Theory Of Silk Weaving, by Arnold Wolfensberger
[pg 1]
THEORY OF SILK WEAVING [pg 3] THEORY

7  threads  from  back to front. 
3  "  "  front to rear. 
6  "  "  back to front. 
2  "  "  front to rear. 
On 6 shafts straight draw, pointed weave 51.
On 8 shafts straight through, pointed weave 51, 11.
Broken pointed twill, on 8 harness.
On 6 shafts point draw, pointed weave 51.
On 8 shafts point draw, pointed weave 51, 11.
Fancy twill, on 16 shafts straight draw.
The distinct diagonal lines which characterize the class of weaves explained in the previous chapter are absent in the satin weaves; and while the interlacing in the former is done in a strictly consecutive order, we endeavor to scatter the points of stitching in the latter as much as possible, in order [pg 33] to create an entirely smooth and brilliant surface on the cloth.
In all satins the number of ends in a repeat is the same in warp and filling.
The lowest repeat of a regular satin comprises five threads of each system, and the interlacing is done in the following order:
The  1st  pick  with the  1st  warpthread 
"  2d  "  "  3d  " 
"  3d  "  "  5th  " 
"  4th  "  "  2d  " 
"  5th  "  "  4th  " 
Fig. 43 illustrates this weave. An examination of the rotation, as given above, will show that every warpthread intersects two picks apart from its neighbor. The number "2" is in this case what is technically known as the counter, that is the number which indicates the points of interlacing by adding it to number 1 and continuing so until all the warpthreads are taken up.
The following is the rule to find the counter for any regular satin:
Divide the number of harness into two parts, which must neither be equal nor have a common divisor. Any of these two numbers can be used for counting off, but usually the smaller one is taken. According to this rule we obtain a regular satin
On  5  harness  with counter  2 
"  7  "  "  2 or 3 
"  8  "  "  3 
"  9  "  "  2 or 4 
"  10  "  "  3 
"  11  "  "  2, 3, 4 or 5 
"  12  "  "  5 
"  13  "  "  2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 
"  14  "  "  3 or 5 
"  15  "  "  2, 4 or 7 
"  16  "  "  3, 5 or 7. 
The 4 harness broken twill, Fig. 53, is sometimes classed among the satins.
The 6 harness satin, Fig. 54, is irregular; as a counter cannot be derived from number 6 by the given rule. The rotation generally used is 1, 3, 6, 4, 2, 5.
5 harness Satin, "Satin de Chine."
Straight draw, counter 2.
7 harness Satin, "Satin Merveilleux."
Skip draw, counter 2.
7 harness satin
Straight draw, counter 3.
8 harness satin "Duchese"
Skip draw, counter 3.
9 harness satin
Straight draw, counter 4.
10 harness satin
Straight draw, counter 3.
11 harness satin
Skip draw, counter 5.
12 harness satin
Skip draw, counter 5.
16 harness satin
On 2 sections of 8 shafts each, drawn end and end, counter 7.
8 harness satin, warp effect.
Straight draw, counter 3.
Satin Turc.
On 4 shafts straight through.
Satin à la Reine
On 6 shafts straight draw.
Royale is a modification of the regular Gros de Tours, inasmuch as the rib line, which in the latter runs straight across the cloth, is broken off after a given number of warpthreads. These groups, which may comprise 8, 12 or more threads, will interlace each one pick higher than the preceding one.
Royale of 8 ends
On 2 sections of 4 shafts each.
Velours Ottoman or Faille française.
In order to obtain a broader rib than that of Gros de Tours, and at the same time to lend firmness to the fabric, we add to the ground warp, which forms the ribs, another [pg 42] or binder warp, which works continually taffeta, while the ground warp changes only every 3 or 4 picks for the rib.
Faille française.
4  ends of  ground  on the  first  section of  8  shafts,  skip draw. 
1  "  binder  "  second  "  2  " 
Velours Ottoman without a Binderwarp.
In this weave, of which Fig. 57 illustrates a specimen, comprising 8 warpthreads and 32 picks in a repeat, the rib contains 4 picks. Of the 8 warpthreads, 3 float over and 3 under the rib, while the 2 others bind taffeta, which latter function is executed by 2 other threads in the next rib.
[pg 43]One variety is obtained by interlacing the warpthreads alternately one or more picks behind, and then a number of picks ahead of their respective neighbors; so the complete arrangement of the points of binding in a repeat will generally form two parallel diagonal lines. This will cause the twill lines to appear less pronounced than is the case in the regular twill, and the character of the fabric approaches more that of the satin.
[pg 44]Satin Sergé.
On 8 shafts, straight draw.
Côte Satinée.
On 16 harness, skip draw.
RhadzimirSurah 22. After a certain number of picks of the regular surah all the warpthreads are crossed in two's thereby causing a sort of a rib or cut line across the fabric.
[pg 45]Rhadzimir of 4 picks.
On 8 shafts, straight draw.
Rhadzimir of 6 picks.
On 8 shafts, straight draw.
Satin Soleil shows a satinlike surface with a cross line appearance. Fig. 62 illustrates it as made on 8 shafts, straight draw.
Satin Grec is a 12harness satin, in which a taffeta point is added to each place of interlacing, thus giving the cloth a much firmer hand. Fig. 63 represents this weave on 12 shafts, skip draw.
[pg 47]Peau de Soie. An 8shaft satin with one point added on the right or left to the original spots, giving the fabric a somewhat grainy appearence. Fig. 64 represents a peau de soie on 8 shafts, straight through.
Fleur de Soie. The face is a satin de Lyon (21 twill), with a backing interlaced on the 12shaft satin principle, Fig. 65, on 12 shafts, skip draw.
are in their construction related to the taffeta, and are used mostly in the form of stripes as an additional ornament to a fabric. The threads going into the composition of these effects exchange continually from taffeta interlacing to floating over a certain number of threads, and must be introduced either in warp or filling close enough to make the floats cover up the taffeta work entirely, and thus enable the material used to show up with the full brilliancy it possesses.
Cannele effects can be produced in two distinct ways. One is to let every individual thread work alternately taffeta and float, while in the other method one thread weaves always taffeta, and a second thread is used for the cannele exclusively. These latter threads must come from a separate warp, which is introduced to embellish the ground or taffeta part of the fabric.
The floating threads can either stitch all on one pick and so form a continuous cut line, or be divided in groups, of which one will bind in the middle of the floats of the other group. The following designs show both the face and backside of the respective weaves:
[pg 50]Alternating Cannele of 6 picks.
On 4 shafts, straight through.
Canelle (2 beams). Over 3 picks, interlacing on every fourth pick, drawn end and end on 2 sections of 4 shafts each.
Cannele over 5 picks, binding on the sixth, but every second thread advanced 3 picks (to the middle of the float of the first thread), drawn end and end on 2 sections of 4 shafts each.
Cannele arranged in groups of 8 threads, floating over 6 picks and binding on the seventh and eighth, drawn on 2 sections, with 4 shafts in first and 2 in second section.
Repp on 8 shafts straight through. Rotation of filling. 1 pick taffeta, 1 pick float (rib).
Repp of 8 threads, on 2 sections of 4 shafts each, 8 ends per section.
Repp of 5 threads, binding on the sixth; every second pick binds on the middle of the first pick. On 6 harness straight draw.
Repp in groups, floating over 6 ends and binding on the seventh and eighth on 8 shafts straight draw.
In this class we find either two systems of warp or of filling so combined that only one will be visible on either side. The color on one side is generally different from the other, and so may the interlacing be of a different nature on face and back. In the latter case great care must be exercised not to allow the weave on one side to disturb the one on the other, and as a rule the points of interlacing of the first warp or filling system are placed as much as possible in the middle of the floats of the second. This will prevent either color or weave to be seen on the opposite side, as the floats of one side will naturally lay themselves over the binders of the other. The number of ends in a repeat of the two weaves must either be alike or one a multiple of the other.
Levantine on 8 shafts straight draw.
Serge 62 on 2 sections of 8 shafts each.
8 shaft satin on 2 sections of 8 harness each.
12 shaft satin on 2 sections of 12 shafts each.
Cannele of 8 picks on 2 sections of 4 shafts each.
Serge 51 on 6 harness straight draw.
10 harness satin on 10 shafts skip draw.
Repp on 2 sections of 4 shafts each, 8 threads per section.
With this name we designate fabrics in which stripes of a different interlacing run in the direction of the warp. In combining these weaves it is advantageous to have them contrast distinctly, for instance, a short weave such as taffeta or Gros de Tours, with a longer and looser one such as satin, sergé or cannele, also changes from warp to filling effects. Care must be taken to arrange the joining of the two weaves so that the last thread of one weave will cross the first thread of the other. This will prevent the threads from either stripe to slide over into the other, and so make a clean cut line.
Pekin. A stripe of
2  dents of  8  ends each,  8 shaft Satin,  on 8  shafts  straight  draw. 
12  "  2  "  Taffeta  " 4  "  "  " 
Pekin. A stripe of
12  ends  Cannele  of  6 picks on 1st section of 4 shafts. 
12  "  Repp  "  6 threads on 2d and 3d section of 2 shafts each. 
Pekin. A stripe of
10  ends  5 leaf Satin  on the  1st  section of  5  shafts  straight  draw. 
4  "  Taffeta  "  3d  "  2  "  "  " 
18  "  Serge 31, 11  "  2d  "  6  "  "  " 
While pekins are formed by warp stripes, bayadère shows us stripes of different weaves running in the direction of the filling. The rules given in the previous chapter as to the joining of the weaves will also apply here. The warp which was raised on the last pick of the weave must stay down wherever possible on the first pick of the following weave. The number of shafts employed must go up evenly in the repeat of each one of the weaves that go into the make up of the bayadère.
Bayadère
A stripe of  24  picks  Gros de Tours  } on 8 shafts straight through. 
"  8  "  8shaft Satin, 
Bayadère
A stripe of  18  picks  6shaft Satin  } } on 6 shafts, straight draw. } 
"  6  "  Serge 51,  
"  4  "  Taffeta, 
If pekin and bayadère stripes are combined, we obtain checked fabrics, and of these an endless variety and pleasing effects can be produced with the aid of suitable color combinations.
Check
of 16  threads  and  12  picks  of  the 4 end broken twill, 
and 16  "  "  12  "  "  Royale of 8 threads, 
drawn on 4 sections of 4 shafts each. 
Check
of  20  threads  and  16  picks  of  8shaft Satin, 
"  20  "  "  16  "  "  Taffeta, 
4  "  "  Surah 31,  
drawn on 2 sections of 8 shafts each. 
Under the name of Disposition we comprise all those points and details which we must ascertain before we can proceed with the construction of a fabric. They are:
1. The weave.
2. Length and width of the cloth.
3. The stock and the dyeing thereof.
4. Reed calculation (number of dents and ends per inch and total number of dents required).
5. Drawingin the warp in harness and reed.
6. Texture and arrangement of warp (warping ticket)
7. Arrangement of harness.
8. Reduction of filling.
9. Calculation of warp and filling.
10. Finishing.
11. Calculation of cost.
[pg 68]If a given sample is to be reproduced or imitated, it must be analyzed, and the following hints will greatly facilitate this operation to the beginner.
Cut the sample straight on two sides, and draw out a number of warp and filling threads until there is a small fringe of perhaps ¼ of an inch. This will allow a thread to be raised a little for examination, without danger of its falling out of the fabric. In most cases it is easier to dissect the filling side, that is, the interlacing of each warpthread in the threads of the filling system. With the help of the microscope or counting glass we can easily determine over and under how many picks that thread passes and the points of interlacing are accordingly marked on designing paper. This being done for at least the length of a repeat warpways, we take it out and examine the following thread, and so on until the repeat fillingways is complete. It is advisable to ascertain how many picks ahead or back of the first examined thread the next following one binds before taking the former out.
A knowledge of the construction of weaves as explained in the foregoing chapters will enable us to determine the weave of a simple pattern by merely raising a warpthread with a needle on any point of interlacing and counting off how many picks apart from this place it makes an impression.
To the length and width which the finished product is to have, we must add a certain allowance for shrinkage and taking up of warp during weaving. It may differ from one to ten per cent., according to the texture and weave of the fabric, and can be ascertained with sufficient accuracy by stretching out and measuring a thread of warp and filling and comparing their length with the respective measurements of the sample to be reproduced.
[pg 69]Under this heading we must give the particulars as to nature, twist, quality and size of the silk, and the directions for the dyeing, whether bright or souple, and in what colors, also whether to be weighted or not.
The size is generally ascertained (in practical work) by comparing it with other silk of which the exact count is known. Another method is to count the number of cocoon threads which a thread of the sample contains, adding to that 1/3 or ¼, according to the quality of the silk; the result will be the count in deniers. To obtain it in drams, divide the latter number by 17,3 as 1 dram is equal to 17,3 deniers.
Suppose we find 20 cocoon ends in a thread of silk: add 1/3, and we have 262/3 deniers, which, divided by 17,3 make 1,54 drams.
As silk is always more or less uneven, it is safer to count the cocoon fibers of several threads and to take average thereof.
It requires the experience of years to judge with any degree of certainty as to the origin and quality of silk, whether it be "classical," "extra," "sublime," etc.
There are machines wherewith to ascertain exactly the twist, that is, the number of turns the silk has received in the throwing process.
In the dyeing we distinguish two great classes, of which the names themselves give a good definition. "Bright" has a brilliant luster, while "souple" has more of a dull, subdued appearance. To find out whether the silk has been weighted in the dyeing process, we may compare it with other silk of which the exact conditions are known, or we may burn a small quantity of it. Unweighted silk does not burn readily and leaves a residue of white ashes, while heavy weighted silk burns lively, leaving black, charry ashes.
[pg 70]We count the number of repeats of the weave in a given space, generally ¼ or ½ inch, and multiply this with the number of threads one repeat contains, which gives us the reduction of the warp.
Suppose we had a taffeta, which, as we know, has only 2 ends to a repeat, and counted 30 interlacings per ¼ inch on one pick; we would have 60 threads per ¼ inch or 240 per one inch. In this case the reed may be 80 by 3 or 60 by 4.
Another instance: In an 8shaft satin we count 10 warpthreads, which bind on the same pick in ¼ inch; this, multiplied by 8, equals 80 ends per ¼, or 320 per one inch; the reed will be an 80 with 4 in a dent or a 64 by 5.
In short, the number of the reed is found by dividing the number of warpthreads that are to go in one dent, in the number of ends per inch. Sometimes, the reed marks are clearly visible in a sample by holding the latter against the light. Silk fabrics move with very few exceptions within the limits of 50 and 90 dents per inch.
To learn the full number of dents required for the width of the cloth, simply multiply the dents per one inch with the width, adding a certain allowance for shrinkage. The edges, of course, must also be taken in consideration, and very often the dents that are taken up by the latter are used to counterbalance that shrinkage.
Here we must specify the number of dents that contain the same number of ends, and whether the latter are single or double, also the number of shafts and the method of drawingin.
[pg 71]To make out the warping ticket, we need to ascertain the total number of ends, whether leased single or double, and the arrangement of the colors.
This is governed by the number of ends to be drawn in and the necessary shafts. If we have, for instance, 100 threads per inch to be drawn on 4 shafts, we must give each shaft 25 heddles per inch. There are generally between 25 and 45 heddles per inch on one shaft.
Here we state the number of picks per inch, give directions as to doubling, if such is necessary, and if more than one color or shuttle is used, the rotation thereof.
The system adopted in this country for specifying the size of silk is based on the weight in drams (avoirdupois) of a skein containing 1000 yards. A skein, thus weighing 5 drams, is technically called 5dram silk. The number of yards of 1dram silk to a pound must accordingly be 256000. The formulas for figuring the amount of silk required for a piece of cloth are as follows:
Multiply:  Number of ends × length × count  = lbs 
Divide by:  1000 yards × 256 drams 
Multiply:  Picks × xply × width × length of piece × count  = lbs 
Divide by:  1000 yards × 256 drams 
The result in both cases will be in pounds.
The system of grading the silk which is in vogue in Europe, and which is employed by a number of mills on this side, is as follows:
1  skein of  500  meters,  weighing  0,05  grams  = 1  denier  international  
or 1  "  476  "  "  0,053  "  = 1  "  Turin  system 
or 1  "  476  "  "  0,051  "  = 1  "  Milan  " 
The warp calculation, taking the international denier, would run:
ends in warp × length × denier × 0,05 gram  
divided by:  500 meters 
for the filling:  Picks per meter × xply × width × denier × 0,05 gram 
divided by:  500 meters 
Result in metric weight, kilograms and grams.
Give directions as to the process of finishing to which the goods are to be subjected, whether to be pressed, calendered, sized, moiréd, etc.
If all the foregoing conditions are ascertained, and a sample or a piece of the fabric executed, it remains to the manufacturer to determine the exact figure at which he can produce the article. That this must be done with great accuracy is naturally of the utmost importance, and the calculator [pg 73] must know in the first place the raw stock prices, and also be acquainted with the details of the manufacturing process and the rates of wages paid therein. As a rule, the manufacturer establishes a scale of prices covering all the items of labor cost, mill expenses, etc., and uses this as a basis for his calculations.
A rule or formula for this operation cannot very well be given, as the methods vary in almost every establishment, each choosing the one best adapted to its ideas or dictates of circumstances and conditions.
[pg 75]Taffeta glacé
Length and Width—One piece 100 yards long, 18¾ inches wide. 
Stock and Dye—Warp.—  Ital. Organ., 24/26 deniers = 1,47 drams, brown, bright, 14/16 oz. 
Filling.—  Japan Tram, 28/30 deniers = 1,65 drams, gold, bright 14/16 oz. 
Reed Calculation—  Per  1  inch,  70  dents  at 3 single ends. 
"  18¾  "  1313  "  
add  13  "  = 1% for shrinkage  
——  
Total . . .  1326  dents 
Drawing in—1st edge,  9  dents  at 3 double  ends. 
Ground,  1308  "  at 3 single  " 
2d edge,  9  "  at 3 double  " 
on 6 shafts, straight through. 
Warping Ticket—1st edge,  27  double  ends,  brown. 
Ground,  3924  single  "  " 
2d edge,  27  double  "  " 
——  
Total . . .  4032  single  ends.  
Length of warp 110 yards, including 10% for take up. 
Harness—6  shafts,  3978  heddles  per  19  inches. 
1  "  35  "  "  1  " 
Reduction of Filling—Per inch, 100/102 picks, 2 ends. 
Warp Calculation—? lbs =  4032 ends. 
1 end =  110 yards. 
1000 yards =  1,47 drams. 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  104 (4% waste). 
4032×110×1,47×104  = 2,65 lbs., or 2 lbs. 10,4 oz. 
1000×256×100 
Filling Calculation—? lbs. =  100 yards 
1 yard =  36 inches. 
1 inch =  102 picks. 
2 ends.  
1 pick =  19 inches. 
36 inches =  1 yard 
1000 yards =  1,65 drams. 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  108 (8% waste). 
100×36×102×2×19×165×108  = 2,73 lbs., or 2 lbs. 11,7 ozs. 
36×1000×256×100 
Surah 31
Length and Width—1 piece 50 yards long, 23½ in. wide. 
Stock and Dyeing—Warp.—  Ital. Organ., 1,30 drams = 20/24 deniers, black, bright, 40/50% = 22/24 ozs. 
Filling.—  Cotton No. 120/2 black. 
Reed Calculation—  Per  1  inch,  80  dents  at 2 single ends. 
"  23½  inch  1880  "  
add  36  "  = 2% for shrinkage  
——  
Total . . .  1916  dents 
Drawing in—1st edge,  8  dents  2 double  ends. 
Ground,  1900  "  2 single  " 
2d edge,  8  "  2 double  " 
on 4 shafts, straight draw. 
Warping Ticket—1st edge,  16  double  ends,  black. 
Ground,  3800  single  "  " 
2d edge,  16  double  "  " 
——  
Total . . .  3864  single  ends.  
Warp 54 yards long = 8% for take up. 
Harness—4  shafts,  3832  heddles  per  24  inches. 
1  "  40  "  "  1  " 
Reduction of Filling—Per 1 inch, 120 picks, 1 end. 
Warp Calculation—? lbs =  4264 ends. 
1 end =  54 yards. 
1000 yards =  1,30 drams. 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  104 (4% waste). 
3864×54×1,30×104  = 1,10 lbs., or 1 lb. 1,06 oz. 
1000×256×100 
Filling Calculation—? lbs. =  50 yards 
1 yard =  36 inches. 
1 inch =  120 picks. 
1 pick =  24 inches. 
36 inches =  1 yard 
840 yards =  1 skein. 
(No. 120/2) 60 skeins =  1 lb. 
100 =  110 (10% waste). 
50×36×120×24×110  = 3.14 lbs., or 3 lbs. 2.24 ozs. 
36×840×60×100 
Satin Duchesse.
Length and Width—One warp 300 yards long, 10 pieces of 60 yards 23 inches wide, 2 pieces in width, with one cut edge. 
Stock and Dyeing—Warp.—  Ital. Organ., 155/100 drams, black, bright, 20/22 oz. 
Filling.—  Jap. Tram., 18/10 and 27/10 drams, black, souple, 40/44 oz. 
We should use for this fabric 1 end filling, 5thread, 45/10 drams, but as we have none of this size on hand, we take: 1 end, 2 thread, 18/10 drams, and 1 end, 3 thread, 27/10 drams. 
Reed Calculation—  1  inch,  66  dents  4 single ends. 
46  "  3036  "  
add  54  "  (1¾% shrinkage).  
——  
Total . . .  3090  dents 
Drawing in—  1st edge,  {  2  dents  6×2,  black. 
{  13  "  4×2,  white.  
Ground,  1514  "  4×1,  black.  
Cut Edge  {  2  "  6×2  black.  
{  1  "  2×4,  "  
{  3  "  empty.  
{  1  "  2×4,  "  
Ground,  1514  "  4×1,  black.  
2d edge,  {  2  "  6×2,  black.  
{  13  "  4×2,  white.  
Satin on 8 shafts, straight draw. Crossthread for split edge on 3 shafts, see design. 
Warping Ticket—  Edge,  {  12/2  black.  }  
{  52/2  white.  }  
Ground,  6056/1  black.  } twice over.  
Edge,  {  12/2  black.  }  
{  52/2  white.  }  



Harness—8  shafts,  12368  heddles  47  in. 
1  "  33  "  1  " 
for the split edge 3 shafts, of which one has only half a heddle.
Filling—Per 1 in., 80 picks, 2 ends (as described before). 
Warp Calculation—? lbs =  12224 ends, black (416 white). 
1 end =  318 yards. 
1000 yards =  1,55 drams. 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  104 (4% waste). 
(416)  12224×318×1.55×104  = 24,477  lbs.  org.  black. 
1000×256×100  = 0,833  "  "  white. 
Filling Calculation—? lbs. =  300 yards 
1 yard =  36 inches. 
1 inch =  80 picks. 
1 pick =  47 inches. 
36 inches =  1 yard 
1000 yards =  4,5 drams. 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  108 (8% waste). 
300×36×80×47×4,5×108  = 21,414 lbs. 
36×1000×256×100 
Armure Satinée
Length and Width—One piece 60 yards long, 19 in. wide. 
Stock and Dye—Warp.—  Jap. Organ., 1,48 drams, black, bright, 18/20 oz. 
Filling.—  3 threads Jap. Tram., 2,95 drams, black, bright, 24/26 oz. 
Reed Calculation—  Per  1  inch,  60  dents  × 4 single ends. 
"  19  "  1140  "  
32  "  (3% for shrinkage).  
——  
Total . . .  1172  dents 
Drawing in—1st edge,  12  dents  × 4 double.  
Ground,  1148  "  × 4 single.  
2d edge,  12  "  × 4 double.  
on 12 shafts, straight through,  
or on 6 shafts, as design indicates. 
Warping Ticket—1st edge,  48/2  black.  
Ground,  4592/1  "  
2d edge,  48/2  "  
——  
Total . . .  4784  single ends 64 yards long.  
=6½% for take up. 
Harness—6  shafts,  4688  heddles  per  19½  inches. 
1  "  40  "  "  1  " 
Reduction of Filling—Per 1 inch, 104 picks, 2 ends. 
Warp Calculation—? lbs =  4784 ends. 
1 end =  64 yards. 
1000 yards =  1,48 drams. 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  104 (4% waste). 
4784×64×1,48×104  = 1,84 lbs., or 1 lb. 13,44 ozs. 
1000×256×100 
Filling Calculation—? lbs. =  60 yards 
1 yard =  36 inches. 
1 inch =  104 picks. 
2 ends.  
1 pick =  19½ inches. 
36 inches =  1 yard 
1000 yards =  2,95 drams. 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  108 (8% waste). 
60×36×104×2×19,5×2,95×108  = 3,03 lbs., or 3 lbs. 0,48 ozs. 
36×1000×256×100 
Surface Printed Armure.
Length and Width—One piece 50 yards long, 18½ in. wide. 
Stock and Dyeing—Warp.—  Ital. Organ., 1,50 drams, 24/28 deniers, white bright, pure dye. 
Filling.—  5 thread Ital. Tram., 4 drams, 13/14 deniers, white, bright, pure dye. 
Reed Calculation—  Per  1  inch,  52  dents  2×2. 
"  18½  "  962  "  
20  "  (2% shrinkage).  
——  
Total . . .  982  dents. 
Drawing in—1st edge,  7  dents  4×2 gros de Tours.  
Ground,  968  "  2×2 armure  
2d edge,  7  "  4×2 gros de Tours.  
Armure ground on 12 shafts, straight draw.  
Gros de Tours, edges on 4 shafts. 
Warping Ticket—  Ground warp, 54 yards. 1936/2 white. 
Gros de Tours edges, 55 yards. 2×28/2 white, on separate rolls.  
Total  . . . 3984 single ends. 
Harness—12  shafts,  1936  heddles  per  18½  inches.  
1  "  82/3  "  "  1  "  
4 Shafts gros de Tours edges, with 28 heddles on each side. 
Reduction of Filling—Per 1 inch, 96 picks, 1 end. 
Warp Calculation—? lbs =  3984 ends. 
1 end =  54 yards. 
1000 yards =  1,50 drams. 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  104 (4% waste). 
3984×54×1,50×104  = 1,31 lbs., or 1 lb. 4,96 ozs. 
1000×256×100 
Filling Calculation—? lbs. =  50 yards 
1 yard =  36 inches. 
1 inch =  96 picks. 
1 pick =  19 inches. 
36 inches =  1 yard 
1000 yards =  4 drams. 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  108 (8% waste). 
50×36×96×19×4×108  = 1,54 lbs., or 1 lb. 8,64 ozs. 
36×1000×256×100 
After weaving, the small flower effects have to be printed on the cloth.
Pekin: 8 shaft satin and repp.
Length and Width—1 piece 100 yards long, 20¼ in. wide. 
{  Ital. Organ., 135/100 drams, black, bright, 20/22 oz. 
Stock and Dyeing—Warp. {  Ital. Organ., 115/100 drams, sky, bright, pure dye 
{  Cotton No. 100/2, scarlet. 
Filling.—  3 threads, Jap. Tram., 28/10 drams, scarlet, bright, 14/16 oz. 
{ 6×1,  black  satin  
Reed Calculation—  Per  1  inch,  68  dents  { 6×2,  colored  " 
{ 2×1,  "  repp.  
"  20¼  "  1377  "  
add  23  "  (1½% for shrinkage).  
——  
Total . . .  1400  dents 
Drawing in—1st edge,  7  dents  6×2  satin.  }  
Ground,  34  "  6×1  "  }  
2  "  6×2  "  }  
10  "  6×1  "  } twice  }  
2  "  2×1  repp.  } over  }  
10  "  6×1  satin.  }  
2  "  6×2  "  }  
39  "  6×1  "  }  
5  "  2×1  repp.  } twice  }  
4  "  6×1  satin.  } over  } 7 times  
5  "  2×1  repp.  } over  
15  "  6×1  satin.  }  
2  "  2×1  repp.  }  
15  "  6×1  satin.  }  
5  "  2×1  repp.  } twice  }  
4  "  6×1  satin.  } over  }  
5  "  2×1  repp.  }  
5  "  6×1  satin.  }  
28  "  6×1  "  }  
2d edge,  7  "  6×2  "  } 
Satin  on  1st  section  of  8  shaft  skip draw. 
Binder  "  2nd  "  "  2  "  
Repp  "  3d  "  "  2  " 
On each side of every repp stripe two ends of the satin warp must be entered on the 2 binder shafts (2d section), to prevent the ends of the satin to slide over into the repp stripes.
Warping Ticket—I.  Beam satin, 106 yards.  
1st edge,  42/2  black.  
Ground,  204/1  "  }  7 times over  
12/2  sky.  }  
180/1  black.  }  
12/2  sky.  }  
234/1  black.  }  
48/2  sky.  }  
180/1  black.  }  
48/2  sky.  }  
30/1  black.  }  
168/1  "  }  
2d edge,  42/2  "  


II.  Beam repp, 110 yards.  
4/1  scarlet.  }  7 times over  
4/1  "  }  
10/1  "  }  
10/1  "  }  
10/1  "  }  
4/1  "  }  
10/1  "  }  
10/1  "  }  
10/1  "  }  
504 single ends scarlet cotton 
This warp has to be beamed in stripes. Make out a diagram for the warper the same as shown in Fig. 95.
[pg 98]Harness—Fig. 95 shows how to make a diagram of a harness for a Pekin. The heddles are marked per one shaft. As the repp stripes are only small ones, we use for the satin a full harness, that is, one without open spaces for the repp stripe. All together we have in the satin warp 6888 single and double ends to draw in; of these 252 ends are used for binders, on both sides of the repp stripes. Thus remain for 
8  shafts,  6636  heddles  per  20½  inches. 
1  "  40  "  "  1  " 
Reduction of Filling—Per inch, Per 1 inch, 144 picks, 1 end. 
Warp Calculation—? lbs =  6132 ends (1680 ends sky). 
1 end =  106 yards. 
1000 yards =  1,35 drams (sky 1,15 drams). 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  104 (4% waste). 
6132×106×1,35×104  = 3,56 lbs. for black, or 3 lbs. 8,96 ozs. 10,4 oz. 
1000×256×100 
1680×106×1,15×104  = 0,83 lbs. for sky, or 0 lbs. 13,28 ozs. 
1000×256×100 
? lbs =  504 ends. 
1 end =  110 yards. 
840 yards =  1 skein. 
(No. 100/2) 50 skeins =  1 lb. 
100 =  104 (4% waste). 
504×110×104  = 1,37 lbs. scarlet cotton, or 1 lb. 5,92 ozs. 
840×50×100 
Filling Calculation—? lbs. =  100 yards 
1 yard =  36 inches. 
1 inch =  144 picks. 
1 pick =  21 inches. 
36 inches =  1 yard 
1000 yards =  2,8 drams. 
256 drams =  1 lb. 
100 =  108 (8% waste). 
100×36×144×21×2,8×108  = 3,57 lbs., or 3 lbs. 9,12 ozs. 
36×1000×256×100 
Jacquard weaves usually show on a plain ground figure or flower effects. To obtain these effects the ground is made of one weave, say taffeta, while the figures or flowers are produced in another weave, say satin.
We enter the warp through a jacquard harness, and according to the repeat use a 200, 400, 600, 900, 1200, etc., hook jacquard machine, which means 200, 400, 600, 900 and 1200 ends per repeat.
With a 600hook machine a larger repeat can be produced than with a 499hook machine. For instance, if we want to make a cloth the figures of which are to be two inches apart, it is a twoinch repeat, and use the count of 50/4 or 200 ends per inch, we can use a 400hook machine, 2 in. x 200 ends. But we can make this cloth also on a 1200hook machine, only the repeat must be designed three times. The advantage of using a 1200hook machine with the count 50/4 is that 2, 3, 4, 6inch repeats can be produced, while with a 400hook machine, only a 2inch repeat can be made.
There is no end to all the different weaves and the possible flower and other pattern effects that can be made with the jacquard machine. For a jacquard weaving plant the designing is the most important factor.
Box looms are required for weaves such as bayadères, checks, plaids (see pages 6365), bengalines, crêpes, etc., where two or more shuttles are needed to bring out the effect.
For the crêpes (crêpe de chine, crêpe georgette) only two shuttles are needed, while plaids and other articles are made with more shuttles.
To weave such articles the loom or the lay must be fitted with two or more shuttle boxes on one or both sides of the loom.
[pg 101]If a manufacturer decides to change plain looms to box looms or buy new box looms, it is wise to get 4 × 4 boxes, or four shuttle boxes on each side.
With these looms about everything can be made that is called for in boxloom effects, and as styles change, it is wise to be prepared.
The calculator first ascertains for the warp: What silk will be used, the cost of the same, total number of ends in the warps for the amount of silk, cost of throwing, dyeing, winding, warping, twisting, entering, and weaving.
Then the filling: Silk to be used, how much, cost of silk, cost of throwing, dyeing, winding, doubling, quilling.
After this determine the cost of weaving, cloth picking, finishing, factory costs, and selling expenses.
Today most of the operations are paid by "piece work."
The calculator must always take into consideration that poor raw silk or poor dyeing make production slow, increase the cost of labor, and also that more waste will be made.
THROWING: Regular organ usually has 16 turns per inch in the first twist and 14 turns to the inch in the second or reverse twist. Tram receives only one twisting, about three turns to the inch.
As the warp twistingin is paid for at so much per hundred or thousand ends, no matter how short or long the warp is, it is a saving to make the warps as long as possible, especially in raw, black and staple colors.
The calculator must not forget the cost of entering the first warp in a harness, also the reeding.
Most mills figure the cost of harness and reed in the expense accounts. If plain and fancy goods are made an extra percentage should be figured for the latter.
[pg 102]EXPENSES are figured differently, as almost every manufacturer has his own system. If a mill makes only a few staple articles it is easy to put down the cost of expenses. Say the mill has a production of 500,000 yards per year, that the expense amounts to $35,000, the cost then is 7 cents per yard.
Manufacturers making all kinds of goods sometimes figure the expenses in percentage, say, for plain goods, with a few picks, like grosgrain, peau de soie, etc., 10 per cent. per yard. Taffeta, satin, etc., having more picks, 12½ per cent. per yard, and fancy and jacquard goods, 15 per cent. per yard. In the expense account we include all charges except raw silk, throwing, dyeing and piece work.
SELLING EXPENSES. Before a calculation is finished we must add the selling expenses to the cost, also take account of the trade discount. Small mills usually sell through a commission house, which pays all expenses and charges a certain commission. Many large firms have their own selling end, and some have their sales guaranteed by a commission house or a bank.
[pg 103]The prices marked in the following calculations are about as in "normal times." Absolutely correct piece work prices cannot be given as different localities have different prices.
Calculations are usually made per 100 yards, 100meter warps.
Most goods gain from 3 to 7 per cent. in weaving. That is, if we make a warp of 300 meters for a satin and we obtain 315 yards of cloth, this gain should not be calculated, as usually there is no account taken of samples used in the selling department. But the loss in length should be figured and taken account of on goods with a heavy rib, such as moiré, faille, etc.
DISP. 7—A 3 1/3inch repeat can be obtained with a 600hook jacquard machine, seven repeats in a width of 23 inches.
DISP. 8—Taffeta weave, but the two cotton picks must go in one hole. This article can only be made with at least two shuttle boxes on each side. For warping use a single and double cross reed, heavy cotton, no knots must be tied.
DISP. 10—This article must be warped with as much tension as possible and no knots should be tied in. Silk is to be delivered on bobbins from throwster.
DISP. 9—Can also be made with Canton silk for filling and may be called Canton crêpe. As Canton silk is much cheaper than Japan, the manufacturer can use 4thread Canton instead of 3thread Japan for filling at a little difference in cost, thus the cloth will be heavier, but Canton silk is not as even and clean as Japan.
[pg 104]Article—TAFFETA GLACE Reed 70/3  
Disp. 1  Width 18¾ in.  
Warp—  Ital. Ex. Class 12/14  $5.00  raw silk  
.60  throwing  
2Thread Organ. brown bright  .45  dyeing  
16oz.  .15  winding  
——  
raw lbs. 2.60  $6.20  $16.23  
Warping—4032 at 3¢.  1.21  
Twisting—3978 at 25¢. per 300 meters  .33  
Filling—Jap. Tram. Best No. 1 13/15  $4.25  raw silk  
.45  throwing  
2/2 ends 104 picks  .45  dyeing  
.15  winding  
gold bright 16 oz.  .15  doubling  
.10  quilling  
——  
raw lbs. 2.73  $5.55  15.02  
Weaving  7.00  
Picking  1.00  
Finishing  1.00  
Expenses  7.00  
——  
$48.79  
5% trade discount  
7½% selling commission  
Divide by 87½  
Cost per yard = $0.5576 
Article—SURAH 31 Reed 80/2  
Disp. 2  Width 36 in.  
Warp—  Ital. Ex. Class. 10/12  $5.20  
.65  
2Thread Organ. bright black  .81  discount 15%  
24 oz.  .30  dyed 20%  
——  
lbs. 3.36  $6.96  $23.39  
Warping—5904 at 2¾¢.  1.62  
Twisting—5872 at 35¢.—600 lb. warp  .25  
Filling—cotton 120/1  $1.25  
.10  dye  
black 1 end 120 picks  .08  winding  
.07  quilling  
——  
lbs. 9.50  $1.50  14.25  
Weaving  12.00  
Picking  1.50  
Finishing  2.00  
Expenses  7.00  
——  
$62.01  
5% discount  
6% commission  
Divide by 89  
Cost per yard = $0.6967 
Article—SATIN DUCHESSE Reed 66/4  
Disp. 3  Width 2×23 in.  
Warp—  Ital. Ex. Class. 12/14  $5.00  
.60  
2Thread Organ. black bright  .73  
22 oz.  .21  
——  
lbs. 8.50  $6.54  $55.59  
Warping—12624 at 2¾¢  3.47  
Twisting—12256 at 25¢. 600 meters  .51  
Filling—Jap. Tram No. 1—14/16  $4.00  
.40  
black souple 44 oz.  1.60  net  
.40  
1/2 and 1/3 = 1/5 80 picks  .40  doubling  
.30  
——  
lbs. 7.14  $7.10  50.69  
Weaving  13.00  
Picking  2.00  
Finishing  2.50  
Expenses  8.00  
——  
$135.76  
Divide by 89  
Cost per yard = $0.7627 
Article—ARMURE SATIN Reed 60/4  
Disp. 4  Width 26 in.  
STOCK AND DYE  
Warp—  Jap. Ex. 12/14  $4.75  
.60  
2Thread Organ. black bright  .64  
20 oz.  .19  
——  
lbs. 4.30  $6.18  $26.57  
Warping—6520 at 2¾¢.  1.79  
Twisting—6424 at 25¢. 600 meters  .27  
Filling—Jap. Tram No. 1 16/18  $4.00  
.30  
black bright 26 oz.  .94  
.25  
2/3 ends 104 picks  .25  
.17  
——  
lbs. 6.80  $5.91  40.19  
Weaving  10.00  
Picking  1.00  
Finishing  1.00  
Expenses  7.00  
——  
$87.82  
Divide by 89  
Cost per yard = $0.9867 
Article—PRINTED ARMURE Reed 52/2/2  
Disp. 5  Width 18½ in.  
STOCK AND DYE  
Warp—  Ital. Ex. Class. 12/14  $5.00  
2Thread Organ. white bright  .60  
P.D.  .23  
.12  
——  
lbs. 2.62  $5.95  $15.59  
Warping—3984/1 at 3¢.  1.20  
Twisting—1992/2 at 30¢. 300 meters  .20  
Filling—Ital. Tram. souple 13/14  $4.50  
.30  
white bright P.D.  .23  
.10  
1/5 end 96 picks  .07  
.17  
——  
lbs. 3.08  $5.20  16.02  
Weaving  8.00  
Picking  1.00  
Finishing  5.00  
Expenses  8.00  
——  
$55.01  
Divide by 87½  
Cost per yard = $0.6287 
Article—SATIN STRIPED REPS Reed 60/62  
Disp. 6  Width 20¼ in.  
STOCK AND DYE  
Warp—  Ital. Ex. Organ. 24/26  $5.00  
black bright 22 oz.  .60  
.73  
.21  
——  
lbs. 3.56  $6.54  $23.28  
Ital. Ex. Organ. 18/20  $5.20  
.65  
sky bright P.D.  .23  
.12  
——  
lbs. .83  $6.20  5.15  
Cotton 100/2  $1.00  
.12  
.08  
——  
scarlet lbs. 1.37  $1.20  1.64  
Warping—8316 at 4¢.  3.32  
Twisting—7434 at 50¢. 300 meters  1.24  
Filling—Jap. tram. No. 1 14/16  $4.00  
.35  
scarlet bright 16 oz. 1/3 ends  .45  
.15  
144 picks. lbs. 3.57  .10  
——  
$5.05  18.04  
Weaving  12.00  
Picking  1.00  
Finishing  1.00  
——  
$66.67  
Expenses 15%  10.00  
——  
$76.67  
Divide by 87½  
Cost per yard = $0.8763 
Article—MESSALINE BROCADE Reed 60/3  
Disp. 7  Width 23 in.  
Warp—Jap. Ex. 13/15  $4.50  
.60  
2Thread navy bright 16 oz.  .45  
.15  
——  
lbs. 3.20  $5.70  $18.24  
Warping—4320 at 3¢.  1.30  
Twisting—4260 at 30¢. 300 meters  .41  
Filling—Jap. Tram No. 1 13/15  $4.00  
.35  
emerald ex. bright dye 24 oz.  .95  
.25  
1/3 ends 100 picks  .15  
——  
lbs. 2.50  $5.70  14.25  
Weaving  9.00  
Picking  1.00  
Finishing  1.00  
——  
$45.20  
Expenses 15%  6.78  
——  
$51.98  
Divide by 87½  
Cost per yard = $0.5941 
Article—BENGALINE Reed 72/2 by 1 single; 1 double  
Disp. 8  Width 36 in.  
Warp—Jap. ex. 13/15  $4.50  
.60  
2Thread Organ. black bright  .64  
20 oz.  .19  
——  
lbs. 5.77  $5.93  $34.22  
Warping—7964 at 2¾¢.  2.19  
Twisting—5296 at 30¢. 600 meters  .27  
Filling—56 picks by  $4.50  
5 organ. 2 Cotton  .60  
.64  
.19  .45  
.12  .10  
——  
40 picks Organ. as warp  $6.05  .08  6.05  
lbs. 1  .07  
16 picks black cotton 15/4  ——  
lbs. 22.50  $ .70  15.75  
Weaving  12.00  
Picking  1.50  
Finishing  3.00  
Expenses  8.00  
——  
$82.98  
Divide by 91  
Cost per yard = $0.9119 
Article—CREPE DE CHINE (Taffeta weave) Reed 60/2/2  
Disp. 9  Width 40 in. 44½ in. in reed 

Warp—Jap. Ex. Grege 20/22  $4.50  
.05  winding  
——  
2% waste lbs. 5.60  $4.55  $25.48  
Warping—5340/2 at 2½¢.  2.67  
Twisting—5340/2 at 25¢. 600 meters  .23  
Filling—Jap. No. 1 13/15  
4 ends hard twist 60 turns  $4.00  
1.25  throwing  
84 picks by 2 right, 2 left twist  0.05  quilling  
——  
25% waste and shrinkage  $5.30  
lbs. 6.00  31.80  
Weaving  9.00  
Finishing and dyeing  5.00  
Picking  1.00  
Expenses  7.00  
——  
$82.18  
5% discount  
5% selling expense  
Divide by 90  
Cost per yard = $0.9131 
Article—  CREPE GEORGETTE Reed 50/2  
(Taffeta weave) by 1 right, 1 left twist  
Disp. 10  Width 40 in. 47 in. in reed  
Warp—Ital. Ex. Class 16/18 Raw  $5.20  
1.60  
——  
2Thread hardtwist 75 turns  $6.80  $36.72  
30% shrinkage and waste lbs. 5.40  
Warping—4640/1 30/2 4760 at 4¢.  1.90  
Twisting—4700 at 50¢. 600 meters  .40  
Filling—Same silk as warp  
100 picks by 2 right, 2 left twist  $5.20  
1.60  
.10  
——  
lbs. 5.00  $6.90  34.50  
Weaving  15.00  
Picking  1.00  
Finishing and dyeing  6.00  
——  
$95.52  
Expenses 12½%  11.94  
——  
$107.46  
Divide by 87½  
Cost per yard = $1.2281 
ARTICLE REED

DISP WIDTH

WARP

    
+++++
    
+++++
    
+++++
    
WARPING     
+++++
TWISTING     
+++++
FILLING     
+++++
    
+++++
    
WEAVING     
+++++
PICKING     
+++++
FINISHING     
+++++
EXPENSES     
+++++
    
    
+++++
PRICE PER YARD
DRAWINGIN, 7
Straight Draws, 7
Skip Draws, 9
Point Draws, 9
Section Draws, 10
THE WEAVES AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION, 15
The Taffeta Weave, 17
Gros de Tours Weaves, 19
Serge Weaves, 20
Twill Weaves, 20
FILLING EFFECTS 21
Satin de Lyon, 21
Levantine, 21
Polonaise, 22
Serge grosse coté, 22
Serge Romaine, 23
Serge, 23
WARP EFFECTS, 25
Levantine, 25
EVENSIDED TWILLS, 26
Surah, 26
Croise, 26
POINTED TWILLS, 27
SATIN WEAVES, 32
Satine de Chine, 34
Satin Merveilleux, 34
7 Harness Satin, 35
Duchesse, 35
IRREGULAR SATINS, 39
Satin Ture, 39
Satin à la Reine, 40
DERIVATIVE WEAVES, 41
From the Taffeta, 41
From the Twills, 43
From the Satin Weave, 46
Cannele and Repp Weaves, 49
DOUBLE FACED FABRICS, 55
Warp Effects, 55
FILLING EFFECTS, 58
Pekins, 60
Bayadères, 63
[pg 112]Checks and Plaids, 65
DECOMPOSITION, 67
The Weave, 68
Length and Width of the Fabric, 68
The Stock and Its Dye, 69
Reed Calculation, 70
Drawingin the Warp in Harness and Reed, 70
Warping Ticket, 71
Harness Arrangement, 71
Reduction of the Filling, 71
Calculation of Warp and Filling, 71
Finishing, 72
Calculation of Cost, 72
DISPOSITIONS, 75
JACQUARD WEAVES, 100
Box Loom Weaves Including Crêpes, 100
Manufacturing Costs, 101
CALCULATIONS, 103
Calculation Blank, 110
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