as shown in Fig. 181, wrapped about the limb. The
metal is so flexible that it expands readily with the growth of the
branch. While these zinc labels are durable, they are very inconspicuous
because of their neutral color, and it is often difficult to find them
in dense masses of foliage.

The common wooden label of the nurserymen (Fig. 182) is perhaps as
useful as any for general purposes. If the label has had a light coat of
thin white lead, and the legend has been made with a soft lead pencil,
the writing should remain legible four or five years. Fig. 183 shows
another type of label that is more durable, since the wire is stiff and
large, and is secured around the limb by means of pincers. The large
loop allows the limb to expand, and the stiff wire prevents the
misplacing of the label by winds and workmen. The tally itself is what
is known as the "package label" of the nurserymen, being six inches
long, one and one-fourth inches wide, and costing (painted) less than
one and one-half dollars a thousand. The legend is made with a lead
pencil when the paint is fresh, and sometimes the label is dipped in
thin white lead after the writing is made, so that the paint covers the
writing with a very thin protecting coat. A similar label is shown in
Fig. 184., which has a large wire loop, with a coil, to allow the
expansion of the limb. The tallies of this type are often made of glass,
or porcelain with the name indelibly printed in them. Figure 185. shows
a zinc tally, which is secured to the tree by means of a sharp and
pointed wire driven into the wood. Some prefer to have two arms to this
wire, driving one point on either side of the tree. If galvanized wire
is used, these labels will last for many years.

[Illustration: Fig. 182. A common nursery label.]

[Illustration: Fig. 183. Cornell tree label.]

[Illustration: Fig. 184. Serviceable large-loop tree label.]

[Illustration: Fig. 185. Zinc tree label.]

[Illustration: Fig. 186. Injury by a tight label wire.]

It is very important, when adjusting labels to trees, to be sure that
the wire is not twisted tight against the wood. Figure 186 shows the
injury that is likely to result from label wires. When a tree is
constricted or girdled, it is very liable to be broken off by winds. It
should be a rule to attach the label to a limb of minor importance, so
that if the wire should injure the part, the loss will not be serious.
When the label, Fig. 182, is applied, only the tips of the wire should
be twisted together, leaving a large loop for the expansion of the limb.

_The storing of fruits and vegetables._

The principles involved in the storing of perishable products, as fruits
and vegetables, differ with the different commodities. All the
root-crops, and most fruits, need to be kept in a cool, moist, and
uniform temperature if they are to be preserved a great length of time.
Squashes, sweet-potatoes, and some other things need to be kept in an
intermediate and what might be called a high temperature; and the
atmosphere should be drier than for most other products. The low
temperature has the effect of arresting decomposition and the work of
fungi and bacteria. The moist atmosphere has the effect of preventing
too great evaporation and the consequent shriveling.

[Illustration: Fig. 187. The old-fashioned "outdoor cellar," still a
very useful and convenient storage place.]

In the storing of any commodity, it is very important that the product
is in proper condition for keeping. Discard all specimens that are
bruised or are likely to decay. Much of the decay of fruits and
vegetables in storage is not the fault of the storage process, but is
really the work of diseases with which the materials are infected before
they are put into storage. For example, if potatoes and cabbages are
affected with the rot, it is practically impossible to keep them any
length of time.

Apples, winter pears, and all roots, should be kept at a temperature
somewhat near the freezing point. It should not rise above 40° F. for
best results. Apples can be kept even at one or two degrees below the
freezing point if the temperature is uniform. Cellars in which there are
heaters are likely to be too dry and the temperature too high. In such
places it is well to keep fresh vegetables and fruits in tight
receptacles, and pack the roots in sand or moss in order to prevent
shriveling. In these places, apples usually keep better if headed up in
barrels than if kept on racks or shelves. In moist and cool cellars,
however, it is preferable for the home supply to place them on shelves,
not piling them more than five or six inches deep, for then they can be
sorted over as occasion requires. In case of fruits, be sure that the
specimens are not over-ripe when placed in storage. If apples are
allowed to lie in the sun for a few days before being packed, they will
ripen so much that it is very difficult to keep them.

[Illustration: Fig. 188. Lean-to fruit cellar, covered with earth. The
roof should be of cement or stone slabs. Provide a ventilator.]

Cabbages should be kept at a low and uniform temperature, and water
should be drained away from them. They are stored in many ways in the
field, but success depends so much on the season, particular variety,
ripeness, and the freedom from injuries by fungi and insects, that
uniform results are rarely secured by any one method. The best results
are to be expected when they can be kept in a house built for the
purpose, in which the temperature is uniform and the air fairly moist.
When stored out of doors, they are likely to freeze and thaw
alternately; and if the water runs into the heads, mischief results.
Sometimes they are easily stored by being piled into a conical heap on
well-drained soil and covered with dry straw, and the straw covered with
boards. It does not matter if they are frosted, provided they do not
thaw out frequently. Sometimes cabbages are laid head down in a shallow
furrow plowed in well-drained land, and over them is thrown straw, the
stumps being allowed to project through the cover. It is only in winters
of rather uniform temperature that good results are to be expected from
such methods. These are some of the main considerations involved in the
storing of such things as cabbage; the subject is mentioned again in the
discussion of cabbage in Chapter X.

[Illustration: Fig. 189. A fruit storage house cooled by ice.]

In the storing of all products, especially those which have soft and
green matter, as cabbages, it is well to provide against the heating of
the produce. If the things are buried out of doors, it is important to
put on a very light cover at first so that the heat may escape. Cover
them gradually as the cold weather comes on. This is important with all
vegetables that are placed in pits, as potatoes, beets, and the like. If
covered deeply at once, they are likely to heat and rot. All pits made
out of doors should be on well-drained and preferably sandy land.

When vegetables are wanted at intervals during the winter from pits, it
is well to make compartment pits, each compartment holding a wagon load
or whatever quantity will be likely to be wanted at each time. These
pits are sunk in well-drained land, and between each of the two pits is
left a wall of earth about a foot thick. One pit can then be emptied in
cold weather without interfering with the others.

An outside cellar is better than a house cellar in which there is a
heater, but it is not so handy. If it is near the house, it need not be
inconvenient, however. A house is usually healthier if the cellar is not
used for storage. House cellars used for storage should have a
ventilating shaft.

Some of the principles involved in an ice-cooled storage house are
explained in the diagram, Fig. 189. If the reader desires to make a
careful study of storage and storage structures, he should consult
cyclopedias and special articles.

_The forcing of plants._

There are three general means (aside from greenhouses) of forcing plants
ahead of their season in the early spring--by means of forcing-hills and
hand-boxes, by coldframes, and by hotbeds.

The forcing-hill is an arrangement by means of which a single plant or a
single "hill" of plants may be forced where it permanently stands. This
type of forcing may be applied to perennial plants, as rhubarb and
asparagus, or to annuals, as melons and cucumbers.

In Fig. 190 is illustrated a common method of hastening the growth of
rhubarb in the spring. A box with four removable sides, two of which are
shown in end section in the figure, is placed around the plant in the
fall. The inside of the box is filled with straw or litter, and the
outside is banked thoroughly with any refuse, to prevent the ground from
freezing. When it is desired to start the plants, the covering is
removed from both the inside and outside of the box and hot manure is
piled around the box to its top.

[Illustration: Fig. 190. Forcing-hill for rhubarb.]

If the weather is yet cold, dry light leaves or straw may be placed
inside the box; or a pane or sash of glass may be placed on top of the
box, when it will become a coldframe. Rhubarb, asparagus, sea-kale, and
similar plants may be advanced two or four weeks by means of this method
of forcing. Some gardeners use old barrels or half-barrels in place of
the box. The box, however, is better and handier, and the sides can be
stored for future use.

[Illustration: Fig. 191. Forcing-hill, and the mold or frame for making
it.]

Plants that require a long season in which to mature, and which do not
transplant readily, as melons and cucumbers, may be planted in
forcing-hills in the field. One of these hills is shown in Fig. 191. The
frame or mold is shown at the left. This mold is a box with flaring
sides and no top or bottom, and provided with a handle. This frame is
placed with the small end down at the point where the seeds are to be
planted, and the earth is hilled up about it and firmly packed with the
feet. The mold is then withdrawn, and a pane of glass is laid upon the
top of the mound to concentrate the sun's rays, and to prevent the bank
from washing down with the rains. A clod of earth or a stone may be
placed upon the pane to hold it down. Sometimes a brick is used as a
mold. This type of forcing-hill is not much used, because the bank of
earth is liable to be washed away, and heavy rain coming when the glass
is off will fill the hill with water and drown the plant. However, it
can be used to very good advantage when the gardener can give it close
attention.

[Illustration: Fig. 192. Hand-box.]

A forcing-hill is sometimes made by digging a hole in the ground and
planting the seeds in the bottom of it, placing the pane of glass upon a
slight ridge or mound which is made on the surface of the ground. This
method is less desirable than the other, because the seeds are placed in
the poorest and coldest soil, and the hole is very likely to fill with
water in the early days of spring.

An excellent type of forcing-hill is made by the use of the hand-box, as
shown in Fig. 192. This is a rectangular box, without top or bottom, and
a pane of glass is slipped into a groove at the top. It is really a
miniature coldframe. The earth is banked up slightly about the box, in
order to hold it against winds and to prevent the water from running
into it. If these boxes are made of good lumber and painted, they will
last for many years. Any size of glass may be used which is desired, but
a ten-by-twelve pane is as good as any for general purposes.

After the plants are thoroughly established in these forcing-hills, and
the weather is settled, the protection is wholly removed, and the plants
grow normally in the open.

A very good temporary protection may be given to tender plants by using
four panes of glass, as explained in Fig. 193, the two inner panes being
held together at the top by a block of wood through which four nails are
driven. Plants are more likely to burn in these glass frames than in the
hand-boxes, and such frames are not so well adapted to the protection of
plants in very early spring; but they are often useful for
special purposes.

[Illustration: Fig. 193. Glass forcing-hill.]

In all forcing-hills, as in coldframes and hotbeds, it is exceedingly
important that the plants receive plenty of air on bright days. Plants
that are kept too close become weak or "drawn", and lose the ability to
withstand changes of weather when the protection is removed. Even though
the wind is cold and raw, the plants inside the frames ordinarily will
not suffer if the glass is taken off when the sun is shining.

Coldframes.

A coldframe is nothing more than an enlarged hand-box; that is, instead
of protecting but a single plant or a single hill with a single pane of
glass, the frame is covered with sash, and is large enough to
accommodate many plants.

There are three general purposes for which a coldframe is used: For the
starting of plants early in spring; for receiving partially hardened
plants that have been started earlier in hotbeds and forcing-houses; for
wintering young cabbages, lettuce, and other hardy plants that are sown
in the fall.

Coldframes are ordinarily placed near the buildings, and the plants are
transplanted into the field when settled weather comes. Sometimes,
however, they are made directly in the field where the plants are to
remain, and the frames, and not the plants, are removed. When used for
this latter purpose, the frames are made very cheap by running two rows
of parallel planks through the field at a distance apart of six feet.
The plank on the north is ordinarily ten to twelve inches wide, and that
on the south eight to ten inches. These planks are held in place by
stakes, and the sashes are laid across them. Seeds of radishes, beets,
lettuce, and the like, are then sown beneath the sash, and when settled
weather arrives, the sash and planks are removed and the plants are
growing naturally in the field. Half-hardy plants, as those mentioned,
may be started fully two or three weeks in advance of the normal season
by this means.

[Illustration: Fig. 194. Coldframe against a building. Plants at E; sill
of house at A; basement opening at B.]

One of the simplest types of coldframes is shown in Fig. 194, which is a
lean-to against the foundation of a house. A sill is run just above the
surface of the ground, and the sashes, shown at D, are laid on rafters
which run from this sill to the sill of the house, A. If this frame is
on the south side of the building, plants may be started even as early
as a month before the opening of the season. Such lean-to frames are
sometimes made against greenhouses or warm cellars, and heat is supplied
to them by the opening of a door in the wall, as at B. In frames that
are in such sunny positions as these, it is exceedingly important that
care be taken to remove the sash, or at least to give ample ventilation,
in all sunny days.

[Illustration: Fig. 195. Weather screen, or coldframe, against a
building.]

A different type of lean-to structure is shown in Fig. 195. This may be
either a temporary or permanent building, and it is generally used for
the protection of half-hardy plants that are grown in pots and tubs. It
may be used, however, for the purpose of forwarding pot-plants early in
the spring and for protection of peaches, grapes, oranges, or other
fruits in tubs or boxes. If it is desired merely to protect the plants
through the winter, it is best to have the structure on the north side
of the building, in order that the sun may not force the plants
into activity.

[Illustration: Fig. 196. A pit or coldframe on permanent walls, and a
useful adjunct to a garden. The rear cover is open (_a_).]

[Illustration: Fig. 197. The usual form of coldframe.]

[Illustration: Fig. 198. A strong and durable frame.]

Another structure that may be used both to carry half-hardy plants over
winter and for starting plants early in spring is shown in Fig. 196. It
is really a miniature greenhouse without heat. It is well adapted for
mild climates. The picture was made from a structure in the coast
region of North Carolina.

[Illustration: Fig. 199. A frame yard.]

The common type of coldframe is shown in Fig. 197. It is twelve feet
long and six feet wide, and is covered with four three-by-six sash. It
is made of ordinary lumber loosely nailed together. If one expects to
use coldframes or hotbeds every year, however, it is advisable to make
the frames of two-inch stuff, well painted, and to join the parts by
bolts and tenons, so that they may be taken apart and stored until
needed for the next year's crop. Figure 198 suggests a method of making
frames so that they may be taken apart.

[Illustration: Fig. 200. Portable coldframe.]

[Illustration: Fig. 201. A larger portable coldframe.]

It is always advisable to place coldframes and hotbeds in a protected
place, and particularly to protect them from cold north winds. Buildings
afford excellent protection, but the sun is sometimes too hot on the
south side of large and light-colored buildings. One of the best means
of protection is to plant a hedge of evergreens, as shown in Fig. 199.
It is always desirable, also to place all the coldframes and hotbeds
close together, for the purpose of economizing time and labor. A regular
area or yard may be set aside for this purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 202. A commodious portable frame.]

Various small and portable coldframes may be used about the garden for
the protection of tender plants or to start them early in the spring.
Pansies, daisies, and border carnations, for example, may be brought on
very early by setting such frames over them or by planting them under
the frames in the fall. These frames may be of any size desired, and the
sash may be either removable, or, in case of small frames, they may be
hinged at the top. Figs. 200-203 illustrate various types.

[Illustration: Fig. 203. A low coldframe.]

Hotbeds.

A hotbed differs from a coldframe in being provided with bottom heat.
This heat is ordinarily supplied by means of fermenting manure, but it
may be obtained from other fermenting material, as tanbark or leaves, or
from artificial heat, as flues, steam pipes, or water pipes.

The hotbed is used for the very early starting of plants; and when the
plants have outgrown the bed, or have become too thick, they are
transplanted into cooler hotbeds or into coldframes. There are some
crops, however, that are carried to full maturity in the hotbed itself,
as radishes and lettuce.

The date at which the hotbed may be started with safety depends almost
entirely on the means at command of heating it and on the skill of the
operator. In the northern states, where outdoor gardening does not begin
until the first or the last of May, hotbeds are sometimes started as
early as January; but they are ordinarily delayed until early in March.

The heat for hotbeds is commonly supplied by the fermentation of horse
manure. It is important that the manure be as uniform as possible in
composition and texture, that it come from highly fed horses, and is
practically of the same age. The best results are usually secured with
manure from livery stables, from which it can be obtained in large
quantities in a short space of time. Perhaps as much as one half of the
whole material should be of litter or straw that has been used in
the bedding.

The manure is placed in a long and shallow square-topped pile, not more
than four or six feet high, as a rule, and is then allowed to ferment.
Better results are generally obtained if the manure is piled under
cover. If the weather is cold and fermentation does not start readily,
wetting the pile with hot water may start it. The first fermentation is
nearly always irregular; that is, it begins unequally in several places
in the pile. In order to make the fermentation uniform, the pile must be
turned occasionally, taking care to break up all hard lumps and to
distribute the hot manure throughout the mass. It is sometimes necessary
to turn the pile five or six times before it is finally used, although
half this number of turnings is ordinarily sufficient. When the pile is
steaming uniformly throughout, it is placed in the hotbed, and is
covered with the earth in which the plants are to be grown.

Hotbed frames are sometimes set on top of the pile of fermenting manure,
as shown in Fig. 204. The manure should extend some distance beyond the
edges of the frame; otherwise the frame will become too cold about the
outside, and the plants will suffer.

[Illustration: Fig. 204. Hotbed with manure on top of the ground.]

It is preferable, however, to have a pit beneath the frame in which the
manure is placed. If the bed is to be started in midwinter or very early
in the spring, it is advisable to make this pit in the fall and to fill
it with straw or other litter to prevent the earth from freezing deep.
When it is time to make the bed, the litter is thrown out, and the
ground is warm and ready to receive the fermenting manure. The pit
should be a foot wider on either side than the width of the frame. Fig.
205 is a cross-section of such a hotbed pit. Upon the ground a layer of
an inch or two of any coarse material is placed to keep the manure off
the cold earth. Upon this, from twelve to thirty inches of manure is
placed. Above the manure is a thin layer of leafmold or some porous
material, that will serve as a distributor of the heat, and above this
is four or five inches of soft garden loam, in which the plants are
to be grown.

[Illustration: Fig. 205. Section of a hotbed built with a pit.]

It is advisable to place the manure in the pit in layers, each stratum
to be thoroughly trodden down before another one is put in. These layers
should be four to eight inches in thickness. By this means the mass is
easily made uniform in consistency. Manure that has too much straw for
the best results, and which will therefore soon part with its heat, will
spring up quickly when the pressure of the feet is removed. Manure that
has too little straw, and which therefore will not heat well or will
spend its heat quickly, will pack down into a soggy mass underneath the
feet. When the manure has sufficient litter, it will give a springy
feeling to the feet as a person walks over it, but will not fluff up
when the pressure is removed. The quantity of manure to be used will
depend on its quality, and also on the season in which the hotbed is
made. The earlier the bed is made, the larger should be the quantity of
manure. Hotbeds that are intended to hold for two months should have
about two feet of manure, as a rule.

The manure will ordinarily heat very vigorously for a few days after it
is placed in the bed. A soil thermometer should be thrust through the
earth down to the manure, and the frame kept tightly closed. When the
temperature is passing below 90°, seeds of the warm plants, like
tomatoes, may be sown, and when it passes below 80° or 70°, the seeds of
cooler plants may be sown.

If hotbeds are to be used every year, permanent pits should be provided
for them. Pits are made from two to three feet deep, preferably the
former depth, and are walled up with stone or brick. It is important
that they be given good drainage from below. In the summer-time, after
the sash are stripped, the old beds may be used for the growing of
various delicate crops, as melons or half-hardy flowers. In this
position, the plants can be protected in the fall. As already suggested,
the pits should be cleaned out in the fall and filled with litter to
facilitate the work of making the new bed in the winter or spring.

[Illustration: Fig. 206 Parallel runs of hotbeds with racks for holding
sashes.]

Various modifications of the common type of hotbed will suggest
themselves to the operator. The frames should ordinarily run in parallel
rows, so that a man walking between them can attend to the ventilation
of two rows of sash at once. Fig. 206 shows a different arrangement.
There are two parallel runs, with walks on the outside, and between them
are racks to receive the sash from the adjacent frames. The sash from
the left-hand bed are run to the right, and those from the right-hand
bed are run to the left. Running on racks, the operator does not need to
handle them, and the breakage of glass is therefore less; but this
system is little used because of the difficulty of reaching the farther
side of the bed from the single walk.

If the hotbed were high enough and broad enough to allow a man to work
inside, we should have a forcing-house. Such a structure is shown in
Fig. 207, upon one side of which the manure and soil are already in
place. These manure-heated houses are often very efficient, and are a
good make-shift until such time as the gardener can afford to put in
flue or pipe heat.

[Illustration: Fig. 207. Manure-heated greenhouse.]

Hotbeds may be heated by means of steam or hot water. They can be piped
from the heater in a dwelling-house or greenhouse. Fig. 208 shows a
hotbed with two pipes, in the positions 7, 7 beneath the bed. The earth
is shown at 4, and the plants (which, in this case, are vines) are
growing upon a rack, at 6. There are doors in the end of the house,
shown in 2, 2, which may be used for ventilation or for admitting air
underneath the beds. The pipes should not be surrounded by earth, but
should run through a free air space.

[Illustration: Fig. 208. Pipe-heated hotbed.]

It would scarcely pay to put in a hot water or steam heater for the
express purpose of heating hotbeds, for if such an expense were
incurred, it would be better to make a forcing-house. Hotbeds may be
heated, however, with hot-air flues with very good results. A home-made
brick furnace may be constructed in a pit at one end of the run and
underneath a shed, and the smoke and hot air, instead of being carried
directly upwards, is carried through a slightly rising horizontal pipe
that runs underneath the beds. For some distance from the furnace, this
flue may be made of brick or unvitrified sewer pipe, but stove-pipe may
be used for the greater part of the run. The chimney is ordinarily at
the farther end of the run of beds. It should be high, in order to
provide a good draft. If the run of beds is long, there should be a rise
in the underlying pipe of at least one foot in twenty-five. The greater
the rise in this pipe, the more perfect will be the draft. If the runs
are not too long, the underlying pipe may return underneath the beds and
enter a chimney directly over the back end of the furnace, and such a
chimney, being warmed from the furnace, will ordinarily have an
excellent draft. The underlying pipe should occupy a free space or pit
beneath the beds, and whenever it lies near to the floor of the bed or
is very hot, it should be covered with asbestos cloth. While such
flue-heated hotbeds may be eminently successful with a grower or builder
of experience, it may nevertheless be said, as a general statement, that
whenever such trouble and expense are incurred, it is better to make a
forcing-house. The subject of forcing-houses and greenhouses is not
discussed in this book.

[Illustration: Fig. 209. Useful kinds of watering-pots. These are
adapted to different uses, as are different forms of hoes or
pruning tools.]

The most satisfactory material for use in hotbed and cold-frame sash is
double-thick, second-quality glass; and panes twelve inches wide are
ordinarily broad enough, and they suffer comparatively little in
breakage. For coldframes, however, various oiled papers and waterproof
cloths may be used, particularly for plants that are started little in
advance of the opening of the season. When these materials are used, it
is not necessary to have expensive sash, but rectangular frames are made
from strips of pine seven-eighths inch thick and two and one-half inches
wide, halved together at the corners and each corner reënforced by a
square carriage-corner, such as is used by carriage-makers to secure the
corners of buggy boxes. These corners can be bought by the pound at
hardware stores.

Management of hotbeds.

Close attention is required in the management of hotbeds, to insure that
they do not become too hot when the sun comes out suddenly, and to give
plenty of fresh air.

Ventilation is usually effected by raising the sash at the upper end and
letting it rest upon a block. Whenever the temperature is above freezing
point, it is generally advisable to take the sash off part way, as shown
in the central part of Fig. 199, or even to strip it off entirely, as
shown in Fig. 197.

Care should be taken not to water the plants at nightfall, especially in
dull and cold weather, but to give them water in the morning, when the
sun will soon bring the temperature up to its normal state. Skill and
judgment in watering are of the greatest importance in the management of
hotbeds; but this skill comes only from thoughtful practice. The
satisfaction and effectiveness of the work are greatly increased by good
hose connections and good watering-pots (Fig. 209).

Some protection, other than the glass, must be given to hotbeds. They
need covering on every cold night, and sometimes during the entire day
in very severe weather. Very good material for covering the sash is
matting, such as is used for covering floors. Old pieces of carpet may
also be used. Various hotbed mattings are sold by dealers in
gardeners' supplies.

[Illustration: Fig. 210. The making of straw mats.]

Gardeners often make mats of rye straw, although the price of good straw
and the excellence of manufactured materials make this home-made matting
less desirable than formerly. Such mats are thick and durable, and are
rolled up in the morning, as shown in Fig. 199. There are various
methods of making these straw mats, but Fig. 210 illustrates one of the
best. A frame is made after the manner of a saw-horse, with a double
top, and tarred or marline twine is used for securing the strands of
straw. It is customary to use six runs of this warp. Twelve spools of
string are provided, six hanging on either side. Some persons wind the
cord upon two twenty-penny nails, as shown in the figure, these nails
being held together at one end by wire which is secured in notches filed
into them. The other ends of the spikes are free, and allow the string
to be caught between them, thus preventing the balls from unwinding as
they hang upon the frame. Two wisps of straight rye straw are secured
and laid upon the frame, with the butt ends outward and the heads
overlapping. Two opposite spools are then brought up, and a hard knot is
tied at each point. The projecting butts of the straw are then cut off
with a hatchet, and the mat is allowed to drop through to receive the
next pair of wisps. In making these mats, it is essential that the rye
contains no ripe grain; otherwise it attracts the mice. It is best to
grow rye for this especial purpose, and to cut it before the grain is in
the milk, so that the straw does not need to be threshed.

In addition to these coverings of straw or matting, it is sometimes
necessary to provide board shutters to protect the beds, particularly if
the plants are started very early in the season. These shutters are made
of half-inch or five-eighths-inch pine lumber, and are the same size as
the sash--three by six feet. They may be placed upon the sash underneath
the matting, or they may be used above the matting. In some cases they
are used without any matting.

In the growing of plants in hotbeds, every effort should be made to
prevent the plants from growing spindling, or becoming "drawn." To make
stocky plants, it is necessary to give room to each plant, to be sure
that the distance from the plants to the glass is not great, to provide
not too much water in dull and cold weather, and particularly to give
abundance of air.



CHAPTER VI

PROTECTING PLANTS FROM THINGS THAT PREY ON THEM

Plants are preyed on by insects and fungi; and they are subject to
various kinds of disease that, for the most part, are not yet
understood. They are often injured also by mice and rabbits (p. 144), by
moles, dogs, cats, and chickens; and fruit is eaten by birds. Moles may
be troublesome on sandy land; they heave the ground by their burrowing
and may often be killed by stamping when the burrow is being raised;
there are mole traps that are more or less successful. Dogs and cats
work injury mostly by walking across newly made gardens or lying in
them. These animals, as well as chickens, should be kept within their
proper place (p. 160); or if they roam at will, the garden must be
inclosed in a tight wire fence or the beds protected by brush laid
closely over them.

The insects and diseases that attack garden plants are legion; and yet,
for the most part, they are not very difficult to combat if one is
timely and thorough in his operations. These difficulties may be divided
into three great categories: the injuries wrought by insects; the
injuries of parasitic fungi; the various types of so-called
constitutional diseases, some of which are caused by germs or bacteria,
and many of which have not yet been worked out by investigators.

The diseases caused by parasitic fungi are usually distinguished by
distinct marks, spots or blisters on the leaves or stems, and the
gradual weakening or death of the part; and, in many cases, the leaves
drop bodily. For the most part, these spots on the leaves or stems
sooner or later exhibit a mildew-like or rusty appearance, due to the
development of the spores or fruiting bodies. Fig. 211 illustrates the
ravages of one of the parasitic fungi, the shot-hole fungus of the plum.
Each spot probably represents a distinct attack of the fungus, and in
this particular disease these injured parts of tissue are liable to fall
out, leaving holes in the leaf. Plum leaves that are attacked early in
the season by this disease usually drop prematurely; but sometimes the
leaves persist, being riddled by holes at the close of the season. Fig.
212 is the rust of the hollyhock. In this case the pustules of the
fungus are very definite on the under side of the leaf. The blisters of
leaf-curl are shown in Fig. 213. The ragged work of apple scab fungus is
shown in Fig. 214.

[Illustration: Fig. 211. Shot-hole disease of plum.]

[Illustration: Fig. 212. Hollyhock rust.]

[Illustration: Fig. 213. Leaf-curl of peach, due to a fungus.]

The constitutional and bacterial diseases usually affect the whole
plant, or at least large portions of it; and the seat of attack is
commonly not so much in the individual leaves as in the stems, the
sources of food supply being thereby cut off from the foliage. The
symptoms of this class of diseases are general weakening of plant when
the disease affects the plant as a whole or when it attacks large
branches; or sometimes the leaves shrivel and die about the edges or in
large irregular discolored spots, but without the distinct pustular
marks of the parasitic fungi. There is a general tendency for the
foliage on plants affected with such diseases to shrivel and to hang on
the stem for a time. One of the best illustrations of this type of
disease is the pear-blight. Sometimes the plant gives rise to abnormal
growths, as in the "willow shoots" of peaches affected with yellows
(Fig. 215).

[Illustration: Fig. 214. Leaves and fruits injured by fungi, chiefly
apple-scab.]

Another class of diseases are the root-galls. They are of various kinds.
The root-gall of raspberries, crown-gall of peaches, apples, and other
trees, is the most popularly recognized of this class of troubles (Fig.
216). It has long been known as a disease of nursery stock. Many states
have laws against the sale of trees showing this disease. Its cause was
unknown, until in 1907 Smith and Townsend, of the Bureau of Plant
Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, undertook an
investigation. They proved that it is a bacterial disease (caused by
_Bacterium tumefaciens_); but just how the bacteria gain entrance to the
root is not known. The same bacterium may cause galls on the stems of
other plants, as, for example, on certain of the daisies. The
"hairy-root" of apples, and certain galls that often appear on the
limbs of large apple-trees, are also known to be caused by this same
bacterium. The disease seems to be most serious and destructive on the
raspberry, particularly the Cuthbert variety. The best thing to be done
when the raspberry patch becomes infested is to root out the plants and
destroy them, planting a new patch with clean stock on land that has not
grown berries for some time. Notwithstanding the laws that have been
made against the distribution of root-gall from nurseries, the evidence
seems to show that it is not a serious disease of apples or peaches, at
least not in the northeastern United States. It is not determined how
far it may injure such trees.

[Illustration: Fig. 215. The slender tufted growth indicating peach
yellows. The cause of this disease is undetermined.]

[Illustration: Fig. 216. Gall on a raspberry root.]

Of obvious insect injuries, there are two general types,--those wrought
by insects that bite or chew their food, as the ordinary beetles and
worms, and those wrought by insects that puncture the surface of the
plant and derive their food by sucking the juices, as scale-insects and
plant-lice. The canker-worm (Fig. 217) is a notable example of the
former class; and many of these insects may be dispatched by the
application of poison to the parts that they eat. It is apparent,
however, that insects which suck the juice of the plant are not poisoned
by any liquid that may be applied to the surface. They may be killed by
various materials that act upon them externally, as the soap washes,
miscible oils, kerosene emulsions, lime-and-sulfur sprays, and the like.

[Illustration: Fig. 217. Canker-worm.]

There has been much activity in recent years in the identification and
study of insects, fungi, and microorganisms that injure plants; and
great numbers of bulletins and monographs have been published; and yet
the gardener who has tried assiduously to follow these investigations is
likely to go to his garden any morning and find troubles that he cannot
identify and which perhaps even an investigator himself might not
understand. It is important, therefore, that the gardener inform himself
not only on particular kinds of insects and diseases, but that he
develop a resourcefulness of his own. He should be able to do something,
even if he does not know a complete remedy or specific. Some of the
procedure, preventive and remedial, that needs always to be considered,
is as follows:--

Keep the place clean, and free from infection. Next to keeping the
plants vigorous and strong, this is the first and best means of averting
trouble from insects and fungi. Rubbish and all places in which the
insects can hibernate and the fungi can propagate should be done away
with. All fallen leaves from plants that have been attacked by fungi
should be raked up and burned, and in the fall all diseased wood should
be cut out and destroyed. It is important that diseased plants are not
thrown on the manure heap, to be distributed through the garden the
following season.

Practice a rotation or alternation of crops (p. 114). Some of the
diseases remain in the soil and attack the plant year after year.
Whenever any crop shows signs of root disease, or soil disease, it is
particularly important that another crop be grown on the place.

[Illustration: Fig. 218. A garden hand syringe.]

See that the disease or insect is not bred on weeds or other plants that
are botanically related to the crop you grow. If the wild mallow, or
plant known to children as "cheeses" _(Malva rotundifolia_), is
destroyed, there will be much less difficulty with hollyhock rust. Do
not let the cabbage club-root disease breed on wild turnips and other
mustards, or black-knot on plum sprouts and wild cherries, or
tent-caterpillars on wild cherries and other trees.

[Illustration: Fig. 219. A knapsack pump.]

Always be ready to resort to hand-picking. We have grown so accustomed
to killing insects by other means that we have almost forgotten that
hand-picking is often the surest and sometimes even the most expeditious
means of checking an invasion in a home garden. Many insects can be
jarred off early in the morning. Egg-masses on leaves and stems may be
removed. Cutworms may be dug out. Diseased leaves may be picked off and
burned; this will do much to combat the hollyhock rust, aster rust, and
other infections.

[Illustration: Fig. 220 A compressed-air hand pump for garden work.]

[Illustration: Fig. 221 A bucket pump.]

[Illustration: Fig. 222 A bucket pump.]

[Illustration: Fig. 223 A cart-mounted pump.]

Keep close watch on the plants, and be prepared to strike quickly. It
should be a matter of pride to a gardener to have in his workhouse a
supply of the common insecticides and fungicides (Paris green or
arsenate of lead, some of the tobacco preparations, white hellebore,
whale-oil soap, bordeaux mixture, flowers of sulfur, carbonate of Copper
for solution in ammonia), and also a good hand syringe (Fig. 218), a
knapsack pump (Figs. 219, 220), a bucket pump (Figs. 221, 222), a hand
bellows or powder gun, perhaps a barrow outfit (Figs. 223, 224, 225),
and if the plantation is large enough, some kind of a force pump (Figs.
226, 227, 228). If one is always ready, there is little danger from any
insect or disease that is controllable by spraying.

[Illustration: Fig. 224. A garden outfit.]

[Illustration: Fig. 225. A cart-mounted barrel pump.]

[Illustration: Fig. 226. A barrel hand pump.]

[Illustration: Fig. 227. A barrel outfit, showing nozzles on extension
rods for trees.]

_Screens and covers._

There are various ways of keeping insects away from plants. One of the
best is to cover the plants with fine mosquito-netting or to grow them
in hand-frames, or to use a wire-covered box like that shown in Fig.
229. In growing plants under such covers, care must be taken that the
plants are not kept too close or confined; and in cases in which the
insects hibernate in the soil, these boxes, by keeping the soil warm,
may cause the insects to hatch all the sooner. In most cases, however,
these covers are very efficient, especially for keeping the striped bugs
off young plants of melons and cucumbers.

[Illustration: Fig. 228. A truck-mounted barrel hand spray Pump.]

Cut-worms may be kept away from plants by placing sheets of tin or of
heavy glazed paper about the stem of the plant, as shown in Fig. 230.
Climbing cut-worms are kept off young trees by the means shown in Fig.
231. Or a roll of cotton may be placed about the trunk of the tree, a
string being tied on the lower edge of the roll and the upper edge of
the cotton turned down like the top of a boot; the insects cannot crawl
over this obstruction (p. 203).

[Illustration: Fig. 229. Wire-covered box for protecting plants from
insects.]

[Illustration: Fig. 230 Protecting from cut-worms.]

The maggots that attack the roots of cabbages and cauliflowers may be
kept from the plant by pieces of tarred paper, which are placed close
about the stem upon the surface of the ground. Fig. 232 illustrates a
hexagon of paper, and also shows a tool used for cutting it. This means
of preventing the attacks of the cabbage maggot is described in detail
by the late Professor Goff (for another method of controlling cabbage
maggot see p. 201):--

[Illustration: Fig. 231 Protecting trees from cut-worms.]

[Illustration: Fig. 232 Showing how paper is cut for protecting cabbages
from maggots. The Goff device.]

"The cards are cut in a hexagonal form, in order better to economize the
material, and a thinner grade of tarred paper than the ordinary roofing
felt is used, as it is not only cheaper, but being more flexible, the
cards made from it are more readily placed about the plant without being
torn. The blade of the tool, which should be made by an expert
blacksmith, is formed from a band of steel, bent in the form of a half
hexagon, and then taking an acute angle, reaches nearly to the center,
as shown in Fig. 232. The part making the star-shaped cut is formed from
a separate piece of steel, so attached to the handle as to make a close
joint with the blade. The latter is beveled from the outside all round,
so that by removing the part making the star-shaped cut, the edge may be
ground on a grindstone. It is important that the angles in the blade be
made perfect, and that its outline represents an exact half hexagon. To
use the tool, place the tarred paper on the end of a section of a log or
piece of timber and first cut the lower edge into notches, as indicated
at _a,_ Fig. 232, using only one angle of the tool. Then commence at the
left side and place the blade as indicated by the dotted lines, and
strike at the end of the handle with a light mallet, and a complete card
is made. Continue in this manner across the paper. The first cut of
every alternate course will make an imperfect card, and the last cut in
any course may be imperfect, but the other cuts will make perfect cards
if the tool is correctly made, and properly used. The cards should be
placed about the plants at the time of transplanting. To place the card,
bend it slightly to open the slit, then slip it on to the center, the
stem entering the slit, after which spread the card out flat, and press
the points formed by the star-shaped cut snugly around the stem."

_Fumigating._

An effective means of destroying insects in glass houses is by
fumigating with various kinds of smoke or vapors. The best material to
use for general purposes is some form of tobacco or tobacco compounds.
The old method of fumigating with tobacco is to burn slowly slightly
dampened tobacco stems in a kettle or scuttle, allowing the house to be
filled with the pungent smoke. Lately, however, fluid extracts and other
preparations of tobacco have been brought into use, and these are so
effective that the tobacco-stem method is becoming obsolete. The use of
hydrocyanic acid gas in greenhouses is now coming to be common, for
plant-lice, white-fly, and other insects. It is also used to fumigate
nursery stock for San José scale, and mills and dwellings for such
pests and vermin as become established in them. The following directions
are from Cornell Bulletin 252 (from which the formulas in the succeeding
pages, and most of the advice, are also taken):--

"No general formula can be given for fumigating the different kinds of
plants grown in greenhouses, as the species and varieties differ greatly
in their ability to withstand the effects of the gas. Ferns and roses
are very susceptible to injury, and fumigation if attempted at all
should be performed with great caution. Fumigation will not kill insect
eggs and thus must be repeated when the new brood appears. Fumigate only
at night when there is no wind. Have the house as dry as possible and
the temperature as near 60° as practicable.

"Hydrocyanic acid gas is a deadly poison, and the greatest care is
required in its use. Always use 98 to 100 per cent pure potassium
cyanide and a good grade of commercial sulfuric acid. The chemicals are
always combined in the following proportion: Potassium cyanide, 1 oz.;
sulfuric acid, 2 fluid oz.; water, 4 fluid oz. Always use an earthen
dish, _pour in the water first,_ and add the sulfuric acid to it. Put
the required amount of cyanide in a thin paper bag and when all is
ready, drop it into the liquid and leave the room immediately. For mills
and dwellings, use 1 oz. of cyanide for every 100 cu. ft. of space. Make
the doors and windows as tight as possible by pasting strips of paper
over the cracks. Remove the silverware and food, and if brass and nickel
work cannot be removed, cover with vaseline. Place the proper amount of
the acid and water for every room in 2-gal. jars. Use two or more in
large rooms or halls. Weigh out the potassium cyanide in paper bags, and
place them near the jars. When all is ready, drop the cyanide into the
jars, beginning on the top floors, since the fumes are lighter than air.
In large buildings, it is frequently necessary to suspend the bags of
cyanide over the jars by cords running through screw eyes and all
leading to a place near the door. By cutting all the cords at once the
cyanide will be lowered into the jars and the operator may escape
without injury. Let the fumigation continue all night, locking all
outside doors and placing danger signs on the house."

In greenhouses, the white-fly on cucumbers and tomatoes may be killed by
overnight fumigation with 1 oz. of potassium cyanide to every 1000 cu.
ft. of space; or with a kerosene emulsion spray or whale-oil soap, on
plants not injured by these materials.

The green aphis is dispatched in houses by fumigation with any of the
tobacco preparations; on violets, by fumigation with 1/2 to 3/4 oz.
potassium cyanide for every 1000 cu. ft. of space, leaving the gas in
from 1/2 to 1 hr.

The black aphis is more difficult to kill than the green aphis, but may
be controlled by the same methods thoroughly used.

_Soaking tubers and seeds._

Potato scab may be prevented, so far as planting infected "seed" is
concerned, by soaking the seed tubers for half an hour in 30 gal. of
water containing 1 pt. of commercial (about 40 per cent) formalin. Oats
and wheat, when attacked by certain kinds of smut, may be rendered safe
to sow by soaking for ten minutes in a similar solution. It is probable
that some other tubers and seeds can be similarly treated with
good results.

Potatoes may also be soaked (for scab) one and one-half hours in a
solution of corrosive sublimate, 1 oz. to 7 gal. of water.

_Spraying._

The most effective means of destroying insects and fungi however, in any
general or large way, is by the use of various sprays. The two general
types of insecticides have already been mentioned--those that kill by
poisoning, and those that kill by destroying the body of the insect. Of
the former, there are three materials in common use--Paris green,
arsenate of lead, and hellebore. Of the latter, the most usual at
present are kerosene emulsion, miscible oils, and the lime-sulfur wash.

Sprays for fungi usually depend for their efficiency on some form of
copper or sulfur, or both. For surface mildews, as grape mildew, dusting
flowers of sulfur on the foliage is a protection. In most cases,
however, it is necessary to apply materials in liquid form, because they
can be more thoroughly and economically distributed, and they adhere to
the foliage better. The best general fungicide is the bordeaux mixture.
It is generally, however, not advisable to use the bordeaux mixture on
ornamental plants, because it discolors the foliage and makes the plants
look very untidy. In such cases it is best to use the ammoniacal copper
solution, which leaves no stain.

In all spraying operations it is especially important that the
applications be made the very moment the insect or disease is
discovered, or in the case of fungous diseases, if one is expecting an
attack, it is well to make an application of bordeaux mixture even
before the disease appears. When the fungus once gets inside the plant
tissue, it is very difficult to destroy it, inasmuch as fungicides act
on these deep-seated fungi very largely by preventing their fruiting and
their further spread on the surface of the leaf. For ordinary
conditions, from two to four sprayings are necessary to dispatch the
enemy. In spraying for insects in home gardens, it is often advisable to
make a second application the day following the first one in order to
destroy the remaining insects before they recover from the first
treatment.

There are many kinds of machines and devices for the application of
sprays to plants. For a few individual specimens, the spray may be
applied with a whisk, or with a common garden syringe. If one has a few
trees to treat, however, it is best to have some kind of bucket pump
like those shown in Figs. 221, 222. On a lawn or in a small garden a
tank on wheels (Figs. 223, 224, 225) is handy and efficient. In such
cases, or even for larger areas, some of the knapsack pumps (Figs. 219,
220) are very desirable. These machines are always serviceable, because
the operator stands so near to his work; but as they carry a
comparatively small quantity of liquid and do not throw it rapidly, they
are expensive when much work is to be done. Yet, in ordinary home
grounds, the knapsack pump or compressed-air pump is one of the most
efficient and practicable of all the spraying devices.

For large areas, as for small orchards and fields, a barrel pump mounted
on a wagon is best. Common types of barrel pumps are shown in Figs. 226,
227, 228. Commercial plantations are now sprayed by power machines.
There are many good patterns of spraying machines, and the intending
purchaser should send for catalogues to the various manufacturers. The
addresses may be found in the advertising pages of rural papers.

As to nozzles for spraying it may be said that there is no one pattern
that is best for all purposes. For most uses in home grounds the cyclone
or vermorel type (Fig. 233) will give best satisfaction. The pump
manufacturers supply special nozzles for their machines.

[Illustration: Fig. 233. Cyclone or vermorel type of nozzle, single and
multiple.]

_Insecticide spraying formulas._

The two classes of insecticides are here described,--the poisons
(arsenites and white hellebore) for chewing insects, as the beetles and
all kinds of worms; the contact insecticides, as kerosene, oils, soap,
tobacco, lime-sulfur, for plant-lice, scale, and insects in such
position that the material cannot be fed to them (as maggots in the
underground parts).

_Paris green._--The standard insecticidal poison. This is used in
varying strengths, depending on the insect to be controlled and the kind
of plant treated. Mix the Paris green into a paste and then add to the
water. Keep the mixture thoroughly agitated while spraying. If for use
on fruit trees, add 1 lb. of quick lime for every pound of Paris green
to prevent burning the foliage. For potatoes it is frequently used
alone, but it is much safer to use the lime. Paris green and bordeaux
mixture may be combined without lessening the value of either, and the
caustic action of the arsenic is prevented. The proportion of the poison
to use is given under the various insects discussed in the
succeeding pages.

_Arsenate of lead._--This can be applied in a stronger mixture than
other arsenical poisons without injuring the foliage. It is, therefore,
much used against beetles and other insects that are hard to poison, as
elm-leaf beetle and canker-worm. It comes in the form of a paste and
should be mixed thoroughly with a small quantity of water before placing
in the sprayer, else the nozzles will clog. Arsenate of lead and
bordeaux mixture can be combined without lessening the value of either.
It is used in strengths varying from 4 to 10 lb. per 100 gal., depending
on the kind of insect to be killed.

Arsenite of soda and arsenite of lime are sometimes used with bordeaux
mixture.

_White Hellebore._--For wet application, use fresh white hellebore, 4
oz.; water, 2 or 3 gal. For dry application, use hellebore, 1 lb.; flour
or air-slaked lime, 5 lb. This is a white, yellowish powder made from
the roots of the white hellebore plant. It loses its strength after a
time and should be used fresh. It is used as a substitute for the
arsenical poisons on plants or fruits soon to be eaten, as on currants
and gooseberries for the currant-worm.

_Tobacco._--This is a valuable insecticide and is used in several forms.
As a _dust_ it is used extensively in greenhouses for plant-lice, and in
nurseries and about apple trees for the woolly aphis. Tobacco
_decoction_ is made by steeping or soaking the stems in water. It is
often used as a spray against plant-lice. Tobacco in the form of
_extracts,_ _punks,_ and _powders_ is sold under various trade names for
use in fumigating greenhouses. (See page 188.)

_Kerosene emulsion._--Hard, soft, or whale-oil soap, 1/2 lb.; water, 1
gal.; kerosene, 2 gal. Dissolve the soap in hot water; remove from the
fire and while still hot add the kerosene. Pump the liquid back into
itself for five or ten minutes or until it becomes a creamy mass. If
properly made, the oil will not separate out on cooling.

For use on dormant trees, dilute with 5 to 7 parts of water. For killing
plant-lice on foliage dilute with 10 to 15 parts of water. Crude oil
emulsion is made in the same way by substituting crude oil in place of
kerosene. The strength of oil emulsions is frequently indicated by the
percentage of oil in the diluted liquid:--

For a 10% emulsion add 17 gal. of water to 3 gal. stock emulsion.
For a 15% emulsion add 10 1/3 gal. of water to 3 gal. stock emulsion.
For a 20% emulsion add 7 gal. of water to 3 gal. stock emulsion.
For a 25% emulsion add 5 gal. of water to 3 gal. stock emulsion.

_Carbolic acid emulsion._--Soap, 1 lb.; water, 1 gal.; crude carbolic
acid, 1 pt. Dissolve the soap in hot water, add the carbolic acid, and
agitate into an emulsion. For use against root-maggots, dilute with 30
parts of water.

_Soaps._--An effective insecticide for plant-lice is _whale-oil soap._
Dissolve in hot water and dilute so as to obtain one pound of soap to
every five or seven gallons of water. This strength is effective against
plant-lice. It should be applied in stronger solutions, however, for
scale insects. Home-made soaps and good laundry soaps, like Ivory soap,
are often as effective as whale-oil soap.

_Miscible oils._--There are now on the market a number of preparations
of petroleum and other oils intended primarily for use against the San
José scale. They mix readily with cold water and are immediately ready
for use. While quickly prepared, easily applied, and generally
effective, they cost considerably more than lime-sulfur wash. They are,
however, less corrosive to the pumps and more agreeable to use. They are
especially valuable to the man with only a few trees or shrubs who would
not care to go to the trouble and expense to make up the lime-sulfur
wash. They should be diluted with not more than 10 or 12 parts of water.
Use only on dormant trees.

_Lime and sulfur wash._--Quicklime, 20 lb.; flowers of sulfur, 15 lb.;
water, 50 gal. The lime and sulfur must be thoroughly boiled. An iron
kettle is often convenient for the work. Proceed as follows: Place the
lime in the kettle. Add hot water gradually in sufficient quantity to
produce the most rapid slaking of the lime. When the lime begins to
slake, add the sulfur and stir together. If convenient, keep the mixture
covered with burlap to save the heat. After slaking has ceased, add more
water and boil the mixture one hour. As the sulfur goes into solution, a
rich orange-red or dark green color will appear. After boiling
sufficiently, add water to the required amount and strain into the spray
tank. The wash is most effective when applied warm, but may be applied
cold. If one has access to a steam boiler, boiling with steam is more
convenient and satisfactory. Barrels may be used for holding the
mixture, and the steam applied by running a pipe or rubber hose into the
mixture. Proceed in the same way until the lime is slaked, when the
steam may be turned on. Continue boiling for 45 min. to an hour, or
until sulfur is dissolved.

This strength can be applied safely only when the trees are dormant. It
is mainly an insecticide for San José scale, although it has
considerable value as a fungicide.

_Lime-sulfur mixtures and solutions for summer spraying_ are now coming
to take the place of bordeaux in many cases. Scott's self-boiled
lime-sulfur mixture, described in U. S. D. A. Bureau Plant Industry
Circ. 27 is now a standard fungicide for brown-rot and black-spot or
scab of the peach. Concentrated lime-sulfur solutions, either home
boiled or commercial, are effective against apple scab and have the
advantage of not russeting the fruit. Such concentrates, testing 32°
Baume, should be diluted at about 1 gal. to 30 of water. Apply at same
time as with bordeaux. Add arsenate of lead as with bordeaux.

_Fungicide spraying formulas._

The standard fungicide is bordeaux mixture, made in several forms. The
second most important fungicide for the home gardener is ammoniacal
copper carbonate. Sulfur dust (flowers of sulfur) and liver of sulfur
(potassium sulfide) are also useful in dry or wet sprays for surface
mildews. The lime-sulfur wash, primarily an insecticide, also has
fungicidal property.

_Bordeaux mixture._--Copper sulfate, 5 lb.; stone lime or quicklime
(unslaked), 5 lb.; water, 50 gal. This formula is the strength usually
recommended. Stock mixtures of copper sulfate and lime are desirable.
They are prepared in the following way:--

(1) Dissolve the required amount of copper sulfate in water in the
proportion of one pound to one gallon several hours before the solution
is needed, the copper sulfate crystals being suspended in a sack near
the top of the water. A solution of copper sulfate is heavier than
water. As soon then, as the crystals begin to dissolve the solution will
sink, keeping water in contact with the crystals. In this way, the
crystals will dissolve much sooner than if placed in the bottom of the
barrel of water. In case large quantities of stock solution are needed,
two pounds of copper sulfate may be dissolved in one gallon of water.

(2) Slake the required amount of lime in a tub or trough. Add the water
slowly at first, so that the lime crumbles into a fine powder. If small
quantities of lime are used, hot water is preferred. When completely
slaked, or entirely powdered, add more water. When the lime has slaked
sufficiently, add water to bring it to a thick milk, or to a certain
number of gallons. The amount required for each tank of spray mixture
can be secured approximately from this stock mixture, which should not
be allowed to dry out.

(3) Use five gallons of stock solution of copper sulfate for every fifty
gallons of bordeaux required. Pour this into the tank. Add water until
the tank is about two-thirds full. From the stock lime mixture take the
required amount. Knowing the number of pounds of lime in the stock
mixture and the volume of that mixture, one can take out approximately
the number of pounds required. Dilute this a little by adding water, and
strain into the tank. Stir the mixture, and add water to make the
required amount. Experiment stations often recommend the diluting of
both the copper sulfate solution and the lime mixture to one-half the
required amount before pouring together. This is not necessary, and is
often impracticable for commercial work. It is preferable to dilute the
copper sulfate solution. Never pour together the strong stock mixtures
and dilute afterward. Bordeaux mixture of other strengths, as
recommended, is made in the same way, except that the amounts of copper
sulfate and lime are varied.

(4) It is not necessary to weigh the lime in making bordeaux mixture,
for a simple test can be used to determine when enough of a stock lime
mixture has been added. Dissolve an ounce of yellow prussiate of potash
in a pint of water and label it "poison." Cut a V-shaped slit in one
side of the cork so that the liquid may be poured out in drops. Add the
lime mixture to the diluted copper sulfate solution until the
ferro-cyanide (or prussiate) test solution _will not turn brown_ when
dropped from the bottle into the mixture. It is always best to add a
considerable excess of lime.

_"Sticker" or adhesive for bordeaux mixture._--Resin, 2 lb.; sal soda
(crystals), 1 lb.; water, 1 gal. Boil until of a clear brown color--one
to one and one-half hours. Cook in iron kettle in the open. Add this
amount to each fifty gallons of bordeaux for onions and cabbage. For
other plants difficult to wet, add this amount to every one hundred
gallons of the mixture. This mixture will prevent the bordeaux from
being washed off by the heaviest rains.

_Ammoniacal copper carbonate._--Copper carbonate, 5 oz.; ammonia, 3 pt.;
water, 50 gal. Dilute the ammonia in seven or eight parts of water. Make
a paste of the copper carbonate with a little water. Add the paste to
the diluted ammonia, and stir until dissolved. Add enough water to make
fifty gallons. This mixture loses strength on standing, and therefore
should be made as required. It is used in place of bordeaux when one
wishes to avoid the coloring of maturing fruits or ornamental plants.
Not as effective as bordeaux.

_Potassium sulfide._--Potassium sulfide (liver of sulfur), 3 oz.; water,
10 gal. As this mixture loses strength on standing, it should be made
just before using. It is particularly valuable for the powdery mildew of
many plants, especially gooseberry, carnation rust, rose mildew, etc.

_Sulfur._--Sulfur has been found to possess considerable value as a
fungicide. The flowers of sulfur may be sprinkled over the plants,
particularly when they are wet. It is most effective in hot, dry
weather. In rose houses it is mixed with half its bulk of lime, and made
into a paste with water. This is painted on the steam pipes. The fumes
destroy mildew on the roses. Mixed with lime, it has proved effective in
the control of onion smut when drilled into the rows with the seed.
Sulfur is not effective against black-rot of grapes.

_Treatment for some of the common insects._

The most approved preventive and remedial treatments for such insect
pests as are most likely to menace home grounds and plantations are here
briefly discussed. In case of any unusual difficulty that he cannot
control, the home-maker should take it up with the agricultural
experiment station in the state, sending good specimens of the insect
for identification. He should also have the publications of the station.

The statements that are here made are intended as advice rather than as
directions. They are chosen from good authorities (mostly from
Slingerland and Crosby in this case); but the reader must, of course,
assume his own risk in applying them. The effectiveness of any
recommended treatment depends very largely on the care, thoroughness,
and timeliness with which the work is done; and new methods and
practices are constantly appearing as the result of new investigations.
The dates given in these directions are for New York.

_Aphis or plant-louse._--The stock remedies for aphides or plant-lice
are kerosene emulsion and the tobacco preparations. Whale-oil soap is
also good. The tobacco may be applied as a spray, or in the house as
fumigation; the commercial forms of nicotine are excellent. (See page
194.) Be sure to apply the remedy before the leaves have curled and
afford protection for the lice; be sure, also, to hit the underside of
the leaves, where the lice usually are. The presence of lice on trees is
sometimes first discovered from the honey-dew that drops on walks.

Usually the emulsion is diluted with 10-15 parts of water for
plant-lice (see formula, page 194); but some of the species (as the dark
brown cherry-leaf louse) require a stronger emulsion, about 6 parts
of water.

The lady-birds (one of which is shown in Fig. 234) destroy great numbers
of plant-lice, and their presence should therefore be encouraged.

[Illustration: Fig. 234. Lady-bird beetle; larva above]

_Apple-maggot or "railroad-worm."_--The small white maggots make
brownish winding burrows in the flesh of the fruit, particularly in
summer and early fall varieties. This insect cannot be reached by a
spray as the parent fly inserts her eggs under the skin of the apple.
When full-grown, the maggot leaves the fruit, passes into the ground,
and there transforms inside a tough, leathery case. Tillage has been
found to be of no value as a means of control. The only effective
treatment is to pick up all windfalls every two or three days, and
either to feed them out or to bury them deeply, thus killing
the maggots.

_Asparagus beetle._--Clean cultural methods are usually sufficient to
prevent the asparagus beetle's seriously injuring well-established beds.
Young plants require more or less protection. A good grade of arsenate
of lead, 1 lb. to 25 gal. of water, will quickly destroy the grubs on
the foliage of either young or old plants. Apply it with an ordinary
sprinkling can, or better, use one of the numerous spraying devices now
on the market. The necessity for treatment must be determined by the
abundance of the pests. They should not be permitted to become abundant
in midsummer or the over-wintering beetles may injure the shoots in
the spring.

_Blister-mite on apple and pear._--The presence of this minute mite is
indicated by small irregular brownish blisters on the leaves. Spray in
late fall or early spring with the lime-sulfur wash, with kerosene
emulsion, diluted with 5 parts of water, or miscible oil, 1 gal. in 10
gal. of water.

_Borers._--The only certain remedy for borers is to dig them out, or to
punch them out with a wire. Keep the space about the base of the tree
clean, and watch closely for any sign of borers. The flat-headed borer
of the apple works under the bark on the trunk and larger branches,
particularly where much exposed to sun. The dead and sunken appearance
of the bark indicates its presence. The round-headed borer works in the
wood of apples, quinces, and other trees; it should be hunted for every
spring and fall. On hard land, it is well to dig the earth away from the
base of the tree and fill the space with coal ashes; this will make the
work of examination much easier.

The peach and apricot borer is the larva of a clear-wing moth. The larva
burrows just under the bark near or beneath the surface of the ground;
its presence is indicated by a gummy mass at the base of the tree. Dig
out the borers in June and mound up the trees. At the same time, apply
gas-tar or coal-tar to the trunk from the roots to a foot or more above
the surface of the ground.

The bronze birch borer is destroying many fine white birch trees in some
parts of the country. Its presence is known by the dying of the top of
the tree. There yet is no known way of preventing this borer from
attacking white birches, and the only practicable and effective method
so far found for checking its ravages is promptly to cut and burn the
infested trees in autumn, in winter, or before May 1. There is no
probability of saving a tree when the top branches are dead, although
cutting out the dead parts may stay the trouble temporarily. Cut and
burn such trees at once and thus prevent the spread of the insect.

_Bud-moth on apple._--The small brown caterpillars with black heads
devour the tender leaves and flowers of the opening apple buds in early
spring. Make two applications of either 1 lb. Paris green or 4 lb.
arsenate of lead in 100 gal. of water; the first when the leaf-tips
appear and the second just before the blossoms open. If necessary, spray
again after the blossoms fall.

_Cabbage and cauliflower insects._--The green caterpillars that eat
cabbage leaves and heads hatch from eggs laid by the common white
butterfly (Fig. 295). There are several broods every season. If plants
are not heading, spray with kerosene emulsion or with Paris green to
which the sticker has been added. If heading, apply hellebore.

The cabbage aphides, small mealy plant-lice, are especially troublesome
during cool, dry seasons when their natural enemies are less active.
Before the plants begin to head, spray with kerosene emulsion diluted
with 6 parts of water, or whale-oil soap, 1 lb. in 6 gal. of water.

The white maggots that feed on the roots hatch from eggs laid near the
plant at the surface of the ground by a small fly somewhat resembling
the common house fly. Hollow out the earth slightly around every plant
and freely apply carbolic acid emulsion diluted with 30 parts of water.
Begin the treatment early, a day or two after the plants are up or the
next day after they are set out. Repeat the application every 7 to 10
days until the latter part of May. It has also been found to be
practicable to protect the plants by the use of tightly fitting cards
cut from tarred paper. (See page 187.)

_Canker-worms._--These caterpillars are small measuring-worms or loopers
that defoliate apple trees in May and June (Fig. 217). The female moths
are wingless, and in late fall or early spring crawl up the trunks of
the trees to lay their eggs on the branches. Spray thoroughly once or
twice, before the blossoms open, with 1 lb. Paris green or 4 lb.
arsenate of lead in 100 gal. of water. Repeat the application after the
blossoms fall. Prevent the ascent of the wingless females by means of
sticky bands or wire-screen traps.

_Case-bearers on apple._--The small caterpillars live in pistol-shaped
or cigar-shaped cases, about 1/4 in. long. They appear in spring on the
opening buds at the same time as the bud-moth and may be controlled by
the same means.

_Codlin-moth._--The codlin-moth lays the eggs that produce the pinkish
caterpillar which causes a large proportion of wormy apples and pears.
The eggs are laid by a small moth on the leaves and on the skin of the
fruit. Most of the caterpillars enter the apple at the blossom end. When
the petals fall, the calyx is open and this is the time to spray. The
calyx soon closes and keeps the poison inside ready for the young
caterpillar's first meal. After the calyx has closed, it is too late to
spray effectively. The caterpillars become full grown in July and
August, leave the fruit, crawl down on the trunk, and there most of them
spin cocoons under the loose bark. In most parts of the country there
are two broods annually. Immediately after the blossoms fall, spray with
1 lb. Paris green or 4 lb. arsenate of lead in 100 gal. of water. Repeat
the application 7 to 10 days later. Use burlap bands on trunks, killing
all caterpillars under them every ten days from July 1 to August 1, and
once later before winter.

_Cucurbit (cucumber, melon, and squash) insects._--Yellow,
black-striped beetles appear in numbers and attack the plants as soon
as they are up. Plant early squashes as a trap-crop around the field.
Protect the vines with screens (Fig. 229) until they begin to run, or
keep them covered with bordeaux mixture, thus making them distasteful to
the beetles.

Squash vines are frequently killed by a white caterpillar that burrows
in the stem near the base of the plant. Plant a few early squashes
between the rows of the late varieties as a trap-crop. As soon as the
early crop is harvested, remove and burn the vines. When the vines are
long enough, cover them at the joints with earth in order to develop
secondary root systems for the plant in case the main stem is injured.

Dark green plant-lice feed on the under sides of squash leaves, causing
them to curl and wither. Spray with kerosene emulsion diluted with 6
parts of water. It is necessary thoroughly to cover the under side of
the leaves; the sprayer, therefore, must be fitted with an upturned
nozzle. Burn the vines as soon as the crop is harvested and keep down
all weeds.

The stink-bug is very troublesome to squashes. The rusty-black adult
emerges from hibernation in spring and lays its eggs on the under side
of the leaves. The nymphs suck the sap from the leaves and stalks,
causing serious injury. Trap the adults under boards in the spring.
Examine the leaves for the smooth shining brownish eggs and destroy
them. The young nymphs may be killed with kerosene emulsion.

_Curculio._--The adult curculio of the plum and peach is a small
snout-beetle that inserts its eggs under the skin of the fruit and then
makes a characteristic crescent-shaped cut beneath it. The grub feeds
within the fruit and causes it to drop. When full grown, it enters the
ground, changes in late summer to the beetle, which finally goes into
hibernation in sheltered places. Spray plums just after blossoms fall
with arsenate of lead, 6 to 8 lb. in 100 gal. of water, and repeat the
application in about a week. After the fruit has set, jar the trees
daily over a sheet or curculio-catcher and destroy the beetles; this is
practically the only procedure for peaches, for they cannot be sprayed.

The quince curculio is somewhat larger than that infesting the plum and
differs in its life-history. The grubs leave the fruits in the fall and
enter the ground, where they hibernate and transform to adults the next
May, June, or July, depending on the season. When the adults appear, jar
them from the tree on sheets or curculio-catchers and destroy them. To
determine when they appear, jar a few trees daily, beginning the latter
part of May in New York.

_Currant-worm._--In the spring the small green, black-spotted larvae
feed on the foliage of currants and gooseberries, beginning their work
on the lower leaves. A second brood occurs in early summer. When worms
first appear, spray with 1 lb. Paris green or 4 lb. arsenate of lead in
100 gal. of water. Ordinarily the poison should be combined with
bordeaux (for leaf-spot).

_Cut-worms._--Probably the remedy for cut-worms most often practiced in
gardens, and which cannot fail to be effective when faithfully carried
out, is hand-picking with lanterns at night or digging them out from
around the base of the infested plants during the day. Bushels of
cut-worms have been gathered in this way, and with profit. When from
some cause success does not attend the use of the poisoned baits, to be
discussed next, hand-picking is the only other method yet recommended
that can be relied upon to check cut-worm depredations.

The best methods yet devised for killing cut-worms in any situation are
the poisoned baits, using Paris green or arsenate of lead for the
purpose. Poisoned bunches of clover or weeds have been thoroughly
tested, even by the wagon-load, over large areas, and nearly all have
reported them very effective; lamb's quarters (pigweed), pepper-grass,
and mullein are among the weeds especially attractive to cutworms. On
small areas the making of the baits is done by hand, but they have been
prepared on a large scale by spraying the plants in the field, cutting
them with a scythe or machine, and pitching them from wagons in small
bunches wherever desired. Distributed a few feet apart, between rows of
garden plants at nightfall, they have attracted and killed enough
cut-worms often to save a large proportion of the crop; if the bunches
can be covered with a shingle, they will keep fresher much longer. The
fresher the baits, and the more thoroughly the baiting is done, the more
cut-worms one can destroy. However, it may sometimes happen that a
sufficient quantity of such green succulent plants cannot be obtained
early enough in the season in some localities. In this case, and we are
not sure but in all cases, the poisoned bran mash can be used to the
best advantage. It is easily made and applied at any time, is not
expensive, and thus far the results show that it is a very attractive
and effective bait. A tablespoonful can be quickly dropped around the
base of each cabbage or tomato plant; small amounts may be easily
scattered along the rows of onions and turnips, or a little dropped on a
hill of corn or cucumbers.

The best time to apply these poisoned baits is two or three days before
any plants have come up or been set out in the garden. If the ground has
been properly prepared, the worms will have had but little to eat for
several days and they will thus seize the first opportunity to appease
their hunger upon the baits, and wholesale destruction will result. The
baits should always be applied at this time wherever cut-worms are
expected. But it is not too late usually to save most of a crop after
the pests have made their presence known by cutting off some of the
plants. Act promptly and use the baits freely.

For mechanical means of protecting from cut-worms, see pp. 186-7.

_Elm-leaf beetle._--Generally speaking one thorough and timely spraying
is ample to control the elm-leaf beetle (Fig. 235). Use arsenate of
lead, 1 lb. to 25 gal., and make the application to the under side of
the leaves the latter part of May or very early in June in New York.
Occasionally, when the beetle is very abundant, due in all probability
to no spraying in earlier years, it may be advisable to make a second
application, and the same may be true when conditions necessitate the
application earlier than when it will be most efficacious. This latter
condition is likely to obtain wherever a large number of trees must be
treated with inadequate outfit.

[Illustration: Fig. 235. Elm-leaf beetle, adult, somewhat enlarged
(after Howard).]

_Oyster-shell scale._--This is an elongate scale or bark-louse, 1/8 in.
in length, resembling an oyster shell in shape and often incrusting the
bark of apple twigs. It hibernates as minute white eggs under the old
scales. The eggs hatch during the latter part of May or in June, the
date depending on the season. After they hatch, the young may be seen as
tiny whitish lice crawling about on the bark. When these young appear,
spray with kerosene emulsion, diluted with 6 parts of water, or
whale-oil or any good soap, 1 lb. in 4 or 5 gal. of water.

_Pear insects._--The psylla is one of the most serious insects
affecting the pear tree. It is a minute, yellowish, flat-bodied, sucking
insect often found in the axils of the leaves and fruit early in the
season. They develop into minute cicada-like jumping-lice. The young
psyllas secrete a large quantity of honey-dew in which a peculiar black
fungus grows, giving the bark a characteristic sooty appearance. There
may be four broods annually and the trees are often seriously injured.
After the blossoms fall, spray with kerosene emulsion, diluted with 6
parts of water, or whale-oil soap, 1 lb. in 4 or 5 gal. of water. Repeat
the application at intervals of 3 to 7 days until the insects are
under control.

The pear slug is a small, slimy, dark green larva which skeletonizes the
leaves in June, and a second brood appears in August. Spray thoroughly
with 1 lb. Paris green, or 4 lb. arsenate of lead, in 100 gal. of water.

_Potato insects._--The Colorado potato beetle, or potato-bug, emerges
from hibernation in the spring and lays masses of orange eggs on the
under side of the leaves. The larvae are known as "slugs" and
"soft-shells" and cause most of the injury to the vines. Spray with
Paris green, 2 lb. in 100 gal. of water, or arsenite of soda combined
with bordeaux mixture. It may sometimes be necessary to use a greater
strength of the poison, particularly on the older "slugs."

The small black flea-beetles riddle the leaves with holes and cause the
foliage to die. Bordeaux mixture as applied for potato blight protects
the plants by making them repellent to the beetles.

_Raspberry, blackberry, and dewberry insects._--The greenish, spiny
larvae of the saw-fly feed on the tender leaves in spring. Spray with
Paris green or arsenate of lead, or apply hellebore.

The cane-borer is a grub that burrows down through the canes, causing
them to die. In laying her eggs, the adult beetle girdles the tip of the
cane with a ring of punctures, causing it to wither and droop. In
midsummer, cut off and destroy the drooping tips.

_Red spider._--Minute reddish mites on the under sides of leaves in
greenhouses and sometimes out of doors in dry weather. Syringe off the
plants with clear water two or three times a week, taking care not to
drench the beds.

_Rose insects._--The green plant-lice usually work on the buds, and the
yellow leaf-hoppers feed on the leaves. Spray, whenever necessary, with
kerosene emulsion, diluted with 6 parts of water, or whale-oil or any
good soap, 1 lb. in 5 or 6 gal. of water.

The rose-chafer is often a most pernicious pest on roses, grapes, and
other plants. The ungainly, long-legged, grayish beetles occur in sandy
regions and often swarm into vineyards and destroy the blossoms and
foliage. Spray thoroughly with arsenate of lead, 10 lb. in 100 gal. of
water. Repeat the application if necessary. (See under Rose in
Chap. VIII.)

_San José scale._--This pernicious scale is nearly circular in outline
and about the size of a small pin head, with a raised center. When
abundant, it forms a crust on the branches and causes small red spots on
the fruit. It multiplies with marvelous rapidity, there being three or
four broods annually in New York, and each mother scale may give birth
to several hundred young. The young are born alive, and breeding
continues until late autumn when all stages are killed by the cold
weather except the tiny half-grown black scales, many of which hibernate
safely. Spray thoroughly in the fall after the leaves drop, or early in
the spring before growth begins, with lime-sulfur wash, or miscible oil
1 gal. in 10 gal. of water. When badly infested, make two applications,
one in the fall and another in the spring. In case of large old trees,
25 per cent crude oil emulsion should be applied just as the buds
are swelling.

In nurseries, after the trees are dug, fumigate with hydrocyanic acid
gas, using 1 oz. of potassium cyanide for every 100 cu. ft. of space.
Continue the fumigation from one-half to three-quarters of an hour. Do
not fumigate the trees when they are wet, since the presence of moisture
renders them liable to injury.

_Tent-caterpillar._--The insect hibernates in the egg stage. The eggs
are glued in ring-like brownish masses around the smaller twigs, where
they may be easily found and destroyed. The caterpillars appear in early
spring, devour the tender leaves, and build unsightly nests on the
smaller branches. This pest is usually controlled by the treatment
recommended for the codlin-moth. Destroy the nests by burning or by
wiping out when small. Often a bad pest on apple trees.

_Violet gall-fly._--Violets grown under glass are often greatly injured
by a very small maggot, which causes the edges of the leaves to curl,
turn yellowish, and die. The adult is a very minute fly resembling a
mosquito. Pick off and destroy infested leaves as soon as discovered.
Fumigation is not advised for this insect or for red-spider.

_White-fly._--The minute white-flies are common on greenhouse plants and
often in summer on plants about gardens near greenhouses. The nymphs are
small greenish, scale-like insects found on the under side of the
leaves; the adults are minute, white, mealy-winged flies. Spray with
kerosene emulsion or whale-oil soap; or if infesting cucumbers or
tomatoes, fumigate over night with hydrocyanic acid gas, using 1 oz. of
potassium cyanide to each 1000 cu. ft. of space. (See page 188.)

_White grubs._--The large curved white grubs that are so troublesome in
lawns and strawberry fields are the larvae of the common June beetles.
They live in the ground, feeding on the roots of grasses and weeds. Dig
out grubs from beneath infested plants. Thorough early fall cultivation
of land intended for strawberries will destroy many of the pupae. In
lawns, remove the sod, destroy the grubs, and make new sward, when the
infestation is bad.

_Treatment for some of the common plant diseases._

The following advice (mostly adapted from Whetzel and Stewart) covers
the most frequent types of fungous disease appearing to the home
gardener. Many other kinds, however, will almost certainly attract his
attention the first season if he looks closely. The standard remedy is
bordeaux mixture; but because this material discolors the foliage the
carbonate of copper is sometimes used instead. The treatments here
recommended are for New York; but it should not be difficult to apply
the dates elsewhere. The gardener must supplement all advice of this
character with his own judgment and experience, and take his own risks.

_Apple scab._--Usually most evident on the fruit, forming blotches and
scabs. Spray with bordeaux, 5-5-50 or 3-3-50; first, just before the
blossoms open; second, just as the blossoms fall; third, 10 to 14 days
after the blossoms fall. The second spraying seems to be the most
important. Always apply _before_ rains, not _after._

_Asparagus rust._--The most common and destructive disease of asparagus,
producing reddish or black pustules on the stems and branches. Late in
the fall, burn all affected plants. Fertilize liberally and cultivate
thoroughly. During the cutting season, permit no plants to mature and
cut all wild asparagus plants in vicinity once a week. Rust may be
partially controlled by spraying with bordeaux, 5-5-50, containing a
sticker of resin-sal-soda soap, but it is a difficult and expensive
operation and probably not profitable except on large acreage. Begin
spraying after cutting as soon as new shoots are 8 to 10 in. high and
repeat once or twice a week until about September 15. Dusting with
sulfur has proved effective in California.

_Cabbage and cauliflower diseases._--Black-rot is a bacterial disease;
the plants drop their leaves and fail to head. Practice crop rotation;
soak seed 15 min. in a solution made by dissolving one corrosive
sublimate tablet in a pint of water. Tablets may be bought at
drug stores.

Club-root or club-foot is a well-known disease. The parasite lives in
the soil. Practice crop rotation. Set only healthy plants. Do not use
manure containing cabbage refuse. If necessary to use infested land,
apply good stone lime, 2 to 5 tons per acre. Apply at least as early as
the autumn before planting; two to four years is better. Lime the
seed-bed in same way.

_Carnation rust._--This disease may be recognized by the brown, powdery
pustules on the stem and leaves. Plant only the varieties least affected
by it. Take cuttings only from healthy plants. Spray (in the field, once
a week; in the greenhouse, once in two weeks) with copper sulfate, 1 lb.
to 20 gal. of water. Keep the greenhouse air as dry and cool as is
compatible with good growth. Keep the foliage free from moisture. Train
the plants so as to secure a free circulation of air among them.

_Chestnut._--The bark disease of chestnut has become very serious in
southeastern New York, causing the bark to sink and die and killing the
tree. Cutting out the diseased places and treating aseptically may be
useful in light cases, but badly infected trees are incurable, in the
present state of our knowledge. Inspection of nursery stock and burning
of affected trees is the only procedure now to be recommended. The
disease is reported in New England and western New York.

_Chrysanthemum leaf-spot._--Spray with bordeaux, 5-5-50, every ten days
or often enough to protect new foliage. Ammoniacal copper carbonate may
be used, but it is not so effective.

_Cucumber diseases._--"Wilt" is a disease caused by bacteria that are
distributed chiefly by striped cucumber beetles. Destroy the beetles or
drive them away by thorough spraying with bordeaux, 5-5-50. Gather and
destroy all wilted leaves and plants. The most that can be expected is
that the loss may be slightly reduced.

Downy mildew is a serious fungous disease of the cucumber known among
growers as "the blight." The leaves become mottled with yellow, show
dead spots, and then dry up. Spray with bordeaux, 5-5-50. Begin spraying
when the plants begin to run, and repeat every 10 to 14 days throughout
the season.

_Currant diseases._--Leaf-spots and anthracnose are caused by two or
three different fungi. The leaves become spotted, turn yellow, and fall
prematurely. They may be controlled by three to five sprayings with
bordeaux, 5-5-50, but it is doubtful whether the diseases are
sufficiently destructive on the average to warrant so much expense.

_Gooseberry powdery mildew._--The fruit and leaves are covered with a
dirty white growth of fungus. In setting a new plantation, choose a site
where the land is well underdrained and where there is a good
circulation of air. Cut away drooping branches. Keep the ground
underneath free from weeds. Spray with potassium sulfide, 1 oz. to 2
gal.; begin when the buds are breaking and repeat every 7 to 10 days
until the fruit is gathered. Powdery mildew is very destructive to the
European varieties.

_Grape black-rot._--Remove all "mummies" that cling to the arms at
trimming time. Plow early, turning under all old mummies and diseased
leaves. Rake all refuse under the vine into the last furrow and cover
with the grape hoe. This cannot be too thoroughly done. The disease is
favored by wet weather and weeds or grass in the vineyard. Use surface
cultivation and keep down all weeds and grass. Keep the vines well
sprouted; if necessary sprout twice. Spray with bordeaux mixture,
5-5-50, until the middle of July, after that with ammoniacal copper
carbonate. The number of sprayings will vary with the season. Make the
first application when the third leaf shows. Infections take place with
each rain, and occur throughout the growing season. The foliage should
be protected by a coating of the spray before every rain. The new growth
especially should be well sprayed.

_Hollyhock rust._--Fig. 212. Eradicate the wild mallow _(Malva
rotundifolia)._ Remove all hollyhock leaves as soon as they show signs
of rust. Spray several times with bordeaux mixture, taking care to cover
both sides of leaves.

_Lettuce drop or rot._--This is a fungous disease often destructive in
greenhouses, discovered by the sudden wilting of the plants. It is
completely controlled by steam sterilization of the soil to the depth of
two inches or more. If it is not feasible to sterilize the soil, use
fresh soil for every crop of lettuce.

_Muskmelon diseases._--"Blight'" is a very troublesome disease. The
leaves show angular dead-brown spots, then dry up and die; the fruit
often fails to ripen and lacks flavor. It is caused by the same fungus
as is the downy mildew of cucumbers. While bordeaux has proved effective
in controlling the downy mildew on cucumbers, it seems to be of little
value in lessening the same disease on melons.

"Wilt" is the same as the wilt of cucumbers; same treatment is given.

_Peach diseases._--Brown-rot is difficult to control. Plant resistant
varieties. Prune the trees so as to let in sunlight and air. Thin the
fruit well. As often as possible pick and destroy all rotten fruits. In
the fall destroy all remaining fruits. Spray with bordeaux mixture
before the buds break, or self-boiled lime-sulfur.

Leaf-curl is a disease in which the leaves become swollen and distorted
in spring and drop during June and July (Fig. 213). Elberta is an
especially susceptible variety. Easily and completely controlled by
spraying the trees once, before the buds swell, with bordeaux, 5-5-50,
or with the lime-sulfur mixtures used for San José scale.

Black-spot or scab often proves troublesome in wet seasons and
particularly in damp or sheltered situations. While this disease attacks
the twigs and leaves, it is most conspicuous and injurious on the fruit,
where it appears as dark spots or blotches. In severe attacks the fruit
cracks. In the treatment of this disease it is of prime importance _to
secure a free circulation of air_ about the fruit. Accomplish this by
avoiding low sites, by pruning, and by removal of windbreaks. Spray as
for leaf-curl and follow with two applications of potassium sulfide, 1
oz. to 3 gal., the first being made soon after the fruit is set and the
second when the fruit is half grown.

Yellows is a so-called "physiological disease." Cause unknown.
Contagious, and serious in some localities. Known by the premature
ripening of the fruit, by red streaks and spots in the flesh, and by the
peculiar clusters of sickly, yellowish shoots that appear on the limbs
here and there (Fig. 215). Dig out and burn diseased trees as soon as
discovered.

_Pear diseases._--Fire-blight kills the twigs and branches, on which the
leaves suddenly blacken and die but do not fall. It also produces
cankers on the trunk and large limbs. Prune out blighted branches as
soon as discovered, cutting 6 to 8 in. below the lowest evidences of the
disease. Clean out limb and body cankers. Disinfect all large wounds
with corrosive sublimate solution, 1 to 1000, and cover with coat of
paint. Avoid forcing a rapid, succulent growth. Plant the varieties
least affected.

Pear scab is very similar to apple scab. It is very destructive to some
varieties, as, for example, Flemish Beauty and Seckel. Spray three times
with bordeaux, as for apple scab.

_Plum and cherry diseases._--Black-knot is a fungus, the spores of which
are carried from tree to tree by the wind and thus spread the infection.
Cut out and burn all knots as soon as discovered. See that the knots are
removed from all plum and cherry trees in the neighborhood.

Leaf-spot is a disease in which the leaves become covered with reddish
or brown spots and fall prematurely (Fig. 211); badly affected trees
winterkill. Often, the dead spots drop out, leaving clear-cut holes.
Spray with bordeaux, 5-5-50. For cherries, make four applications:
first, just before blossoms open; second, when fruit is free from calyx;
third, two weeks later; fourth, two weeks after third. In plums it may
be controlled by two or three applications of bordeaux, 5-5-50. Make the
first one about ten days after the blossoms fall and the others at
intervals of about three weeks. This applies to European varieties.
Japan plums should not be sprayed with bordeaux.

_Potato diseases._--There are different kinds of potato blight and rot.
The most important are early blight and late blight--both fungous
diseases. Early blight affects only the foliage. Late blight kills the
foliage and often rots the tubers. Two serious troubles often mistaken
for blight are: (1) Tip burn, the browning of the tips and margins of
the leaves due to dry weather; and (2) flea-beetle injury, in which the
leaves show numerous small holes and then dry up. The loss from blight
and flea-beetles is enormous--often, one-fourth to one-half the crop.
For blight-rot and flea-beetles spray with bordeaux, 5-5-50. Begin when
the plants are 6 to 8 in. high and repeat every 10 to 14 days during the
season, making 5 to 7 applications in all. Use 40 to 100 gal. per acre
at each application. Under conditions exceptionally favorable to blight
it will pay to spray as often as once a week.

Scab is caused by a fungus that attacks the surface of the tubers. It is
carried over on diseased tubers and in the soil. In general, when land
becomes badly infested with scab, it is best to plant it with other
crops for several years. (See page 190.)

_Raspberry diseases._--Anthracnose is very destructive to black
raspberries, but not often injurious to the red varieties. It is
detected by the circular or elliptical gray scab-like spots on the
canes. Avoid taking young plants from diseased plantations. Remove all
old canes and badly diseased new ones as soon as the fruit is gathered.
Although spraying with bordeaux, 5-5-50, will control the malady, the
treatment may not be profitable. If spraying seems advisable, make the
first application when the new canes are 6 to 8 in. high and follow with
two more at intervals of 10 to 14 days.

Cane-blight or wilt is a destructive disease affecting both red and
black varieties. Fruiting canes suddenly wilt and die. It is caused by a
fungus which attacks the cane at some point and kills the bark and wood,
thereby causing the parts above to die. No successful treatment is
known. In making new settings, use only plants from healthy plantations.
Remove the fruiting canes as soon as the fruit is gathered.

Red-rust is often serious on black varieties, but does not affect red
ones. It is the same as red rust of blackberry. Dig up and destroy
affected plants.

_Rose diseases._--Black leaf-spot is one of the commonest diseases of
the rose. It causes the leaves to fall prematurely. Spray with bordeaux,
5-5-50, beginning as soon as the first spots appear on the leaves. Two
or three applications at intervals of ten days will very largely control
the disease. Ammoniacal copper carbonate may be used on roses grown
under glass. Apply once a week until disease is under control.

For mildew on greenhouse roses, keep the steam pipes painted with a
paste made of equal parts lime and sulfur mixed up with water. The
mildew is a surface-feeding fungus and is killed by the fumes of the
sulfur. Outdoor roses that become infested with the mildew may be dusted
with sulfur, or sprayed with a solution of potassium sulfide, 1 oz. to 3
gal. water. Spray or dust with the sulfur two or three times at
intervals of a week or ten days.

_Strawberry leaf-spot._--The most common and serious fungous disease of
the strawberry; also called rust and leaf-blight. The leaves show spots
which at first are of a deep purple color, but later enlarge and the
center becomes gray or nearly white. The fungus passes the winter in the
old diseased leaves that fall to the ground. In setting new plantations,
remove all diseased leaves from the plants before they are taken to the
field. Soon after growth begins, spray the newly set plants with
bordeaux, 5-5-50. Make three or four additional sprayings during the
season. The following spring, spray just before blossoming and again 10
to 14 days later. If the bed is to be fruited a second time, mow the
plants and burn over the beds as soon as the fruit is gathered. Plant
resistant varieties.

_Tomato leaf-spot._--The distinguishing character of this disease is
that it begins on the lower leaves and works towards the top, killing
the foliage as it goes. It is controlled with difficulty because it is
carried over winter in the diseased leaves and tops that fall to the
ground. When setting out plants, pinch off all the lower leaves that
touch the ground; also any leaves that show suspicious-looking
dead-spots. The trouble often starts in the seed-bed. Spray plants very
thoroughly with bordeaux, 5-5-50, beginning as soon as the plants are
set out. Stake and tie up for greater convenience in spraying. Spray
under side of the leaves. Spray every week or ten days.



CHAPTER VII

THE GROWING OF THE ORNAMENTAL PLANTS--THE CLASSES OF PLANTS, AND
LISTS

In choosing the kinds of plants for the main grounds the gardener should
carefully distinguish two categories,--those plants to compose the
structural masses and design of the place, and those that are to be used
for mere ornament. The chief merits to be sought in the former are good
foliage, pleasing form and habit, shades of green, and color of winter
twigs. The merits of the latter lie chiefly in flowers or
colored foliage.

Each of these categories should be again divided. Of plants for the main
design, there might be discussion of trees for a windbreak, of trees for
shade; of shrubs for screens or heavy plantings, for the lighter side
plantings, and for incidental masses about the buildings or on the lawn;
and perhaps also of vines for porches and arbors, of evergreens, of
hedges, and of the heavier herbaceous masses.

Plants used for mere embellishment or ornamentation may be ranged again
into categories for permanent herbaceous borders, for display beds,
ribbon edgings, annuals for temporary effects, foliage beds, plants for
adding color and emphasis to the shrubbery masses, plants desired to be
grown as single specimens or as curiosities, and plants for porch-boxes
and window-gardens.

Having now briefly suggested the uses of the plants, we shall proceed to
discuss them in reference to the making of home grounds. This chapter
contains a brief consideration of:

_Planting for immediate effect,

The use of "foliage" trees and shrubs,

Windbreaks and screens,

The making of hedges,

The borders,

The flower-beds,

Aquatic and bog plants,

Rockeries and alpine plants;_

and then it runs into nine sub-chapters, as follows:--

1. Plants for carpet-beds, p. 234;

2. The annual plants, p. 241;

3. Hardy herbaceous perennials, p. 260;

4. Bulbs and tubers, p. 281;

5. The shrubbery, p. 290;

6. Climbing plants, p. 307;

7. Trees for lawns and streets, p. 319;

8. Coniferous evergreen trees and shrubs, p. 331;

9. Window-gardens, p. 336.

And then, in Chapter VIII, the particular cultures of plants needing
special care are briefly discussed.

_Planting for immediate effect._

It is always legitimate, and, in fact, desirable, to plant for immediate
effect. One may plant very thickly of rapid-growing trees and shrubs for
this purpose. It is a fact, however, that very rapid-growing trees
usually lack strong or artistic character. Other and better trees should
be planted with them and the featureless kinds be gradually removed.
(Page 41.)

The effect of a new place may be greatly heightened by a dexterous use
of annuals and other herbaceous stuff in the shrub plantations. Until
the shrubbery covers the ground, temporary plants may be grown among
them. Subtropical beds may give a very desirable temporary finish to
places that are pretentious enough to make them seem in keeping.

Very rough, hard, sterile, and stony banks may sometimes be covered with
coltsfoot (_Tussilago Farfara_), sacaline, _Rubus cratoegifotius,_
comfrey, and various wild growths that persist in similar places in the
neighborhood.

However much the planter may plan for immediate effects, the beauty of
trees and shrubs comes with maturity and age, and this beauty is often
delayed, or even obliterated, by shearing and excessive heading-back. At
first, bushes are stiff and erect, but when they attain their full
character, they usually droop or roll over to meet the sward. Some
bushes make mounds of green much sooner than others that may even be
closely related. Thus the common yellow-bell (_Forsythia virdissima_)
remains stiff and hard for some years, whereas _F. suspensa_ makes a
rolling heap of green in two or three years. Quick informal effects can
also be secured by the use of Hall's Japanese honeysuckle (_Lonicera
Halliana_ of nurserymen), an evergreen in the South, and holding its
leaves until midwinter or later in the North. It may be used for
covering a rock, a pile of rubbish, a stump (Fig. 236), to fill a corner
against a foundation, or it may be trained on a porch or arbor. There is
a form with yellow-veined leaves. _Rosa Wichuraiana_ and some of the
dewberries are useful for covering rough places.

Many vines that are commonly used for porches and arbors may be employed
also for the borders of shrub-plantations and for covering rough banks
and rocks, quickly giving a finish to the cruder parts of the place.
Such vines, among others, are various kinds of clematis, Virginia
creeper, actinidia, akebia, trumpet creeper, periploca, bitter-sweet
(_Solanum Dulcamara_), wax-work (_Celastrus scandens_).

Of course, very good immediate effects may be secured by very close
planting (page 222), but the homesteader must not neglect to thin out
these plantations when the time comes.

[Illustration: Fig 236. Stump covered with Japanese honeysuckle.]

_The use of "foliage" trees and shrubs._

There is always a temptation to use too freely of the trees and shrubs
that are characterized by abnormal or striking foliage. The subject is
discussed in its artistic bearings on pages 40 and 41.

As a rule, the yellow-leaved, spotted-leaved, variegated, and other
abnormal "foliage" plants are less hardy and less reliable than the
green-leaved or "natural" forms. They usually require more care, if they
are kept in vigorous and seemly condition. Some marked exceptions to
this are noted in the lists of trees and shrubs.

There are some plants of striking foliage, however, that are perfectly
reliable, but they are usually not of the "horticultural variety" class,
their characteristics being normal to the species. Some of the silver or
white-leaved poplars, for example, produce the most striking contrasts
of foliage, particularly if set near darker trees, and for this reason
they are much desired by many planters. Bolle's poplar (_Populus
Bolleana_ of the nurseries) is one of the best of these trees. Its habit
is something like that of the Lombardy. The upper surface of the deeply
lobed leaves is dark dull green, while the under surface is almost snowy
white. Such emphatic trees as this should generally be partially
obscured by planting them amongst other trees, so that they appear to
mix with the other foliage; or else they should be seen at some
distance. Other varieties of the common white poplar or abele are
occasionally useful, although most of them sprout badly and may become a
nuisance. But the planting of these immodest trees is so likely to be
overdone that one scarcely dare recommend them, although, when
skillfully used, they may be made to produce most excellent effects. If
any reader has a particular fondness for trees of this class (or any
others with woolly-white foliage) and if he has only an ordinary city
lot or farm-yard to ornament, let him reduce his desires to a single
tree, and then if that tree is planted in the interior of a group of
other trees, no harm can result.

_Windbreaks and screens._

A shelter-belt for the home grounds is often placed at the extreme edge
of the home yard, toward the heaviest or prevailing wind. It may be a
dense plantation of evergreens. If so, the Norway spruce is one of the
best for general purposes in the northeastern states. For a lower belt
the arbor vitae is excellent. Some of the pines, as the Scotch or
Austrian, and the native white pine, are also to be advised,
particularly if the belt is at some distance from the residence. As a
rule, the coarser the tree the farther it should be placed from
the house.

The common deciduous trees of the region (as elm, maple, box-elder) may
be planted in a row or rows for windbreaks. Good temporary shelter belts
are secured by poplars and large willows. On the prairies and far north
the laurel willow _(Salix laurifolia_ of the trade) is excellent. Where
snow blows very badly, two lines of breaks may be planted three to six
rods apart, so that the inclosed lane may catch the drift; this method
is employed in prairie regions.

Persons may desire to use the break as a screen to hide undesirable
objects. If these objects are of a permanent character, as a barn or an
unkempt property, evergreen trees should be used. For temporary screens,
any of the very large-growing herbaceous plants may be employed. Very
excellent subjects are sunflowers, the large-growing nicotianas, castor
beans, large varieties of Indian corn, and plants of like growth.
Excellent screens are sometimes made with vines on a trellis.

Very efficient summer screens may be made with ailanthus, paulownia,
basswood, sumac, and other plants that tend to throw up very vigorous
shoots from the base. After these plants have been set a year or two,
they are cut back nearly to the ground in winter or spring, and strong
shoots are thrown up with great luxuriance during the summer, giving a
dense screen and presenting a semi-tropical effect. For such purposes,
the roots should be planted only two or three feet apart. If, after a
time, the roots become so crowded that the shoots are weak, some of the
plants may be removed. Top-dressing the area every fall with manure will
tend to make the ground rich enough to afford a very heavy summer
growth. (See Fig. 50.)

_The making of hedges._

Hedges are much less used in this country than in Europe, and for
several reasons. Our climate is dry, and most hedges do not thrive so
well here as there; labor is high-priced, and the trimming is therefore
likely to be neglected; our farms are so large that much fencing is
required; timber and wire are cheaper than live hedges.

However, hedges are used with good effect about the home grounds. In
order to secure a good ornamental hedge, it is necessary to have a
thoroughly well-prepared deep soil, to set the plants close, and to
shear them at least twice every year. For evergreen hedges the most
serviceable plant in general is the arbor vitae. The plants may be set
at distances of 1 to 2-1/2 feet apart. For coarser hedges, the Norway
spruce is used; and for still coarser ones, the Scotch and Austrian
pines. In California the staple conifer hedge is made of Monterey
cypress. For choice evergreen hedges about the grounds, particularly
outside the northern states, some of the retinosporas are very useful.
One of the most satisfactory of all coniferous plants for hedges is the
common hemlock, which stands shearing well and makes a very soft and
pleasing mass. The plants may be set from 2 to 4 feet apart.

Other plants that hold their leaves and are good for hedges are the
common box and the privets. Box hedges are the best for very low borders
about walks and flower-beds. The dwarf variety can be kept down to a
height of 6 inches to a foot for any number of years. The
larger-growing varieties make excellent hedges 3, 4, and 5 feet high.
The ordinary privet or prim holds its leaves well into winter in the
North. The so-called Californian privet holds its leaves rather longer
and stands better along the seashore. The mahonia makes a low, loose
hedge or edging in locations where it will thrive. Pyracantha is also to
be recommended where hardy. In the southern states, nothing is better
than _Citrus trifoliata._ This is hardy even farther north than
Washington in very favored localities. In the South, _Prunus
Caroliniana_ is also used for hedges. Saltbush hedges are frequent in
California.

For hedges of deciduous plants, the most common species are the
buckthorn, Japan quince, the European hawthorn and other thorns,
tamarix, osage orange, honey locust, and various kinds of roses. Osage
orange has been the most used for farm hedges. For home grounds,
_Berberis Thunbergii_ makes an excellent free hedge; also _Spiræa
Thunbergii_ and other spireas. The common _Rosa rugosa_ makes an
attractive free hedge.

Hedges should be trimmed the year after they are set, although they
should not be sheared very closely until they reach the desired or
permanent height. Thereafter they should be cut into the desired form in
spring or fall, or both. If the plants are allowed to grow for a year or
two without trimming, they lose their lower leaves and become open and
straggly. Osage orange and some other plants are plashed; that is, the
plants are set at an angle rather than perpendicularly, and they are
wired together obliquely in such a way that they make an impenetrable
barrier just above the surface of the ground.

For closely clipped or sheared hedges, the best plants are arbor vitae,
retinospora, hemlock, Norway spruce, privet, buckthorn, box, osage
orange, pyracantha, _Citrus trifoliata._ The pyracantha _(Pyracantha
coccinea_) is an evergreen shrub allied to cratægus, of which it is
sometimes considered to be a species. It is also sometimes referred to
cotoneaster. Although hardy in protected places in the North, it is
essentially a bush of the middle and southern latitudes, and of
California. It has persistent foliage and red berries. Var. _Lalandi_
has orange-red berries.

_The borders._

The word "border" is used to designate the heavy or continuous planting
about the boundaries of a place, or along the walks and drives, or
against the buildings, in distinction from planting on the lawn or in
the interior spaces. A border receives different designations, depending
on the kinds of plants that are grown therein: it may be a shrub-border,
a flower-border, a hardy border for native and other plants, a
vine-border, and the like.

There are three rules for the choosing of plants for a hardy border:
choose (1) those that you like best, (2) those that are adapted to the
climate and soil, (3) those that are in place or in keeping with that
part of the grounds.

The earth for the border should be fertile. The whole ground should be
plowed or spaded and the plants set irregularly in the space; or the
back row may be set in a line. If the border is composed of shrubs, and
is large, a horse cultivator may be run in and out between the plants
for the first two or three years, since the shrubs will be set 2 to 4
feet apart. Ordinarily, however, the tilling is done with hand tools.
After the plants are once established and the border is filled, it is
best to dig up as little as possible, for the digging disturbs the roots
and breaks the crowns. It is usually best to pull out the weeds and give
the border a top-dressing each fall of well-rotted manure. If the ground
is not very rich, an application of ashes or some commercial fertilizer
may be given from time to time.

The border should be planted so thick as to allow the plants to run
together, thereby giving one continuous effect. Most shrubs should be
set 3 feet apart. Things as large as lilacs may go 4 feet and sometimes
even more. Common herbaceous perennials, as bleeding heart, delphiniums,
hollyhocks, and the like, should go from 12 to 18 inches. On the front
edge of the border is a very excellent place for annual and tender
flowering plants. Here, for example, one may make a fringe of asters,
geraniums, coleus, or anything else he may choose. (Chap. II.)

Into the heavy borders about the boundaries of the place the autumn
leaves will drift and afford an excellent mulch. If these borders are
planted with shrubs, the leaves may be left there to decay, and not be
raked off in the spring.

The general outline of the border facing the lawn should be more or less
wavy or irregular, particularly if it is on the boundary of the place.
Alongside a walk or drive the margins may follow the general directions
of the walk or drive.

In making borders of perennial flowers the most satisfactory results are
secured if a large clump of each kind or variety is grown. The
herbaceous border is one of the most flexible parts of grounds, since it
has no regular or formal design. Allow ample space for each perennial
root,--often as much as three or four square feet,--and then if the
space is not filled the first year or two, scatter over the area seeds
of poppies, sweet peas, asters, gilias, alyssum, or other annuals.
Figures 237-239, from Long ("Popular Gardening," i., 17, 18), suggest
methods of making such borders. They are on a scale of ten feet to the
inch. The entire surface is tilled, and the irregular diagrams designate
the sizes of the clumps. The diagrams containing no names are to be
filled with bulbs, annuals, and tender plants, if desired.

[Illustration: Fig. 237. Suggestions for a border of spring flowers.]

[Illustration: Fig. 238. A border of summer-flowering herbs.]

It must not be supposed, however, that one cannot have a border unless
he has wide marginal spaces about his grounds. It is surprising how many
things one can grow in an old fence. Perennials that grow in fence-rows
in fields ought also to grow in similar boundaries on the home
grounds. Some of garden annuals will thrive alongside a fence,
particularly if the fence does not shut off too much light; and many
vines (both perennial and annual) will cover it effectively. Among
annuals, the large-seeded, quick-germinating, rapid-growing kinds will
do best. Sunflower, sweet pea, morning glory, Japanese hop, zinnia,
marigold, amaranths, four o'clock, are some of the kinds that will hold
their own. If the effort is made to grow plants in such places, it is
important to give them all the advantage possible early in the season,
so that they will get well ahead of the grass and weeds. Spade up the
ground all you can. Add a little quick-acting fertilizer. It is best to
start the plants in pots or small boxes, so that they will be in advance
of the weeds when they are set out.

[Illustration: Fig. 239. An autumn-flowering border.]

_The flower-beds._

We must remember to distinguish two uses of flowers,--their part in a
landscape design or picture, and their part in a bed or separate garden
for bloom. We now consider the flower-bed proper; and we include in the
flower-bed such "foliage" plants as coleus, celosia, croton, and canna,
although the main object of the flower-bed is to produce an abundance
of flowers.

In making a flower-bed, see that the ground is well drained; that the
subsoil is deep; that the land is in a mellow and friable condition, and
that it is fertile. Each fall it may have a mulch of rotted manure or of
leafmold, which may be spaded under deeply in the spring; or the land
may be spaded and left rough in the fall, which is a good practice when
the soil has much clay. Make the flower-beds as broad as possible, so
that the roots of the grass running in from either side will not meet
beneath the flowers and rob the beds of food and moisture. It is well to
add a little commercial fertilizer each fall or spring.

Although it is well to emphasize making the ground fertile, it must be
remembered (as indicated at the close of Chap. IV) that it can easily be
made too rich for such plants as we desire to keep within certain
stature and for those from which we wish an abundance of bloom in a
short season. In over-rich ground, nasturtiums and some other plants not
only "run to vine," but the bloom lacks brilliancy. When it is the leaf
and vegetation that is wanted, there is little danger of making the
ground too rich, although it is possible to make the plant so succulent
and sappy that it becomes sprawly or breaks down; and other plants may
be crippled and crowded out.

There are various styles of flower-planting. The mixed border, planted
with various hardy plants, and extending along either side of the
garden-walk, was popular years ago; and, with modifications in position,
form, and extent, has been a popular attachment to home grounds during
the past few years. To produce the best effects the plants should be set
close enough to cover the ground; and the selection should be such as to
afford a continuity of bloom.

The mixed flower-bed may contain only tender summer-blooming plants, in
which case the bed, made up mostly of annuals, does not purport to
express the entire season.

In distinction from the mixed or non-homogeneous flowerbed are the
various forms of "bedding," in which plants are massed for the purpose
of making a connected and homogeneous bold display of form or color. The
bedding may be for the purpose of producing a strong effect of white, of
blue, or of red; or of ribbon-like lines and edgings; or of luxurious
and tropical expression; or to display boldly the features of a
particular plant, as the tulip, the hyacinth, the chrysanthemum.

In ribbon-bedding, flowering or foliage plants are arranged in
ribbon-like lines of harmoniously contrasting colors, commonly
accompanying walks or drives, but also suitable for marking limits, or
for the side borders. In such beds, as well as the others, the tallest
plants will be placed at the back, if the bed is to be seen from one
side only, and the lowest at the front. If it is to be seen from both
sides, then the tallest will stand in the center.

A modification of the ribbon-line, bringing the contrasting colors
together into masses forming circles or other patterns, is known as
"massing," or "massing in color," and sometimes is spoken of as
"carpet-bedding."

Carpet-bedding, however, belongs more properly to a style of bedding in
which plants of dense, low, spreading habit--chiefly foliage plants,
with leaves of different forms and colors--are planted in patterns not
unlike carpets or rugs. It is often necessary to keep the plants sheared
into limits. Carpet-bedding is such a specialized form of plant-growing
that we shall treat of it separately.

Beds containing the large foliage plants, for producing tropical
effects, are composed, in the main, of subjects that are allowed to
develop naturally. In the lower and more orderly massing, the plants are
arranged not only in circles and patterns according to habit and height,
but the selection is such that some or all may be kept within proper
limits by pinching or trimming. Circles or masses composed of flowering
plants usually cannot be cut back at the top, so that the habit of the
plants must be known before planting; and the plants must be placed in
parts of the bed where trimming will not be necessary. They may be
clipped at the sides, however, in case the branches or leaves of one
mass or line in the pattern grow beyond their proper bounds.

The numbers of good annuals and perennials that may be used in
flower-beds are now very large, and one may have a wide choice. Various
lists from which one may choose are given at the end of this chapter;
but special comment may be made on those most suitable for bedding, and
in its modification in ribbon-work and sub-tropical massing.

Bedding effects.

Bedding is ordinarily a temporary species of planting; that is, the bed
is filled anew each year. However, the term may be used to designate a
permanent plantation in which the plants are heavily massed so as to
give one continuous or emphatic display of form or color. Some of the
best permanent bedding masses are made of the various hardy ornamental
grasses, as eulalias, arundo, and the like. The color effects in bedding
may be secured with flowers or with foliage.

Summer bedding is often made by perennial plants that are carried over
from the preceding year, or better, that are propagated for that
particular purpose in February and March. Such plants as geranium,
coleus, alyssum, scarlet salvia, ageratum, and heliotrope may be used
for these beds. It is a common practice to use geranium plants which are
in bloom during the winter for bedding out during the summer, but such
plants are tall and ungainly in form and have expended the greater part
of their energies. It is better to propagate new plants by taking
cuttings or slips late in the winter and setting out young fresh
vigorous subjects. (Page 30.)

Some bedding is very temporary in its effect. Especially is this true
of spring bedding, in which the subjects are tulips, hyacinths,
crocuses, or other early-flowering bulbous plants. In this case, the
ground is usually occupied later in the season by other plants. These
later plants are commonly annuals, the seeds of which are sown amongst
the bulbs as soon as the season is far enough advanced; or the annuals
may be started in boxes and the plants transplanted amongst the bulbs as
soon as the weather is fit.

Many of the low-growing and compact continuous-flowering annuals are
excellent for summer bedding effects. There is a list of some useful
material for this purpose on page 249.

Plants for subtropical effects (Plates IV and V).

The number of plants suitable to produce a semitropical mass or for the
center or back of a group, which may be readily grown from seed, is
limited. Some of the best kinds, are included below.

It will often be worth while to supplement these with others, to be had
at the florists, such as caladiums, screw pines, _Ficus elastica,_
araucarias, _Musa Ensete,_ palms, dracenas, crotons, and others. Dahlias
and tuberous begonias are also useful. About a pond the papyrus and
lotus may be used.

Practically all the plants used for this style of gardening are liable
to injury from winds, and therefore the beds should be placed in a
protected situation. The palms and some other greenhouse stuff do better
if partially shaded.

In the use of such plants, there are opportunities for the exercise of
the nicest taste. A gross feeder, as the ricinus, in the midst of a bed
of delicate annuals, is quite out of place; and a stately, royal-looking
plant among humbler kinds often makes the latter look common, when if
headed with a chief of their own rank all would appear to the best
advantage.

Some of the plants much used for subtropical bedding, and often started
for that purpose in a greenhouse or coldframe, are:--

Acalypha.

Amarantus.

Aralia Sieboldii (properly Fatsia Japonica).

Bamboos.

Caladium and colocasia.

Canna.

Coxcomb, particularly the new "foliage" kinds.

Grasses, as eulalias, pampas-grass, pennisetums.

Gunnera.

Maize, the striped form.

Ricinus or castor bean.

Scarlet sage.

Wigandia.

_Aquatic and bog plants._

Some of the most interesting and ornamental of all plants grow in water
and in wet places. It is possible to make an aquatic flower-garden, and
also to use water and bog plants as a part of the landscape work.

The essential consideration in the growing of aquatics is the making of
the pond. It is possible to grow water-lilies in tubs and half barrels;
but this does not provide sufficient room, and the plant-food is likely
soon to be exhausted and the plants to fail. The small quantity of water
is likely also to become foul.

The best ponds are those made by good mason work, for the water does not
become muddy by working among the plants. In cement ponds it is best to
plant the roots of water-lilies in shallow boxes of earth (1 foot deep
and 3 or 4 feet square), or to hold the earth in mason-work
compartments.

[Illustration X: A shallow lawn pond, containing water-lilies,
variegated sweet flag, iris, and subtropical bedding at the rear;
fountain covered with parrot's feather _(Myriophyllum
proserpinacoides_).]

Usually the ponds or tanks are not cement lined. In some soils a simple
excavation will hold water, but it is usually necessary to give the
tank some kind of lining. Clay is often used. The bottom and sides of
the tank are pounded firm, and then covered with 3 to 6 in. of clay,
which has been kneaded in the hands, or pounded and worked in a box.
Handfuls or shovelfuls of the material are thrown forcibly upon the
earth, the operator being careful not to walk upon the work. The clay is
smoothed by means of a spade or maul, and it is then sanded.

The water for the lily pond may be derived from a brook, spring, well,
or a city water supply. The plants will thrive in any water that is used
for domestic purposes. It is important that the water does not become
stagnant and a breeding place for mosquitoes. There should be an outlet
in the nature of a stand-pipe, that will control the depth of water. It
is not necessary that the water run through the pond or tank rapidly,
but only that a slow change take place. Sometimes the water is allowed
to enter through a fountain-vase, in which water plants (such as
parrot's feather) may be grown (Plate X).

In all ponds, a foot or 15 in. is sufficient depth of water to stand
above the crowns of the plants; and the greatest depth of water should
not be more than 3 ft. for all kinds of water-lilies. Half this depth is
often sufficient. The soil should be 1 to 2 ft. deep, and very rich. Old
cow manure may be mixed with rich loam. For the nympheas or
water-lilies, 9 to 12 in. of soil is sufficient. Most of the foreign
water-lilies are not hardy, but some of them may be grown with ease if
the pond is covered in winter.

Roots of hardy water-lilies may be planted as soon as the pond is clear
of frost, but the tender kinds (which are also to be taken up in the
fall) should not be planted till it is time to plant out geraniums. Sink
the roots into the mud so that they are just buried, and weight them
down with a stone or clod. The nelumbium, or so-called Egyptian lotus,
should not be transplanted till growth begins to show in the roots in
the spring. The roots are cleaned of decayed parts and covered with
about 3 in. of soil. A foot or so of water is sufficient for lotus
ponds. The roots of Egyptian lotus must not freeze. The roots of all
water-lily-like plants should be frequently divided and renewed.

With hardy aquatics, the water and roots are allowed to remain naturally
over winter. In very cold climates, the pond is protected by throwing
boards over it and covering with hay, straw, or evergreen boughs. It is
well to supply an additional depth of water as a further protection.

As a landscape feature, the pond should have a background, or setting,
and its edges should be relieved, at least on sides and back, by
plantings of bog plants. In permanent ponds of large size, plantings of
willows, osiers, and other shrubbery may set off the area to advantage.
Many of the wild marsh and pond plants are excellent for marginal
plantings, as sedges, cat-tail, sweet-flag (there is a striped-leaved
form), and some of the marsh grasses. Japanese iris makes an excellent
effect in such places. For summer planting in or near ponds, caladium,
umbrella-plant, and papyrus are good.

If there is a stream, "branch," or "run" through the place, it may often
be made one of the most attractive parts of the premises by colonizing
bog plants along it.

_Rockeries, and alpine plants._

A rockery is a part of the place in which plants are grown in pockets
between rocks. It is a flower-garden conception rather than a landscape
feature, and therefore should be at one side or in the rear of the
premises. Primarily, the object of using the rocks is to provide better
conditions in which certain plants may grow; sometimes the rocks are
employed to hold a springy or sloughing bank and the plants are used to
cover the rocks; now and then a person wants a rock or a pile of stones
in his yard, as another person would want a piece of statuary or a
sheared evergreen. Sometimes the rocks are natural to the place and
cannot well be removed; in this case the planning and planting should be
such as to make them part of the picture.

The real rock-garden, however, is a place in which to grow plants. The
rocks are secondary. The rocks should not appear to be placed for
display. If one is making a collection of rocks, he is pursuing geology
rather than gardening.

Yet many of the so-called rock-gardens are mere heaps of stones, placed
where it seems to be convenient to pile stones rather than where the
stones may improve conditions for the growing of plants.

The plants that will naturally grow in rock pockets are those requiring
a continuous supply of root moisture and a cool atmosphere. To place a
rockery on a sand bank in the burning sun is therefore entirely out of
character.

Rock-garden plants are those of cool woods, of bogs, and particularly of
high mountains and alpine regions. It is generally understood that a
rock-garden is an alpine-garden, although this is not necessarily so.

In this country alpine-gardening is little known, largely because of our
hot dry summers and falls. But if one has a rather cool exposure and an
unfailing water supply, he may succeed fairly well with many of the
alpines, or at least with the semi-alpines.

Most of the alpines are low and often tufted plants, and bloom in a
spring temperature. In our long hot seasons, the alpine-garden may be
expected to be dormant during much of the summer, unless other
rock-loving plants are colonized in it. Alpine plants are of many kinds.
They are specially to be found in the genera arenaria, silene,
diapensia, primula, saxifraga, arabis, aubrietia, veronica, campanula,
gentiana. They comprise a good number of ferns and many little heaths.

A good rock-garden of any kind does not have the stones piled merely on
the surface; they are sunken well into the ground and are so placed that
there are deep chambers or channels that hold moisture and into which
roots may penetrate. The pockets are filled with good fibrous
moisture-holding earth, and often a little sphagnum or other moss is
added. It must then be arranged so that the pockets never dry out.

Rock-gardens are usually failures, because they violate these very
simple elementary principles; but even when the soil conditions and
moisture conditions are good, the habits of the rock plants must be
learned, and this requires thoughtful experience. Rock-gardens cannot be
generally recommended.

1. PLANTS FOR CARPET-BEDS

(By Ernest Walker)

The beauty of the carpet-bed lies largely in its unity, sharp contrast
and harmony of color, elegance--often simplicity--of design, nicety of
execution, and the continued distinctness of outline due to scrupulous
care. A generous allowance of green-sward on all sides contributes
greatly to the general effect,--in fact it is indispensable.

Whatever place is chosen for the bed, it should be in a sunny exposure.
This, nor any kind of bed, should not be planted near large trees, as
their greedy roots will rob the soil not only of its food, but of
moisture. The shade also will be a menace. As the plants stand so thick,
the soil should be well enriched, and spaded at least a foot deep. In
planting, a space of at least six inches must be left between the outer
row of plants and the edge of the grass. The very style of the bed
requires that lines be straight, the curves uniform, and that they be
kept so by the frequent and careful use of the shears. During dry
periods watering will be necessary. The beds, however, should not be
watered in the hot sunshine. Foliage plants are most in use, and are the
ones which will prove the most satisfactory in the hands of the
inexperienced, as they submit to severe clipping and are thus more
easily managed.

The following list will be helpful to the beginner. It embraces a
number of the plants in common use for carpet-bedding, although not all
of them. The usual heights are given in inches. This, of course, in
different soils and under different treatment is more or less a variable
quantity. The figures in parentheses suggest in inches suitable
distances for planting in the row when immediate effects are expected. A
verbena in rich soil will in time cover a circle three feet or more in
diameter; other plants mentioned spread considerably; but when used in
the carpet-bed, they must be planted close. One cannot wait for them to
grow. The aim is to cover the ground at once. Although planted thick in
the row, it will be desirable to leave more room between the rows in
case of spreading plants like the verbena. Most of them, however, need
little if any more space between the rows than is indicated by the
figures given. In the list those plants that bear free clipping are
marked with an asterisk (A):

_Lists for carpet-beds._

_The figure immediately following the name of plant indicates its
height, the figures in parentheses the distance for planting,
in inches._

1. LOW-GROWING PLANTS

A. FOLIAGE PLANTS.

         _Crimson._--(A)Alternanthera amoena spectabilis, 6 (4-6).
                          Alternanthera paronychioides major, 5 (3-6).
                          Alternanthera versicolor, 5 (3-6).

          _Yellow._--Alternanthera aurea nana, 6 (4-6).

_Gray, or whitish._--Echeveria secunda, glauca, 1-1/2 (3-4).
                          Echeveria metallica, 9 (6-8).
                          Cineraria maritima, 15 (9-12).
                          Sempervivum Californicum, 1-1/2 (3-4).
                          Thymus argenteus, 6 (4-6).

    _Bronze brown._--Oxalis tropæoloides, 3 (3-4).

_Variegated_
      (white and green).--Geranium Mme. Salleroi, 6 (6-8).
                          (A)Sweet alyssum, variegated, 6 (6-9).

B. FLOWERING PLANTS.

         _Scarlet._--Phlox Drummondii, Dwarf, 6 (4-6).
                          Cuphea platycentra, Cigar Plant, 6 (4-6).

           _White._--Sweet alyssum, Little Gem, 4 (4-6).
                          Sweet alyssum, common, 6 (6-8).
                          Phlox Drummondii, Dwarf, 6 (4-6).

            _Blue._--Lobelia, Crystal Palace, 6 (4-6).
                          Ageratum, Dwarf Blue, 6 (6-8).


2. PLANTS OF TALLER GROWTH

A. FOLIAGE PLANTS.

         _Crimson._--(A)Coleus Verschaffeltii, 24 (9-12).
                          (A)Achyranthes Lindeni, 18 (8-12).
                          (A)Achyranthes Gilsoni, 12 (8-12).
                          (A)Achyranthes Verschaffeltii, 12 (8-12).
                          (A)Acalypha tricolor, 12-18 (12).

          _Yellow._--(A)Coleus, Golden Bedder, 24 (9-12).
                          (A)Achyranthes, aurea reticulata, 12 (8-12).
                          Golden feverfew (Pyrethrum parthenifolium
                            aureum), (6-8).
                          Bronze geranium, 12 (9).

   _Silvery white._--Dusty miller (Centaurea gymnocarpa), 12 (8-12).
                          (A)Santolina Chamæcyparissus incana, 6-12 (6-8).
                          Geranium, Mountain of Snow, 12 (6-9).

_Variegated_
      (white and green).--(A)Stevia serrata var., 12-18 (8-12).
                          Phalaris arundinaeca var., (grass), 24 (4-8).
                          Cyperus alternifolius var., 24-30 (8-12).

          _Bronze._--(A)Acalypha marginata, 24 (12).


B. FLOWERING PLANTS.

         _Scarlet._--Salvia splendens, 36 (12-18).
                          Geraniums, 24 (12).
                          Cuphea tricolor (C. Llavae), 18 (8-12).
                          Dwarf nasturtium (Tropaeolum), 12-18 (12-18).
                          Begonia, Vernon, 12 (6-8).
                          Verbenas, 12 (6-12).
                          Phlox Drummondii, Dwarf, 6 (4-6).

           _White._--Salvia splendens, White-flowered, 36 (12-18).
                          Geraniums, 18-24 (12).
                          Lantana, Innocence, 18-24 (8-12).
                          Lantana, Queen Victoria, 24 (8-12).
                          Verbena, Snow Queen, 12 (6-12).
                          Ageratum, White, 9 (6-9).
                          Phlox Drummondii, Dwarf, 6 (4-6).

            _Pink._--Petunia, Countess of Ellesmere, 18 (8-12).
                          Lantana, 24 (8-12).
                          Verbena, Beauty of Oxford, 6 (8-12).
                          Phlox Drummondii, Dwarf, 6 (4-6).

          _Yellow._--Dwarf nasturtium, 12 (12-18).
                          Anthemis coronaria fl. pl., 12 (6-8).

            _Blue._--Ageratum Mexicanum, 12 (6-8).
                          Verbenas, 6 (6-12).
                          Heliotrope, Queen of Violets, 18 (12-18).

In Fig. 240 are shown a few designs suitable for carpet-beds. They are
intended merely to be suggestive, not to be copied precisely. The simple
forms and component parts of the more elaborate beds may be arranged
into other designs. Likewise the arrangement of plants, which will be
mentioned as suitable for making a given pattern, is only one of many
possible combinations. The idea is merely to bring out the design
distinctly. To accomplish this it is only necessary to use plants of
contrasting color or growth. To illustrate how varied are the
arrangements that may be used, and how easily different effects are
produced with a single design, several different combinations of color
for the bed No. 1 will be mentioned:

[Illustration: Fig. 240. Designs for carpet-beds.]

No. 1.--Arrangement A: Outside, Alternanthera amoena spectabilis;
inside, Stevia serrata variegata. B: lobelia, Crystal Palace; Mme.
Salleroi geranium. C: lobelia, Crystal Palace; scarlet dwarf phlox. D:
sweet alyssum; petunia, Countess of Ellesmere. E: coleus, Golden Bedder;
Coleus Verschaffeltii. F: Achyranthes Lindeni; yellow dwarf nasturtium.

No. 2.--Outside, red alternanthera; middle, dusty miller; center, pink
geranium.

No. 3.--Outside, Alternanthera aurea nana; middle, Alternanthera
amoena spectabilis; center, Anthemis coronaria.

No. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 may each be filled with a single color, or given a
border of suitable plants if the planter so chooses.

No. 9.--Ground, Alternanthera aurea nana; center, Acalypha tricolor;
black dots, scarlet geranium.

No. 10.--Ground of Centaurea gymnocarpa; circle, Achyranthes Lindeni;
cross, Golden coleus.

No. 11.--Border, Oxalis tropæoloides; center, blue heliotrope, blue
ageratum, or Acalypha marginata; cross about the center, Thymus
argenteus, or centaurea; scallop outside the cross, blue lobelia;
corners, inside border, santolina.

Designs 13 and 14 are, in character, somewhat in the style of a
parterre; but instead of the intervening spaces in the bed being
ordinary walks they are of grass. Such beds are of a useful type,
because they may be made large and yet be executed with a comparatively
small number of plants. They are especially suitable for the center of
an open plot of lawn with definite formal boundaries on all sides, such
as walks or drives. Whether they are to be composed of tall-growing or
of low-growing plants will depend upon the distance they are to be from
the observer. For a moderate-sized plot the following plants might
be used:--

No. 13.--Border, red alternanthera; second row, dwarf orange or yellow
nasturtium; third row, Achyranthes Gilsoni, or Acalypha tricolor;
central square, scarlet geraniums, with a border of Centaurea
gymnocarpa; intervening spaces, grass. Instead of the square of
geraniums, a vase might be substituted, or a clump of Salvia splendens.

No. 14.--Composite beds like this and the former are always suggestive.
They contain various features which may readily be recombined into other
patterns. Sometimes it may be convenient to use only portions of the
design. The reader should feel that no arrangement is arbitrary, but
merely a suggestion that he may use with the utmost freedom, only
keeping harmony in view. For No. 14, the following may be an acceptable
planting arrangement: Border, Mme. Salleroi geranium; small dots, dwarf
scarlet tropeolum; diamonds, blue lobelia; crescents, Stevia serrata
variegata; inner border, crimson achyranthes or coleus; loops,
Centaurea gymnocarpa; wedge-shaped portions, scarlet geranium.

No. 15.--Suitable for a corner. Border, red alternanthera; second row,
Alternanthera aurea nana; third row, red alternanthera; center,
Echeveria Californica.

[Illustration: Fig. 241. Carpet-bed for a bay or recession in the border
planting.]

No. 16--Border, crimson alternanthera (another border of yellow
alternanthera might be placed inside of this); ground, Echeveria secunda
glauca; inner border, Oxalis tropæoloides; center, Alternanthera aurea
nana. Or, inner border, Echeveria Californica; center, crimson
alternanthera.

[Illustration: Fig. 242. Another circular carpet-bed.]

No. 17.--Another bed intended to fill an angle. Its curved side will
also fit it for use with a circular design. Border, dwarf blue
ageratum; circle, blue lobelia; ground (3 parts), crimson alternanthera.

Other carpet or mosaic beds (after Long), with the plants indicated, are
shown in Figs. 241, 242.

2. THE ANNUAL PLANTS

The annual flowers of the seedsmen are those that give their best bloom
in the very year in which the seeds are sown. True annuals are those
plants that complete their entire life-cycle in one season. Some of the
so-called annual flowers will continue to bloom the second and third
years, but the bloom is so poor and sparse after the first season that
it does not pay to keep them. Some perennials may be treated as annuals
by starting the seeds early; Chinese pink, pansy and snapdragon
are examples.

The regular biennials may be treated practically as annuals; that is,
seeds may be sown every year, and after the first year, therefore, a
seasonal succession of bloom may be had. Of such are adlumia, Canterbury
bell, lunaria, ipomopsis, oenothera Lamarckiana; and foxglove,
valerian, and some other perennials would better be treated as
biennials.

Most annuals will bloom in central New York if the seeds are sown in the
open ground when the weather becomes thoroughly settled. But there are
some kinds, as the late cosmos and moon-flowers, for which the northern
season is commonly too short to give good bloom unless they are started
very early indoors.

If flowers of any annual are wanted extra early, the seeds should be
started under cover. A greenhouse is not necessary for this purpose,
although best results are to be expected with such a building. The seed
may be sown in boxes, and these boxes then placed in a sheltered
position on the warm side of a building. At night they may be covered
with boards or matting. In very cold "spells" the boxes should be
brought inside. In this simple way seeds may often be started one to
three weeks ahead of the time when they can be sown in the open garden.
Moreover, the plants are likely to receive better care in these boxes,
and therefore to grow more rapidly. Of course, if still earlier results
are desired, the seed should be sown in the kitchen, hotbed, coldframe,
or in a greenhouse. In starting plants ahead of the season, be careful
not to use too deep boxes. The gardener's "flat" may be taken as a
suggestion. Three inches of earth is sufficient, and in some cases (as
when the plants are started late) half this depth is enough.

The difficulty with early sown seedlings is "drawing up," and weakness
from crowding and want of light. This is most liable to occur with
window-grown plants. Vigorous June-sown plants are better than such
weaklings. It must be remembered that very early bloom usually means the
shortening of the season at the other end; this may be remedied to some
extent by making sowings at different times.

The "hardy" annuals are such as develop readily without the aid of
artificial heat. They are commonly sown in May or earlier, directly in
the open ground where they are to grow. Florists often sow certain kinds
in the fall, and winter the young plants in coldframes. They may also be
wintered under a covering of leaves or evergreen boughs. Some of the
hardy annuals (as sweet pea) withstand considerable frost. The
"half-hardy" and "tender" annuals are alike in that they require more
warmth for their germination and growth. The tender kinds are very
quickly sensitive to frost. Both these, like the hardy kinds, may be
sown in the open ground, but not until the weather has become settled
and warm, which for the tender kinds will not commonly be before the
first of June; but the tender kinds, at least, are preferably started in
the house and transplanted to their outdoor beds. Of course, these terms
are wholly relative. What may be a tender annual in Massachusetts may be
a hardy annual or even a perennial in Louisiana.

These terms as ordinarily used in this country refer to the northern
states, or not farther south than middle Atlantic states.

Some familiar examples of hardy annuals are sweet alyssum, ageratum,
calendula, calliopsis, candytuft, Centaurea Cyanus, clarkia, larkspur,
gilia, California poppy, morning-glory, marigold, mignonette, nemophila,
pansy, phlox, pinks, poppies, portulaca, zinnia, sweet pea, scabiosa.

Examples of half-hardy annuals are: China aster, alonsoa, balsam,
petunia, ricinus, stocks, balloon-vine, martynia, salpiglossis,
thunbergia, nasturtium, verbena.

Examples of tender annuals: Amarantus, celosia or coxcomb, cosmos,
cotton, Lobelia Erinus, cobea, gourds, ice-plant, sensitive-plant,
solanums, torenia, and such things as dahlias, caladiums, and acalypha
used for bedding and subtropical effects.

Some annuals do not bear transplanting well; as poppies, bartonia,
Venus' looking-glass, the dwarf convolvulus, lupinus, and malope. It is
best, therefore, to sow them where they are to grow.

Some kinds (as poppies) do not bloom all summer, more especially not if
allowed to produce seed. Of such kinds a second or third sowing at
intervals will provide a succession. Preventing the formation of seeds
prolongs their life and flowering period.

A few of the annuals thrive in partial shade or where they receive
sunshine for half the day; but most of them prefer a sunny situation.

Any good garden soil is suitable for annuals. If not naturally fertile
and friable, it should be made so by the application of well-rotted
stable-manure or humus. The spading should be at least one foot deep.
The upper six inches is then to be given a second turning to pulverize
and mix it. After making the surface fine and smooth the soil should be
pressed down with a board. The seed may now be sprinkled on the soil in
lines or concentric circles, according to the method desired. After
covering the seed, the soil should be again pressed down with a board.
This promotes capillarity, by which the surface of the soil is better
supplied with moisture from below. Always mark with a label the kind and
position of all seed sown.

If the flowers are to be grown about the edges of the lawn, make sure
that the grass roots do not run underneath them and rob them of food and
moisture. It is well to run a sharp spade deep into the ground about the
edges of the bed every two or three weeks for the purpose of cutting off
any grass roots that may have run into the bed. If beds are made in the
turf, see that they are 3 ft. or more wide, so that the grass roots will
not undermine them. Against the shrub borders, this precaution may not
be necessary. In fact, it is desirable that the flowers fill all the
space between the overhanging branches and the sod.

It is surprising how few of the uncommon or little known annuals really
have great merit for general purposes. There is nothing yet to take the
place of the old-time groups, such as amaranths, zinnias, calendulas,
daturas, balsams, annual pinks, candytufts, bachelor's buttons,
wallflowers, larkspurs, petunias, gaillardias, snapdragons, coxcombs,
lobelias, coreopsis or calliopsis, California poppies, four-o'clocks,
sweet sultans, phloxes, mignonettes, scabiosas, nasturtiums, marigolds,
China asters, salpiglossis, nicotianas, pansies, portulacas, castor
beans, poppies, sunflowers, verbenas, stocks, alyssums, and such good
old running plants as scarlet runners, sweet peas, convolvuluses,
ipomeas, tall nasturtiums, balloon vines, cobeas. Of the annual vines of
recent introduction, the Japanese hop has at once taken a prominent
place for the covering of fences and arbors, although it has no floral
beauty to recommend it.

For bold mass-displays of color in the rear parts of the grounds or
along the borders, some of the coarser species are desirable. Good
plants for such use are: sunflower and castor bean for the back rows;
zinnias for bright effects in the scarlets and lilacs; African marigolds
for brilliant yellows; nicotianas for whites. Unfortunately, we have no
robust-growing annuals with good blues. Some of the larkspurs and the
browallias are perhaps the nearest approach to them.

For lower-growing and less gross mass-displays, the following are good:
California poppies for oranges and yellows; sweet sultans for purples,
whites, and pale yellows; petunias for purples, violets, and whites;
larkspurs for blues and violets; bachelor's buttons (or cornflowers) for
blues; calliopsis and coreopsis and calendulas for yellows; gaillardias
for red-yellows and orange-reds; China asters for many colors.

For still less robustness, good mass-displays can be made with the
following: alyssums and candytufts for whites; phloxes for whites and
various pinks and reds; lobelias and browallias for blues; pinks for
whites and various shades of pink; stocks for whites and reds;
wallflowers for brown-yellows; verbenas for many colors.

A garden of pleasant annual flowers is not complete that does not
contain some of the "everlastings" or immortelles. These "paper flowers"
are always interesting to children. They are not so desirable for the
making of "dry bouquets" as for their value as a part of a garden. The
colors are bright, the blooms hold long on the plant, and most of the
kinds are very easy to grow. My favorite groups are the different kinds
of xeranthemums and helichrysums. The globe amaranths, with clover-like
heads (sometimes known as bachelor's buttons), are good old favorites.
Rhodanthes and acrocliniums are also good and reliable.

The ornamental grasses should not be overlooked. They add a note to the
flower-garden and to bouquets that is distinct and can be secured by no
other plants. They are easily grown. Some of the good annual grasses are
_Agrostis nebulosa,_ the brizas, _Bromus brizæformis,_ the species of
eragrostis and pennisetums, and _Coix Lachryma_ as a curiosity. Such
good lawn grasses as arundo, pampas-grass, eulalias, and erianthus are
perennials and are therefore not included in this discussion.

Some of the most reliable and easily grown annuals are given in the
following lists (under the common trade names).

_List of annuals by color of flowers._

White Flowers

Ageratum Mexicanum album.
Alyssum, common sweet; compacta.
Centranthus macrosiphon albus.
China asters.
Convolvulus major.
Dianthus, Double White Margaret.
Iberis amara; coronaria, White Rocket.
Ipomoea hederacea.
Lavatera alba.
Malope grandiflora alba.
Matthiola (Stocks), Cut and Come Again; Dresden Perpetual; Giant
  Perfection; White Pearl.
Mirabilis longiflora alba.
Nigella.
Phlox, Dwarf Snowball; Leopoldii.
Poppies, Flag of Truce; Shirley; The Mikado.
Zinnia.

Yellow and Orange Flowers

Cacalia lutea.
Calendula officinalis, common; Meteor; sulphurea; suffruticosa.
Calliopsis bicolor marmorata; cardaminefolia; elegans picta.
Cosmidium Burridgeanum.
Erysimum Perofskianum.
Eschscholtzia Californica.
Hibiscus Africanus; Golden Bowl.
Ipomoea coccinea lutea.
Loasa tricolor.
Tagetes, various kinds.
Thunbergia alata Fryeri; aurantiaca.
Tropaeolum, Dwarf, Lady Bird; Tall, Schulzi.
Zinnia.

Blue and Purple Flowers

Ageratum Mexicanum; Mexicanum, Dwarf.
Asperula setosa azurea.
Brachycome iberidifolia.
Browallia Czerniakowski; elata.
Centaurea Cyanus, Victoria Dwarf Compact; Cyanus minor.
China asters of several varieties.
Convolvulus minor; minor unicaulis.
Gilia achilleaefolia; capitata.
Iberis umbellata; umbellata lilacina.
Kaulfussia amelloides; atroviolacea.
Lobelia Erinus; Erinus, Elegant.
Nigella.
Phlox variabilis atropurpurea.
Salvia farinacea.
Specularia.
Verbena, Black-blue; caerulea; Golden-leaved.
Whitlavia gloxinioides.

Red and Rose-red Flowers

Abromia umbellata.
Alonsoa grandiflora.
Cacalia, Scarlet.
Clarkia elegans rosea.
Convolvulus tricolor roseus.
Dianthus, Half Dwarf Early Margaret; Dwarf Perpetual; Chinensis.
Gaillardia picta.
Ipomoea coccinea; volubilis.
Matthiola annuus; Blood-red Ten Weeks; grandiflora, Dwarf.
Papaver (Poppy) cardinale; Mephisto.
Phaseolus multiflorus.
Phlox, Large-flowering Dwarf; Dwarf Fireball; Black Warrior.
Salvia coccinea.
Saponaria.
Tropaeolum, Dwarf, Tom Thumb.
Verbena hybrida, Scarlet Defiance.
Zinnia.

_Useful annuals for edgings of beds and, walks, and for ribbon-beds._

Ageraturn, blue and white.
Alyssum, sweet.
Brachycome.
Calandrinia.
Clarkia.
Collinsias.
Dianthuses or pinks.
Gilia.
Gypsophila muralis.
Iberis or candytufts.
Leptosiphons.
Lobelia Erinus.
Nemophilas.
Nigellas.
Portulaca or rose moss (Fig. 243).
Saponaria Calabrica.
Specularia.
Torenia.
Whitlavia.

_Annuals that continue to bloom after frost._

This list is compiled from Bulletin 161, Cornell Experiment Station.
Several hundred kinds of annuals were grown at this station (Ithaca,
N.Y.) in 1897 and 1898. The notes are given in the original trade names
under which the seedsmen supplied the stock.

Abronia umbellata.
Adonis aestivalis; autumnale.
Argemone grandiflora.
Calendulas.
Callirrhoë.
Carduus benedictus.
Centaurea Cyanus.
Centauridium.
Centranthus macro-
Cerinthe retorta.  {siphon.
Cheiranthus Cheiri.
Chrysanthemums.
Convolvulus minor; tricolor.
Dianthus of various kinds.
Elsholtzia cristata.
Erysimum Perofskianum; Arkansanum.
Eschscholtzias, in several varieties (Fig. 249).
Gaillardia picta.
Gilia achilleaefolia; capitata; laciniata; tricolor.
Iberis affinis.
Lavatera alba.
Matthiolas or stocks.
oenothera rosea; Lamarckiana;
Phlox Drummondii. {Drummondii.
Podolepis affinis; chrysantha.
Salvia coccinea; farinacea; Horminum.
Verbenas.
Vicia Gerardi.
Virginian stocks.
Viscaria elegans; oculata; Coeli-rosa.

[Illustration: Figure 243. Portulaca, or rose moss.]

[Illustration: Fig. 244 Pansies]

_List of annuals suitable for bedding (that is, for "mass effects" of
color)._

A list of this kind is necessarily both incomplete and imperfect,
because good new varieties are frequently appearing, and the taste of
the gardener must be consulted. Any plants may be used, broadly
speaking, for bedding; but the following list (given in terms of trade
names) suggests some of the best subjects to use when beds of solid,
strong color are desired.

Adonis aestivalis; autumnalis.
Ageratum Mexicanum; Mexicanum, Dwarf.
Bartonia aurea.
Cacalia.
Calendula officinalis, in several forms; pluvialis; Pongei; sulphurea,
  fl. pl.; suffruticosa.
Calliopsis bicolor marmorata; cardaminefolia; elegans picta.
Callirrhoë involucrata; pedata; pedata nana.
Centaurea Americana; Cyanus, Victoria Dwarf Compact; Cyanus minor;
  suaveolens.
China asters.
Chrysanthemum Burridgeanum; carinatum; coronarium; tricolor.
Convolvulus minor; tricolor.
Cosmidium Burridgeanum.
Delphinium, single; double.
Dianthus, Double White Half Dwarf Margaret; Dwarf Perpetual;
  Caryophyllus semperflorens; Chinensis, double; dentosus hybridus;
  Heddewigii; imperialis; laciniatus, Salmon Queen; plumarius;
  superbus, dwarf fl. pl.; picotee.
Elsholtzia cristata.
Eschscholtzia Californica; crocea; Mandarin; tenuifolia (Fig. 249).
Gaillardia picta; picta Lorenziana.
Gilia achilleaefolia; capitata; laciniata; linifolia; nivalis; tricolor.
Godetia Whitneyi; grandiflora maculata; rubicunda splendens.
Hibiscus Africanus; Golden Bowl.
Iberis affinis; amara; coronaria; umbellata.
Impatiens or balsam.
Lavatera alba; trimestris.
Linum grandiflorum.
Madia elegans.
Malope grandiflora.
Matricaria eximia plena.
Matthiola or stock, in many forms; Wallflower-leaved; bicornis.
Nigella, or Love-in-a-mist.
oenothera Drummondii; Lamarckiana; rosea tetraptera.
Papaver or poppy, of many kinds; cardinale; glaucum; umbrosum.
Petunia, bedding kinds.
Phlox Drummondii, in many varieties.
Portulaca (Fig. 243).
Salvia farinacea; Horminum; splendens.
Schizanthus papilionaceus; pinnatus.
Silene Armeria; pendula.
Tagetes, or marigold, in many forms; erecta; patula; signata.
Tropaeolum, Dwarf.
Verbena auriculaeflora; Italica striata; hybrida; caerulea; Golden-leaved.
Viscaria Coeli-rosa; elegans picta; oculata.
Zinnia, Dwarf; elegans alba; Tom Thumb; Haageana; coccinea
  plena (Fig. 247).

[Illustration: XI. The back yard, with summer house, and gardens
beyond.]

_List of annuals by height._

It is obviously impossible to make any accurate or definite list of
plants in terms of their height, but the beginner may be aided by
approximate measurements. The following lists are made from Bulletin 161
of the Cornell Experiment Station, which gives tabular data on many
annuals grown at Ithaca, N.Y. Seeds of most of the kinds were sown in
the open, rather late. "The soil varied somewhat, but it was light and
well tilled, and only moderately rich." Ordinary good care was given the
plants. The average height of the plants of each kind at full growth, as
they stood on the ground, is given in these lists. Of course, these
heights might be less or more with different soils, different
treatments, and different climates; but the figures are fairly
comparable among themselves.

The measurements are based on the stock supplied by leading seedsmen
under the trade names here given. It is not unlikely that some of the
discrepancies were due to mixture of seed or to stock being untrue to
type; some of it may have been due to soil conditions. The same name may
be found in two divisions in some instances, the plants having been
grown from different lots of seeds. The lists will indicate to the
grower what variations he may expect in any large lot of seeds.

Seedsmen's catalogues should be consulted for what the trade considers
to be the proper and normal heights for the different plants.

Plants 6-8 in. high

Abronia umbellata grandiflora.
Alyssum compactum.
Callirrhoë involucrata.
Godetia, Bijou, Lady Albemarle, and Lady Satin Rose.
Gypsophila muralis.
Kaulfussia amelloides.
Leptosiphon hybridus.
Linaria Maroccana.
Lobelia Erinus and Erinus Elegant.
Nemophila atomaria, discoidalis, insignis, and maculata.
Nolana lanceolata, paradoxa, prostrata, and atriplicifolia.
Podolepis chrysantha and affinis.
Portulaca.
Rhodanthe Manglesii.
Sedum caeruleum.
Silene pendula ruberrima.
Verbena.

Plants 9-12 in. high

Alyssum.
Asperula setosa azurea.
Brachycome iberidifolia.
Calandrinia umbellata elegans.
Callirrhoë pedata nana.
Centaurea Cyanus Victoria Dwarf Compact.
Centranthus macrosiphon nanus.
Collinsia bicolor, candidissima and multicolor marmorata.
Convolvulus minor and tricolor.
Eschscholtzia crocea.
Gamolepis Tagetes.
Gilia laciniata and linifolia.
Godetia Duchess of Albany, Prince of Wales, Fairy Queen, Brilliant,
  grandiflora maculata, Whitneyi, Duke of Fife, rubicunda splendens.
Helipterum corymbiflorum.
Iberis affinis.
Kaulfussia amelloides atroviolacea, and a. kermesina.
Leptosiphon androsaceus and densiflorus.
Linaria bipartita splendida.
Matthiola dwarf Forcing Snowflake, Wallflower-leaved.
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.
Mimulus cupreus.
Nemophila atomaria oculata and marginata.
Nigella.
Nolana atriplicifolia.
Omphalodes linifolia.
oenothera rosea and tetraptera.
Phlox, Large-flowering Dwarf and Dwarf Snowball.
Rhodanthe maculata.
Saponaria Calabrica.
Schizanthus pinnatus.
Silene Armeria and pendula.
Specularia.
Viscaria oculata cserulea.

Plants 13-17 in. high

Abronia umbellata.
Acroclinium album and roseum.
Brachycome iberidifolia alba.
Browallia Czerniakowski and elata.
Cacalia.
Calandrinia grandiflora.
Calendula sulphurea flore pleno.
Chrysanthemum carinatum.
Collomia coccinea.
Convolvulus minor and minor unicaulis.
Dianthus, the Margaret varieties, Dwarf Perpetual, Caryophyllus
  semperflorens, Chinensis, dentosus hybridus, Heddewigii, imperialis,
  laciniatus, plumarius, superbus dwarf, picotee, Comtesse de Paris.
Elsholtzia cristata.
Eschscholtzia Californica, Mandarin, maritima and tenuifolia.
Gaillardia picta.
Gilia achillesefolia alba and nivalis.
Helipterum Sanfordii.
Hieracium, Bearded.
Iberis amara, coronaria Empress, coronaria White Rocket,
Sweet-scented, umbellata, umbellata carnea, and umbellata lilacina.
Leptosiphon carmineus.
Lupinus nanus, sulphureus.
Malope grandiflora.
Matthiola, Wallflower-leaved and Virginian stock.
Mirabilis alba.
Nigella.
oenothera Lamarckiana.
Palafoxia Hookeriana.
Papaver, Shirley and glaucum.
Petunia.
Phlox of many kinds.
Salvia Horminum.
Schizanthus papilionaceus.
Statice Thouini and superba.
Tagetes, Pride of the Garden and Dwarf.
Tropaeolum, many kinds of dwarf.
Venidium calendulaceum.
Verbena of several kinds.
Viscaria Coeli-rosa, elegans picta, oculata, and oculata alba.
Whitlavia gloxinioides.

Plants 18-23 in. high

Adonis aestivalis and autumnalis.
Amarantus atropurpureus.
Calendula officinalis, Meteor, suffruticosa, and pluvialis.
Calliopsis bicolor marmorata.
Callirrhoë pedata.
Centaurea Cyanus minor Blue and suaveolens.
Centranthus macrosiphon.
Chrysanthemum Burridgeanum, carinatum, tricolor Dunnettii.
Cosmidium Burridgeanum.
Delphinium (annual).
Eutoca Wrangeliana.
Gaillardia picta (Fig. 245), Lorenziana.
Gilia achilleaefolia, a. rosea and tricolor.
Helichrysum atrosanguineum.
Ipomoea coccinea.
Linum grandiflorum.
Loasa tricolor.
Lupinus albus, hirsutus and pubescens.
Malope grandiflora alba.
Matricaria eximia plena.
Matthiola, several kinds.
oenothera Drummondii.
Papaver Mephisto, cardinale, c. hybridum, c. Danebrog, umbrosum.
Tagetes patula and signata.
Vicia Gerardii.
Whitlavia grandiflora and g. alba.
Xeranthemum album and multiflorum album.
Zinnias of many kinds (all not mentioned in other lists).

Plants 24-30 in. high

Bartonia aurea.
Calendula officinalis fl. pl., Prince of Orange and Pongei.
Calliopsis elegans picta.
Cardiospermum Halicacabum.
Carduus benedictus.
Centaurea Cyanus minor Emperor William.
Cheiranthus Cheiri.
Chrysanthemum tricolor, t. hybridum and coronarium sulphureum
  fl. pl.
Clarkia elegans rosea.
Datura cornucopia.
Erysimum Arkansanum and Perofskianum.
Eutoca viscida.
Gilia capitata alba.
Helichrysum bracteatum and macranthum.
Hibiscus Africanus.
Impatiens, all varieties.
Lupinus hirsutus pilosus.
Matthiola Blood-red Ten Weeks, Cut and Come Again, grandiflora,
  annuus, and others.
Mirabilis Jalapa folio variegata and longiflora alba.
Papaver, American Flag, Mikado and Double.
Perilla laciniata and Nankinensis.
Salvia farinacea.
Tagetes Eldorado, Nugget of Gold, erecta fl. pl.
Xeranthemum annuum and superbissimum fl. pl.
Zinnia elegans alba fl. pl.

[Illustration: Fig. 245. Gaillardia, one of the showy garden annuals.]

Plants 31-40 in. high

Acroclinium, double rose and white.
Adonis aestivalis.
Ageratum Mexicanum album and blue.
Amarantus bicolor ruber.
Argemone grandiflora.
Centaurea Americana.
Centauridium Drummondii.
Cerinthe retorta. {c. double yellow.
Chrysanthemum coronarium album and Clarkia elegans alba fl. pl.
Cleome spinosa.
Cyclanthera pedata.
Datura fastuosa and New Golden
Euphorbia marginata. {Queen.
Gilia capitata alba.
Helianthus Dwarf double and cucu-
Hibiscus Golden Bowl. {merifolius.
Lavatera trimestris.
Madia elegans.
Martynia craniolaria.
Salvia coccinea.

Plants 41 in. and above.

Adonis autumnalis.
Helianthus of several garden kinds (not mentioned elsewhere).
Ricinus, all varieties.
And many climbing vines.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Distances for planting annuals_ (or plants treated as annuals).

Only an approximate idea can be given of the distances apart at which
annuals should be planted, for not only does the distance depend on the
fertility of the land (the stronger the soil the greater the distance),
but also on the object the person has in growing the plants, whether to
produce a solid mass effect or to secure strong specimen plants with
large individual bloom. If specimen plants are to be raised, the
distances should be liberal.

The distances here given for some of the commoner annuals may be
considered to represent average or usual spaces that single plants may
occupy under ordinary conditions in flowerbeds, although it would
probably be impossible to find any two gardeners or seedsmen who would
agree on the details. These are suggestions rather than recommendations.
It is always well to set or sow more plants than are wanted, for there
is danger of loss from cut-worms and other causes. The general tendency
is to let the plants stand too close together at maturity. In case of
doubt, place plants described in books and catalogues as very dwarf at
six inches, those as medium-sized at twelve inches, very large growers
at two feet, and thin them out if they seem to demand it as they grow.

The plants in these lists are thrown into four groups (rather than all
placed together with the numbers after them) in order to classify the
subject in the beginner's mind.

[Illustration: Fig. 246. Wild phlox (_P. maculata_), one of the parents
of the perennial garden phloxes.]

6 to 9 inches apart

Ageratum, very dwarf kinds.
Alyssum.
Asperula setosa.
Cacalia.
Candytuft.
Clarkia, dwarf.
Collinsia.
Gysophila muralis.
Kaulfussia.
Larkspur, dwarf kinds.
Linaria.
Linum grandiflorum
Lobelia Erinus. Mignonette, dwarf kinds.
Pansy.
Phlox, very dwarf kinds.
Pinks, very dwarf kinds.
Rhodanthe.
Schizopetalon.
Silene Armeria.
Snapdragon, dwarf.
Sweet pea.
Torenia.

[Illustration: Fig. 247. Zinnias. Often known as "youth and old age."]

       *       *       *       *       *

10 to 15 inches apart

Those marked (ft.) are examples of plants that may usually stand at
twelve inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 248. Improved perennial phlox.]

Abronia (ft.).
Acroclinium.
Adlumia.
Adonis autumnalis.
Ageratum, tall kinds.
Alonsoa.
Aster, China, smaller kinds (ft.).
Balsam.
Bartonia.
Browallia.
Calendula.
California poppy (Eschscholtzia).
Calliopsis.
Cardiospermum.
Carnation, flower-garden kinds (ft.).
Celosia, small kinds.
Centaurea Cyanus.
Centauridium (ft.).
Centranthus (ft.).
Clarkia, tall (ft.).
Convolvulus tricolor (ft.).
Gaillardia, except on strong land.
Gilias.
Glaucium.
Godetia (ft.).
Gomphrena.
Gypsophila elegans.
Helichrysum (ft.).
Hunnemannia.
Jacobaea. {kinds.
Larkspur, tall annual
Malope. {varieties.
Marigold, intermediate
Mignonette, tall kinds.
Mesembryanthemum
  (ice-plant) (ft.).
Morning-glory.
Nasturtium, dwarf.
Nemophila.
Nigella.
Petunia.
Phlox Drummondii.
Pinks.
Poppies (6 to 18 in.,
  according to variety).
Portulaca (ft.).
Salpiglossis (ft.).
Scabiosa (ft.).
Schizanthus.
Snapdragon, tall kinds.
Statice (ft.).
Stock (ft.).
Tagetes, dwarf French.
Thunbergia (ft.).
Verbena.
Whitlavia (ft.), {(ft.).
Zinnia, very dwarf kinds

[Illustration: Fig 249. Eschscholtzia, or California poppy. One-half
size.]

18 to 24 inches

Amarantus.
Ammobium.
Argemone.
Aster, China, the big kinds (or rows 2 ft. apart and plants 1 ft. in row).
Callirrhoë.
Canterbury bell (up to 3 ft.).
Celosia, large kinds (up to 30 in.).
Chrysanthemum, annual.
Cosmos, smaller kinds.
Euphorbia marginata.
Four o'clock (up to 30 in.)
Hop, Japanese. (to 30 in.)
Kochia, or summer cypress
Marigold, tall kinds.
Nasturtium, tall, if allowed to
  spread on the ground.
Nicotiana (up to 30 in.).
oenothera, tall kinds.
Salvia coccinea (_splendens
  grandiflora_), about 2 ft.
Zinnia, tall kinds (up to 3 ft).

[Illustration: Fig. 250. A modern peony.]

About 3 feet or more

Caladium.
Cosmos, tall kinds (2 to 3 ft.).
Dahlia.
Datura.
Martynia.
Ricinus or castor bean.
Solanums.
Sunflower, tall kinds.
Wigandia.

3. HARDY HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS

There is a rapidly growing appreciation of perennial herbs, not only as
flower-garden and lawn subjects, but as parts of native landscapes.
Every locality yields its wild asters, golden-rods, columbines, iris,
trilliums, lilies, anemones, pentstemons, mints, sunflowers, or other
plants; and many of these also make good subjects for the home grounds.

It is important to remember that some perennial herbs begin to fail
after one to three seasons of full bloom. It is a good plan to have new
plants coming on to take their place; or the old roots may be taken up
in the fall and divided, only the fresh and strong parts being
planted again.

Perennial herbs are propagated in various ways,--by seeds, and by
cuttings of the stems and roots, but mostly by the easy method of
division. On the raising of these plants from seeds, William Falconer
writes as follows in Dreer's "Garden Book" for 1909:--

"Hardy perennials are easily grown from seed. In many cases they are a
little slower than annuals, but with intelligent care they are
successfully raised, and from seed is an excellent way to get up a big
stock of perennials. Many sorts, if sown in spring, bloom the first year
from seeds as early as annuals; for instance: gaillardia, Iceland
poppies, Chinese larkspur, platycodon, etc. Others do not bloom until
the second year.

"The amateur may have more success and less bother growing perennials
from seed sown in the open ground than from any other way. Prepare a bed
in a nice, warm, sheltered spot in the garden, preferably not very
sunny. Let the surface of the bed be raised four or five inches above
the general level, and the soil be a mellow fine earth on the surface.
Draw shallow rows across the surface of the bed three or four inches
apart, and here sow the seeds, keeping the varieties of one kind or
nature as much together as practicable, covering the seeds thinly; press
the whole surface gently, water moderately, then dust a little fine
loose soil over all. If the weather is sunny or windy, shade with papers
or a few branches, but remove these in the evening. When the seedlings
come up, thin them out to stiffen those that are left, and when they are
two or three inches high, they are fit for transplanting into permanent
quarters. All this should be done in early spring, say March, April, or
May. Again, in July or August perennials are very easily raised out of
doors, and much in the same way as above. Or they may be sown in early
spring indoors, in the window, the hotbed, the coldframe, or the
greenhouse, preferably in boxes or pans, as for growing annuals. Some
gardeners sow seed right in the coldframe. I have tried both ways, and
find the boxes best, as the different varieties of seeds do not come up
at the same time, and you can remove them from the close frame to more
airy quarters as soon as the seed comes up, whereas, if sown in a frame,
you would have to give them all the same treatment. When the seedlings
are large enough, I transplant them into other boxes, and put them into
a shady part of the garden, but not under the shade of trees, as there
they will 'draw' too much. About the fifteenth of September plant them
in the garden where they are to bloom, or if the garden is full of
summer-flowering plants, put them in beds in the vegetable garden, to be
planted out in the early spring, and give them a light covering of straw
or manure to keep sudden changes of the weather away from them."

Hardy perennial herbs may be planted in September and October with
excellent results; also in spring. See that they are protected with
mulch in winter.

_Perennial herbs suitable for lawn and "planting" effects._

Some of the striking plants that are valuable for lawn planting in the
North, chosen chiefly on account of their size, foliage, and habit, are
mentioned in the following brief list. They may or may not be suitable
for flower-gardens. It is impossible to give to this list any degree of
completeness; but the names here printed will be suggestive of the kinds
of things that may be used. The asterisk (A) denotes native plants.

Yucca, _Yucca filamentosa._(A)

Funkia, _Funkia,_ of several species.

Peltate saxifrage, _Saxifraga peltata._(A)

Rose mallow, _Hibiscus Moscheutos._(A)

Elecampane, _Inula Helenium_ (Fig. 251).

Wild sunflowers, _Helianthus_(A) of different species, especially _H.
orygalis, H. giganteus, H. grosse-serratus, H. strumosus._

[Illustration: Fig. 251. Elecampane. Naturalized in old fields and along
roadsides.]

Compass-plants, _Silphium_(A) of several species, especially _S.
terebinthinaceum, S. laciniatum, S. perfoliatum._

Sacaline, _Polygonum Sachalinense._

Japanese knotweed, _Polygonum cuspidatum._

Bocconia, _Bocconia cordata._

Wild wormwood, _Artemisia Stelleriana_(A) and others.

Butterfly-weed, _Asclepias tuberosa._(A)

Wild asters, _Aster_(A) of many species, especially _A. Novae-Anglae_
(best), _A. laevis, A. multiflorus, A. spectabilis._

Golden-rods, _Solidago_(A) of various species, especially _S. speciosa,
S. nemoralis, S. juncea, S. gigantea._

Loose-strife, _Lythrum Salicaria._

Flags, _Iris_ of many species, some native.

Japanese wind-flower, _Anemone Japonica._

Goat's beard, _Aruncus sylvester (Spiræa Aruncus_).(A)

Baptisia, _Baptisia tinctoria._(A)

Thermopsis, _Thermopsis mollis._(A)

Wild senna, _Cassia Marilandica._(A)

Wild trefoil, _Desmodium Canadense_(A) and others.

Ribbon grass, _Phalaris arundinacea_(A) var. _picta._

Zebra grass, _Eulalia_ (or _Miscanthus_) species, and varieties.

Wild panic grass, _Panicum virgatum._(A)

Bambusas (and related things) of several sorts.

Ravenna grass, _Erianthus Ravennæ_.

Arundo, _Arundo Donax,_ and var. _variegata._

Reed, _Phragmites communis._(A)

This and the remaining plants of the list should be planted in the edges
of water or in bogs (the list might be greatly extended).

Wild rice, _Zizania aquatica._(A)

Cat-tail, _Typha angustifolia_(A) and _T. latifolia._(A)

Lizard's-tail, _Saururus cernuus._(A)

Peltandra, _Peltandra undulata._(A)

Orontium, _Orontium aquaticum._(A)

Native calla, _Calla palustris._(A)

_A brief seasonal flower-garden or border list of herbaceous
perennials._

To facilitate making a selection of perennial herbs for bloom, the
plants in the following list are arranged according to their flowering
season, beginning with the earliest. The name of the month indicates
when they usually begin to bloom. It should be understood that the
blooming season of plants is not a fixed period, but varies more or
less with localities and seasons. These dates are applicable to most of
the middle and northern states. Natives to North America are marked with
an asterisk (A). This list is by Ernest Walker.

MARCH

Blue Wind-flower, _Anemone blanda._ 6 in. March-May. Sky-blue, star-like
flowers. Foliage deeply cut. For border and rockwork.

Bloodroot, _Sanguinaria Canadensis._(A) 6 in. March-April. Pure white.
Glaucous foliage. Partial shade. Border or rock-work.

APRIL

Mountain Rock-cress, _Arabis albida._ 6 in. April-June. Flowers pure
white; close heads in profusion. Fragrant. For dry places and rock-work.

Purple Rock-cress, _Aubrietia deltoidea._ 6 in. April-June. Small purple
flowers in great profusion.

Daisy, _Bellis perennis,_ 4-6 in. April-July. Flowers white, pink, or
red; single or double. The double varieties are the more desirable.
Cover the plants in winter with leaves. May be raised from seed,
like pansies.

Spring Beauty, _Claytonia Virginica._(A) 6 in. April-May. Clusters of
light pink flowers. Partial shade. From six to a dozen should be
set together.

Shooting Star, _Dodecatheon Meadia._(A) 1 ft. April-May. Reddish purple
flowers, orange-yellow eye, in clusters. Cool, shady location. Plant
several in a place.

Dog's-bane, _Doronicum plantagineum_ var. _excelsum._ 20 in. April-June.
Large, showy flowers; orange-yellow. Bushy plants.

Liver-leaf, _Hepatica acutiloba_(A) and _triloba._(A) 6 in. April-May.
Flowers small but numerous, varying white and pink. Partial shade.

Hardy Candytuft, _Iberis sempervirens._ 10 in. April-May. Small white
flowers in clusters; profuse. Large, spreading, evergreen tufts.

Alpine Lamp-flower, _Lychnis alpina._(A) 6 in. April-May. Flowers
star-like, in showy heads; pink. For border and rockery.

Early Forget-me-not, _Myosotis dissitiflora._ 6 in. April-June. Small
clusters of deep sky-blue flowers. Tufted habit.

[Illustration: Fig. 252. The wild Trillium grandiflorum.]

Everblooming F., _M. palustris_ var. _semperflorens._ 10 in. Light blue;
spreading habit.

Blue-bells, _Mertensia Virginica._(A) 1 ft. April-May. Flowers blue,
changing to pink; pendent; tubular; not showy, but beautiful. Rich
soil. Partial shade.

Tree Peony, _Pæonia Moutan._ (See _May,_ Pæonia.)

Moss Pink, _Phlox subulata._(A) 6 in. April-June. Numerous deep pink,
small flowers; creeping habit; evergreen. Suitable for dry places as a
covering plant.

_Trilliums._(A) Of several species; always attractive and useful in the
border (Fig. 252). They are common in rich woods and copses. Dig the
tubers in late summer and plant them directly in the border. The large
ones will bloom the following spring. The same may be said of the
erythronium, or dog's-tooth violet or adder's tongue, and of very many
other early wild flowers.

MAY

_Ajuga reptans._ 6 in. May-June. Spikes of purple flowers. Grows well in
shady places; spreading. A good cover plant.

Madwort, _Alyssum saxatile_ var. _compactum._ 1 ft. May-June. Flowers
fragrant, in clusters, clear golden-yellow. Foliage silvery.
Well-drained soil. One of the best yellow flowers.

Columbine, _Aquilegia glandulosa_ and others (Fig. 253). 1 ft. May-June.
Deep blue sepals; white petals. Aquilegias are old favorites. (See
_June._) The wild _A. Canadensis_(A) is desirable.

Lily-of-the-Valley, _Convallaria majalis._(A) 8 in. May-June. Racemes of
small white bells; fragrant. Well known. Partial shade. (See
Chap. VIII.)

Fumitory, _Corydalis nobilis._ 1 ft. May-June. Large clusters of fine
yellow flowers. Bushy, upright habit. Does well in partial shade.

Bleeding-Heart, _Dicentra spectabilis._ 2-1/2 ft. May-June. Well known.
Racemes of heart-shaped, deep pink and white flowers. Will bear
partial shade.

Crested Iris, _Iris cristata._(A) 6 in. May-June. Flowers blue, fringed
with yellow. Leaves sword-shaped.

German Iris, _I. Germanica._ 12-15 in. May-June. Numerous varieties and
colors. Large flowers, 3-4 on a stem. Broad, glaucous,
sword-shaped leaves.

Peony, _Pæonia officinalis._ 2 ft. May-June. This is the well-known
herbaceous peony. There are numerous varieties and hybrids.

[Illustration: Figure 253. One of the columbines.]

Large flowers, 4-6 in. across. Crimson, white, pink, yellowish, etc.
Suitable for lawn or the border. Fig. 250.

Tree Peony, _P. Moutan._ 4ft. April-May. Numerous named varieties.
Flowers as above, excepting yellow. Branched, dense, shrubby habit.

Meadow Sage, _Salvia pratensis._ 2-1/2 ft. May-June, August. Spikes of
deep blue flowers. Branching from the ground.

JUNE

_Achillea Ptarmica, fl. pl._, var. "The Pearl." 1/2 ft. June-August.
Small double white flowers, in few-flowered clusters. Rich soil.

Wind-flower, _Anemone Pennsylvanica._(A) 18 in. June-September. White
flowers on long stems. Erect habit. Does well in the shade.

St. Bruno's Lily, _Paradisea Liliastrum._ 18 in. June-July. Bell-like,
white flowers in handsome spikes.

Golden-spurred Columbine, _Aquilegia chrysantha._(A) 3 ft. June-August.
Golden flowers with slender spurs; fragrant.

Rocky Mountain Columbine, _A. coerulea._(A) 1 ft. June-August. Flowers
with white petals and deep blue sepals, 2-3 in. in diameter.
(See _May._)

Woodruff, _Asperula odorata._ 6 in. June-July. Small white flowers.
Herbage fragrant when wilted. Does well in shade; spreading habit. Used
for flavoring drinks, scenting and protecting garments.

_Astilbe Japonica_ (incorrectly called Spiræa). 2 ft. June-July. Small
white flowers in a feathery inflorescence. Compact habit.

Poppy Mallow, _Callirrhoë involucrata._(A) 10 in. June-October. Large
crimson flowers, with white centers. Trailing habit. For border
and rockery.

Carpathian Harebell, _Campanula Carpatica_ (Fig. 254). 8 in.
June-September. Flowers deep blue. Tufted habit. For border or rockery.
Good for cutting.

_C. glomerata_ var. _Dahurica._ 2 ft. June-August. Deep purple flowers
in terminal clusters. Branching from the ground. Erect habit.

Canterbury Bell, _C. Medium._ An old favorite. It is biennial, but
blooms the first season if sown early.

_Corydalis lutea._ 1 ft. June-September. Flowers yellow, in terminal
clusters. Loose branching habit. Glaucous foliage.

Scotch Pink, _Dianthus plumarius._ 10 in. June-July. White and
pink-ringed flowers on slender stems. Densely tufted habit.

Fringed Pink, _D. superbus._ 18 in. July-August. Fringed flowers. Lilac
tint.

Gas Plant, _Dictamnus Fraxinella._ 3 ft. June. Flowers purple, showy,
fragrant; in long spikes. Regular habit. Var. _alba._ White.

_Gaillardia aristata._(A) 2 ft. June-October. Showy orange and maroon
flowers on long stems. Good for cutting. Hybrid gaillardias offer quite
a variety of brilliant colors.

_Heuchera sanguinea._(A) 18 in. June-September. Flowers in open
panicles, scarlet, on clustered stems from a tufted mass of
pretty foliage.

Japan Iris, _Iris laevigata (I. Kaempferi)._ 2-3 ft. June-July. Large
flowers of various colors, in variety. Green, sword-like leaves. Dense
tufted habit. Prefers a moist situation.

[Illustration: Fig. 254. Campanula Carpatica.]

Blazing Star, _Liatris spicata._(A) 2 ft. June-August. Spikes of fine,
small purple flowers. Slender foliage. Unbranched, erect stems. Will
grow in the poorest soil.

Iceland Poppy, _Papaver nudicaule._(A) 1 ft. June-October. Bright yellow
flowers. A close, dense habit. Erect, naked stems. The varieties Album,
white, and Miniatum, deep orange, are also desirable.

Oriental Poppy, _P. orientale._ 2-4 ft. June. Flowers 6-8 in. across;
deep scarlet, with a purple spot at the base of each petal. There are
other varieties of pink, orange, and crimson shades.

_Pentstemon barbatus_ var. _Torreyi._(A) 3-4 ft. June-September. Crimson
flowers in long spikes. Branching from the base. Erect habit.

[Illustration: XII. The back yard, with heavy flower-garden planting.]

Perennial Phlox, _Phlox paniculata_(A) and hybrids with _P.
maculata._(A) 2-3 ft. June. A great variety of colors in selfs and
variegated forms. Flowers borne in large, flat panicles. (Figs.
246, 248.)

_Rudbeckia maxima_(A) 5-6 ft. August. Large flowers; cone-like center
and long, drooping, yellow petals.

Dropwort, _Ulmaria Filipendula._ 3 ft. June-July. White flowers in
compact clusters. Tufted foliage, dark green and handsomely cut. Erect
stems. (Often referred to Spiræa.)

Adam's Needle, _Yucca filamentosa._(A) 4-5 ft. June-July. Waxen white,
pendulous, liliaceous flowers in a great thyrsus. Leaves long, narrow,
dark green, with marginal filaments. For the lawn, and for massing in
large grounds.

JULY

Hollyhock, _Althæa rosea._ 5-8 ft. Summer and fall. Flowers white,
crimson, and yellow, lavender and purple. Stately plants of spire-like
habit; useful for the back of the border, or beds and groups. The newer
double varieties have flowers as fine as a camellia. The plant is nearly
biennial, but in rich, well-drained soil and with winter protection it
becomes perennial. Easily grown from seed, blooming the second year.
Seeds may be sown in August in frames and carried over winter in the
same place. The first year's bloom is usually the best.

Yellow Chamomile, _Anthemis tinctoria._ 12-38 in. July-November. Flowers
bright yellow, 1-2 in. in diameter. Useful for cutting. Dense,
bushy habit.

_Delphinium Chinense._ 3 ft. July-September. Variable colors; from deep
blue to lavender and white. Fine for the border.

_D. formosum._ 4 ft. July-September. Fine spikes of rich blue flowers.
One of the finest blue flowers cultivated.

_Funkia lancifolia._ (See under _August._)

_Helianthus multiflorus_(A) var. _fl. pl._ 4 ft. July-September. Large
double flowers, of a fine golden color. Erect habit. An
excellent flower.

_Lychnis Viscaria_ var. _flore pleno._ 12-15 in. July-August. Double,
deep rose-red flowers in spikes. For groups and masses.

_Monarda didyma._(A) 2 ft. July-October. Showy scarlet flowers in
terminal heads.

_Pentstemon grandiflorus.(A) 2_ ft. July-August. Leafy spikes of showy
purple flowers.

_P. loevigalus_ var. _Digitalis._(A) 3 ft. July-August. Pure white
flowers in spikes, with purple throats.

_Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanula grandiflora)_. 3 ft. July-September.
Deep blue, bell-shaped flowers. Dense, fine, erect habit.

_P. Mariesi._ 1 ft. July-September. Flowers larger; deep violet-blue.
Heavier foliage.

AUGUST

Day Lily, _Funkia subcordata._ 18 in. August-October. Trumpet,
lily-like, pure-white flowers in clusters, borne upon a stalk from the
midst of a group of heart-shaped green leaves.

_F. lancifolia_ var. _albo-marginata._ July-August. Lavender flowers.
Lance-like leaves margined with white.

Flame Flower, _Kniphofia aloides (Tritoma Uvaria_). 3 ft.
August-September. Bright orange-scarlet flowers, in close, dense spikes,
at the summit of several scape-like stems. Leaves slender, forming a
large tuft. For lawn and borders. Hardy only when covered with litter or
straw in winter.

Cardinal Flower, _Lobelia cardinalis._(A) 2-1/4-4 ft. August-September.
Flowers intense cardinal-red, of unrivaled brilliancy. Tall spikes.
Stems clustered; erect.

Giant Daisy, _Chrysanthemum_ (or _Pyrethrum) uliginosum._ 3-5 ft.
July-October. Flowers white, with golden centers. About 2 in. across. A
stout, upright, bushy plant. Useful for cutting.

Golden Glow, _Rudbeckia laciniata._(A) 6-7 ft. August-September. Large
double golden-yellow flowers in great profusion. Bushy habit. Cut off
when done flowering. Leaves appear at the base and a new crop of
flowers, on stems about 1 ft. high, appear in October.

Goldenrod, _Solidago rigida._(A) 3-5 ft. August-October. Flowers large
for this genus, in close, short racemes in a corymbose-paniculate
cluster. Fine, deep yellow. Erect habit. One of the best of the
goldenrods.

SEPTEMBER

Japanese Wind-flower, _Anemone Japonica._ 2 ft. August-October. Flowers
large, bright red. One of the best autumn flowers.

_A. Japonica_ var. _alba._ Flowers pure white, with yellow centers. Fine
for cutting.

OCTOBER

_Hardy Chrysanthemums._ The Chinese and Japanese Chrysanthemums, so well
known, are hardy in light, well-drained soils, if well protected with
litter or leaves during the winter, and in such situations will stand
without protection south of Indianapolis. Chrysanthemums are gross
feeders, and should have a rich soil.

But there is a race of hardier or border chrysanthemums that is again
coming into favor, and it is sure to give much satisfaction to those who
desire flowers in latest fall. These chrysanthemums are much like the
"artemisias" of our mother's gardens, although improved in size, form,
and in range of color.

_One hundred extra-hardy perennial herbs._

The following list of 100 "best hardy perennials" is adapted from a
report of the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario. These plants
are chosen from over 1000 species and varieties that have been on trial
at that place. Those considered to be the best twenty-five for Canada
are marked by a dagger (D); and those native to North America by an
asterisk (A).

_Achillea Ptarmica flore pleno._--Height, 1 foot; in bloom fourth week
of June; flowers, small, pure white, double, and borne in clusters;
blooming freely throughout the summer. (D)

_Aconitum autumnale._--Height, 3 to 4 feet; September; flowers, bluish
purple, borne in loose panicles.

_Aconitum Napellus._--Height, 3 to 4 feet; July; flowers, deep blue,
borne on a large terminal spike; desirable for the rear of the border.

_Adonis vernalis._--Height, 6 to 9 inches; first week of May; flowers,
large, lemon-yellow, borne singly from the ends of the stems.

_Agrostemma (Lychnis) Coronaria_ var. _atropurpurea._--Height, 1 to 2
feet; fourth week of June; flowers, medium size, bright crimson, borne
singly from the sides and ends of the stems; a very showy plant with
silvery foliage, and continues to bloom throughout the summer.

_Anemone patens._(A)--Height 6 to 9 inches; fourth week of April;
flowers, large, and deep purple.

_Anthemis tinctoria_ var. _Kelwayi._--Height, 1 to 2 feet; fourth week
of June; flowers, large, deep yellow, borne singly on long stems; it
continues to bloom profusely throughout the summer; is very showy and
valuable for cutting. (D)

_Aquilegia Canadensis._(A)--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; third week of May;
flowers, medium size, red and yellow.

_Aquilegia chrysantha._(A)--Height, 3 to 4 feet; fourth week of June;
flowers, large, bright lemon-yellow, with long slender spurs; much later
than other columbines. (D)

_Aquilegia coerulea._(A)--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; fourth week of May;
flowers, large, deep blue with white center and long spurs. (D)

_Aquilegia glandulosa._--Height, 1 foot; third week of May; flowers,
large, deep blue with white center and short spurs.

_Aquilegia oxysepala._--Height, 1 foot; second week in May; flowers,
large, deep purplish blue with blue and yellow centers; a very desirable
early species.

_Aquilegia Stuarti._--Height 9 to 12 inches; third week of May; flowers,
large, deep blue with white center; one of the best.

_Arabis alpina._--Height, 6 inches; first week in May; flowers, small,
pure white, in clusters.

_Arnebia echioides._--Height, 9 inches; third week of May; flowers,
yellow, borne in clusters with petals spotted with purple. One of the
most charming of early flowering plants.

_Asclepias tuberosa._(A)--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; third week of July.
Flowers, bright orange, borne in clusters. Very showy.

_Aster alpinus._(A)--Height, 9 inches; first week of June; flowers,
large, bright purple, borne on long stems from the base of the plant;
the earliest flowering of all the asters.

_Aster Amellus_ var. _Bessarabicus._--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; July to
September; flowers, large, deep purple, singly on long stems; very
fine. (D)

_Aster Novae-Anglae_ var. _roseus._(A)--Height, 5 to 7 feet; fourth
week of August; flowers, bright pink, borne profusely in large terminal
clusters; very showy.

_Boltonia asteroides_(A)--Height, 4 to 5 feet; September; flowers,
smaller than the next, pale pink, borne very profusely in large
panicles; much later than the next species.

_Boltonia latisquama_(A)--Height, 4 feet; first week of August; flowers,
large, white, somewhat resembling asters, and borne very profusely in
large panicles.

_Campanula Carpatica._--Height, 6 to 9 inches; first week of July;
flowers, medium size, deep blue, borne profusely in loose panicles;
continues in bloom throughout the summer. A white variety of this is
also good.

_Campanula Grossekii._--Height, 3 feet; first week of July; flowers,
large, deep blue, borne on a long spike.

_Campanula persicifolia._--Height, 3 feet; flowers, large, blue, borne
in a raceme with long flower stems. There are also white and double
varieties which are good.

_Clematis recta._--Height, 4 feet; fourth week of June; flowers, small,
pure white, borne profusely in dense clusters. This is a very compact
bushy species and desirable for the rear of the border. _Clematis
Jackmani_ with large deep purple flowers and _Clematis Vitalba_ with
small white flowers, are excellent climbing sorts.

_Convallaria majalis_(A) (Lily-of-the-valley).--Height, 6 to 9 inches;
latter part of May.

_Coreopsis delphiniflora._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of July;
flowers, large, yellow, with dark centers and borne singly with
long stems.

_Coreopsis grandiflora._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; fourth week of June;
flowers, large, deep yellow, borne singly on long stems, blooming
profusely throughout the summer.

_Coreopsis lanceolata._(A)--Height, 2 feet; fourth week of June; flowers
large though slightly smaller than the last, and borne on long stems,
blooming throughout the season.(D)

_Delphinium Cashmerianum._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; first week of July;
flowers, pale to bright blue, in large open heads.(D)

_Dianthus plumarius flore pleno._--Height, 9 inches; second week of
June; flowers, large, white or pink, very sweet scented; and two or
three borne on a stem. A variety called Mrs. Simkins is especially
desirable, being very double, white and deliciously perfumed, almost
equaling a carnation. It blooms the fourth week of June.

_Dicentra spectabilis_ (Bleeding Heart).--Height, 3 feet; second week of
May; flowers, heart-shaped, red and white in pendulous racemes.

_Dictamnus albus._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; second week of June;
flowers, white with an aromatic fragrance, and borne in large terminal
racemes. A well-known variety has purple flowers with darker markings.

_Doronicum Caucasicum._--Height, 1 foot; second week of May; flowers,
large, yellow, and borne singly.

_Doronicum plantagineum_ var. _excelsum._--Height, 2 feet; third week of
May; flowers, large and deep yellow.(D)

_Epimedium rubrum._--Height, 1 foot; second week of May; flowers, small,
bright crimson and white, borne in a loose panicle. A very dainty and
beautiful little plant.

_Erigeron speciosus._(A)--Height, 1-1/2 feet; second week of July;
flowers, large, violet-blue, with yellow centers, and borne in large
clusters on long stems.

_Funkia subcordata (grandiflora)._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; August; flowers,
large and white, borne in racemes. The best funkia grown at Ottawa; both
leaves and flowers are handsome.

_Gaillardia aristata_ var. _grandiflora._(A)--Height, 1 1/2 feet; third
week of June; flowers, large, yellow, with deep orange centers, and
borne singly on long stems. The named varieties, Superba and Perfection,
are more highly colored and are of great merit. These all continue
blooming profusely until late in the autumn.(D)

_Gypsophila paniculata_ (Infant's breath).--Height, 2 feet; second week
of July; flowers, small, white, borne profusely in large open panicles.

_Helenium autumnale_(A)--Height, 6 to 7 feet; second week of July;
flowers, large, deep yellow, borne in large heads; very ornamental in
late summer.

_Helianthus doronicoides._(A)--Height, 6 to 7 feet; second week of
August; flowers, large, bright yellow, and borne singly; continues
blooming for several weeks.

_Helianthus multiflorus._(A)--Height, 4 feet; flowers, large, double,
bright yellow, and borne singly; a very striking late-flowering
perennial.

_Heuchera sanguinea_(A)--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; first week of June;
flowers, small, bright, scarlet, borne in open panicles; continues
blooming throughout the summer.

_Hemerocallis Dumortierii._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; second week of June;
flowers, large, orange-yellow, with a brownish tinge on the outside, and
three or four on a stem.(D)

_Hemerocallis flava._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; latter part of June;
flowers, bright orange-yellow and fragrant.(D)

_Hemerocallis minor._--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; second week of July;
flowers, medium size and yellow; blooms later than the two preceding
species and has a smaller flower and narrower foliage.

_Hibiscus Moscheutos._(A)--Height, 5 feet; third week of August;
flowers, very large, varying in color from white to deep pink. A variety
called "Crimson Eye" is very good. This plant makes a fine show in
late summer.

_Hypericum Ascyron_ (or _pyramidatum_).(A)--Height, 3 feet; fourth week
of July; flowers, large, yellow, and borne singly.

_Iberis sempervirens._--Height, 6 to 12 inches; third week of May;
flowers, pure white, fragrant, and borne in dense flat clusters.(D)

_Iris Chamoeiris._--Height, 6 inches; fourth week of May; flowers,
bright yellow with brown markings.

_Iris flavescens._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; first week of June;
flowers, lemon-yellow with brown markings.

_Iris Florentina._--Height, 2 feet; first week of June; flowers, very
large, pale blue or lavender, sweet scented.(D)

_Iris Germanica._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of June; flowers,
very large, of elegant form; color, deep lilac and bright purple, sweet
scented. There is a large number of choice varieties of this iris.(D)

_Iris loevigata (Koempferi)._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; first week of
July; flowers, purple and modified colors, very large and distinct in
color and shape.(D)

_Iris pumila._--Height, 4 to 6 inches; third week of May; flowers, deep
purple. There are several varieties.

_Iris Sibirica._--Height, 3 to 4 feet; fourth week of May; flowers,
deep blue, borne on long stems in clusters of two or three. This species
has many varieties.

_Iris variegata._--Height, 1 to 1 1/2 feet; first week of June; flowers,
yellow and brown, veined with various shades of brown.

_Lilium auratum._--Height, 3 to 5 feet; July; flowers, very large,
white, with a yellow central band on each petal, and thickly spotted
with purple and red. The most showy of all lilies and a splendid flower.
This has proved hardy at the Central Experimental Farm, although it has
been reported tender in some localities.(D)

_Lilium Canadense._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; latter part of May;
flowers, yellow to pale red with reddish spots, pendulous.

_Lilium elegans._--Height, 6 inches; first week of July; flowers, pale
red; several varieties are better than the type.

_Lilium speciosum._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; July; flowers, large, white,
tinged and spotted with deep pink and red. Hardier than _Lilium_
_auratum_ and almost as fine. There are several fine varieties.(D)

_Lilium superbum._(A)--Height, 4 to 6 feet; first week of July; flowers,
very numerous, orange red, thickly spotted with dark brown. An admirable
lily for the rear of the border. (D)

_Lilium tenuifolium._--Height, 1 1/2 to 2 feet; third week of June;
flowers, pendulous and bright scarlet. One of the most graceful of
all lilies.

_Lilium tigrinum._--Height, 2 to 4 feet; flowers, large, deep orange,
spotted thickly with purplish black.

_Linum perenne._--Height, 1 1/2 feet; first week of June; flowers, large
deep blue, borne in loose panicles, continuing throughout the summer.

_Lobelia cardinalis._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; August; flowers, bright
scarlet, borne in terminal racemes; very showy.

_Lychnis Chalcedonica flore pleno._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of
July; flowers, bright crimson, double, and borne in terminal racemes.

_Lysimachia clethroides._--Height, 3 feet; fourth week of July; flowers,
white, borne in long spikes. A very striking late-flowering perennial.

_Myosotis alpestris._--Height, 6 inches; third week of May; flowers,
small, bright blue with a yellowish eye. A very profuse bloomer.

_OEnothera Missouriensis._(A)--Height, 1 foot; fourth week of June;
flowers, very large, rich yellow, and borne singly, throughout
the summer.

_Poeonia officinalis._--Height, 2 to 4 feet; early part of July. The
double-flowered varieties are the best, and can be obtained in several
colors and shades, (D)

_Papaver nudicaule_(A)--Height, 1 foot; second week of May; flowers,
medium size, orange, white, or yellow, almost continuously until late
autumn. (D)

_Papaver orientale._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of June; flowers,
very large, scarlet, and variously marked, according to variety, there
being many forms.

_Pentstemon barbatus_ var. _Torreyi._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first
week of July; flowers, deep red, borne in long spikes, very ornamental.

_Phlox amoena._(A)--Height, 6 inches; second week of May; flowers,
medium size, bright pink, in compact clusters.

_Phlox decussata_(A) (the garden perennial hybrids).--Height, 1 to 3
feet; third week of July; flowers, of many beautiful shades and colors,
are found in the large number of named varieties of this phlox, which
continues to bloom until late in the autumn. (D)

_Phlox reptans._(A)--Height, 4 inches; fourth week of May; flowers,
medium size, purple, and borne in small clusters.

_Phlox subulata_(A) _(setacea)_.--Height, 6 inches; third week of May;
flowers, medium size, deep pink, and borne in small clusters.

_Platycodon grandiflorum._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; second week of
July; flowers, very large, deep blue, borne singly or in twos.(D)

_Platycodon grandiflorum_ var. _album._--A white-flowered variety of the
above and makes a fine contrast to it when they are grown together. It
blooms a few days earlier than the species.

_Platycodon Mariesii._--Height, 1 foot; second week of July; flowers,
large and deep blue.

_Polemonium coeruleum._(A)--Height, 2 feet; second week of June;
flowers, deep blue, borne in terminal spikes.

_Polemonium reptans._(A)--Height, 6 inches; third week of May; flowers,
medium in size, blue, and borne profusely in loose clusters.

_Polemonium Richardsoni._(A)--Height, 6 inches; third week of May;
flowers, medium in size, blue, borne profusely in pendulous panicles.

_Potentilla hybrida_ var. _versicolor._--Height, 1 foot; fourth week of
June; flowers, large, deep orange and yellow, semi-double.

_Primula cortusoides._--Height, 9 inches; third week of May; flowers,
small, deep rose, in compact heads.

_Pyrethrum_ (or _Chrysanthemum_) _uliginosum._--Height, 4 feet;
September; flowers, large, white with yellow centers, and borne singly
on long stems.

_Rudbeckia laciniata_(A) (Golden Glow).--Height, 5 to 6 feet; August;
flowers, large, lemon-yellow, double, and borne on long stems. One of
the best of lately introduced perennials. (D)

_Rudbeckia maxima._(A)--Height, 5 to 6 feet; July and August; flowers,
large, with a long cone-shaped center and bright yellow rays, and borne
singly. The whole plant is very striking.

_Scabiosa Caucascia._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; first week of July; flowers,
large, light blue, and borne singly on long stems, very freely
throughout remainder of the summer.

_Solidago Canadensis_(A) (Golden-rod).--Height, 3 to 5 feet; first week
of August; flowers, small, golden yellow, and borne in dense panicles.

_Spiræa_ (properly _Aruncus_)_ astilboides._--Height, 2 feet; fourth
week of June; flowers, small, white, very numerous, and borne in many
branched panicles. Both foliage and flowers are ornamental.

_Spiræa_ (or _Ulmaria_) _Filipendula._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; third week
of June; flowers, pure white, borne profusely in loose panicles. The
foliage of this species is also very good. There is a double flowered
variety which is very effective. (D)

_Spiræa (Ulmaria) purpurea_ var. _elegans._--Height, 2 to 3 feet;
first week of July; flowers, whitish with crimson anthers, borne very
profusely in panicles.

_Spiræa Ulmaria (Ulmaria pentapetala_).--Height, 3 to 4 feet; second
week of July; flowers, very numerous, dull white, borne in large
compound heads, having a soft, feathery appearance.

_Spiræa venusta (Ulmaria rubra_ var. _venusta_).--Height, 4 feet; second
week of July; flowers, small, bright pink, borne profusely in large
panicles. (D)

_Statice latifolia._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; first week of July; flowers,
small, blue, borne very profusely in loose panicles. Very effective in
the border.

_Thalictrum aquilegifolium._--Height, 4 to 5 feet; fourth week of June;
flowers, small, white to purplish, very numerous and borne in
large panicles.

_Trollius Europoeus._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; fourth week of May;
flowers, large, bright yellow, continuing a long time.

4. BULBS AND TUBERS

_(See the particular culture of the different kinds in Chapter VIII; and
instructions for forcing on p. 345.)_

It is customary to write of bulbs and tubers together, because the tops
and flowers of all the bulbous and tuberous plants spring from large
reservoirs of stored food, giving rise to similar methods of culture and
of storage.

Structurally, the bulb is very different from the tuber, however. A bulb
is practically a large dormant bud, the scales representing the leaves,
and the embryo stem lying in the center. Bulbs are condensed plants in
storage. The tuber, on the other hand, is a solid body, with buds
arising from it. Some tubers represent thickened stems, as the Irish
potato, and some thickened roots, as probably the sweet-potato, and some
both stem and root, as the turnip, parsnip, and beet. Some tubers are
very bulb-like in appearance, as the corms of crocus and gladiolus.

Using the word "bulb" in the gardener's sense to include all these
plants as a cultural group, we may throw them into two classes: the
hardy kinds, to be planted in fall; and the tender kinds, to be planted
in spring.

_Fall-planted bulbs._

The fall-planted bulbs are of two groups: the "Holland bulbs" or early
spring bloomers, as crocus, tulip (Fig. 255), hyacinth (Fig. 262),
narcissus (Fig. 260), squill (Fig. 256), snowdrop; the summer bloomers,
as lilies (Figs. 258, 259). The treatments of the two groups are so
similar that they may be discussed together.

[Illustration Fig: 255. Tulips, the warmest of spring flowers.]

All these bulbs may be planted as soon as they are mature; but in
practice they are kept till late September or October before they are
put into the ground, as nothing is gained by earlier planting, and,
moreover, the ground is usually not ready to receive them until some
other crop is removed.

[Illustration: Fig 256. One of the squills.--_Scilla bifolia._]

These bulbs are planted in the fall (1) because they keep better in the
ground than when stored; (2) because they will take root in fall and
winter and be ready for the first warmth of spring; (3) and because it
is usually impossible to get on the ground early enough in spring to
plant them with much hope of success for that season.

The bulbs lie dormant until spring, so far as outward appearances go;
they are mulched to insure that they will not start in warm weather of
fall or winter, and to protect the ground from heaving.

[Illustration: Fig. 257. A purple-flowered Amaryllis.--_Lycoris
squamigera,_ but known as _Amaryllis Hallii._]

To secure good bulbs and of the desired varieties, the order should be
placed in spring or early summer. For flower-garden effects, the large
and mature bulbs should be secured; for colonizing in shrubbery or on
the lawn, the smaller sizes may be sufficient. Insist that your bulbs
shall be first class, for there is wide difference in the quality; even
with the best of treatment, good results cannot be secured from
poor bulbs.

[Illustration: Fig. 258. The Japanese gold-banded lily.--_Lilium
auratum_]

It is not generally known that there are autumn-flowering bulbs. Several
species of crocus bloom in the fall, _C. sativus_ (the saffron crocus)
and _C. speciosus_ being the ones generally recommended. The colchicums
are excellent autumn-blooming bulbs and should be more generally
planted. _C. autumnale,_ rosy purple, is the usual species. These
autumn-blooming bulbs are planted in August or early September and
treated in general the same as other similar bulbs. The colchicums
usually remain in the ground several years in good condition.

All kinds of bulbs are partial to a deep, rich, water-free soil. This is
no small part of their successful culture. The spot should be well
drained, either naturally or artificially. In flattish and rather moist
lands the beds may be made above the surface, some 18 inches high, and
bordered with grass. A layer of rough stones a foot deep is sometimes
used in the bottom of ordinary beds for drainage, and with good results,
when other methods are not convenient, and when there is fear that the
bed may become too wet. If the place is likely to be rather wet, place a
large handful of sand where the bulb is to go and set the bulb on it.
This will keep the water from standing around the bulb. Very good
results may be had in heavy soil by this method.

[Illustration: Fig. 259. One of the common wild lilies.--_Lilium
Philadelphicum._]

The soil for bulbs should be well enriched with old manure. Fresh manure
should never be allowed close about the bulb. The addition of leafmold
and a little sand also improves the texture of heavy soils. For lilies
the leafmold may be omitted. Let the spading be at least a foot deep.
Eighteen inches will be none too deep for lilies. To make a bulb bed,
throw out the top earth to the depth of 6 inches. Put into the bottom
of the bed about 2 inches of well-rotted manure and spade it into the
soil. Throw back half of the top soil, level it off nicely, set the
bulbs firmly on this bed, and then cover them with the remainder of the
earth; in this way one will have the bulbs from 3 to 4 inches below the
surface, and they will all be of uniform depth and will give uniform
results if the bulbs themselves are well graded. The "design" bed may be
worked out easily in this way, for all the bulbs are fully exposed after
they are placed, and they are all covered at once.

Of course, it is not necessary that the home gardener go to the trouble
of removing the earth and replacing it if he merely wants good blooms;
but if he wants a good bed as a whole, or a mass effect, he should take
this pains. In the shrubberies and on the lawn he may "stick them in"
here and there, seeing that the top of the bulb is 3 to 6 inches beneath
the surface, the depth depending on the size of the bulb (the bigger and
stronger the bulb, the deeper it may go) and on the nature of the soil
(they may go deeper in sand than in hard clay).

[Illustration: Fig. 260. Common species of narcissus.--_a a. Narcissus
Pseudo-Narcissus_ or daffodil; _b._ Jonquil; _c. N. Poeticus._]

As the time of severe winter freezing approaches, the bed should receive
a mulch of leaves, manure or litter, to the depth of 4 inches or more,
according to the latitude and the kind of material. If leaves are used,
3 inches will be enough, because the leaves lie close together and may
smother out the frost that is in the ground and let the bulbs start. It
will be well to let the mulch extend 1 foot or more beyond the margins
of the bed. When cold weather is past, half of the mulch should be
removed. The remainder may be left on till there is no longer danger of
frost. On removing the last of the mulch, lightly work over the surface
among the bulbs with a thrust-hoe.

If the weather happens to be very bright during the blooming season, the
duration of the flowers may be prolonged by light shading--as with
muslin, or slats placed above the beds. If planted where they have
partial shade from surrounding trees or shrubbery, the beds will not
need attention of this kind.

Lilies may remain undisturbed for years. Crocuses and tulips may stand
two years, but hyacinths should be taken up each year and replanted;
tulips also will be better for the same treatment. Narcissus may remain
for some years, or until they show signs of running out.

[Illustration: Fig. 261. The Belladonna lily.--_Amaryllis Belladonna._]

Bulbs that are to be taken up should be left in the ground till the
foliage turns yellow, or dies down naturally. This gives the bulbs a
chance to ripen. Cutting off the foliage and digging too early is a not
uncommon and serious mistake. Bulbs that have been planted in places
that are wanted for summer bedding plants may be dug with the foliage on
and heeled-in under a tree, or along a fence, to stand till ripened.
The plant should be injured as little as possible, as the foliage of
this year makes the flowers of the next. When the foliage has turned
yellow or died down, the bulbs--after cleaning, and curing them for a
few hours in the sun--may be stored in the cellar or other cool, dry
place, to await fall planting. Bulbs that are lifted prematurely in this
way should be planted permanently in the borders, for they will not make
good flower-garden subjects the following year. In fact, it is usually
best to buy fresh, strong bulbs each year of tulips, hyacinths, and
crocuses if the best results are desired, using the old bulbs for
shrubberies and mixed borders.

Crocuses and squills are often planted in the lawn. It is not to be
expected that they will last more than two to three years, however, even
if care is taken not to cut the tops closely when the lawn is cut. The
narcissus (including daffodils and jonquils) will remain in good
condition for years in grassy parts of the place, if the tops are
allowed to mature.

[Illustration: Fig. 262. The common Dutch hyacinth.]

_List of outdoor fall-planted bulbs for the North._

Crocus.
Hyacinth.
Tulip.
Narcissus (including daffodil and jonquil).
Scilla, or squill.
Snowdrop _(Galanthus)._
Snowflake _(Leucoium)._
Chionodoxa.
Hardy alliums.
Bulbocodium.
Camassia.
Lily-of-the-valley.
Winter aconite (_Eranthis hycmalis_).
Dog-tooth violets (_Erythronium_).
Crown imperial (_Fritillaria Imperialis_).
Fritillary (_Fritillaria Mekagris_).
Trilliums.
Lilies.

Peonies, tuberous anemones, tuberous buttercups, iris, bleeding heart,
and the like, may be planted in autumn and are often classed with
fall-planted bulbs.

_Winter bulbs_ (p. 345).

Some of these bulbs may be made to bloom in the greenhouse,
window-garden, or living room in winter. Hyacinths are particularly
useful for this purpose, because the bloom is less affected by cloudy
weather than that of tulips and crocuses. Some kinds of narcissus also
"force" well, particularly the daffodil; and the Paper-white and
"Chinese sacred lily" are practically the only common bulbs from which
the home gardener may expect good bloom before Christmas. The method of
handling bulbs for winter bloom is described under Window-gardening
(on p. 345).

_Summer bulbs._

There is nothing special to be said of the culture of the so-called
summer-blooming and spring-planted bulbs, as a class. They are tender,
and are therefore planted after cold weather is past. For early bloom,
they may be started indoors. Of course, any list of spring-planted bulbs
is relative to the climate, for what may be planted in spring in New
York perhaps may be planted in the fall in Georgia.

The common "summer bulbs" are:--

Gladiolus
Tuberose
Dahlia
Canna
Arum
Calla
Calochortus
Alstremeria
Amaryllis
Colocasia

5. THE SHRUBBERY

(Exclusive of coniferous evergreens and climbing plants.)

The common hardy shrubs or bushes may be planted in fall or spring. In
the northernmost parts of the country and in Canada spring planting is
usually safer, although on well-drained ground and when thoroughly
mulched the plants may even there do well if planted as soon as the
leaves drop in fall. If the shrubs are purchased in spring, they are
likely to have come from "cellared stock"; that is, the nurserymen dig
much of their stock in fall and store it in cellars built for the
purpose. While stock that is properly cellared is perfectly reliable,
that which has been allowed to get too dry or which has been otherwise
improperly handled comes on very slowly in the spring, makes a poor
growth the first year, and much of it may die.

In the planting of any kind of trees or shrubs, it is well to remember
that nursery-grown specimens generally transplant more readily and
thrive better than trees taken from the wild; and this is particularly
true if the stock was transplanted in the nursery. Trees that transplant
with difficulty, as the papaw or asimina, and some nut trees, may be
prepared for removal by cutting some of their roots--and especially the
tap-root, if they have such--a year or two in advance.

[Illustration XIII. The pageant of summer. Gardens of C. W. Dowdeswell,
England, from a painting by Miss Parsons. For permission to reproduce
the above picture we are indebted to the kindness of Messrs. Sutton &
Sons, Seed Merchants, Reading, England, the owners of the copyright, who
published it in their Amateur's Guide in Horticulture for 1909.]

It is ordinarily best to plow or spade the entire area in which the
shrubs are to be set. For a year or two the ground should be tilled
between the shrubs, either by horse tools or by hoes and rakes. If the
place looks bare, seeds of quick-growing flowers may be scattered about
the edges of the mass, or herbaceous perennials may be used.

The larger shrubs, as lilacs and syringas, may be set about 4 feet
apart; but the smaller ones should be set about 2 feet apart if it is
desired to secure an immediate effect. If after a few years the mass
becomes too crowded, some of the specimens may be removed (p. 76).

Throw the shrubs into an irregular plantation, not in rows, and make the
inner edge of the mass more or less undulating and broken.

It is a good practice to mulch the plantation each fall with light
manure, leaf mold, or other material. Even though the shrubs are
perfectly hardy, this mulch greatly improves the land and promotes
growth. After the shrub borders have become two or three years old, the
drifting leaves of fall will be caught therein and will be held as a
mulch (p. 82).

When the shrubs are first planted, they are headed back one half or more
(Fig. 45); but after they are established they are not to be sheared,
but allowed to take their own way, and after a few years the outermost
ones will droop and meet the green-sward (pp. 25, 26).

Many rapid-growing trees may be utilized as shrubs by cutting them off
near the ground every year, or every other year, and allowing young
shoots to grow. Basswood, black ash, some of the maples, tulip tree,
mulberry, ailanthus, paulownia, magnolias, _Acer campestre,_ and others
may be treated in this way (Fig. 50).

Nearly all shrubs bloom in spring or early summer. If kinds blooming
late in summer or in fall are desired, they maybe looked for in
baccharis, caryopteris, cephalanthus, clethra, hamamelis, hibiscus,
hydrangea, hypericum, lespedeza, rhus _(R. Cotinus), Sambucus
Canadensis_ in midsummer, tamarisk.

Plants that bloom in very early spring (not mentioning such as birches,
alders, and hazels) may be found in amelanchier, cydonia, daphne, dirca,
forsythia, cercis (in tree list), benzoin, lonicera _(L.
fragrantissima_), salix (_S. discolor_ and other pussy willows),
shepherdia.

Shrubs bearing conspicuous berries, pods, and the like, that persist in
fall or winter may be found in the genera berberis (particularly _B.
Thunbergii_), colutea, corylus, cratægus, euonymus, ilex, physocarpus,
ostrya, ptelea, pyracantha (Plate XIX) pyrus, rhodotypos, rosa (_R.
rugosa_), staphylea, symphoricarpus, viburnum, xanthoceras.

_List of shrubbery plants for the North._

The following list of shrubs (of course not complete) comprises a
selection with particular reference to southern Michigan and central New
York, where the mercury sometimes falls to fifteen degrees below zero.
Application is also made to Canada by designating species that have been
found to be hardy at Ottawa.

The list is arranged alphabetically by the names of the genera.

The asterisk (A) denotes that the plant is native to North America.

The double dagger (DD) indicates species that are recommended by the
Central Experimental Farms, Ottawa, Ontario.

It is often difficult to determine whether a group should be listed
among shrubs or trees. Sometimes the plant is not quite a tree and is
yet something more than a shrub or bush; sometimes the plant may be
distinctly a tree in its southern range and a shrub in its northern
range; sometimes the same genus or group contains both shrubs and trees.
In the following genera there are doubtful cases: æsculus, alnus,
amelanchier, betula, caragana, castanea, cornus (_C. florida_),
cratægus, elæagnus, prunus, robinia.

Dwarf buckeye, _Æsculus parviflora (Pavia macrostachya_).(A) Attractive
in habit, foliage, and flower; produces a large foliage mass.

Alder. Several bushy species of alder are good lawn or border subjects,
particularly in wet places or along streams, as _A. viridis,(A) A.
rugosa,(A) A. incana,_(A) and others.

June-berry, _Amelanchier Canadensis_(A) and others. Flowers profusely in
spring before the leaves appear; some of them become small trees.

Azalea, _Azalea viscosa_(A) and _A. nudiflora._(A) Require partial
shade, and a woodsy soil.

Japanese azalea, _A. mollis_ (or _A. Sinensis_). Showy red and yellow or
orange flowers; hardy north.

Groundsel tree, "white myrtle," _Baccharis halimifolia._(A) Native on
the Atlantic seashore, but grows well when planted inland; valuable for
its white fluffy "bloom" (pappus) in latest fall; 4-10 ft.

Spice-bush, _Benzoin odoriferum (Lindera Benzoin_(A)). Very
early-blooming bush of wet places, the yellow, clustered, small flowers
preceding the leaves; 6--10 ft.

Barberry, _Berberis vulgaris._ Common barberry; 4-6 ft. The
purple-leaved form (var. _purpurea_(DD)) is popular.

Thunberg's barberry, _B. Thunbergii._(DD) One of the best of lawn and
border shrubs, with compact and attractive habit, deep red autumn
foliage and bright scarlet berries in profusion in fall and winter;
excellent for low hedges; 2-4 ft.

Mahonia, _Berberis Aquifolium._(A)(DD) Evergreen; needs some protection
in exposed places; 1-3 ft.

Dwarf birch, _Betula pumila._(A) Desirable for low places; 3-10 ft.

Box, _Buxus sempervirens._ An evergreen shrub, useful for hedges and
edgings in cities; several varieties, some of them very dwarf. See
page 220.

Carolina allspice, sweet-scented shrub, _Calycanthus floridus._(A) Dull
purple, very fragrant flowers; 3-8 ft.

Siberian pea-tree, _Caragana arborescens._(DD) Flowers pea-like,
yellow, in May; very hardy; 10-15 feet.

Small pea-tree, _C. pygmoea._ Very small, 1-3 ft, but sometimes grafted
on _C. arborescens._

Shrubby pea-tree, _C. frutescens._(DD) Flowers larger than those of _C.
arborescens;_ 3--10 ft.

Large-flowered pea-tree, _C. grandiflora._(DD) Larger-flowered than the
last, which it resembles; 4 ft.

Blue spirea, _Caryopteris Mastacanthus._ Flowers bright blue, in late
summer and fall; 2-4 ft., but is likely to die to ground in winter.

Chinquapin or dwarf chestnut, _Castanea pumila._(A) Becomes a small
tree, but usually bushy.

Ceanothus, _Ceanothus Americanus._(A) A very small native shrub,
desirable for dry places under trees; 2-3 ft. There are many good
European garden forms of ceanothus, but not hardy in the
northern states.

Button-bush, _Cephalanthus occidentalis._(A) Blossoms in July and
August; desirable for water-courses and other low places; 4-10 ft.

Fringe tree, _Chionanthus Virginica._(A) Shrub as large as lilac, or
becoming tree-like, with fringe-like white flowers in spring.

White alder, _Clethra alnifolia._(A) A very fine, hardy shrub, producing
very fragrant flowers in July and August; should be better known;
4-10 ft.

Bladder senna, _Colutea arborescens._ Pea-like yellowish flowers in
June, and big inflated pods; 8-12 ft.

European osier, _Cornus alba_ (known also as _C. Sibirica_ and _C.
Tatarica_). Branches deep red; 4-8 ft.; the variegated form (DD) has
leaves edged white.

Bailey's osier, _Cornus Baileyi._(A) Probably the finest of the native
osiers for color of twigs and foliage; 5-8 ft.

Red-twigged osier, _Cornus stolonifera._(A) The red twigs are very
showy in winter; 5 to 8 ft.; some bushes are brighter in color
than others.

Flowering dogwood, _C. florida._(A) Very showy tree or big shrub,
desirable for borders of groups and belts. A red-flowered variety is on
the market.

Cornelian Cherry, _Cornus Mas._ Becoming a small tree, 15-20 ft.;
flowers numerous in bunches, yellow, before the leaves; fruit,
cherry-like, edible, red.

Hazel or filbert, _Corylus maxima_ var. _purpurea._ A well-known
purple-leaved shrub, usually catalogued as _C. Avellana purpurea._ The
eastern American species (_C. Americana_(A) and _C. rostrata_(A)) are
also interesting.

Cotoneaster. Several species of cotoneaster are suitable for cultivation
in the middle and southern latitudes. They are allied to cratægus. Some
are evergreen. Some kinds bear handsome persistent fruits.

Wild thorns, _Cratoegus punctata,_(A) _C. coccinea,_(A)(DD) _C.
Crus-galli,_(A)(DD) and others. The native thorn apples or hawthorns, of
numerous species, are amongst our best large shrubs for planting and
should be much better known; 6-20 ft.

Japanese quince, _Cydonia_ (or _Pyrus_) _Japonica._ An old favorite
blooming in earliest spring, in advance of the leaves; not hardy at
Lansing, Mich.; 4-5 ft.

Maule's Japanese quince, _C. Maulei._(DD) Bright red; fruit handsome;
hardier than _C. Japonica;_ 1-3 ft.

Daphne, _Daphne Mezereum._ Produces rose-purple or white flowers in
abundance in earliest spring before the leaves appear. Should be planted
on the edges of groups; leaves deciduous; 1-4 ft.

Garland flower, _D. Cneorum._(DD) Pink flowers in very early spring and
again in autumn; leaves evergreen; 1-1/2 ft.

Deutzia, _Deutzia scabra_ (or _crenata_) and varieties. Standard
shrubs; the variety "Pride of Rochester," with pinkish flowers, is
perhaps the best form for the North; 4-6 ft. Of this and the next there
are forms with ornamental foliage.

Small deutzia, _D. gracilis._ Very close little bush, with pure white
flowers; 2-3 ft.

Lemoine's deutzia, _D. Lemoinei._ A hybrid, very desirable; 1-3 ft.

Weigela, _Diervilla Japonica_ and other species. Free bloomers, very
fine, in many colors, 4-6 ft.; the forms known as _Candida,(DD)
rosea,_(DD) _Sieboldii variegata,_(DD) are hardy and good.

Leatherwood, _Dirca palustris._(A) If well grown, the leatherwood makes
a very neat plant; blossoms appear before the leaves, but not showy;
4-6 ft.

Russian olive, oleaster, _Eloeagnus angustifolia._(DD) Foliage silvery
white; very hardy; becoming a small tree, 15-20 ft.

Wolf-willow, _E. argentea._(A)(DD) Large and silvery leaves; suckers
badly; 8-12 ft.

Goumi, _E. longipes_ (sometimes called _E. edulis_). Attractive
spreading bush, with handsome edible cranberry-like berries; 5-6 ft.

Burning-bush, _Euonymus atropurpureus._(A) Very attractive in fruit;
8-12 ft., or even becoming tree-like.

Several other species are in cultivation, some of them evergreen. In the
North, success may be expected with _E. Europoeus_ (sometimes a small
tree), _E. alatus, E. Bungeanus, E. latifolius,_ and perhaps others.

Exochorda, _Exochorda grandiflora._ A large and very showy shrub,
producing a profusion of apple-like white flowers in early spring; 6-12
ft; allied to the spireas.

Forsythia, _Forsythia viridissima._ Blossoms yellow, appearing before
the leaves; requires protection in many places North; 6-10 ft.

Drooping forsythia, _F. suspensa._ Makes an attractive mass on a bank or
border; 6-12 ft.

Dyer's weed, _Genista tinctoria._(DD)

Yellow pea-like flowers in June; 1-3 ft.

Silver-bell tree, _Halesia tetraptera._(A)

Bell-shaped white flowers in May; 8-10 ft.

Witch hazel, _Hamamelis Virginiana._(A)

Blossoms in October and November; unique and desirable if well grown;
8-12 ft.

Althea, Rose of Sharon, _Hibiscus Syriacus_ (_Althoea frutex_).

In many forms, purple, red, and white, and perhaps the best of late
summer-blooming shrubs; 8-12 ft.

Hydrangea, _Hydrangea paniculata,_ var. _grandiflora._(DD)

One of the best and most showy small flowering shrubs; 4-10 ft.

Downy hydrangea, _H. radiata._(A)

Attractive in both foliage and flower.

Oak-leaved hydrangea, _H. quercifolia._(A)

This is especially valuable for its luxuriant foliage; even if killed to
the ground in winter, it is still worth cultivating for its
strong shoots.

The greenhouse hydrangea (_H. hortensis_ in many forms) may be used as
an outdoor subject in the South.

St. John's wort, _Hypericum Kalmianum,(A)(DD) H. prolificum,_(A) and _H.
Moserianum._

Small undershrubs, producing bright yellow flowers in profusion in July
and August; 2-4 ft.

Winter-berry, _Ilex verticillata._(A)(DD)

Produces showy red berries, that persist through the winter; should be
massed in rather low ground; flowers imperfect; 6-8 ft.

The evergreen hollies are not suitable for cultivation in the North; but
in the warmer latitudes, the American holly (_Ilex opaca_), English
holly (_I. Aquifolium_), and Japanese holly (_I. crenata_) may be grown.
There are several native species.

Mountain laurel, _Kalmia latifolia._(A)

One of the best shrubs in cultivation, evergreen, 5-10 ft., or even
becoming a small tree south; usually profits by partial shade; thrives
in a peaty or loamy rather loose soil, and said to be averse to
limestone and clay; extensively transferred from the wild for landscape
effects in large private places; should thrive as far north as it
grows wild.

Kerria, corchorus, _Kerria Japonica._ A bramble-like shrub, producing
attractive yellow single or double flowers from July until September;
twigs very green in winter. There is a variegated-leaved form. Good for
banks and borders; 2-3 ft.

Sand myrtle, _Leiophyllum buxifolium._(A) Evergreen, more or less
procumbent; 2-3 ft.

Lespedeza, _Lespedeza bicolor._(DD) Reddish or purple small flowers in
late summer and fall; 4-8 ft.

Lespedeza, _L. Sieboldii_ (_Desmodium penduliflorum_).(DD) Rose-purple
large flowers in fall; killed to the ground in winter, but it blooms the
following year; 4-5 ft.

Lespedeza, _L. Japonica_ (_Desmodium Japonicum_). Flowers white, later
than those of _L. Sieboldii;_ springs up from the root.

Privet, _Ligustrum vulgare, L. ovalifolium_ (_L. Californicum_), and _L.
Amurense._(DD) Much used for low hedges and borders; 4-12 ft.; several
other species.

Tartarian honeysuckle, _Lonicera Tatarica._(DD) One of the most chaste
and comely of shrubs; 6-10 ft.; pink-flowered; several varieties.

Regel's honeysuckle, _L. spinosa_ (_L. Alberti_).(DD) Blooms a little
later than above, pink; 2-4 ft.

Fragrant honeysuckle, _L. fragrantissima._ Flowers exceedingly fragrant,
preceding leaves; 2-6 ft.; one of the earliest things to bloom in
spring. There are other upright honeysuckles, all interesting.

Mock-orange (Syringa incorrectly), _Philadelphus coronarius._(DD) In
many forms and much prized; 6-12 ft. Other species are in cultivation,
but the garden nomenclature is confused. The forms known as _P.
speciosus, P. grandiflorus,_ and var. _speciosissimus_(DD) are good;
also the species _P. pubescens,_(A) _P. Gordonianus,_(A) and _P.
microphyllus,_(A) the last being dwarf, with small white very
fragrant flowers.

Nine-bark, _Physocarpus opulifolius_ (_Spiræa opulifolia_).(A) A good
vigorous hardy bush, with clusters of interesting pods following the
flowers; the var. _aurea_ (DD) is one of the best yellow-leaved
shrubs; 6-10 ft.

Andromeda, _Pieris floribunda._(A)

A small ericaceous evergreen; should have some protection from the
winter sun; for this purpose, it may be planted on the north side of a
clump of trees; 2-6ft.

Shrubby cinquefoil, _Potentilla fruticosa._(A)(DD)

Foliage ashy; flowers yellow, in June; 2-4 ft.

Sand cherry, _Prunus pumila_(A) and _P. Besseyi._(A)

The sand cherry of sandy shores grows 5-8 ft.; the western sand cherry
(_P. Besseyi_) is more spreading and is grown for its fruit. The
European dwarf cherry (_P. fruticosa_) is 2-4 ft., with white flowers
in umbels.

Flowering almond, _Prunus Japonica._

In its double-flowered form, familiar for its early bloom; 3-5 ft; often
grafted on other stocks, which are liable to sprout and become
troublesome.

Hop-tree, _Ptelea trifoliata._(A)

Very interesting when bearing its roundish winged fruits; 8-10 ft., but
becoming larger and tree-like.

Buckthorn, _Rhamnus cathartica._

Much used for hedges; 8-12 ft.

Alpine buckthorn, _R. alpina._

Foliage attractive; 5-6 ft.

Rhododendron, _Rhododendron Catawbiense_(A) and garden varieties.

Hardy in well-adapted locations, 3-8 ft., and higher in its native
regions.

Great laurel, _R. maximum_(A)

A fine species for mass planting, native as far north as southern
Canada. Extensively transplanted from the wild.

White kerria, _Rhodotypos kerrioides._

White flowers in May and blackish fruit; 3-5 ft.

Smoke-tree (Fringe-tree erroneously), _Rhus Cotinus._

One of the best shrubs for massing; two colors are grown; the billowy
"bloom," holding late in the season, is composed of flower stems rather
than flowers; size of large lilac bushes.

Dwarf sumac, _R. copallina._(A)

Attractive in foliage, and especially conspicuous in autumn from the
brilliant red of its leaves; 3-5 ft., sometimes much taller.

Sumac, smooth and hairy, _R. glabra_(A) and _R. typhina._(A)

Useful for the borders of large groups and belts. They may be cut down
every year and allowed to sprout (as in Fig. 50). The young tops are
handsomest. _R. glabra_ is the finer species for this purpose. They
usually grow 10-15 ft. tall.

Osbeck's sumac, _R. semialata_ var. _Osbeckii._

Strong bush, 10-20 ft., with leaf-rachis strongly winged, the foliage
pinnately compound.

Flowering, or fragrant currant, _Ribes aureum._(A)(DD)

Well known and popular, for its sweet-scented yellow flowers in May; 5-8
ft.

Red-flowering currant, _R. sanguineum._(A)

Flowers red and attractive; 5-6 ft. _R. Gordonianum,_ recommendable, is
a hybrid between _R. sanguineum_ and _R. aureum._

Rose acacia, _Robinia hispida._(A)(DD)

Very showy in bloom; 8-10ft.

Roses, _Rosa,_ various species.

Hardy roses are not always desirable for the lawn. For general lawn
purposes the older sorts, single or semi-double, and which do not
require high culture, are to be preferred. It is not intended to include
here the common garden roses; see Chapter VIII for these. It is much to
be desired that the wild roses receive more attention from planters.
Attention has been too exclusively taken by the highly improved
garden roses.

[Illustration: Fig. 263. Rosa rugosa.]

Japanese rose, _Rosa rugosa._(DD)

Most excellent for lawn planting, as the foliage is thick and not
attacked by insects (Fig. 263); white and pink flowered forms; 4-6 ft.

Wild swamp rose, _R. Carolina._(A) 5-8 ft.

Wild dwarf rose, _R. humilis_(A) (_R. lucida_ of Michigan). This and
other wild dwarf roses, 3-6 ft., may be useful in landscape work.

Say's Rose, _R. acicularis_ var. _Sayi._(A) Excellent for lawns; 4-5 ft.

Red-leaved rose, _R. ferruginea (R. rubrifolia_).(DD) Excellent foliage;
flowers single, pink; 5-6 ft.

Japanese bramble, _Rubus cratægifolius._ Valuable for holding banks;
spreads rapidly; very red in winter; 3-4 ft.

Flowering raspberry, mulberry (erroneously), _R. odoratus_(A) Attractive
when well grown and divided frequently to keep it fresh; there is a
whitish form; 3-4 ft.

Japanese wineberry, _R. phaenicolasius._ Attractive foliage and red
hairy canes; fruit edible; 3-5 ft.

Kilmarnock willow, _Salix Capraea,_ var. _pendula._ A small weeping
plant grafted on a tall trunk; usually more curious than ornamental.

Rosemary willow, _S. rosmarinifolia_(DD) of nurserymen _(R. incana_
properly). 6-10 ft.

Shining willow, _S. lucida._(A) Very desirable for the edges of water;
6-12 ft.

Long-leaved willow, _S. interior._(A) Our narrowest-leaved native
willow; useful for banks; liable to spread too rapidly; 8-12ft.

Fountain willow, _S. purpurea._ Attractive foliage and appearance,
particularly if cut back now and then to secure new wood; excellent for
holding springy banks; 10-20 ft.

Pussy willow, _S. discolor_(A) Attractive when massed at some distance
from the residence; 10-15 ft.

Laurel-leaved willow, _S. pentandra (S. laurifolia_ of cultivators)(DD)
See under Trees, p. 329. Many of the native willows might well be
cultivated.

Elders, _Sambucus pubens_(A) and _S. Canadensis._(A) The former, the
common "red elder," is ornamental both in flower and fruit. _S.
Canadensis_ is desirable for its profusion of fragrant flowers appearing
in July; the former is 6--7 ft. high and the latter 8-10 ft.
Golden-leaved elder, _S. nigra_ var. _foliis aureis,_(DD) and also the
cut-leaved elder, are desirable forms of the European species; 5-15 ft.

Buffalo-berry, _Shepherdia argentea_(A) Silvery foliage; attractive and
edible berries; 10-15 ft., often tree-like.

Shepherdia, _S. Canadensis._(A) Spreading bush, 3--8 ft., with
attractive foliage and fruit.

Early spirea, _Spiræa arguta._(DD) One of the earliest bloomers among
the spireas; 2-4 ft.

Three-lobed spirea, bridal wreath,_S. Van Houttei._(DD) One of the most
showy early-flowering shrubs; excellent for massing; blooms a little
later than the above; 3-6 ft.

Sorbus-leaved spirea, _S. sorbifolia (Sorbaria sorbifolid_).(DD)
Desirable for its late blooming,--late June and early July; 4-5 ft.

Plum-leaved spirea, _S. prunifolia._

Fortune's spirea, _S. Japonica (S. callosa_),(DD) 2 to 4 ft.

Thunberg's spirea, _S. Thunbergii._ Neat and attractive in habit; useful
for border-hedges; 3-5 ft.

St. Peter's Wreath, _S. hypericifolia;_ 4-5 ft.

Round-leaved spirea, _S. bracteata._(DD) Follows Van Houttei; 3-6 ft.

Douglas' spirea, _S. Douglasii._(A) Blossoms late,--in July; 4-8 ft.

Hard-hack, _S. tomentosa._(A) Much like the last, but less showy; 3-4
ft.

Willow-leaved spirea,_S. salicifolia._(A)(DD) Blooms late; 4-5 ft.

Bladder-nut, _Staphylea trifolia_(A) Well-known rather coarse native
shrub; 6-12 ft.

Colchican bladder-nut, _S. Colchica._ Good early flowering shrub; 6-12
ft.

[Illustration: Fig. 264. A spirea, one of he most servicable flowering
shrubs.]

Styrax, _Styrax Japonica._ One of the most graceful of flowering shrubs,
producing fragrant flowers in early summer; 8-10 ft. or more.

Snow-berry, _Symphoricarpos racemosus._(A)(DD) Cultivated for its
snow-white berries, that hang in autumn and early winter; 3-5 ft.

Indian currant, _S. vulgaris._(DD) Foliage delicate; berries red;
valuable for shady places and against walls; 4-5 ft.

Common lilac, _Syringa vulgaris._(DD) (The name syringa is commonly
misapplied to the species of _Philadelphus._) The standard
spring-blooming shrub in the North; 8-15 ft.; many forms.

Josika lilac, _S. Josikaeca._(DD) Blooming about a week later than S.
_vulgaris;_ 8-10 ft.

Persian lilac, _S. Persica._ More spreading and open bush than _S.
vulgaris;_ 6-10 ft.

Japanese lilac, _S. Japonica._(DD) Blooms about one month later than
common lilac; 15-20 ft.

Rouen lilac, _S. Chinensis_ (or _Rothomagensis_)(DD) Blooms with the
common lilac; flowers more highly colored than those of _S.
Persica;_ 5-12 ft.

Chinese lilacs, _S. oblata_(DD) and _villosa_.(DD) The former 10-15 ft.
and blooming with common lilac; the latter 4-6 ft., and blooming few
days later.

Tamarisk, _Tamarix_ of several species, particularly (for the North) _T.
Chinensis, T. Africana_ (probably the garden forms under this name are
all _T. parviflora_), and _T. hispida (T. Kashgarica_).

All odd shrubs or small trees with very fine foliage, and minute pink
flowers in profusion.

Common snowball, _Viburnum Opulus._(A)(DD) The cultivated snowball (DD)
is a native of the Old World; but the species grows wild in this country
(known as High-bush Cranberry),(DD) and is worthy of cultivation;
6-10 ft.

Japanese snowball, _V. tomentosum_ (catalogued as _V. plicatum_). 6-10
ft.

Wayfaring tree, _V. Lantana._(DD) Fruit ornamental; 8-12 ft., or more.

Plum-leaved haw, _V. prunifolium._(A)(DD) Leaves smooth and glossy;
8-15 ft.

Sweet viburnum or sheep-berry, _Viburnum Lentago._(A) Tall coarse bush,
or becoming a small tree.

Arrow-wood, _V. dentatum._(A) Usually 5-8 ft., but becoming taller.

Dockmackie, _V. acerifolium._(A) Maple-like foliage; 4-5 ft.

Withe-rod, lilac viburnum, _V. cassinoides.(A) 2-5_ ft. Other native and
exotic viburnums are desirable.

Xanthoceras, _Xanthoceras sorbifolia._ Allied to the buckeyes; hardy in
parts of New England; 8--10ft.; handsome.

Prickly ash, _Zanthoxylum Americanum._(A)

_Shrubs for the South._

Many of the shrubs in the preceding catalogue are also well adapted to
the southeastern states. The following brief list includes some of the
most recommendable kinds for the region south of Washington, although
some of them are hardy farther North. The asterisk (A) denotes that the
plant is native to this country.

The crape myrtle _(Lagerstroemia Indica_) is to the South what the
lilac is to the North, a standard dooryard shrub; produces handsome red
(or blush or white) flowers all summer; 8-12 feet.

Reliable deciduous shrubs for the South are: althea, _Hibiscus
Syriacus,_ in many forms; _Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis; Azalea
calendulacea,(A) mollis,_ and the Ghent azalea _(A. Pontica)_; blue
spirea, _Caryopteris Mastacanihus;_ European forms of ceanothus; French
mulberry, _Callicarpa Americana_(A); calycanthus(A); flowering willow,
_Chilopsis linearis_(A); fringe, _Chionanthus Vir ginica_(A); white
alder, _Clethra alnifolia_(A); corchorus, _Kerria Japonica;_ deutzias,
of several kinds; goumi, _Eloeagnus longipes;_ pearl bush, _Exochorda
grandiflora;_ Japan quince, _Cydonia Japonica;_ golden-bell, _Forsythia
viridissima;_ broom, _Spartium junceum;_ hydrangeas, including _H.
Otaksa,_ grown under cover in the North; _Jasminum nudiflorum;_ bush
honey suckles; mock orange, _Philadelphus coronarius_ and
_grandiflorus_(A); pomegranate; white kerria, _Rhodotypos kerrioides;_
smoke tree, _Rhus Cotinus;_ rose locust, _Robinia hispida_(A); spireas
of several kinds; _Stuartia pentagyna_(A); snowberry, _Symphoricarpos
racemosus_(A); lilacs of many kinds; viburnums of several species,
including the European and Japanese snowballs; weigelas of the various
kinds; chaste-tree, _Vitex Agnus-Castus;_ Thunberg's barberry; red
pepper, _Capsicum frutescens; Plumbago Capensis;_ poinsettia.

A large number of broad-leaved evergreen shrubs thrive in the South,
such as: fetter bush, _Andromeda floribunda_(A); some of the palms, as
palmettoes(A) and chamærops; cycas and zamia(A) far South; _Abelia
grandiflora;_ strawberry tree, _Arbutus Unedo;_ ardisias and aucubas,
both grown under glass in the North; azaleas and rhododendrons (not only
_R. Catawbiense_(A) but _R. maximum(A) R, Ponticum,_ and the garden
forms); _Kalmia latifolia(A); Berberis Japonica_ and mahonia(A); box;
_Cleyera Japonica;_ cotoneasters and pyracantha; eleagnus of the types
grown under glass in the North; gardenias; euonymus(A); hollies(A);
anise-tree, _Illicium anisatum;_ cherry laurels, _Prunus_ or
_Laurocerasus_ of several species; mock orange (of the South), _Prunus
Caroliniana_(A) useful for hedges; true laurel or bay-tree, _Laurus
nobilis;_ privets of several species; _Citrus trifoliata,_ specially
desirable for hedges; oleanders; magnolias(A); myrtle, _Myrtus communis;
Osmanthus (Olea) fragrans,_ a greenhouse shrub North; _Osmanthus
Aquifolium_(A); butcher's broom, _Ruscus aculeatus;_ phillyreas(A);
_Pittosporum Tobira;_ shrubby yuccas(A); _Viburnum Tinus_ and others;
and the camellia in many forms.

[Illustration XIV: Virginia creeper screen, on an old fence, with
wall-flowers and hollyhocks in front.]

6. CLIMBING PLANTS

Vines do not differ particularly in their culture from other herbs and
shrubs, except as they require that supports be provided; and, as they
overtop other plants, they demand little room on the ground, and they
may therefore be grown in narrow or unused spaces along fences
and walls.

In respect to the modes of climbing, vines may be thrown into three
groups,--those that twine about the support; those that climb by means
of special organs, as tendrils, roots, leaf stalks; those that neither
twine nor have special organs but that scramble over the support, as the
climbing roses and the brambles. One must recognize the mode of climbing
before undertaking the cultivation of any vine.

Vines may also be grouped into annuals, both tender (as morning-glory)
and hardy (as sweet pea); biennials, as adlumia, which are treated
practically as annuals, being sown each year for bloom the next year;
herbaceous perennials, the tops dying each fall down to a persisting
root, as cinnamon vine and madeira vine; woody perennials (shrubs), the
tops remaining alive, as Virginia creeper, grape, and wistaria.

There is scarcely a garden in which climbing plants may not be used to
advantage. Sometimes it may be to conceal obtrusive objects, again to
relieve the monotony of rigid lines. They may also be used to run over
the ground and to conceal its nakedness where other plants could not
succeed. The shrubby kinds are often useful about the borders of clumps
of trees and shrubbery, to slope the foliage down to the grass, and to
soften or erase lines in the landscape.

In the South and in California, great use is made of vines, not only on
fences but on houses and arbors. In warm countries, vines give character
to bungalows, pergolas, and other individual forms of architecture.

If it is desired that the vines climb high, the soil should be fertile;
but high climbing in annual plants (as in sweet peas) may be at the
expense of bloom.

The use of vines for screens and pillar decorations has increased in
recent years until now they may be seen in nearly all grounds. The
tendency has been towards using the hardy vines, of which the
ampelopsis, or Virginia creeper, is one of the most common. This is a
very rapid grower, and lends itself to training more readily than many
others. The Japan ampelopsis (_A. tricuspidata_ or _Veitchii_) is a good
clinging vine, growing very rapidly when once established, and
brilliantly colored after the first fall frosts. It clings closer than
the other, but is not so hardy. Either of these may be grown from
cuttings or division of the plants.

Two recommendable woody twiners of recent distribution are the actinidia
and the akebia, both from Japan. They are perfectly hardy, and are rapid
growers. The former has large thick glossy leaves, not affected by
insects or disease, growing thickly along the stem and branches, making
a perfect thatch. It blooms in June. The flowers, which are white with a
purple center, are borne in clusters, followed by round or longish
edible fruits. The akebia has very neat-cut foliage, quaint purple
flowers, and often bears ornamental fruit.

Of the tender vines, the nasturtiums and ipomeas and morning-glories are
the most common in the North, while the adlumia, balloon vine, passion
vine, gourds, and others, are frequently used. One of the best of recent
introduction is the annual hop, especially the variegated variety. This
is a very rapid-growing vine, seeding itself each year, and needing
little care. The climbing geraniums (_Pelargonium peltatum_ and its
derivatives) are much used in California. All the tender vines should be
planted after danger of frost is past.

So many good vines are now on the market that one may grow a wide
variety for many uses. The home gardener should keep his eyes open for
the wild vines of his neighborhood and add the best of them to his
collection. Most of these natives are worthy of cultivation. Even the
poison ivy makes a very satisfactory cover for rough and inaccessible
places in the wild, and its autumn color is very attractive; but of
course its cultivation cannot be recommended.

Vines that cling closely to walls of buildings are Virginia creeper (one
form does not cling well), Boston or Japanese ivy _(Ampelopsis
tricuspidata;_ also _A. Lowii,_ with smaller foliage), English ivy,
euonymus _(E. radicans_ and the var. _variegata_), and _Ficus repens_
far south; others that cling less closely are trumpet creeper, and
climbing hydrangea _(Schizophragma hydrangeoides)._

Vines for trailing, or covering the ground, are periwinkle _(Vinca),_
herniaria, moneywort _(Lysimachia nummularia_), ground-ivy _(Nepeta
Glechoma), Rosa Wichuraiana,_ species of native greenbrier or smilax
(not the so-called smilax of florists), _Rubus laciniatus,_ dewberries,
and also others that usually are not classed as vines. In the South,
Japanese honeysuckle and Cherokee rose perform this function
extensively. In California, species of mesembryanthemum (herbaceous) are
extensively used as ground covers on banks. Page 86.

For quickly covering brush and rough places, the many kinds of gourds
may be used; also pumpkins and squashes, watermelons, _Cucumis
foetidissima,_ wild cucumbers _(Echinocystis lobata_ and _Sicyos
angulata_), nasturtiums, and other vigorous annuals. Many of the woody
perennials may be used for such purposes, but usually these places are
only temporary.

For arbors, strong woody vines are desired. Grapes are excellent; in the
South the muscadine and scuppernong grapes are adaptable to this purpose
(Plate XV). Actinidia and wistaria are also used. Akebia, dutchman's
pipe, trumpet creeper, clematis, honeysuckles, may be suggested. Roses
are much used in warm climates.

For covering porches, the standard vine in the North is Virginia
creeper. Grapes are admirable, particularly some of the wild ones. Japan
honeysuckle is much used; and it has the advantage of holding its
foliage well into the winter, or even all winter southward. Actinidia,
akebia, wistaria, roses, dutch-man's pipe, and clematis are to be
recommended; the large-flowered clematises, however, are more valuable
for their bloom than for their foliage (_C. paniculata,_ and the native
species are better for covering porches).

The annual vines are mostly used as flower-garden subjects, as the sweet
pea, morning-glories, mina, moonflowers, cypress vine, nasturtiums,
cobea, scarlet runner. Several species of convolvulus, closely allied to
the common morning-glory, have now enriched our lists. For baskets and
vases the maurandia and the different kinds of thunbergias are
excellent.

The moonflowers are very popular in the South, where the seasons are
long enough to allow them to develop to perfection. In the North they
must be started early (it is a good plan to soak or notch the seeds) and
be given a warm exposure and good soil (see in Chap. VIII).

MANUAL OF GARDENING 2





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